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Brenda Hoddinott

www.drawspace.com
Introduction
drawspace module 3.1
Exercise your brain
while learning how
to shade!
253 pages of richly-
illustrated resources
and activities
500+drawings to
clarify discussions
and activities
to
33 step-by-
step activities
that teach you
how to shade
realistic subjects
with traditional
shading
techniques
SHADING
Drawspace Tutorials for Artists and Educators
Introduction to
Shading
drawspace module 3.1
Brenda Hoddinott
www.drawspace.com
253 pages and 500+ illustrations
15 resources and 33 activities
ISBN: 978-1-927539-94-1
Individual Drawspace tutorials and Drawspace e-books can be licensed for
educational purposes in digital format at www.drawspace.com.
Copyright 2013 Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
transferred, or transmitted in any form or by any means, including electronic, digital, mechanical,
recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda
Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing. Curriculum, illustrations, and intellectual property are
intended for educational purposes only and may not be sold in any form or by any means.
This publication contains the opinions and ideas of the author, Brenda Hoddinott, and it is intended
to provide helpful and informative material on all aspects of the subject matter. Brenda Hoddinott
and Drawspace.com disclaim any responsibility for any liability, damages, loss, or risk, personal
or otherwise, which is incurred as a consequence, directly or indirectly, resulting from the use or
misuse of information and applications of any of the contents of this book.
Publisher: Drawspace Publishing, Halifax, NS, Canada
Curriculum, illustrations, cover design, and layout: Brenda Hoddinott
Editors: Giselle Melanson Tattrie, Suzanne Beaton, and John Percy
Researcher: Giselle Melanson Tattrie
I
Other books by Brenda Hoddinott:
Drawing on Your Brain (Drawspace Publishing, 2013)
Introduction to Contour Lines (Drawspace Publishing, 2012)
Introduction to Drawing (Drawspace Publishing, 2012)
Drawing for Dummies 2nd Edition with J amie Combs (Wiley Publishing, Inc., 2011)
Illustrated Dictionary of Art-Related Terms (Drawspace Publishing, 2011)
Getting Started with Drawing (Drawspace Publishing, 2010)
The Complete Idiots Guide to Drawing People Illustrated (Alpha Books, 2004)
Drawing for Dummies (Wiley Publishing, Inc., 2003)
Brenda Hoddinott
Award-winning artist and author, illustrator, art educator,
curriculumdesigner, co-owner of Drawspace.com, owner of
Drawspace Publishing, and retired forensic artist
Brenda has been developing art curricula and teaching multidisciplinary
arts since 1980. During her 25-year career as a forensic artist, Brenda
worked with diverse criminal investigative agencies including the Royal
Canadian Mounted Police, the Canadian Department of National Defense,
private investigative agencies, and municipal police departments.
Brenda and her partner John live in the suburbs of Halifax, Nova Scotia
with their two SPCA rescue dogs: Timber the Huskador and Katie the
Pitweiler. Their blended human family includes ve adult children and two
grandchildren.
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Exercise your brain while learning how to draw!
About drawspace.com
Drawspace is more than an art website we are an international community of drawing
enthusiasts, professional artists, art educators, and authors of art books.
Drawspace Free Lessons
These downloadable art lessons have been strengthening the drawing skills of aspiring artists for
almost two decades. They offer a sampling of the diverse skills and techniques you can learn in
Drawspace Professional Lessons and Drawspace Online Classrooms.
http://www.drawspace.com/lessons
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This world-renowned collection of drawing lessons is continuously growing, with four to six new
lessons added every month. The comprehensible, high-quality lesson material is used by students
who prefer to teach themselves, schools, colleges, universities, and homeschooling families. Each
module contains topics that ow together naturally, and each topic includes both resources and
activities.
http://www.drawspace.com/lessons/pro
Drawspace Online Classrooms
These state-of-the-art, socially-interactive classrooms provide professional guidance and ongoing
assignment feedback from internationally acclaimed art educators. Several free classrooms are also
available students receive everything but an art educator.
http://www.drawspace.com/
Drawspace Beginner Certi cation Program
Students who complete all the requirements of this program thereby demonstrate beginner-level
educational and artistic competence, and are awarded a certicate of completion.
http://www.drawspace.com/classrooms/certication
Drawspace Publishing
Drawspace books focus on art-related topics and are written by world-renowned artists, art
educators, and authors.
http://www.drawspace.com/bookshop
Ex
II
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
III
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Not e: To locate the corresponding curriculum files in digital format on Drawspace.com, refer to the number/letter
codes. Examples: 3.1.R1: Module 3. Topic 1. Resource 1 and 3.1.A1: Module 3. Topic 1. Activity 1
Contents at a Glance
Introduction...............................................................1
Part 1: Seeing and Shading Values...........................5
Resource 3.1.R1: Identifying Light and Shadow on Forms................................7
Activity 3.1.A1: Shade Simple Value Scales.....................................................15
Activity 3.1.A2: Shade an Optical Illusion........................................................21
Resource 3.1.R2: Identifying Primary Light Sources........................................25
Activity 3.1.A3: Shade Graduations of Values..................................................31
Resource 3.1.R3: How to Use a Value Map.....................................................35
Activity 3.1.A4: Use Shading to Create Forms.................................................39
Activity 3.1.A31: Turn a Shape into a Form.....................................................45
Activity 3.1.A32: Shade the Realistic Forms of Leaves.....................................49
Part 2: Super Shading with Squirkles......................55
Resource 3.1.R4: Checking Out Squirkles in Drawings....................................57
Resource 3.1.R5: Exploring Squirkled Value Scales........................................61
Activity 3.1.A5: Squirkle Value Scales..............................................................65
Resource 3.1.R6: How to Squirkle Graduations...............................................69
Activity 3.1.A6: Squirkle Graduations of Values................................................73
Activity 3.1.A7: Squirkle Striped Graduations...................................................75
Activity 3.1.A8: Graduate Blobs and Globs......................................................77
Activity 3.1.A9: Squirkle an Iris and a Pupil......................................................81
Part 3: Elementary Values with Hatching................85
Resource 3.1.R7: Exploring Hatching in Drawings...........................................87
Resource 3.1.R8: How to Hatch Value Scales..................................................93
Activity 3.1.A10: Hatch Value Scales with Five Grades....................................97
Activity 3.1.A11: Mountains in the Style of Impressionism................................99
IV
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Activity 3.1.A12: Use Line Density to Hatch Value Scales..............................107
Activity 3.1.A13: Hatch an Abstract Design....................................................109
Activity 3.1.A14: Hatch Value Scales with Pencil Pressure.............................113
Activity 3.1.A21: Render Ribbons of Values....................................................115
Part 4: Graduate to Hatching Graduations............121
Resource 3.1.R9: Exploring Hatching Graduations.........................................123
Resource 3.1.R10: How to Hatch Graduations with One Grade......................127
Activity 3.1.A15: Use Five Grades to Hatch Five Graduations........................131
Resource 3.1.R12: How to Hatch a Graduation with Five Grades...................133
Activity 3.1.A16: Hatch a Single Graduation with Five Grades........................137
Activity 3.1.A17: Hatch Forms with Burnishing and Erasing............................139
Activity 3.1.A18: Hatch Vertical Lines of Random Lengths..............................145
Resource 3.1.R14: How to Hatch Lengthways Graduations............................149
Activity 3.1.A19: Hatch Two Types of Lengthways Graduations......................153
Activity 3.1.A20: Sketch a Scene with Hatching Graduations..........................155
Part 5: Contour Hatching Around Forms...............163
Resource 3.1.R15: Checking Out Contour Hatching.......................................165
Resource 3.1.R13: Rendering Contour Hatching Naturally.............................171
Activity 3.1.A22: Shade a Simple Form with Contour Hatching.......................173
Activity 3.1.A23: Graduate Curved Hatching Lines Lengthways......................177
Activity 3.1.A29: Shade a Tulip with Contour Hatching...................................183
Activity 3.1.A28: Hatch Harrys Realistic Hair................................................191
Activity 3.1.A25: Contour a Childs Straight Hair............................................201
Part 6: Smooth Out Shading with Blending...........207
Resource 3.1.R11: To Blend or Not to Blend..................................................209
Activity 3.1.A26: Shade and Blend Bobby Blob..............................................213
Activity 3.1.A24: White Egg on a White Surface.............................................217
Activity 3.1.A33: Shine Up a Simple Sphere...................................................221
Activity 3.1.A30: Shade an Apple with Contour Hatching................................227
Activity 3.1.A27: Realistic Petals on a Flower.................................................233
Glossary of Art Terms............................................241
V
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Contents
Introduction...............................................................1
Introduction to Shading provides practical tips, skills, techniques, and activities
designed to teach you the fundamentals of different styles of shading
About this Book ......................................................................................................................1
Sizing Up the Sidebars............................................................................................................3
Howto Use this Book .............................................................................................................3
Part 1: Seeing and Shading Values...........................5
Identifying Light and Shadow on Forms..............................................7
Discover how highlights, shadows, reflected light, and cast shadows help
create the illusion of a three-dimensional reality on a flat sheet of paper
Highlighting Highlights.............................................................................................................8
Examining ShadowSections....................................................................................................9
Identifying Reected Light......................................................................................................11
Exploring Cast Shadows.........................................................................................................12
Seeing Light and Shadowin a Graduation...........................................................................13
Shade Simple Value Scales.................................................................15
Prepare five grades of pencils and then use them to shade two value
scales: from light to dark and from dark to light
Prepare your Pencils for Shading.........................................................................................15
Shading Two Value Scales.....................................................................................................18
Shade an Optical Illusion.....................................................................21
Outline straight-sided shapes and add shading with four grades of pencils
Outline an Optical Illusion.......................................................................................21
Add Shading with Four Pencils...............................................................................23
Identifying Primary Light Sources.......................................................25
Examine values on drawing subjects to find clues that identify the
directionality of the dominant light source
Seeing Light on Subjects in the Real World...........................................................25
Experiment 1: Light and shadow on an object...............................................................25
Experiment 2: Light and shadow on you........................................................................26
Experiment 3: Light and shadow outside.......................................................................26
Locating Light Sources in Drawings.......................................................................26
Shade Graduations of Values..............................................................31
Use pencil pressure and different grades of pencil to create seven
different graduations
Graduations with a Single Grade of Pencil.............................................................31
Graduations with Five Grades of Pencils................................................................33
VI
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
How to Use a Value Map......................................................................35
A four-step process to help you plan an appropriate method for
adding shading to a drawing
Step 1: Outlining the Subject..................................................................................35
Step 2: Identifying Values in the Subject................................................................36
Step 3: Outlining the Shapes of Values..................................................................37
Step 4: Adding Shading to Your Drawing................................................................37
Use Shading to Create Forms..............................................................39
Use value maps and graduated shading to turn a circle, cube, and rectangle
into realistic three-dimensional forms
Outline a Circle, Cube, and Rectangle....................................................................39
Identify Values in the Reference Image...................................................................40
Outline the Shapes of Values..................................................................................41
Add Shading to Your Drawing.................................................................................41
Turn a Shape into a Form....................................................................45
Use traditional shading techniques and five grades of pencils to render
a three-dimensional form
Shade the Realistic Forms of Leaves..................................................49
Follow richly-illustrated, step-by-step instructions to draw a plant
in the style of realism
Sketch and Outline Leafy Proportions....................................................................49
Prepare for Shading................................................................................................51
The Process of Shading a Leaf...............................................................................52
Create Forms with Traditional Shading...................................................................53
Part 2: Super Shading with Squirkles......................55
Checking Out Squirkles in Drawings..................................................57
A richly-illustrated discussion demonstrates the diversity of squirkling for
a broad range of different drawing subjects
Exploring Squirkled Value Scales.......................................................61
Popular techniques for rendering a range of different values with squirkles
Varying the Density of Lines..................................................................................................61
Using Various Grades of Pencils...........................................................................................62
Combining Density and Grades with Pressure....................................................................63
Squirkle Value Scales..........................................................................65
Render six different value scales with squirkling by using line density,
pencil grades, and pressure
Vary the Density of Lines.......................................................................................................65
Use Various Grades of Pencils...............................................................................................66
Combine Density and Grades with Pressure.......................................................................67
How to Squirkle Graduations..............................................................69
Examine various types of graduations and discover the process for squirkling
smoothly flowing graduations
VII
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Squirkle Graduations of Values...........................................................73
Use line density, pencil pressure, and different grades of pencils to squirkle
smoothly flowing graduations
Squirkle Striped Graduations..............................................................75
Create a striped pattern and a bumpy texture with gently curving graduations
Graduate Blobs and Globs..................................................................77
Design an arrangement of five overlapping shapes and use squirkling graduations
and different grades of pencils to make the shapes appear three-dimensional
Design Five Overlapping Shapes............................................................................77
Turn Shapes into Forms..........................................................................................78
Squirkle an Iris and a Pupil.................................................................81
Sketch the shapes of an iris, highlight, and pupil, and add shading with
graduations of squirkles
Sketch the Parts of an Eye....................................................................................................81
Add Shading with Squirkles..................................................................................................83
Part 3: Elementary Values with Hatching................85
Exploring Hatching in Drawings..........................................................87
Check out the different shading effects made possible by a basic
hatching technique of parallel straight lines.
Spaced Out Hatching Lines...................................................................................................87
Hatching Quickly.....................................................................................................................89
Hatching Details......................................................................................................................90
Hatching Lines as Solid Tones..............................................................................................91
How to Hatch Value Scales..................................................................93
Examine different types of value scales created with hatching and
find out how each is rendered
Use Different Grades of Pencils........................................................................................93
Vary the Density of the Lines.............................................................................................94
Apply Different Degrees of Pressure to a Pencil...........................................................95
Combine all Three Shading Techniques...........................................................................95
Hatch Value Scales with Five Grades..................................................97
Use hatching and five grades of pencils to render value scales
that appear to be solid tones
Mountains in the Style of Impressionism............................................99
Draw an impressionistic range of mountains shaded with the natural
values of five different grades of pencils
Use Line Density to Hatch Value Scales............................................107
Render five different value scales of seven values each by varying the density
of the hatching lines and using different grades of pencils
Hatch an Abstract Design..................................................................109
Design an abstract composition and add shading with five different
grades of pencils while varying line density
Hatch Value Scales with Pencil Pressure..........................................113
Render ten value scales of five solid tones by varying the pressure
used with single grades of pencils
Render Ribbons of Values.................................................................115
Vary the pressure used with five grades of pencils to create a design
with five ribbons of different values
Outline Five Ribbons with Curved Lines........................................................................115
The Process of Shading a Ribbon...................................................................................117
Shade the Other Four Ribbons........................................................................................118
Part 4: Graduate to Hatching Graduations............121
Exploring Hatching Graduations.......................................................123
An illustrated discussion about various types of hatching graduations
that are rendered with straight lines
How to Hatch Graduations with One Grade......................................127
Examine the process of rendering three types of graduations by using one
grade of pencil and side-by-side, straight hatching lines
Use Five Grades to Hatch Five Graduations.....................................131
Use pencil pressure to create a graduation of values with a 2H, HB, 2B,
4B and 6B grade of pencil, and side-by-side, straight hatching lines
How to Hatch a Graduation with Five Grades...................................133
Discover the process of rendering a single graduation with five grades of
pencils and straight hatching lines
Hatch a Single Graduation with Five Grades....................................137
Render a single graduation with a combination of five grades of pencils
and straight hatching lines
Hatch Forms with Burnishing and Erasing.......................................139
Learn two invaluable shading techniques for creating a smooth
texture with hatching
Sketch Proportions and Outline Shapes.............................................................................139
Graduate Values with Various Pencils.................................................................................141
Burnish Values and Drawwith Erasers .............................................................................142
Shade, Burnish, and Erase Highlights on Your Own........................................................143
Hatch Vertical Lines of RandomLengths..........................................145
Create two sets of randomly placed hatching lines of different lengths:
one with long lines and the other with short lines
Howto Hatch RandomVertical Lines.............................................................................145
Hatch Two Sets of RandomVertical Lines.....................................................................147
How to Hatch Lengthways Graduations............................................149
Examine the process of rendering a graduation by using lengthways
hatching lines and four grades of pencils
VIII
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Hatch Two Types of Lengthways Graduations..................................153
Render a graduation with long lines and another with short lines by
using lengthways hatching lines
Sketch a Scene with Hatching Graduations......................................155
Use graduated hatching, atmospheric perspective, and a shading map to draw
a tranquil scene with a palm tree, an island, and calm water
Sketch Proportions............................................................................................................155
Plan Shading........................................................................................................................157
Shade Graduations.............................................................................................................158
Part 5: Contour Hatching Around Forms...............163
Checking Out Contour Hatching........................................................165
Examine graduations and drawings to see how curved hatching lines help
create highly realistic textures and three-dimensional forms
Rendering Contour Hatching Naturally.............................................171
How to find and use your most natural drawing motions for shading
with contour hatching
Shade a Simple Formwith Contour Hatching...................................173
Use contour hatching graduations to depict the illusion of depth by
transforming a circular shape into a three-dimensional form
Graduate Curved Hatching Lines Lengthways..................................177
Use curved hatching lines to smoothly render a graduation that depicts
the illusion of form on a segment of a sphere
Shade a Tulip with Contour Hatching................................................183
Outline and then use contour hatching graduations to add shading to a tulip
and a section of its stem and leaf based on a light source
Sketch Proportions...............................................................................................183
Turn a Sketch into a Contour Drawing..................................................................185
Add Light and MediumValues..............................................................................186
Add Dark Values and Final Touches......................................................................188
Hatch Harrys Realistic Hair..............................................................191
Use a shading map and hatching graduations to render both smooth
shading and the texture of realistic hair
Sketch and Outline Harry.......................................................................................191
Sketch proportions with a line of symmetry..................................................................191
Outline the basic shapes.............................................................................................192
Neatly outline his face, nose, ears, and hair................................................................193
Map a Shading Plan...............................................................................................194
Shade the Face, Nose, and Ears...........................................................................197
Shade Realistic Hair with Curved Lines................................................................198
Contour a Childs Straight Hair.........................................................201
Draw the realistically proportioned head of a young child with straight hair
that curves around the contours of his cranium
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
IX
X
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Sketch Facial Proportions.....................................................................................202
Prepare the Hair and Face for Shading.................................................................203
Use Curved Lines to Shade Straight Hair.............................................................204
Add Shading to the Eyes and Face.......................................................................205
Part 6: Smooth Out Shading with Blending...........207
To Blend or Not to Blend...................................................................209
Tips and techniques for using blending tools to successfully blend
shading graduations
Blending Gone Bad!..............................................................................................209
Beautiful Blending!................................................................................................210
Blending Tools to Try............................................................................................212
Shade and Blend Bobby Blob...........................................................213
Outline a shape, add graduated values with squirkles, and blend the shading
to create a smooth three-dimensional cartoon face
Outline a Fun Blob Shape.....................................................................................213
Shade and Blend Light and MediumValues.........................................................214
Shade and Blend Dark Values...............................................................................215
Create a Fun Face.................................................................................................216
White Egg on a White Surface..........................................................217
Use squirkling graduations to define the form of a high key subject and
hatching to render its cast shadow
Shade Around and Outward fromthe Highlight....................................................217
Graduate fromthe Shadowinto the Reflected Light............................................218
Hatch the Cast ShadowfromLight to Dark..........................................................220
Shine Up a Simple Sphere.................................................................221
Use contour hatching, burnishing, blending, and erasing to create a realistic
drawing of a sphere with a shiny surface
Sketch Proportions and Shading Guides..............................................................221
Add Shading with Contour Hatching.....................................................................222
Blend, Burnish, Blend, and Pull Out Highlights...................................................224
Shade an Apple with Contour Hatching............................................227
Render a realistic drawing of a shiny Macintosh apple by using blending
to smooth out contour hatching graduations
Realistic Petals on a Flower..............................................................233
Use a chisel point on nine grades of pencils to render a detailed drawing
of a flower with a focus on shading light and shadow
Sketch Petal Contours..........................................................................................233
Establish a Full Range of Values..........................................................................235
Shade Light and Shadow......................................................................................236
Glossary of Art Terms............................................241
Shading the magic that transforms lines on a piece of paper into
realistic, three-dimensional objects and living beings
ArtSpeak
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Introduction
ArtSpeak: A fun word used
to describe the vocabulary
of art. An understanding of
art-related words and terms
enhances art curriculum
comprehension.
Icon: A visual image or
graphic symbol used to
identify information or a
specic task. Icons can
identify sidebars in books
or specic functions on
computer screens.
Illustration: An image
used to enhance a book or
publication and/or to help
explain textual concepts.
Illustrations are used
throughout many books
to further the readers
comprehension of the text.
Sidebar: A section of text
in a document that provides
additional information about
a topic. Many instructional
art books have sidebars
that provide readers with
denitions of art-related
words and terms.
This book exercises your brain and teaches you how to shade at the same time! With
253 pages of richly-illustrated discussions and step-by-step activities, you learn how to
shade realistic subjects using such techniques as: chisel-point, hatching, squirkling, and
blending.
About This Book
This book is designed for everyone who can hold a pencil
from absolute beginners to professional artists.
Each of the 48 tutorials in this book is categorized as either
a resource or an activity. Resources include illustrated
discussions about shading skills and techniques. Activities
challenge you to turn your theoretical skills into practice by
shading values, forms, shapes, objects and people.
The Six Parts
This book is divided into six parts, each of which includes
resources and activities. Over 500 illustrations enhance the
text and make it easy to comprehend and enjoy.
Part 1: Seeing and Shading Values
Shading is so much more than simply adding values to a
drawing. Shading is accurately rendering light and shadow.
In this part, you discover how highlights, shadows, reected
light, and cast shadows help create the illusion of a three-
dimensional reality on a at sheet of paper.
An easy-to-use traditional shading technique takes you all the
way from the basic skill of sharpening a pencil to rendering
value scales and graduations. The same technique also helps
you transform three shapes and realistic leaves with a stem
into realistic three-dimensional forms.
1
Introduction
Part 2: Super Shading with Squirkles
In this part, you learn how squirkling can help create a diverse range of subjects, techniques, and
graduations.
You also try your hand at using line density, pencil grades, and pencil pressure to squirkle value
scales and smoothly owing graduations.
Three additional activities challenge you to create a striped pattern and a bumpy texture, design and
render ve three-dimensional forms, and draw a realistic human eye.
Part 3: Elementary Values with Hatching
This part of the book begins by showing you a few of the wonderful shading effects you can create
with basic hatching techniques.
Simple activities take you through the step-by-step process of rendering each different type of value
scale.
Then comes the best part: you employ your new skills to draw an impressionistic range of
mountains, create and add shading to an original abstract design, and draw and shade ve realistic
ribbons of different values.
Part 4: Graduate to Hatching Graduations
This part of the book begins with a richly-illustrated introduction to hatching graduations. You learn
how to render side-by-side and vertical hatching graduations and then master these invaluable
shading techniques through a series of activities.
The art of burnishing shows you how to smooth out your shading. Also, you learn how to make a
form appear more three dimensional by pulling out highlights with a kneaded eraser.
As a grand nale, you use graduated hatching, atmospheric perspective, and a shading map to
draw a tranquil scene with a palm tree, island, and calm water.
Part 5: Contour Hatching Around Forms
This part of the book begins with an illustrated discussion on how curved hatching lines help create
highly-realistic textures and three-dimensional forms.
You then put theory into practice when you use contour hatching graduations to transform a circular
shape and a segment of a sphere into three-dimensional forms.
Your ability to render contour hatching graduations naturally progresses as you add shading to a
tulip and a section of its stem and leaf, render smooth shading and the texture of realistic hair, and
draw the forms of a young childs face and hair.
Part 6: Smooth Out Shading with Blending
This nal part of the book begins by sharing numerous tried-and-true techniques and helpful tips for
successfully blending shading.
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
2
Introduction to Shading
Sizing Up the Sidebars
The sidebars in this book offer oodles of tips,
challenges, and factoids to make your drawing
experience more enjoyable.
Each of the six different types of sidebars can
be easily identied by a simple icon:
ArtSpeak: (Figure 1) Denitions of words and
terms in the context of art and drawing
As an Aside: (Figure 2) Additional info about
your drawing subject, art-related topics, and
artists.
Caution!: (Figure 3) Valuable information
to help you prevent mistakes and avoid
frustration when you draw
Tip!: (Figure 4) Suggested strategies to save
you time, energy, and aggravation
Visual Challenge: (Figure 5) Tasks to
enhance your visual intelligence
Action Challenge: (Figure 6) Tasks to help
you experiment with new techniques, practice
your skills, and/or create a sketch or drawing
Figure 3
Figure 1
Figure 5
Figure 2
Figure 4
Figure 6
You then try your hand at blending a smooth three-dimensional cartoon face, a realistic white egg
on a white surface, and a sphere with a shiny surface.
Finally, all your new shading skills come together as you render two highly realistic masterpieces: a
fresh, shiny Macintosh apple and the smooth, delicate petals of a beautiful ower.
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
How to Use this Book
The curriculum les in this book are designed to be either worked through in sequence or
incorporated into an existing syllabus. Therefore, the important content of some sidebars is repeated
throughout.
For Artists Who Prefer Self-Education
Option A
If you decide to work through the entire book in sequence, you soon discover that each new piece
of information, skill, or technique prepares you for the next. Lots of reference material and related
activities are scattered throughout this book.
3
Introduction
Take your time studying all the information in each
resource before you begin working through its activities.
The degree of difculty increases as you near the end of
the book.
Option B
Read through the Contents and jump right into those
topics that excite you. Take a quick ip through the
pages, closely examine illustrations that catch your eye,
and start reading wherever you feel inspired.
On the rst page of most activities is a list of resources
that you need to successfully complete each activity. If
you come across a term you dont understand, just look it
up in the Glossary on pages 241 to 253.
If at any point you begin to feel frustrated, you can start
over again with Option A.
For Art Educators
The curriculum in this book is recommended for visual
art programs in schools, colleges, and universities;
homeschooling families; and independent art teachers.
All resources and activities in this book can be used to
enhance a pre-existing syllabus. Wander through the
detailed contents to locate les that can supplement your
curriculum.
To locate each resource and activity in digital format on
drawspace.com, refer to its number/letter code in the
Contents at a Glance. To provide each of your students
with this book and/or its individual curriculum les in
downloadable digital format, you can purchase an
educators license:
http://www.drawspace.com/lessons/pro
4
Introduction to Shading
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
As an Aside
The Drawspace philosophy on
teaching art is to emphasize the
enjoyment aspects while gently
introducing the technical and
academic skills needed to master
the subject. Through the creation
of a passion for the subject
matter, the quest for knowledge is
deepened.
As an Aside
Introduction to Shading is the
fourth in a series of books that
utilizes diverse drawing skills and
techniques to enhance your brain
functions and strengthen your
visual intelligence, creativity, and
memory.
Anyone who can see and hold
a drawing medium can learn to
draw!
As an Aside
Part 1
Seeing and
Shading Values
Identifying Light and Shadow on Forms...........................7
Seeing Light and Shadow in a Graduation......................13
Shade an Optical Illusion................................................21
Identifying Primary Light Sources...................................25
Shade Graduations of Values.........................................31
How to Use a Value Map................................................35
Use Shading to Create Forms........................................39
Turn a Shape into a Form..............................................45
Shade the Realistic Forms of Leaves.............................49
5
Part 1: Seeing and Shading Values
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Shading is so much more than simply adding values to a
drawing. Shading is accurately rendering light and shadow.
In this part, you discover how highlights, shadows, reflected
light, and cast shadows help create the illusion of a three-
dimensional reality on a flat sheet of paper.
An easy-to-use traditional shading technique takes you all the
way from the basic skill of sharpening a pencil to rendering
value scales and graduations. The same technique also helps
you transform three shapes and realistic leaves with a stem
into realistic three-dimensional forms.
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
6
Introduction to Shading
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
7
Part 1: Seeing and Shading Values Identifying Light and Shadow on Forms
This tutorial has ve sections:
Highlighting Highlights
Examining Shadow Sections
Identifying Reected Light
Exploring Cast Shadows
Seeing Light and Shadow in a
Graduation
Shading is so much more than
simply adding values to a drawing.
Shading is accurately rendering light
and shadow.
A light source identies the light and
shadow areas of a drawing subject
so you can see a range of different
values.
When you can identify the shapes
and locations of the light, medium,
and dark values, you can use
shading to turn shapes into forms.
With contour hatching and a light
source from the upper left, a simple
circle becomes both a sphere and a
planet (Figure 1).
ArtSpeak
Shadow: A dark area on an object or living being that
receives little to no light.
Shading: The process of adding values to a drawing
to create the illusion of texture, form, and/or three-
dimensional space.
Values: (also called tones) The various shades of gray
in an artwork. A broad range of values can be achieved
by using various grades of a medium and by varying
the density of the shading lines and the pressure used
when applying the medium to a surface.
Contour hatching: A classical shading technique in
which sets of curved hatching lines follow the outlines,
contours, and/or forms of the drawing subject and
accentuate the illusion of a three-dimensional reality.
Form: A component of art that creates the illusion
of a three dimensional space on a two-dimensional
surface, such as paper or canvas. A range of values
and/or colors are used to visually transform shapes
into three-dimensional structures.
Light source: The direction from which a dominant
light originates. A light source identies the light and
shadow areas of a drawing subject, allowing artists
to know where to add light or dark lines and values in
their artworks.
Circle: A geometric shape in which all points on the
circumference are an equal distance from its center
point.
Identifying Light and
Shadowon Forms
Discover how highlights, shadows, reflected light, and
cast shadows help create the illusion of a three-
dimensional reality on a flat sheet of paper
Resource
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
8
Introduction to Shading
Highlighting Highlights
You can add one or more strategically placed highlights to
drawings of most objects and living beings to make them
appear more three dimensional. A sphere helps illustrate the
power of a single highlight (Figure 2).
Examine
the white
circular
shape in
the center
of the
lightest
shading.
Note that
the light
source is
from the
upper left;
thus, the
highlight
needs to
be in the
upper left.
Figure 2
Figure 1
ArtSpeak
Sphere: A perfectly
round geometric
object in which all
points on the surface
are equal distance
from the center point.
Balls and globes are
examples of spheres.
Hatching: A series
of lines (called a set)
drawn closely together
to give the illusion of
values. Depending on
the shading effects
desired, the individual
lines in hatching sets
can be far apart or
close together.
Shape: A two-
dimensional geometric
object that can serve
as the outline of a
three-dimensional
object. For example, a
circle is the shape of a
sphere.
Highlight: A
small section of a
drawing subject that
is rendered with
white or a very light
value to identify the
brightest area where
light bounces off its
surface. Highlights
are more pronounced
on shiny or glistening
surfaces than dull or
matte surfaces.
Render: The process
of making or creating
something. For
example, an artist
can render a sketch
by drawing lines on a
sheet of paper.
Highlights can be any size and do not have to be circular.
Their sizes and shapes vary considerably based on the type
of light source and the forms of the object on which they
appear.
A drawing of a medieval dagger (Figure 3) has more than
twenty highlights that are different sizes and shapes. The
locations of twelve of these highlights are identied with
arrows.
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
9
Part 1: Seeing and Shading Values Identifying Light and Shadow on Forms
Identify the dark,
crescent-shaped
shadow on the lower
right of a sphere
(Figure 4). The light
source is from the
upper left.
In Figure 5, the
contrast has been
enhanced in Photoshop
to better demonstrate
the crescent shape.
Examining Shadow Sections
The surfaces on objects that receive very little light or are in the shadow of other objects
are usually dark in value. The darkest shading on the surface of a form is often located in
areas where the light has been blocked by the form itself.
Figure 5 Figure 4
Figure 3
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
10
Introduction to Shading
Realistic drawings of human facial forms are highly dependent
on the accurate placement of shadows.
In a realistic drawing of an eye (Figure 6), the light is partially
blocked from reaching the six shadow sections marked with
arrows. These sections need to be rendered with darker
shading than the sections that are in direct light.
ArtSpeak
Realism: A style of
art in which living
beings and objects
are represented in
an artwork as they
appear in real life
without stylization or
distortion.
Reected light: A
faint light reected or
bounced back on an
object from nearby
surfaces.
Cast shadow: A
dark section on an
object or a surface
adjacent to a subject
that receives little
or no direct light.
The values of a cast
shadow are darkest
next to the object and
gradually lighten as
they move farther
away.
Subject: Any object
or living being that
an artist chooses to
capture in an artwork.
Contour: The outline
or a section of the
outline of a shape or
form.
Figure 6
Figure 7
Thanks to Photoshop, Figure 7 shows the shadow
sections more clearly.
As an Aside
Even though the iris, pupil,
eyelashes, and eyebrow are
shaded with dark values in
Figures 6 and 7, they are not
completely in shadow. The
colors of those parts are simply
dark in value.
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
11
Part 1: Seeing and Shading Values Identifying Light and Shadow on Forms
Identifying Re ected Light
Reected light is especially noticeable on a sphere. Identify the rim of light shading on the
lower right of Figure 8. In this particular case, the reected light is bouncing back from the
light surface on which the sphere is sitting.
Figure 8 Figure 9
Figure 10
In Figure 9,
Photoshop
made the
background
black so
you can
better see
the reected
light.
ArtSpeak
Value scale: A range of different
values that are drawn in sequence
from light to dark or from dark to
light.
Contour lines: Real or imaginary
lines formed when the shared
edges of spaces or forms meet.
You can draw everything you can
see or imagine with contour lines.
Graduation: (also called gradient,
graduated shading, or graduated
values) A continuous, seamless
progression of values from dark to
light or light to dark.
When you know how to add
reected light to your drawings,
many independent forms, such
as facial features tend to look
more three-dimensional and
therefore more realistic.
In the drawing of a child in
Figure 10, look for the tiny
sections of reected light on the
edge of his nose and along the
jaw and chin.
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
12
Introduction to Shading
Figure 13
The values of these cast shadows
are darkest right next to the giraffes
feet and become gradually lighter
farther outward.
How and where you draw a cast
shadow can create the illusion
that objects are either touching or
separated from adjacent surfaces (or
other objects).
Figure 11
Figure 12
Exploring Cast Shadows
The light source in the drawings of a sphere
(Figure 11) and a grape (Figure 12) is from
the upper left. The light on an adjacent
surface is blocked by each of these objects,
resulting in cast shadows on the right.
When you draw cast shadows, keep in mind
that they generally take on the shapes of
the forms that are blocking the light.
Examine the cast shadow of a section of
the stem in the drawing of the grape.
The light source in Figure 13 is slightly
behind and above the giraffe, and from the
left. For the most part, the cast shadows are
long and thin like his legs.
As an Aside
The shadows in Figures 11 and 12 have
been darkened in Photoshop to better
illustrate their shapes.
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
13
Part 1: Seeing and Shading Values Identifying Light and Shadow on Forms
The drawing of three spheres in
Figure 14 has a light source from
above.
The rst sphere (on the far left) is
sitting on the surface of a table. The
cast shadow is touching its lower
edge.
However, the other
two appear to be
oating because the
shadows are detached
from the spheres.
As a sphere oats
higher above a
surface, its shadow
usually becomes
lighter in value and
the reected light
on its surface is less
noticeable.
Figure 16 Figure 15
Figure 14
As an Aside
It is the supreme art of the teacher to awaken joy in
creative expression and knowledge.
Albert Einstein
As an Aside
No art was ever less spontaneous than mine. What I
do is the result of reection and study.
Edgar Dgas
Seeing
Light and
Shadow in a
Graduation
A graduation of
values can serve as
an example of how
shading would look on
a section of an actual
object.
The different values in a graduation
can therefore be attributed to the
effects of the light source.
The contours of a sphere (Figure 15)
and a sliver of a sphere (Figure 16)
are identied with simple contour
lines.
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
14
Introduction to Shading
Examine the highlight, shadow, and reected light on the same sphere after shading has
been added (Figure 17). Compare and note the similarities of the left side of the sphere
to the graduation on the right. The various values in this graduation of values can also be
considered a highlight, a shadow section, and reected light.
Figure 17
The practice of rendering
graduations with contour
lines becomes much more
interesting when you
imagine them as part of an
actual object.
Figure 18
Challenge!
Examine the shading on
the apple in Figure 18 and
identify the:
highlight
shadow section
reected light
cast shadow
Highlight
Shadow
Reected light
15
Part 1: Seeing and Shading Values Shade Simple Value Scales
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Resource: Identifying Light and Shadow on Forms
(Page 7)
Supplies: drawing paper or a sketchbook, 2H, HB, 2B,
4B, and 6B grades of graphite pencils, pencil sharpener,
sandpaper block, kneaded eraser
This tutorial has two sections:
Prepare your Pencils for Shading
Shade Two Value Scales
Prepare your Pencils
for Shading
The points of pencils that are used for a
broad range of shading techniques are...
well pointed!
When the points wear down, you simply
use a pencil sharpener and/or a sandpaper
block to sharpen them again.
But, did you know that you can also render
shading with a at point? So, other than
being an oxymoron, what exactly is a at
point?
Shade Simple
Value Scales
Prepare five grades of pencils and then use them
to shade two value scales: fromlight to
dark and fromdark to light
ArtSpeak
Acid-free: An archival quality, long-lasting
paper product that has had the acid
removed from the pulp in the paper-making
process.
Artist: A person who practices one or more
art disciplines (e.g., dance, music, theater,
writing, or visual arts).
Drawing paper: Acid-free paper thats
designed specically for artists and is
available in various weights, colors, textures,
and sizes.
Grade: The softness or hardness of
the mixture used in the process of
manufacturing drawing mediums.
Graphite: A soft black form of opaque
carbon found in nature that is usually mixed
with clay in the process of manufacturing
various types of drawing tools.
Kneaded eraser: A soft, pliable type of
eraser used to erase parts of a drawing or
to gently pat a drawing medium to make a
lighter value or line.
Sandpaper block: A block with tear-off
sheets of ne sandpaper, which is used to
sharpen the points of pencils.
Activity
16
Introduction to Shading
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Figure 3
A chisel point enables you to
quickly and efciently render both
ne lines (Figure 2) and shading
(Figure 3) with one pencil.
Figure 1
Figure 2
ArtSpeak
Chisel point: (also called at point) A versatile shape
on the working end of a dry medium (such as a wood-
encased pencil) that has both a sharp edge and a at
angled surface. The sharp edge is used to render thin
lines and ne details, and the at surface is used for
shading.
Dry medium: A non-liquid drawing tool (e.g. colored
pencils, graphite, or charcoal).
Medium: An art material, such as clay, paint, or graphite
that is used to make art. Almost anything can be an
art medium, from the burnt end of a stick to computer
software.
Pencil: A broad category of writing and drawing tools
that have a medium inside a holder. By the end of the
nineteenth century, the word pencil specically referred
to a stick of graphite encased in a cylindrical piece of
wood.
Tooth: The surface texture of paper. Paper with a
smooth tooth is at with a silky texture; a medium tooth
is uneven with a slightly rough texture; and a coarse
tooth is bumpy with a very rough texture.
Shading: The process of adding values to a drawing
to create the illusion of texture, form, and/or three-
dimensional space.
Sharpener: A tool for sharpening pencils. An ideal
sharpener for artists is hand held, made of metal, and
has two openings for regular and oversized pencils.
Sketchbook: Several sheets of drawing paper that
are bound together and contained within a soft or hard
cover.
Technique: A well-known method of accomplishing a
particular activity or task (e.g., a specic way to render
shading).
Value scale: A range of different values that are drawn
in order from light to dark or from dark to light.
A at point (also
called a chisel
point) refers to a
pencil point with
both a sharp edge
and a at surface
(Figure 1).
17
Part 1: Seeing and Shading Values Shade Simple Value Scales
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Tip!
Sharpen several
pencils in advance
of beginning a
new project so that
your drawing time
isnt continuously
interrupted by pencil
sharpening.
Values: The various shades
of gray in an artwork. A
broad range of values
can be achieved by using
various grades of a medium
and by varying the density
of the shading lines and
the pressure used when
applying the medium to a
surface.
1. Gather your ve pencils and follow these steps to
create a chisel point on each:
Step 1: Sharpen the pencil with a pencil sharpener
Step 2: Hold the pencil at an angle
Step 3: Stroke its point across ne sandpaper until
you have a at angled surface
Step 4: Make a couple of marks with the at
surface to soften any hard edges before you render
a value scale or add shading to a drawing
ArtSpeak
Tip!
J ust before you sharpen a
pencil into a chisel point,
rotate the pencil between
your ngers until the writing
side is facing upward.
When the pencil is
sharpened and ready to
use, you now know to hold
your pencil:
writing-side-down to use
the sharp edge (Figure 2).
writing-side-up to use the
at surface (Figure 3).
Caution!
When shading with the at
surface of a chisel point, do
not press very hard with your
pencil. Pressing too rmly
with any grade of pencil can
destroy the papers tooth, and
additional shading cannot
adhere to the paper.
Rendering value scales is the rst step toward rendering
shading. The overall appearance of shading varies
greatly depending on:
the tooth of your drawing paper
the manufacturer of your pencils
Paper with a coarse tooth (Figure 4) may leave more
of the white showing through your shading than paper
with a smooth tooth (Figure 5). Both these values are
rendered with a 2B grade of pencil.
Tip!
B grades of graphite
pencils, especially 4B to 9B,
are softer and wear down
faster than H grades.
Therefore, they usually
need to be sharpened more
frequently than H grades.
Figure 5 Figure 4
18
Introduction to Shading
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Shading Two Value Scales
Set up your drawing supplies in preparation for
creating value scales.
2. Use the attened surface of a 2H pencil
to gently render a light value on the far
left of your paper.
Refer to Figure 8. Each section of shading
can be any size or shape you want.
However, make sure you leave enough
space to add four more values.
Figure 7
Figure 8
Figure 6
Identical grades of pencils do not always make identical values. The value scales in Figures
6 and 7 are both rendered with 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B grades of pencils. However, the
type of paper used and the manufacturers of the pencils are not the same.
Compare the same value in each value scale in sequence beginning with the lightest
value on the left. Note subtle differences in values.
Caution!
Re-sharpen your pencil before its
graphite point is worn down to the
wooden encasement. If a sliver of this
wood scrapes your paper, your drawing
may become irreparably damaged.
To minimize
smudging,
leave space
on the right if
you are right-
handed and
on the left if
you are left-
handed.
Tip!
If you are left-handed, you can render a
value scale from right to left, beginning
with light values on the right that
graduate darker as they move toward
the left.
When you are done, just turn your paper
upside down and your value scale is
similar to the illustrations in this tutorial.
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
3. Use the attened surface of an
HB pencil to create a slightly
darker value beside the light
value (Figure 9).
Figure 10
Figure 9
Figure 11
Figure 12
Tip!
Experiment with papers and pencils made by
different manufacturers. Eventually, you will nd
the perfect combination of paper and pencils
that gives you the results you want.
5. Use the same technique to shade another value scale of ve values in reverse
with the darkest value (6B pencil) on the left and the lightest value (2H pencil) on
the right (or vice versa if you are left-handed) as shown in Figure 13.
Tip!
Whenever you render
shading, keep a piece
of paper under your
drawing hand to prevent
smudging.
4. Use the at surface of 2B, 4B, and 6B
pencils in turn to render three more
values that are progressively darker
(Figures 10, 11, and 12).
19
Part 1: Seeing and Shading Values Shade Simple Value Scales
20
Introduction to Shading
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Figure 13
Figure 14
Figure 15
Challenge!
Draw another value scale from light to dark and make each of the ve values a completely
different shape (Figure 14). Use your imagination to come up with your own shapes (no
need to copy these).
Next, shade another value scale in reverse from dark to light. Render each of these shapes
as if its one of your previously rendered shapes reected in calm water (Figure 15).
Challenge!
Use ve grades of pencils and the pencil-sharpening technique discussed in
this activity to render at least one value scale every day for a week.
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
21
Part 1: Seeing and Shading Values Shade an Optical Illusion
Supplies: paper, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B
pencils, pencil sharpener, sandpaper block,
vinyl and kneaded erasers; ruler
This activity has two sections:
Outline an Optical Illusion
Add Shading with Four
Pencils
Optical illusions can challenge
ones perception. Examine the
white square in the center of
Figure 1.
ArtSpeak
Optical illusion: (also called a visual illusion) An image
that differs from objective reality, but when processed by
the subconscious brain is interpreted as reality.
Subconscious: A mental process which may be
beneath or beyond current awareness.
Perception: The manner in which you understand and
process sensory information.
Shade an
Optical Illusion
Outline straight-sided shapes and add shading
with four grades of pencils
Figure 1
Does it appear closer to you than the sides?
Or are the sides closer to you than the white
square?
The answer is both! Keep staring at the white
square until you can see both illusions.
If you dont see both illusions right away, try again
after you render your own optical illusion.
Outline an Optical Illusion
1. Use a ruler and an HB grade of pencil to
measure and draw a square (Figure 2).
Activity
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
22
Introduction to Shading
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 2
A good size for
your square is
3 by 3 in (7.62
by 7.62 cm).
2. Use a ruler to
measure and
divide each 3
in (7.62 cm)
side into three
1 in (2.54 cm)
lines, and
mark each
with a dot
or short line
(Figure 3).
3. Use a ruler
to connect
the opposite
dots, thereby
creating nine
1 in (2.54
cm) squares
inside your
larger square
(Figure 4).
4. Draw diagonal
lines in
each of the
four corner
squares.
Refer to Figure
5 on the next
page.
5. Erase eight of
the straight
lines until you
are left with
only the ve
shapes shown
in Figure 6.
ArtSpeak
Parallel: Two or
more straight lines
that slant in the
exact same direction
and can extend to
innity without ever
intersecting.
Parallelogram: A
four-sided shape with
two sets of parallel
sides that are equal in
length and in which the
opposite angles are
identical.
Square: A
parallelogram with four
straight sides of equal
length and four right
angles.
Render: The process
of making or creating
something. For
example, an artist
can render a sketch
by drawing lines on a
sheet of paper.
Diagonal line: A line
that is neither vertical
nor horizontal but
rather slants at an
angle.
Horizontal line: A
geometric object that
is at a right angle to a
vertical line and parallel
to a level surface.
Vertical line: A
geometric object that is
straight up and down
and at a right angle to a
level surface.
Trapezoid: A four-
sided shape in which
only two sides are
parallel.
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Figure 5 Figure 6
Figure 7
Figure 9
You now
have a
square
surrounded
by four
trapezoids.
6. Erase any
unnecessary lines
and marks and
redraw any lines
that may have been
inadvertently erased
(Figure 7).
Tip!
Prepare your HB, 2B, 4B, and
6B pencils as shown in Figure 8.
Refer to Shade Simple Value
Scales on Page 15 to refresh
your memory of how to prepare
your pencils and create shading
with pencils sharpened in this
way.
Figure 8
Add Shading
with Four Pencils
7. Use an HB pencil to add shading to
the upper trapezoid (Figure 9).
23
Part 1: Seeing and Shading Values Shade an Optical Illusion
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
24
Introduction to Shading
Challenge!
Examine your drawing until
you can see:
the square move closer to
you than the trapezoids.
the trapezoids move
closer to you than the
square.
9. Use a 4B pencil to add shading
to the trapezoid on the right
(Figure 11).
Figure 10
Figure 12
Figure 11
8. Use a 2B pencil to add shading
to the trapezoid on the left
(Figure 10).
10. Use a 6B pencil to add
shading to the lower
trapezoid (Figure 12).
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
This tutorial has two sections:
Seeing Light on Subjects in the Real World
Locating Light Sources in Drawings
Everything you see has a light source. Even when there are several sources of light, one is
usually stronger than the others (the primary light source.)
A light source causes parts of objects to be lighter in value than others. For example, a
mound of black earth on a sunny day may have several different values from medium to
dark. On another sunny day, this same mound of earth may be covered with snow. You
would again see several different values, but they would range from very light to medium.
Seeing Light on Subjects in the Real World
Light falls on objects in predictable and consistent ways. The best possible way to gain an
understanding of light is to examine the world around you under various lighting conditions.
To get started, conduct three simple experiments.
Experiment 1: Light and shadow on an object
Step 1: Place an object on a surface in a dimly lit room.
Step 2: Shine a powerful ashlight or a lamp on the object.
Step 3: Identify a few components of light and shadow (such as highlights, reected light,
shadow sections, and cast shadows).
Identifying Primary
Light Sources
Examine values on drawing subjects to find clues
that identify the directionality of the
dominant light source
25
Part 1: Seeing and Shading Values Identifying Primary Light Sources
Resource
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Step 4: Move the light source around in different directions and identify the changes in the
locations and shapes of the light and shadow sections.
Step 5: Move the light source higher and then lower and note the changes. For example,
did you notice that the lower you placed the light source, the longer the cast shadow
becomes?
Experiment 2: Light and shadow on you
Set yourself up in front of a mirror while holding a ashlight or other type of portable light.
Shine the light on your face from above, below, and each side. Examine your reection
and locate a few light and shadow sections. Note how the light and shadows on your face
change their sizes, shapes and locations when you relocate the light source.
Experiment 3: Light and shadow outside
On a sunny day, go outside and examine your cast shadow at the following times:
sunrise or sunset, when the sun is low in the sky
in the middle of the day, when the sun is directly overhead
mid-morning or mid afternoon, when the sun is at an angle
Locating Light Sources in
Drawings
Before you begin drawing any subject, you need to
identify the directionality of the primary light source. In
this section, you are challenged to nd the primary light
source in seven drawings.
First, determine the locations, sizes, shapes and
values of highlights, shadows, reected light, and cast
shadows. Then apply the knowledge you gained from the
experiments in the previous section.
Identify the directionality of the primary light source
in Figures 1 through 8.
A few hints are offered to help you with the rst three. If
you run into problems, go back to the previous section
and redo the three experiments.
Examine the location, size, and shape of a highlight
(marked 1), shadow section (2), reected light (3), and
cast shadow (4) in Figures 1 and 2.
Tip!
When you draw from life in
a place with two or more
light sources, the primary
light source is usually
the one that creates the
brightest highlights and the
darkest shadows on the
subject itself.
Tip!
To enhance your visual
intelligence, always take
time to observe your
surroundings and compare
the locations of shadows to
the directionality of the light
source.
26
Introduction to Shading
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
In Figure 3, examine a
highlight (1), reected light
(2), shadow section (3),
and cast shadow (4).
As an Aside
Art is the reason I get up
in the morning, but the
denition ends there. It
doesnt seem fair that Im
living for something I cant
even dene.
Ani DiFranco
Figure 2
1
2
3
4
Figure 1
2
3
4
1
Figure 3
1
2
3
4
27
Part 1: Seeing and Shading Values Identifying Primary Light Sources
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Figure 4
Figure 5
As an Aside
As your shading skills improve,
you should begin examining cast
shadows more closely.
For example, you may want to
draw the texture of the surface
on which the shadow falls or a
rim of a lighter value that may
be surrounding the shape of the
shadow.
Tip!
Long shadows can make a subject
appear ominous in a drawing. Of
course, this can be good or bad
depending on your subject.
As an
Aside
Whatever the
imagination
seizes as beauty
must be truth
whether it existed
before or not.
J ohn Keats
28
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Tip!
To create the illusion of a realistic three-
dimensional object on a at sheet of paper:
Step 1: locate the primary light source
Step 2: identify the locations, sizes, shapes,
and values of the four components of light
and shadow
Step 3: add shading to your drawing that
duplicates the locations, sizes, shapes, and
values of the light and shadow
Figure 7
Figure 6
As an
Aside
He who works
with his hands is a
laborer.
He who works with
his hands and his
head is a craftsman.
He who works with
his hands and his
head and his heart
is an artist.
St. Francis of Assisi
29
Part 1: Seeing and Shading Values Identifying Primary Light Sources
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Figure 8
As an Aside
Every now and then go away, have a little
relaxation, for when you come back to your work
your judgment will be surer. Go some distance
away because then the work appears smaller and
more of it can be taken in at a glance and a lack of
harmony and proportion is more readily seen.
Leonardo da Vinci
As an Aside
One has no right to love or hate anything
if one has not acquired a thorough
knowledge of its nature. Great love springs
from great knowledge of the beloved
object, and if you know it but little you will
be able to love it only a little or not at all.
Leonardo da Vinci
Drum roll, please! The primary light sources originate from:
the upper right and slightly in front (Figure 1)
the upper left and slightly behind (Figure 2)
the right and slightly above (Figure 3)
overhead on a cloudy day, when the sun cant create strong shadows (Figure 4)
the left (Figure 5)
the front and slightly to the left (Figure 6)
the left and slightly above (Figure 7)
the upper left on a sunny day when the sun creates strong shadows (Figure 8)
30
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
31
Part 1: Seeing and Shading Values Shade Graduations of Values
Resource: Identifying Light and Shadow on Forms (Page 7)
Supplies: paper, 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B pencils, pencil
sharpener, sandpaper block
Shade Graduations
of Values
Use pencil pressure and different grades of pencil
to create seven different graduations
Figure 1
ArtSpeak
Tooth: The surface texture of paper.
Paper with a smooth tooth is at with a
silky texture; a medium tooth is uneven
with a slightly rough texture; and a
coarse tooth is bumpy with a very rough
texture.
This tutorial has two sections:
Graduations with a Single Grade of Pencil
Graduations with Five Grades of Pencils
Graduations with a Single
Grade of Pencil
The process for shading each of the ve graduations
(Figure 1) in this section is the same. The difference is
that you use a different grade of pencil for each.
Paper with a medium tooth was used for the graduations
in this tutorial. Due to its rough surface, parts of the white
paper still show through the shading.
Activity
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
4. Use a 2B, 4B, and 6B grade of pencil in turn to create three more graduations
(Figures 5 to 7).
The three-step process for rendering a graduation with a single grade of pencil is:
Step 1: use only the weight of the pencil to begin shading the lightest value
Step 2: gradually apply a little more pressure to your pencil as you graduate middle
values
Step 3: graduate the values darker by increasing the pressure applied to the pencil until
the value is as dark as possible
Figure 3
Figure 5
Figure 4
Figure 7
Figure 6
Figure 2
1. Sharpen a 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B pencil
to a chisel point (Figure 2).
2. Draw a graduation of values with a 2H
grade of pencil (Figure 3).
3. Use an HB grade of pencil to shade a
second graduation (Figure 4).
5. Use the same basic process to shade
ve more graduations from dark to
light instead of from light to dark
(Figure 8).
32
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Figure 8
Figure 9
Figure 10
Figure 11
Graduations with
Five Grades of Pencils
You can use all ve grades of pencils to create a single
graduation. In essence, you link together the ve
graduations from the previous section in sequence.
The goal is to keep the transitions between each
graduation owing seamlessly into one another (Figure 9).
6. Use a 2H pencil to create a graduation from
light to dark on the far right or left of your paper
(Figure 10).
Begin by pressing very lightly. To graduate the values
darker, apply more pressure to the pencil.
Leave lots of space on your paper to add the four more
graduations.
7. Use the same technique with an HB grade pencil to
graduate darker values (Figure 11).
Begin by lightly shading over a small section of the
darkest shading that was created with the 2H.
Then, continue making the graduation darker as you
move toward the middle of your paper.
Remember to apply a little more pressure to your pencil
to darken the values.
Figure 12
8. Use the same process to add in middle
values with a 2B grade (Figure 12).
9. Add darker values toward the end of the
graduation with a 4B pencil (Figure 13).
33
Part 1: Seeing and Shading Values Shade Graduations of Values
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
10. Use rm pressure on your
6B pencil to make the end
of the graduation very dark
(Figure 14).
12. Use the same process and ve grades of pencils to draw another graduation
from dark to light instead of from light to dark (Figure 16).
Examine your graduation beginning on the left and locate any sections that dont
graduate smoothly. Use the same grades that originally created the values in each
section to smooth out the graduations.
Figure 13
Figure 14
Figure 15
Figure 16
And nally,
pat yourself
on the back
and rub
your tummy
at the same
time!
11. Add nal touches to your graduation with each of your ve
pencils in turn (Figure 15).
34
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
35
Part 1: Seeing and Shading Values How to Use a Value Map
This tutorial has four sections:
Step 1: Outlining the Subject
Step 2: Identifying Values in the Subject
Step 3: Outlining the Shapes of Values
Step 4: Adding Shading to Your Drawing
ArtSpeak
Value map: A plan or blueprint for adding shading
to a drawing.
How to Use a
Value Map
A four-step process to help you plan an appropriate
method for adding shading to a drawing
Figure 1
Step 1: Outlining
the Subject
Before creating a value map you should
draw your subject proportionally correct.
A contour drawing of a simple circle serves
as the example for this demonstration
(Figure 1).
Tip!
You can create a value map based on
a value scale of any number of different
values. However, most value maps have
no fewer than three values and no more
than ten.
Resource
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Step 2: Identifying Values in the Subject
Beginners to shading should keep a value scale close by when creating a value map. You
can then compare the values in your subject to those in the value scale. To save time and
prevent confusion, you can sequentially number each value in your value scale (Figure 2).
Figure 2
The next goal is to nd each value of the value scale in a section of your subject or
reference image. In Figure 3, a drawing of a sphere is pretending to be a photo and ve
different values are identied and marked. You can mark only one section of each value or
several sections of each.
Figure 4
As an Aside
The texture and base value created with
a specic grade of pencil can be very
different depending on the tooth of the
paper used.
For example, both values in Figure 4
were rendered with a 2B pencil.
The rst was rendered on paper with
a smooth tooth (1) and the second
was rendered on paper with a coarse
tooth (2).
Tip!
You can mark the numeric name of each value
right on a photo reference. When drawing from
life, outline the shape of each value as soon as its
identied (Step 3).
1 2 3 4 5
Figure 3
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
3
3
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
3
1: Smooth Tooth 2: Coarse Tooth
36
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Step 4: Adding Shading to Your Drawing
The shading map shows you which grade of pencil to use to graduate values in each
shape. Naturally, you also graduate the values in between shapes. Otherwise, you end up
with stripes rather than a smoothly shaded shape.
Figure 5
Step 3: Outlining the
Shapes of Values
The shapes of values differ
considerably depending on the
shape of the object and the light
source.
In the reference image (Figure 3),
the shape of each graduation of
values follows the contours of the
sphere (Figure 5).
The next goal is to outline each
shape inside your contour drawing.
You can simply remember which
value is which (Figure 6) or very
lightly mark the numeric name
of each inside its corresponding
shape (Figure 7). Figure 7 has been
darkened in Photoshop so you
can more clearly see the outlined
shapes.
Figure 6
Figure 7
1
2
3
3
4
5
37
Part 1: Seeing and Shading Values How to Use a Value Map
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
There is no magic formula for adding
graduated shading to a drawing.
You can begin with the lightest value
and graduate toward the darkest
value or you can begin with the
darkest value and graduate toward
the lightest value (Figure 8).
Figure 8
As an Aside
The process of using a value map works
equally well for shading the individual
shapes of most drawing subjects
(Figures 9 and 10).
Figure 9
Figure 10
38
Introduction to Shading
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
39
Part 1: Seeing and Shading Values Use Shading to Create Forms
Resource: How to Use a Value Map (Page 35)
Supplies: paper, 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B pencils, pencil sharpener,
sandpaper block, kneaded and vinyl erasers
This tutorial has four sections:
Outline a Circle, Cube, and Rectangle
Identify Values in the Reference Image
Outline the Shapes of Values
Add Shading to Your Drawing
Outline a Circle, Cube,
and Rectangle
Use Shading to
Create Forms
Use value maps and graduated shading to turn a
circle, cube, and rectangle into realistic
three-dimensional forms
1. Use a 2H pencil to lightly sketch a circle, cube, and rectangle.
Your goal is to simply place each subject on your paper in proportion to the
corresponding drawings in Figure 1. Your drawing of these three subjects should be no
smaller than 8 in (20.32 cm) wide. Realistic shading is more difcult to render in a small
drawing than a large one.
2. Lighten your sketch lines with a kneaded eraser and neatly outline each subject
more accurately with a sharpened HB pencil (Figure 1).
As an Aside
The paper used for the drawing
in this activity has a rough tooth.
Also, very little pressure was
applied to the pencils while
adding shading.
Therefore, the graphite sits
mostly on the papers peaks,
and the tiny crevasses in the
paper are visible as gorgeous
little white specks.
Activity
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Identify Values
in the Reference
Image
3. Create a value scale
of the base value of
a 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and
6B pencil (Figure 2).
Number the values from 1 to 5. This value scale can help you locate each base value in
your reference image, and can serve as a guide when you add shading to your drawing.
4. Identify the locations of each value in the reference image.
Refer to the completed drawings in Figures 2 and 10. When you know where the
different values are located, you can more easily identify their shapes.
Do not apply too much pressure to your pencil;
you may want to lighten these outlines later.
Figure 1
1 2 3 4 5
Figure 2
They graduate from light (or white) at the top edge to medium at the bottom edge.
Locate each of these values in your value scale.
The shapes of the values in the sphere are more difcult to identify because they follow
its perceived contours. Refer to Figure 3 to get an idea of what you need to see. These
numbered values should correspond to the numbered values of your value scale.
The frontal face
of the cube and
the cylinder
are made up
of graduations
that are
long vertical
rectangles.
Compare their
values to those
in your value
scale.
The shapes of
the values on
the side of the
cube are less
distinct.
40
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Figure 4
Figure 3
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
3
3
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
3
You can darken or lighten the values
in your value scale if they are not
close to the corresponding values in
Figures 2 and 3.
This illustration has been darkened in
Photoshop so you can see the outlines clearly.
To help keep you on track, you can use a 2H
pencil to very lightly mark the numeric name of
each value inside each of its outlined shapes.
Add Shading to Your Drawing
7. Sharpen your 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B pencils to a chisel point.
8. Use a kneaded eraser to pat your drawing until the value map is very faint.
Outline the
Shapes of Values
5. Peek ahead to Figure 10, and
Identify the size and shape of
each different value.
6. Use a 2H pencil to lightly
outline each shape on your
contour drawing.
41
Part 1: Seeing and Shading Values Use Shading to Create Forms
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Figure 6
Figure 5
Tip!
The completed drawings of the sphere and cylinder
have a section that is left white (highlights). You can
add shading to the side of the cube with or without a
white section.
To include a white section, begin the lightest value a
bit below the upper edge (Figure 5). If you dont want
a white section, begin the lightest value at the upper
edge (peek ahead to Figure 10).
9. Use each pencil in turn to
add shading to your contour
drawings (Figures 5 to 10).
Place your value scale beside
you as you add shading to
your drawings. Remember to
graduate the values in between
each shape.
Graduation 2: (HB pencil) a light graduation
with values that range from light to medium.
Graduation 1: (2H pencil) the lightest graduation of
all with values that range from almost white to light.
42
Introduction to Shading
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Figure 7
Graduation 3: (2B pencil) a medium graduation with a
full range of medium values that range from the lighter
medium values to the darker medium values.
Graduation 1: (2H pencil) the lightest
graduation of all with values that range
from almost white to light.
Graduation 4: (4B pencil) a dark graduation with
values that range from the darker medium values to
the lighter dark values.
Figure 8
43
Part 1: Seeing and Shading Values Use Shading to Create Forms
Figure 9
Figure 10
To create an even smoother
overall graduation, you can add
an additional thin rim of Value 4
between Values 3 and 5 in the
section of reected light in the
lower left of the sphere.
Tip!
To create a value map for any subject,
identify its individual values and then
outline their shapes on your contour
drawing.
10. Compare your drawing to Figure 10 and touch up any sections of shading that
dont graduate smoothly.
Gently pat a section of shading that is too dark with a kneaded eraser. Use a little more
pencil pressure or a darker grade of pencil to darken shading that is too light.
Graduation 5: (6B pencil) the darkest graduation
with values that range from the lighter dark values
to the darkest values of all.
44
Introduction to Shading
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
45
Part 1: Seeing and Shading Values Turn a Shape into a Form
Supplies: paper, 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B pencils, pencil
sharpener, sandpaper block, kneaded and vinyl erasers
1. Use an HB pencil to outline a shape
similar to the one in Figure 1.
2. Imagine or lightly outline a highlight in the
upper left.
Assume the light source originates from the
upper left and slightly in front of this shape.
Tip!
Sharpen your pencils to either a chisel or slightly worn-
down point (Figure 2) to add shading to this shape.
Use traditional shading techniques and five grades of
pencils to render a three-dimensional form
Turn a Shape
into a Form
Figure 1
Figure 2
Activity
3. Use a 2H pencil to add a graduation
of light values around the highlight
(Figure 3).
Press gently and move you pencil in tiny
circular motions to add smooth shading. The
lightest values are closest to the highlight.
4. Graduate medium values toward
the lower right with an HB pencil
(Figure 4).
5. Use a 2B pencil to graduate darker
values toward the lower section of
the shape (Figure 5).
6. Graduate progressively darker
values toward the right and lower
right with a 4B pencil (Figure 6) and
then a 6B pencil (Figure 7).
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
46
Introduction to Shading
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 6
As an Aside
This shading technique is ideal for the smooth
textures found on oodles of different drawing
subjects, such as: people, owers, leaves, still
life, and landscapes.
Figure 5
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
47
Part 1: Seeing and Shading Values Turn a Shape into a Form
9. Graduate lighter values
toward the left side of
the lower edge with
2H and HB pencils
(Figure 9).
10. Graduate values
downward from the light
values to medium and
then to dark when you
reach the lower edge on
the left (Figure 10).
Take your time. This
graduation changes
values from light to
dark within a very short
distance.
As an Aside
The paper used in this activity
has a medium tooth, so specks
of white show through the
shading.
Figure 9
Figure 8
Figure 7
7. Graduate progressively
darker values toward
the left side of the lower
edge (Figure 8).
8. Graduate lighter values
to the edge of the lower
right side.
Use 2H and HB pencils.
This rim of light shading
represents reected light
from a surface on which
the shape is sitting.
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
48
Introduction to Shading
As an Aside
This texture has many possible applications for drawing
realistic subjects. The right and left sections of the lower edge
of this shape demonstrate two potential options (Examine the
nal drawing in Figure 11).
11. Add a sliver of dark
shading outside the
lower right edge of the
shape.
12. Outline a section of
what will become the
darkest shading.
13. Shade the darkest
section by pressing
rmly with a 6B pencil
(Figure 11).
14. Compare your drawing
to Figure 11 and
touch up any sections
that do not graduate
smoothly.
Challenge!
Draw another shape, choose
a different light source, and
use these same basic shading
techniques to turn your shape
into a form.
Figure 11
Figure 10
To darken a section of
shading, use the same grades
of pencils that you used for
the initial shading.
To lighten shading, use a
kneaded eraser molded to a
point to gently pat sections
that are too dark.
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
49
Part 1: Seeing and Shading Values Shade the Realistic Forms of Leaves
Supplies: paper, HB, 2B, 3B, 4B, 5B, 6B, and 7B pencils, pencil sharpener,
sandpaper block, kneaded eraser, vinyl eraser, small and soft paintbrush
This tutorial has four sections:
Sketch and Outline Leafy Proportions
Prepare for Shading
The Process of Shading a Leaf
Create Forms with Traditional Shading
Tip!
Render your drawing any
size you want. Keep in
mind, however, that large
drawings tend to be much
more forgiving of minor
imperfections in shading.
Follow richly-illustrated, step-by-step instructions
to draw a plant in the style of realism
Shade the Realistic
Forms of Leaves
Sketch and
Outline Leafy
Proportions
1. Follow along with
Figures 1 to 4 to
sketch and neatly
outline the shapes
of the leaves and
their stem.
Remember to keep
your outlines light by
pressing gently with
your HB pencil.
Figure 1
Activity
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
50
Introduction to Shading
Figure 2 Figure 3
As an Aside
Mother Nature is somewhat forgiving of
inaccurate proportions when you draw leaves.
Your primary goal is to capture their forms,
textures, and/or patterns.
Figure 4
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
A
5. Identify
a small
shadow
section
above
this leaf
and
shade it
with a 7B
pencil
(Figure 8).
Prepare for Shading
2. Use a kneaded eraser to lighten
your drawing until the lines are
very faint (Figure 5).
3. Use ne sandpaper or a
sandpaper block to sharpen
each of your HB, 2B, 3B, 4B,
5B, 6B, and 7B pencils to either
a chisel point or a worn-down
point (Figure 6).
4. Zero in on the leaf marked A
(Figure 7) in the upper right of
your drawing.
Figure 5
Figure 6
Figure 7
Figure 8
This shadow section will
be the darkest value in the
drawing, while the white of the
paper will be the lightest.
51
Part 1: Seeing and Shading Values Shade the Realistic Forms of Leaves
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
52
Introduction to Shading
Step 4:
Gently pat
your shading
with a
small, soft
paintbrush
to very
slightly blend
the values
(Figure 12).
Step 5: Use
a kneaded
eraser
molded to a
point to pull
out a few
spots and
lighten the
brightest
highlights.
Figure 9 Figure 10
Figure 11 Figure 12
The Process of Shading a Leaf
6. Add shading to the leaf marked A by following these ve steps:
Step 1: Use a 7B followed by a 6B to add graduations of dark values. The darkest
values on this leaf are in the upper left and the lower right (Figure 9).
Step 2: Use a 5B and a 4B to add graduations of medium values (Figure 10).
Step 3: Use a 3B, 2B, and HB to add graduations of light values (Figure 11).
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Figure 15
Figure 16
Create Forms with
Traditional Shading
7. Use the ve-step process described in
the previous section to add graduated
shading to the other nine leaves and the
stem (Figures 13 to 17).
Figure 14
Figure 13
53
Part 1: Seeing and Shading Values Shade the Realistic Forms of Leaves
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
54
Introduction to Shading
Challenge!
As an artist, you automatically have an
artistic license to use your imagination
and discretion to modify your drawings
and/or add extra details.
Compare the nal drawing (Figure 17) to
the reference photo (Figure 18) and nd
at least three things that are different in
the drawing. For example, the spots on
the leaves are much more obvious and
the ribbon is not included in the drawing.
As an Aside
In case you are wondering, the yellow ribbon
(Figure 18) was simply holding the branch in place
while the photo was taken.
Challenge!
Refer to a photo of
a plant (or an actual
plant) to draw another
grouping of leaves in
the style of realism. Use
the shading process
outlined in this tutorial.
Figure 17
Figure 18
Part 2
Super Shading
with Squirkles
Numerous illustrations demonstrate the diverse range of
subjects, techniques, value scales, and graduations made
possible with squirkling.
You also try your hand at using line density, pencil grades,
and pencil pressure to squirkle value scales and smoothly
owing graduations.
Three additional activities challenge you to create a striped
pattern and a bumpy texture; design and render ve three-
dimensional forms; and draw a realistic human eye.
Checking Out Squirkles in Drawings..............................57
Exploring Squirkled Value Scales...................................61
Squirkle Value Scales.....................................................65
How to Squirkle Graduations..........................................69
Squirkle Graduations of Values......................................73
Squirkle Striped Graduations..........................................75
Graduate Blobs and Globs.............................................77
Squirkle an Iris and a Pupil.............................................81
55
Part 2: Super Shading with Squirkles
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
56
Introduction to Shading
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Squirkling is an easy-to-learn and highly versatile
technique that should be part of the shading
repertoire of all artists (Figure 1).
When squirkles are rendered large and far apart, the
resulting textures are bold and heavy. When drawn
very tiny and close together, squirkles create smooth
textures.
Figure 1
Checking Out
Squirkles in Drawings
A richly-illustrated discussion demonstrates the
diversity of squirkling for a broad range
of different drawing subjects
ArtSpeak
Squirkles: Randomly drawn,
overlapping curved lines and
shapes that are used to create
a shading technique called
squirkling.
Squirkling: A shading
technique in which randomly
drawn, overlapping curved lines
and shapes (squirkles) create
values.
Realism: A style of art in which
living beings and objects are
represented in an artwork as
they appear in real life without
stylization or distortion.
Photorealism: A genre of
realistic drawing and painting
that looks like a photograph
(usually created by using
photographs as references).
Hyperrealism: A genre of highly
realistic drawing and painting in
which subjects appear as lifelike
as they are in reality (usually
created from real life and/or with
photographic references).
57
Part 2: Super Shading with Squirkles Checking Out Squirkles in Drawings
Resource
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Both drawing students and established artists use squirkles to add shading to their sketches
and drawings. Squirkling is also a well-respected shading technique used by professional
artists to create artworks in the styles of realism, photorealism, and hyperrealism.
The drawings in this tutorial are
either partially or entirely rendered
with squirkles. Close-up views of
each drawing help illustrate the
versatility of squirkling as a shading
technique.
A cartoon drawing of a sheep would
not be complete without some wool
(Figure 2).
Figure 3
Figure 2
Figure 4
You can
create this
wonderfully
woolly texture
easily and
quickly using
loosely
rendered
squirkles
(Figure 3).
Squirkles
can add a
realistic touch
to sketches
of foliage,
such as this
spruce tree
(Figure 4).
A close-up
view shows
how squirkles
give life and
movement to
the branches
and needles
on the tree
(Figure 5).
Figure 5
58
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
The eece fabric of a jacket
looks quite believable when
rendered with squirkles
(Figure 6).
Note how you can achieve
various values by using
a range of line densities,
different grades of pencils,
and varying degrees of
pressure on the pencil
(Figure 7).
Drawing
animals gives
you lots of
opportunities
to use
squirkles.
The sh in
Figure 8 is full
of squirkles.
The texture of the scales on the sh can be easily
rendered using squirkles (Figure 9).
When you know how to render shading with
squirkles, youll nd a use for them in many of your
drawings.
Figure 7
Figure 6
Figure 8
Figure 9
59
Part 2: Super Shading with Squirkles Checking Out Squirkles in Drawings
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Figure 10
In a drawing of a young child, all the textures are shaded with squirkles (Figure 10).
The shading on the smooth skin of her beautiful face is rendered with thousands of tiny
squirkles (Figure 11).
Figure 11
Figure 12
On the terrycloth
hat, a few quickly
rendered c-shapes
bring out the
bumps in the fabric
(Figure 12).
60
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
This tutorial has three sections:
Varying the Density of Lines
Using Various Grades of Pencils
Combining Density and Grades with
Pressure
What do you get when you cross scribbles and
squiggles with circles? You get squirkles!
Squirkling is a simple shading technique that
incorporates randomly drawn curved lines to
create textured values.
The beauty of squirkling is its ability to produce
an innite range of values and a variety of
ArtSpeak
Abstraction: A movement away from
realistic depictions of objects, nature,
or living beings.
Partial abstraction depicts a subject
that exists in reality, but may be
unrecognizable (e.g., using geometric
shapes to render a human face).
Complete abstraction employs line,
color, form, pattern, and shape to
suggest emotion or a non-gurative
subject.
Exploring Squirkled
Value Scales
Popular techniques for rendering a range of
different values with squirkles
textures. You can create different values by:
varying the density of the lines (drawing the lines either far apart or close together)
using different grades of pencils
combining different line densities with different grades of pencils and varying the
pressure you apply with the pencils
Varying the Density of Lines
You can create several different values with a single pencil by simply varying the density of
squirkling lines.
Resource
61
Part 2: Super Shading with Squirkles Exploring Squirkled Value Scales
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Figure 4
Using Various
Grades of Pencils
Each of ve grades of pencils
(2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B)
creates a different base value
(Figure 5).
Even though the density of the
squirkles is approximately the
same for each value, the values
themselves range from light to
dark.
Figure 3
Check out a light,
medium, and dark value
created with a 2B grade
of pencil (Figure 1).
The light value has
noticeable curved lines
with lots of white space
showing (Figure 2).
The lines are far apart and few in number. Lines cut across themselves in many places
creating lots of different shapes, an abstraction or an abstract composition, and an overall
light value.
The medium value has more squirkles than the light value, and the lines are closer together
with less white space showing (Figure 3).
In a dark value, the lines are drawn very close together, lling in most of the paper with the
texture of squirkles (Figure 4). Very little of the white paper is still visible.
Tip!
Each time you draw a value scale, stand back and look at
the values from a distance to make sure that each value is
slightly darker than the previous. If any of the values are
not quite right, you can adjust them.
To make a value lighter, mould your kneaded eraser
to a point and use it to dab small sections of the
darkest lines.
To make a value darker, add a few more squirkles
to the larger white spaces or use a softer pencil to
darken sections.
Figure 2
Figure 1
62
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Combining Density and
Grades with Pressure
The ability to create seven different values
using density, pencil grade, and pressure
requires a keen eye and many hours of
practice (Figure 6).
As an Aside
I chose the term squirkles for my unique
shading technique back in 1982. Many of my
students from the past three decades are very
familiar with this fun way to create shading.
Figure 5
Figure 6
The only way to learn is trial and error, but such practice will give you a keen understanding
of the interaction between your materials and your technique.
In addition to varying the density of the lines and using different grades of pencils, you also
need to vary the pressure you apply to your pencils.
You can create a very light value by using a light grade pencil with light pressure but quite a
few squirkles (marked 1).
You can render a second value by using a darker grade of pencil, applying additional pencil
pressure, or both (marked 2).
Various pencil grades and amounts of pressure help make the next ve values
progressively darker (marked 3 to 7).
You can create a value scale with values that range from dark on the left to light on the right
(Figure 7).
2H HB 2B 4B 6B
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
63
Part 2: Super Shading with Squirkles Exploring Squirkled Value Scales
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
At some point during your
many hours of practice, you will
discover that magic mixture of
line density, pencil grade, and
pressure to render each value
perfectly.
As an Aside
Pablo Picasso (18811973) changed the world of art
with his Cubist painting Les Demoiselles dAvignon
(1907) in which he used geometric shapes to portray
women.
Wassily Kandinsky (18661944) moved away from the
more gurative paintings of his youth to focus on colors
and forms. He described the circle as the most peaceful
shape to see and a representation of the human soul.
J ackson Pollock (19121956) dripped paint onto canvas
and encouraged viewers to experience the pure
painting without need to see it as representational.
Tip!
The process of creating a range
of different values with squirkles is
very similar to that of rendering all
other shading techniques.
Figure 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
64
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Resources:
Checking Out Squirkles in Drawings (Page 57)
Exploring Squirkled Value Scales (Page 61)
Supplies: paper, 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B pencils, pencil sharpener, sandpaper block, kneaded eraser
This activity has three sections:
Vary the Density of Lines
Use Various Grades of Pencils
Combine Density and Grades with Pressure
Vary the Density of Lines
1. Use a 2B grade of pencil to create a value scale from light to dark by varying line
density (Figure 1).
The lines are far apart and few in number for the light value.
Squirkle Value
Scales
The lines are drawn
closer together for the
medium value.
In the dark value,
several lines are much
closer together with
very little white paper
still showing through.
Render six different value scales with squirkling by
using line density, pencil grades, and pressure
Figure 1
Activity
65
Part 2: Super Shading with Squirkles Squirkle Value Scales
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
2. Draw the same
value scale in
reverse from
dark to light
(Figure 2).
4. Draw the same value scale in reverse from dark to light (Figure 4).
Begin with a 6B on the left and create each value in sequence until you nish with a 2H
on the right.
Use Various Grades of Pencils
3. Draw ve different values by using ve grades of pencils (Figure 3).
Keep the line density approximately the same for each value.
Apply a medium amount of pressure with your pencil and let each grade of pencil (2H,
HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B) create its own natural value.
Begin with a 2H on the left and create each value in sequence until you nish with a 6B
on the right.
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 2
66
Introduction to Shading
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
As an Aside
There is no single or specic way to achieve a scale of
seven values. The potential combinations of the three
different techniques are innite.
Trial and error combined with lots of patience and practice
is your best chance for success. At some point you will
discover a magic mixture of line density, pencil grades, and
pressure to make each value perfectly.
Tip!
When values are rendered too
dark too quickly, you may not
be able to make seven different
values.
If this happens, just begin again
and make the rst few values a
little lighter.
Combine Density and Grades with Pressure
5. Create a value scale of seven distinctively different values from light to dark.
Use whichever combinations of grades, line density, and pressure enable you to
achieve a scale of seven different values (Figure 5).
Begin with a very light value (marked 1 in Figure 5).
Draw the second value (2) with more squirkles and/or a darker grade of pencil, and
add a little more (or less) pressure until the overall value is just slightly darker than
the rst.
The next ve values (3 to 7) need to become progressively darker and can be
rendered in much the same way.
6. Stand back and look at your seven values from a distance to make sure that each
value is slightly darker than the previous one.
If a value is too light or too dark, you can make adjustments:
To make a value lighter, mold your kneaded eraser to a point and use it to dab small
sections of the darkest lines.
To make a value darker, add a few more squirkles to its larger white spaces, or use
a softer pencil to darken sections.
Figure 5
67
Part 2: Super Shading with Squirkles Squirkle Value Scales
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
7. Create another scale of seven values that ranges from dark on the left to light on
the right (Figure 6).
Figure 6
Challenge!
Several sections of the
drawing in Figure 7 are
shaded with squirkles.
How many can you
identify?
Figure 7
68
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Value scales and graduations are quite
different from one another even when each
has identical values.
A value scale is made up of stand-alone
values. A graduation has a range of different
values that come together as a single unit
(Figure 1).
How to Squirkle
Graduations
ArtSpeak
Graduation: (also called a gradient,
graduated shading, or graduated values)
A continuous, seamless progression of
values from dark to light or light to dark.
A full range of graduated values from light
to dark can be drawn within a compact
space (Figure 2) or stretched out over a
long distance (Figure 3).
Figure 1
Figure 2
Examine various types of graduations and discover
the process for squirkling smoothly flowing
graduations
Resource
69
Part 2: Super Shading with Squirkles How to Squirkle Graduations
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
In Figure 5 on the next page, a drawing of a
tiny section of a phone has several types of
graduations that are all rendered with squirkles.
Area 1: The partial sphere segment has a full
range of graduated values from very light to
almost black.
Area 2: Another segment has a graduation
that ranges from light to middle values.
Area 3: A shadow section has a graduation
that ranges from a middle value to almost
black.
Challenge!
Examine close-up views of the
graduations in Figures 6 to 8.
Can you nd the exact location of
each of these examples of graduated
shading in Figure 5?
(Hint: each can be found in a
numbered section.)
Not all graduations have a full range of values. A graduation can also be made up of only
light, medium, or dark values.
In addition, graduations can be drawn in any direction (Figure 4).
Figure 3
Figure 4
70
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
You can draw graduations using the same
three techniques you use to draw value
scales:
1. vary the density of the lines
2. use different grades of pencils
3. vary the pressure used with a pencil
However, the goal when rendering
graduated shading is to keep the transitions
between different values owing seamlessly
into one another.
Figure 6
Figure 8
Figure 7
Figure 5
71
Part 2: Super Shading with Squirkles How to Squirkle Graduations
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
The process for creating a graduation of squirkles is fairly straightforward.
Step 1: The graduation begins on the left side of the paper with squirkles that are rendered
with hard grades of pencils. A little more pressure is also applied and the lines gradually
become denser toward the right (Figure 9).
Figure 11
Figure 10
Figure 9
Step 3: By using very soft pencils, increasing the amount of pressure, and drawing denser
squirkling lines, the values graduate from dark to almost black (Figure 11).
And, with help from a combination of three techniques, the graduation is nished!
Step 2: When the hardest pencils have created their darkest values, softer pencils are
chosen and the process is repeated (Figure 10).
72
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Resource: How to Squirkle Graduations (Page 69)
Supplies: paper, 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B pencils, pencil sharpener, kneaded eraser, ruler (optional)
1. Outline or visualize a long drawing space in which to shade your graduation.
An ideal size is 2 by 10 in (5.08 by 25.4 cm).
2. Draw a graduation of values from light to medium that extends approximately
halfway across your drawing space (Figure 1).
Remember to vary the density of the lines, use different grades of pencils, and vary the
pressure you apply to the pencil.
To create smooth transitions, you may need to go back over small sections of some
values to make them darker or lighter. You can add additional curved lines in between
other lines to darken a value or use your kneaded eraser to dab away sections of a
value that is too dark.
Figure 1
Use line density, pencil pressure, and different grades
of pencils to squirkle smoothly flowing graduations
Squirkle
Graduations
of Values
3. Continue drawing squirkles closer together and pressing harder with softer
pencils until your graduation transitions into darker values (Figure 2).
Activity
73
Part 2: Super Shading with Squirkles Squirkle Graduations of Values
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
4. Continue to the end of your drawing space, drawing the squirkles closer together
and pressing a little harder with soft grades of pencils.
But dont press too hard! Remember to let your softest pencils help you achieve values
that graduate from dark to almost black (Figure 3).
Challenge!
Gain a greater understanding of
squirkling techniques by varying the
length and direction of graduated
values. Draw each of the following
four graduations (Figure 4):
1. Light to dark inside a 2 by 5 in
(5.08 by 12.7 cm) drawing space.
2. Dark to light inside a 2 by 5 in
(5.08 by 12.7 cm) drawing space.
3. Light to medium inside a 2 by 5 in
(5.08 by 12.7 cm) drawing space.
4. Medium to dark inside a 2 by 5 in
(5.08 by 12.7 cm) drawing space.
Figure 4
You should be more than three-quarters of the way across your paper by now, with
room remaining on the right to add the darkest values.
Figure 3
Figure 2
74
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Resource: How to Squirkle Graduations (Page 69)
Supplies: paper, 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B pencils, pencil sharpener,
sandpaper block, kneaded eraser
1. Use a 2H pencil to very lightly draw four
curved lines similar to those in Figure 1.
These lines have been darkened in Photoshop;
in actuality, they are very faint.
2. Use a 2H
pencil to
draw light
graduations
in the upper
and lower
spaces
(Figure 2).
Figure 1
Figure 2
Squirkle Striped
Graduations
Create a striped pattern and a bumpy texture with
gently curving graduations
Continuously examine the reference images as
you draw. Make sure you have the light and dark
sections of each graduation in approximately
the same locations. The dark stripe will be in the
space between these two light stripes.
3. Use an HB pencil to add darker sections to the
graduations of light values (Figure 3).
Activity
75
Part 2: Super Shading with Squirkles Squirkle Striped Graduations
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Your goal is to end up with graduations in which the different values ow seamlessly into
one another.
You may need to go back over the stripes to make some sections darker or lighter. You
can add additional curved lines in between other lines to darken a value or use a pointy
section of your kneaded eraser to dab away sections that are too dark.
4. Use an HB pencil
to add a graduation
of medium values
to the dark stripe
(Figure 4).
5. Add additional
Figure 3
shading to
the darker
sections
with a 2B
pencil,
and then
4B and 6B
pencils, to
graduate
dark
values into
the lighter
sections
(Figure 5).
Figure 4
Figure 5 Figure 6
6. Check over
your drawing
and touch up
any sections
of graduations
that do not
ow as
smoothly
as you
would like
(Figure 6).
And, youre
done!
You are now ready to use squirkling graduations to add shading to drawings.
76
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Resources:
Exploring Squirkled Value Scales (Page 61)
How to Squirkle Graduations (Page 69)
Supplies: paper, 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B grades
of pencils, pencil sharpener, erasers
This activity has two sections:
Design Five Overlapping Shapes
Turn Shapes into Forms
Design Five
Overlapping Shapes
In this section, you outline ve
overlapping shapes with ve different
grades of pencils.
When sketching overlapping objects,
subjects in the foreground should be
rendered rst.
Your shapes should be in
approximately the same locations as
in Figure 1.
Overlapping: The placement of subjects in a
composition when one subject appears to be in front
of another (or others). This technique helps create
the illusion of depth in a drawing or painting.
Distant space (also called background): The
sections of a drawing or painting that are furthest
from the viewer.
Foreground: The sections of an artwork that are
closest to the viewer.
ArtSpeak
Graduate Blobs
and Globs
Design an arrangement of five overlapping shapes
and use squirkling graduations and different
grades of pencils to make the shapes
appear three-dimensional
Figure 1
Activity
77
Part 2: Super Shading with Squirkles Graduate Blobs and Globs
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
However, you dont have to draw the
same shapes. Feel free to use your
imagination and design your own
shapes.
1. Use a 6B grade pencil to draw
the rst shape in the lower
right of your drawing paper
(Figure 2).
You can choose either a horizontal
(landscape) or vertical (portrait)
format. Make sure you have
plenty of space left on your paper
for four more shapes.
2. Add a second shape using a 4B
pencil (Figure 3).
Remember, you are working back
toward distant space. A section
of this shape must appear to be
behind the rst shape.
3. Outline a third shape with a 2B
pencil.
4. Add a fourth shape with an HB
pencil (Figure 4).
5. Render the nal shape with a
2H pencil.
This nal shape has the lightest
outline.
Turn Shapes
into Forms
In this section, you use squirkling
graduations to help make each shape
look three-dimensional.
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
2B
6B
4B
2H
HB
78
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
By varying the density of the
squirkles and the amount of
pressure applied to your pencil,
you can easily create a broad
range of smoothly owing
graduated values.
Remember to add shading to
each shape with only the grade
of pencil used for its outline.
Figure 6
Figure 5
6. Use a 6B pencil to add
graduated values to the
darkest shape in the
foreground (Figure 5).
To graduate squirkles, press
lightly with your pencil for
light values and press a
little harder as you graduate
toward darker values.
Plan your shading in
advance so you have light
values for the highlights,
dark values for shadow
sections, and medium values
for the graduated shading in
between.
7. Use a 4B pencil to shade
your next shape (Figure 6).
8. Shade your next shape
with a 2B pencil (Figure 7).
You can simply shade in each shape with squirkled
graduations or you can get creative.
Consider adding a pattern or texture to each shape. Maybe
youd like to give each shape its own personality by adding
eyes, ears, a nose, and/or some hair.
J ust make sure you use only the grade of pencil used for
outlining each shape.
Tip!
Dont press too hard with your
pencil. Let the grade of the pencil
do the work for you.
Caution!
79
Part 2: Super Shading with Squirkles Graduate Blobs and Globs
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
9. Shade the fourth
shape with an HB
pencil (Figure 8).
10. Use a 2H pencil to
add shading to the
shape farthest away
(Figure 9).
My role in society, or any
artists or poets role, is to try
and express what we all feel.
Not to tell people how to feel.
Not as a preacher, not as a
leader, but as a reection of
us all.
J ohn Lennon
As an Aside
The guy who takes a chance,
who walks the line between
the known and the unknown,
who is unafraid of failure, will
succeed.
Gordon Parks
As an Aside
Figure 7
Figure 8
Figure 9
80
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Resource: How to Squirkle Graduations (Page 69)
Supplies: paper, 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B pencils,
pencil sharpener, sandpaper block, vinyl and
kneaded erasers
This activity has two sections:
Sketch the Parts of an Eye
Add Shading with Squirkles
Refer to Figure 1 to identify the
following parts of an eye.
Highlight (1)
Pupil (2)
Iris (3)
Upper eyelid (4)
Squirkle an Iris
and a Pupil
Sketch the shapes of an iris, highlight, and pupil,
and add shading with graduations of squirkles
ArtSpeak
Highlight: A small section of a drawing subject
that is rendered with white or a very light value to
identify the brightest area where light bounces off its
surface. Highlights are more pronounced on shiny
or glistening surfaces than dull or matte surfaces.
Pupil: The dark circular shape within the iris of
an eye that constricts or expands under different
lighting conditions.
Iris: The colored circular section of an eyeball
surrounding the pupil.
Upper eyelid: A fold of skin that opens and closes
automatically (blinks) to protect the eyeball.
Figure 1
Sketch the Parts of an Eye
In this section, you lightly sketch the outlines
of the iris, highlight, and pupil in preparation
for shading. The edge of an upper eyelid is
represented by a simple curved line.
1. Use an HB pencil to lightly sketch a
circular shape as the iris of an eye
(Figure 2).
1 2 3 4
Activity
81
Part 2: Super Shading with Squirkles Squirkle an Iris and a Pupil
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Tip!
When you draw circles or
circular shapes, rotate your
paper and look at your drawing
from different viewpoints.
This little trick often allows you
to nd problem areas.
Remember to press very
lightly.
2. Add a slightly curved
line cutting through the
upper section of the iris.
This line represents the
lower edge of the upper
eyelid.
The upper section of a
human eye is often hidden
under the upper eyelid.
3. Sketch a small circular
shape as a highlight in
the upper left section of
the iris (Figure 3).
The location of this
highlight suggests that
the dominant light source
originates from the front
and upper left.
4. Outline the pupil of the
eye (Figure 4).
The ends of this curved
line meet the outline of the
highlight.
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
82
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
5. Erase the section
of the iris above the
edge of the upper
eyelid (Figure 5).
The outline is complete
and the next step is to add
shading.
Add Shading
with Squirkles
Squirkling is an easy
shading technique for
creating a realistic drawing
of an eye.
6. Add a few squirkles
to the iris with an HB
pencil (Figure 6).
Squirkle lines should
curve in various
directions; some have
large curves and others
are smaller.
The more uneven you
draw squirkles, the
better the shading
looks. The overall value
is light, and lots of
white paper is showing
through.
7. Use a 2B pencil and
squirkles to graduate
darker shading
toward the upper left
sections of the iris
(Figure 7).
Figure 7
The lower right section remains the light value you added in the previous step. The
shading in the graduation now ranges from light to dark.
Figure 5
Figure 6
83
Part 2: Super Shading with Squirkles Squirkle an Iris and a Pupil
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Challenge!
The eye you just completed
would be considered dark in
color (or value) such as hazel
or brown.
Follow along with the same
instructions to draw another
eye with a lighter iris (such as
blue or gray).
Use harder grades of pencils
such as 2H and HB to make
lighter shading on the iris
(Figure 10).
8. Add tiny squirkles with a freshly sharpened 4B pencil to the upper section of the
iris (Figure 8).
The upper section of an iris is often in the shadow of the upper eyelid and eyelashes.
Figure 8
Figure 9
Figure 10
9. Use a 6B pencil to
ll in the pupil with
squirkles (Figure 9).
Naturally, the highlight is
left white.
10. Touch up any areas
that are not as smooth
as you would like.
You may need to darken
some sections with
more shading. You can
also lighten sections
that are too dark with a
kneaded eraser.
Use your vinyl eraser to
clean up any smudges
or ngerprints on your
drawing paper.
84
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
85
Part 3: Elementary Values with Hatching
Part 3
Elementary
Values with
Hatching
Exploring Hatching in Drawings................................87
How to Hatch Value Scales.......................................93
Hatch Value Scales with Five Grades.......................97
Mountains in The Style of Impressionism..................99
Use Line Density to Hatch Value Scales.................107
Hatch an Abstract Design........................................109
Hatch Value Scales with Pencil Pressure................113
Render Ribbons of Values.......................................115
This part of the book begins by showing you a few of
the wonderful shading effects you can create with basic
hatching techniques.
Simple activities take you through the step-by-step
process of rendering each different type of value scale.
Then comes the best part: you employ your new skills to
draw an impressionistic range of mountains; create and
add shading to an original abstract design; and draw and
shade ve realistic ribbons of different values.
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
86
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
This resource has four sections:
Spaced Out Hatching Lines
Hatching Quickly
Hatching Details
Hatching Lines as Solid Tones
Hatching with straight lines is a versatile
technique that works equally well to
represent values in sketches or render
highly detailed shading in complex
drawings.
The density of the hatching lines
(Figure 1) determines its suitability for
loosely rendered sketches, detailed
sketches, or highly detailed drawings.
Spaced Out
Hatching Lines
Artists have used hatching
with noticeable spaces
between the lines for several
centuries (Figure 2).
As an Aside
Hatching emerged in Western art in the Middle
Ages.
During the Renaissance, it gained popularity not
only in drawing but in engraving and woodcutting
for prints.
Creating prints in this manner lasted well into the
twentieth century and is still practiced in some
schools of art today.
Albrecht Drer (14711528), Rembrandt
(16061669), and Francisco Goya (17461828)
were all well-known for their prints, and all were
masters of the hatching technique.
Figure 1
Check out the different shading effects made
possible by a basic hatching technique
of parallel straight lines.
Exploring Hatching
in Drawings
Resource
87
Part 3: Elementary Values with Hatching Exploring Hatching in Drawings
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
A delicate graphite sketch of a ower, based
on a pen and ink drawing by Leonardo da
Vinci (14521519), uses very clean hatching
lines of different weights (Figure 3).
A close up of the ower illustrates how a few
loose parallel lines can add depth to even a
simple sketch (Figure 4).
The hatching lines are bolder and more varied
in a sketch of a metal spoon (Figure 5).
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 2
88
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Hatching Quickly
One of the biggest benets of
hatching is the speed at which
you can sketch a full range of
values.
Widely-spaced hatching lines
are featured in a contemporary
sketch of a horse (Figure 7).
The illusion of different values is created with
hatching lines of various lengths and weights
(Figure 6).
Some of the
hatching lines
in this sketch
are rendered
so quickly that
they merge
as single
compound
curved lines
(Figure 8).
Figure 8
Figure 6
Figure 7
89
Part 3: Elementary Values with Hatching Exploring Hatching in Drawings
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
This technique for speeding up the shading
process can also be found in many
drawings created during the Renaissance.
Many artists use hatching to quickly and
efciently add shading to their sketches
when working from life.
Closely-spaced hatching lines help to
add depth to three gesture sketches of a
busy child (Figure 9).
A closer look shows how not only the
forms of a childs body, but also the folds
of different fabrics can be represented
with a wide range of quickly-rendered
hatching lines (Figure 10).
Hatching Details
From a distance, some hatching lines
appear to be a solid tone. When you
look closely, however, small spaces are
visible between the lines (Figure 11).
Leonardo da Vinci was a master of
hatching lines, so it seems natural that
a drawing based on Leonardos painting
of the Mona Lisa would incorporate this
technique (Figure 12).
Figure 9
Figure 10
Figure 11
90
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
To help achieve the depth of the original oil
painting, the drawing uses some hatching
lines that are widely-spaced and some
hatching lines that are close together
(Figure 13).
Hatching Lines as
Solid Tones
Sometimes, hatching lines are rendered so
close together that they actually are solid
tones (Figure 14).
Figure 13 Figure 12
91
Part 3: Elementary Values with Hatching Exploring Hatching in Drawings
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Very ne hatching is used in a study
of light and shadow on a crystal angel
(Figure 15). The shading lines are
so close together, they disappear as
individual lines.
Tip!
Hatching is
a must-have
shading technique
for all artists.
Figure 14 Figure 15
Figure 16
The shapes
simply become an
abstract pattern
of outlines and
smooth values
(Figure 16).
92
Introduction to Shading
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This tutorial has four sections:
Use Different Grades of Pencils
Vary the Density of the Lines
Apply Different Degrees of Pressure to a Pencil
Combine all Three Shading Techniques
You can render hatched values with distinctly separate lines or
with lines so close together that they create solid tones.
Use Different Grades of Pencils
Examine different types of value scales
created with hatching and find out
how each is rendered
Figure 1
How to Hatch
Value Scales
Tip!
Hatching is a very
fast and simple way
to achieve either
classical or realistic
shading in your
drawings.
Each grade of pencil has its own base value. This value scale of solid tones is easy to
create by simply using a 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B pencil in turn to make each value (Figure
1). Note that these hatching lines are drawn very close together.
Resource
93
Part 3: Elementary Values with Hatching How to Hatch Value Scales
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Vary the Density of the Lines
In this section, two value scales demonstrate how different
grades of pencil can create unique value scales using only line
density. With this technique, you can substitute any other grade
of pencil and still end up with a range of different values.
For example, a 4B pencil is used to create the very simple value
scale with three values in Figure 2.
The light value (1) has lines drawn very far apart.
The medium value (2) has more lines drawn closer together.
The darkest value (3) has many more lines drawn very
close together.
A range of ve different values is created by varying the density of the lines rendered with
a 2B pencil (Figure 3).
The lightest value (1) has lines that are drawn very far apart.
The second value (2) has lines that are drawn a little closer together.
The medium value (3) has even more lines.
The dark value (4) has several more lines.
The darkest value (5) has so many lines that very little of the white paper still shows
through.
Figure 2
Figure 3
Tip!
As with many other
types of shading, a
hatched value scale
can be rendered
using various
combinations
of the following
techniques:
use different
grades of pencils
vary the density
of the lines
apply different
amounts of
pressure to a
pencil
94
Introduction to Shading
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Combine all Three Shading Techniques
You can create hundreds of different values with hatching when you combine all three
shading techniques: line density, pencil grade, and pressure. However, being able to
create seven different values with these techniques requires a keen eye and a lot of
patience.
Your ultimate goal is to develop an understanding of how techniques and tools work
together. At some point during your many hours of practice, you will discover that magic
mixture of line density, pencil grade, and pressure to render each value perfectly.
Remember: value scales can have noticeable lines (Figure 5) or lines rendered so closely
together that they become solid tones (Figure 6).
Apply Different Degrees of Pressure to a Pencil
By varying the pressure applied to a single grade of pencil, you can create many different
values. In fact, you can make a completely different value scale with each grade of pencil.
You can also make your value scale with either noticeable lines or with solid tones.
This solid-tone scale of ve different values was created with a 4B pencil (Figure 4).
The pencil is held very lightly and only the weight of the pencil itself creates a light
value (1).
The pencil is held a little more rmly and a tiny bit of pressure is applied (2).
A medium amount of pressure is applied to create a medium value (3).
A rm grip on your pencil along with additional pressure makes a darker value (4).
Very rm pressure (but not so much as to destroy the papers tooth) is applied for
the darkest value (5). You should still be able to see a few specks of the white paper
showing through.
Figure 4
95
Part 3: Elementary Values with Hatching How to Hatch Value Scales
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Figure 5
Figure 6
As an Aside
Your personal preferences play a huge
role in determining which hatching
technique to use for a specic subject.
For example, if you want to complete
a quick sketch or emulate the shading
techniques of the Great Masters,
you might prefer to show individual
hatching lines.
On the other hand, highly-realistic
works usually benet from solid tones
rather than visible lines.
Tip!
Each time you draw a value scale, stand back and
look at the values from a distance to make sure that
each value is slightly darker than the previous one. If
any of the values are not quite right, you can adjust
them.
To make a value lighter, mould your kneaded eraser
to a point and use it to dab the darkest lines.
To make a value darker, add a few more lines in
between others or use a softer pencil to darken
sections.
96
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Resources:
Exploring Hatching in Drawings (Page 87)
How to Hatch Value Scales (Page 93)
Supplies: paper, 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B pencils, pencil sharpener, sandpaper block,
kneaded eraser
The primary goal in this activity is to make sure that each of your
ve smoothly-rendered values is a different shade of gray,
Refer to Figure 1 to see how the points of pencils should look when
used for hatching. When the points wear down, simply use a pencil
sharpener and/or a sandpaper block to sharpen them again.
Tip!
B grades of
graphite pencils
are softer and
wear down
much more
quickly than
H grades,
especially
the 4B to
9B grades.
Therefore, they
may need to
be sharpened
more often than
H grades.
Hatch Value Scales
with Five Grades
Use hatching and five grades of pencils to render
value scales that appear to be solid tones
Figure 1
1. Draw ve different values by using ve grades of pencils (Figure 2).
Keep the line density the same for each value. The hatching lines need to be very
close together with very little of the white paper showing through.
Begin with a 2H and create each value in sequence until you nish with a 6B.
Apply a medium amount of pressure to each pencil so that each grade can make its
own natural value.
Activity
97
Part 3: Elementary Values with Hatching Hatch Value Scales with Five Grades
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2. Use the same techniques to create another scale of ve values that ranges from
dark to light (Figure 3).
Challenge!
Practice drawing these two types of value
scales every day for a week.
Figure 3
Figure 2
98
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Resources:
Exploring Hatching in Drawings (Page 87)
How to Hatch Value Scales (Page 93)
Supplies: paper, 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B pencils, pencil sharpener,
sandpaper block, erasers, ruler (optional if you choose to draw a
grid)
1. Choose an approximate size for your
drawing.
The size of the drawing in this project is 6
by 3.5 in (15 by 9 cm). If you prefer a larger
drawing, keep the proportions approximately
the same. A larger drawing isnt more difcult
but may require a little more time to complete.
2. Lightly outline the contours of a mountain
range with a 2H pencil (Figures 1 to 3).
The various shapes detail rocky and smooth
sections of mountains as well as shadows
and patches of snow that are shaded with ve
different values.
ArtSpeak
Impressionism: A style of painting
and drawing that originated in
France in the late nineteenth and
early twentieth centuries and sought
to capture a visual impression of
a subject rather than its objective
reality.
As an Aside
The drawing in this activity is based
on an imaginary mountain scene.
When artists use their imagination
instead of a visible object for
inspiration, they often continue
making minor changes and
modications to their subjects until
the drawing is nished.
Mountains in the Style
of Impressionism
Draw an impressionistic range of mountains shaded
with the natural values of five different
grades of pencils
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Part 3: Elementary Values with Hatching Mountains in the Style of Impressionism
Activity
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Figure 2
Figure 1
You dont need to draw each
shape exactly as it appears
in each example image. You
should, however, try to keep the
number of shapes or you may
run into problems with adding
believable values.
This activity cannot be
successfully completed in
only a few minutes. Plan to
spend a minimum of two to six
hours sketching, shading, and
rendering the nal outlines of
this complex mountain scene.
In reality, this sketch is very
light (Figure 1). The image in
Figure 2 has been darkened
in Photoshop so you can more
easily see the outlines.
If you prefer to work with a grid,
refer to Figure 3.
Tip!
In activity Hatch Value Scales with Five Grades (Page
97), you rendered a value scale with ve values. Keep this
value scale handy as you draw. The same pencil grades
are used in this activity, and the scale can help you choose
the correct grade of pencil for each shape.
100
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Figure 3
Figure 4
3. Use a 2B pencil to add shading to the sky.
The hatching lines used for the sky in Figure 4 are horizontal. The outlines of the rst
two mountain shapes to be shaded are slightly enhanced so you can better understand
the next step.
4. Working from the left, use an HB and a 2H pencil to add shading to the rst two
shapes (Figure 5).
Constantly refer to your value scale, the completed shapes on your own drawing, and
the following illustrations to help you identify the correct value for each shape.
101
Part 3: Elementary Values with Hatching Mountains in the Style of Impressionism
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5. Examine the outlines of the next three shapes (Figure 5) and shade them in with a
4B, an HB, and a 2H pencil (Figure 6).
In this drawing, the sunlight is coming from the right. Therefore, most shapes on the left
are darker than those on the right.
Figure 5
Figure 7
Figure 6
As you shade in the many shapes of the mountains, you can vary the directions of the
hatching lines. You can choose horizontal, vertical, or diagonal hatching lines for each
shape. However, try to keep the shading lines parallel to one another inside each shape.
6. Add shading to the next
four shapes with 4B,
HB, 2B, and 2H pencils
(Figures 7 and 8).
Before you begin, note
that the large shape in
the center section has
now been divided into
two smaller shapes (see
Figure 8).
102
Introduction to Shading
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Figure 8
7. Use 4B, 2B, and 2H pencils to add shading to the next three shapes (Figure 9).
Figure 9
8. Add shading to eleven more shapes with 2H, HB, 2B, and 4B pencils (Figures 10
and 11).
Before you begin, identify the large shape for a snow-covered peak that has no shading
(to be left white).
As an
Aside
Things are
pretty, graceful,
rich, elegant,
handsome, but
until they speak to
the imagination,
not yet beautiful.
Ralph Waldo
Emerson
103
Part 3: Elementary Values with Hatching Mountains in the Style of Impressionism
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Figure 10
Figure 11
9. Finish shading the remaining shapes (except those
that are snow covered) that make up the mountain
range with 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B grades (Figures
12 and 13).
To get you off to a good start, the grades used for the
rst few shapes are marked (Figure 12).
Remember: dont add shading to sections that should
be left white.
As an Aside
The work of art which I do
not make, none other will
ever make.
Simone Weil
104
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Figure 12
Refer more often to the shaded sections in the illustrations than to your outlines. You may
nd some shapes that should be modied or lines that need to be added or erased. For
instance, the mountains in the lowest sections (Figure 13) are last minute add-ons. They
were created by simply extending the shading of some of the shapes downward. This type
of improvisation is a very normal part of drawing from ones imagination.
Figure 13
105
Part 3: Elementary Values with Hatching Mountains in the Style of Impressionism
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And youre done!
This was a very complex
subject; you should be
proud of yourself!
Figure 14
Figure 15
10. Use HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B grades to outline each shape (Figures 14 and 15).
Shapes that are shaded with light values are outlined with hard grades of pencils.
Conversely, dark shapes are outlined with soft grades. Also note that each independent
mountain is outlined with a soft grade.
106
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Resources:
Exploring Hatching in Drawings (Page 87)
How to Hatch Value Scales (Page 93)
Supplies: paper, 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B pencils,
pencil sharpener, sandpaper block
As an Aside
Apply the same
amount of pressure
to your pencil for
each of the seven
values in each
value scale.
1. Use a 2H pencil to draw a value scale with seven different
values by varying line density.
The lightest value has a few lines spaced very far apart.
The second lightest value has lines that are closer together.
The three medium values are created by progressively
adding more lines to each value.
The dark value has many more lines.
The darkest value has so many lines that very little white
paper is still showing through.
Use Line Density to
Hatch Value Scales
Render five different value scales of seven values each
by varying the density of the hatching lines and
using different grades of pencils
Tip!
A 2H pencil renders very light values, so
the lines in Figure 1 have been darkened in
Photoshop so you can see them clearly.
Figure 1
107
Part 3: Elementary Values with Hatching Use Line Density to Hatch Value Scales
Activity
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Youre done! Give yourself a big hug, and imagine the great drawings you can create with
all these different values!
2. Use an HB pencil and the same techniques you just used to draw another value
scale (Figure 2).
Refer back to Figure 1 and compare these values to those rendered with a 2H pencil.
3. Use the same techniques to draw the next three value scales with a 2B, 4B, and
6B pencil in sequence (Figure 3).
Figure 2
Figure 3
108
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Resources:
Exploring Hatching in Drawings (Page 87)
How to Hatch Value Scales (Page 93)
Supplies: paper, 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B pencils, pencil sharpener, sandpaper block, erasers
ArtSpeak
Abstract: A style of art that does not necessarily
depict a person, place, or thing. In some cases, the
subject exists in reality, but is usually unrecognizable
in the artwork. The subjects of abstract drawings are
created with line, color, value, form, pattern, and/or
shape.
Tip!
Before you begin, plan an
approximate size for your drawing.
The drawing featured in this activity
is 5 by 6 in (13 by 15 cm). A larger
drawing is ne, but dont go any
smaller.
Design an abstract composition and add shading
with five different grades of pencils
while varying line density
Hatch an
Abstract Design
1. Use an HB grade of pencil to design an abstract composition.
Examine Figure 1 but dont copy it come up with your own original design.
Begin with a few simple doodles comprised of straight and curved lines to help jump
start your creativity. When you have something you like, you can add more lines and
shapes or use your eraser to get rid of a few lines.
109
Part 3: Elementary Values with Hatching Hatch an Abstract Design
Activity
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
2. Add shading to your design by varying line density with ve grades of pencils
(Figure 2).
Place your value scales (from activity 3.1.A12 Use Line Density to Hatch Value Scales)
beside you as guides. Try to use all (or most of) the 35 different values. You can create
diverse patterns by varying the direction of the sets of hatching lines.
Figure 1
110
Introduction to Shading
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3. Use a freshly-sharpened 6B pencil to outline all the shapes in your design
(Figure 3).
Keep your sandpaper block handy so you can easily keep the point of your pencil nice
and sharp. 2B, 4B, and 6B pencils wear down very quickly.
Figure 2
111
Part 3: Elementary Values with Hatching Hatch an Abstract Design
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Figure 3
Now, the fun part! Turn your drawing in each of four different directions and choose your
favorite. Then sign your name in the lower right-hand or left-hand corner (so the rest of the
world will know which side is up).
112
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Resources:
Exploring Hatching in Drawings (Page 87)
How to Hatch Value Scales (Page 93)
Supplies: paper, 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B pencils, pencil sharpener, sandpaper block, kneaded eraser
Solid-tone hatching values are the fundamental component of hatching graduations, which
are used to add realistic shading to a vast array of subjects. To create a solid-tone scale of
ve different values, follow these pencil pressure guidelines:
Value 1: Hold the pencil very lightly. The weight of the pencil itself helps create the
lightest value.
Value 2: Hold the pencil a little more rmly, and a tiny bit of pressure is applied.
Value 3: Apply a medium amount of pressure to create a medium value.
Value 4: Grip the pencil rmly and apply additional pressure to make a darker value.
Value 5: Apply very rm pressure (but not so much as to destroy the papers tooth) is
applied for the darkest value.
1. Draw ve value scales with hatching lines that are close enough together to look
like solid tones (Figure 1).
To accomplish this, vary the pressure applied to each of ve different grades of pencils
in turn.
Begin by creating ve different values from light to dark with a 2H pencil. Then use an
HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B in turn to render another four value scales of ve different solid-tone
values.
Render ten value scales of five solid tones by varying
the pressure used with single grades of pencils
Hatch Value Scales
with Pencil Pressure
113
Part 3: Elementary Values with Hatching Hatch Value Scales with Pencil Pressure
Activity
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Figure 2
Figure 1
2. Reverse the
process to
draw ve
solid-tone
value scales
from dark
to light
(Figure 2).
As an Aside
What Ive discovered is that in art, as in
music, theres a lot of truth and then
theres a lie.
The artist is essentially creating his work
to make this lie a truth, but he slides it in
amongst all the others.
The tiny little lie is the moment I live for,
my moment. Its the moment that the
audience falls in love.
Lady Gaga
114
Introduction to Shading
115
Part 3: Elementary Values with Hatching Render Ribbons of Values
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Resources:
Exploring Hatching in Drawings (Page 87)
How to Hatch Value Scales (Page 93)
Supplies: paper, 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B pencils, pencil sharpener, sandpaper block, kneaded eraser
Vary the pressure used with five grades of pencils to
create a design with five ribbons of different values
Render Ribbons
of Values
As an Aside
The illustrations in the rst
section of this activity have been
darkened in Photoshop so you
can see them clearly.
Tip!
If you want your ribbon to be
symmetrical, use a ruler to draw
a vertical line of symmetry down
the center of your page before you
begin drawing.
This activity has three sections:
Outline Five Ribbons with Curved Lines
The Process of Shading a Ribbon
Shade the Other Four Ribbons
Outline Five Ribbons
with Curved Lines
1. Turn your paper to a horizontal (landscape)
format.
2. Use curved lines and an HB pencil to lightly
sketch a ribbon in the upper section of your
paper (Figure 1).
Note where the ribbon becomes narrow and
then wide again.
Activity
116
Introduction to Shading
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You are
now
ready
to begin
shading!
Figure 2
Figure 1
As an Aside
In 3.1.A14 Hatch Value Scales
with Pencil Pressure, you
shaded ve individual shapes
of different values with a single
grade of pencil.
In this activity, you use the same
process to shade ve different
shapes that are joined together
rather than separated.
In addition, each shape needs
to t between the curved lines
that eventually form a long
ribbon.
Figure 3
4. Draw four
more ribbons
below the rst,
as shown in
Figure 2.
Tip!
Render your hatching lines
in the same directions as
the curved outlines of each
ribbon (Figure 3).
3. Draw diagonal straight
lines on the two ends
of the ribbon.
117
Part 3: Elementary Values with Hatching Render Ribbons of Values
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Figure 4
Figure 6
Figure 5
5. Use hatching to
add the darkest
values to each
end of the darkest
ribbon (second
from the bottom in
Figure 4).
Apply rm
pressure
to your
6B pencil
to render
this
darkest
value.
6. Use a rm grip on a 6B pencil and a little less pressure to join a dark value to the
darkest value (Figure 5).
7. Apply a medium amount of pressure with a 6B pencil to join a medium value to
the dark value (Figure 6).
The Process of Shading a Ribbon
8. Apply a little less pressure with a 6B pencil to join a light value to the medium
value (Figure 7).
118
Introduction to Shading
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9. Hold your 6B pencil gently
and apply almost no pencil
pressure to add the lightest
value (Figure 8).
Figure 8
Figure 7
Tip!
The ve-step process for shading each ribbon is to apply:
rm pencil pressure to a tightly-held pencil to add the
darkest values to the end sections
a little less pencil pressure and a rm grip to join a
dark value to the darkest value
a medium amount of pencil pressure and a medium
grip to join a medium value to the dark value
less pencil pressure and a lighter grip to join a light
value to the medium value
almost no pencil pressure and a very gentle grip to
add the lightest value
Shade the Other
Four Ribbons
10. Use the same shading
process described in the
previous section to add
shading to the remaining
four ribbons.
Refer to Figures 9 through
12 in turn to nd out which
grade to use for each
ribbon.
This very light value lls
the gap between the light
values on each side of
this ribbon.
119
Part 3: Elementary Values with Hatching Render Ribbons of Values
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Figure 10 (2B pencil)
Figure 9 (4B pencil)
Figure 11 (HB pencil)
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
120
Introduction to Shading
Challenge!
Use a sharpened 2B or 4B
pencil to neatly outline each
ribbon (Figure 13).
Figure 12 (2H pencil)
Figure 13
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121
Part 4: Graduate to Hatching Graduations
Part 4
Graduate
to Hatching
Graduations
Exploring Hatching Graduations...................................123
How to Hatch Graduations with One Grade.................127
Use Five Grades to Hatch Five Graduations................131
How to Hatch a Graduation with Five Grades..............133
Hatch a Single Graduation with Five Grades...............137
Hatch Forms with Burnishing and Erasing...................139
Hatch Vertical Lines of Random Lengths.....................145
How to Hatch Lengthways Graduations.......................149
Hatch Two Types of Lengthways Graduations.............153
Sketch a Scene with Hatching Graduations.................155
This part of the book begins with a richly-illustrated introduction to
hatching graduations. Several illustrated discussions demonstrate the
process of shading side-by-side and vertical hatching graduations.
You then begin the process of mastering these invaluable shading
techniques through a series of activities.
The art of burnishing shows you how to smooth out your shading.
Also, you learn how to make a form appear more three dimensional by
pulling out highlights with a kneaded eraser.
As a grand nale, you use graduated hatching, atmospheric
perspective, and a shading map to draw a tranquil scene with a palm
tree, island, and calm water.
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
122
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
123
A value scale of hatching lines is very
different from graduated hatching. A
value scale is made up of identiable,
individual values.
Graduated hatching, however, has
a broad range of values that come
together as one entity.
There are a variety of ways to render
graduated hatching.
Graduations can have smoothly
rendered values that ow seamlessly
into one another (Figure 1) or noticeable
hatching lines that can be long (Figure
2) or short (Figure 3).
Exploring Hatching
Graduations
ArtSpeak
Graduation: (also called graduated shading
or graduated values) A continuous, seamless
progression of values from dark to light or light
to dark.
Hatching: A series of lines (called a set) drawn
closely together to give the illusion of values.
Depending on the shading effects desired, the
individual lines in hatching sets can be far apart
or close together.
Technique: A well-known method (e.g., a
specic way to render shading) that is used to
accomplish a particular activity or task.
Figure 1
An illustrated discussion about various types of
hatching graduations that are rendered
with straight lines
Resource
123
Part 4: Graduate to Hatching Graduations Exploring Hatching Graduations
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Hatching graduations can be
rendered within a compact
space (Figure 4) or stretched
out over a long distance
(Figure 5).
Not all hatching graduations
have a full range of values.
A graduation can be made
up of only light and medium
values (Figure 6) or only
medium and dark values
(Figure 7).
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
Figure 3
Figure 2
124
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
A hatching graduation
can be created with
one grade of pencil (by
varying the amount of
pressure applied to the
pencil and the density of
the hatching lines) or with
a combination of several
grades of pencils.
Each grade of pencil
helped create its own
hatching graduation
(Figure 9).
A combination of all ve
grades of pencils helped
render the graduation in
Figure 10.
Hatching graduations can
also be drawn in any direction
(Figure 8).
Figure 8
Figure 7
Figure 9
2H HB 2B 4B 6B
125 125
Part 4: Graduate to Hatching Graduations Exploring Hatching Graduations
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Straight hatching lines can graduate
sideways or lengthways. The hatching lines
in Figure 11 graduate sideways from dark
to light. In Figure 12, the hatching lines
graduate lengthways from dark to light.
Short or long hatching lines that
graduate lengthways work beautifully for
shading various textures such as hair
and fur (Figures 13 and 14).
When you master the many different
techniques for hatching graduations of
values, you will be able to modify your
graduations to render any subject you
can see or imagine.
Figure 10
Figure 11
Figure 12
Figure 13 Figure 14
126
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Graduations are the primary element in realistic shading. Various types of hatching
graduations can be created with a single grade of pencil by varying both the amount of
pressure applied to the pencil and the density of the hatching lines.
The techniques used for graduating values are the same for creating value scales.
However, unlike graduated values, each value in a value scale stands alone as a single
entity (Figure 1).
In a
graduation,
the values
need to ow
gently and
gradually
into one
another so
there are no
noticeable
breaks from
one value
to the next
(Figure 2).
Figure 1
Figure 2
Examine the process of rendering three types of
graduations by using one grade of pencil and
side-by-side, straight hatching lines
How to
Hatch Graduations
with One Grade
Resource
127 127
Part 4: Graduate to Hatching Graduations How to Hatch Graduations with One Grade
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Hatching graduations can have either
noticeable lines (Figure 3) or dense tones
(Figure 4) that graduate in value from light
to dark (or vice versa).
The goal is to keep the transition
between the different values owing into
one another as smoothly as possible.
A simple three-step process can be
used to create any type of graduation of
straight lines with one grade of pencil.
The following demonstration shows
how three different types of hatching
graduations are created with a 2B grade
of pencil.
Step 1
The rst set of lines begins very lightly
(on the left) by applying very little
pressure to the pencil and drawing the
lines far apart (Figure 5).
As the graduation moves toward the
middle of the drawing space, the lines
gradually become darker and closer
together.
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
128
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Step 2
As the graduation
ows past the middle
of the drawing space,
the lines need to
gradually become
darker and move
closer together
(Figure 6).
Figure 6
Tip!
Its very normal to
have to occasionally
adjust a section that is
too light or too dark.
To make a section
darker, you can draw
over hatching lines
with a little more
pressure or add
additional lines in
between others.
To make a section
lighter, use a kneaded
eraser molded to a
wedge to gently pat
the section that is too
dark.
Step 3
The hatching lines continue to become progressively darker
and closer together until they are as dark as is possible with
that grade of pencil (Figure 7).
Tip!
A repertoire of diverse
shading techniques
provides you with
numerous creative
options for shading
oodles of different
textures.
129 129
Part 4: Graduate to Hatching Graduations How to Hatch Graduations with One Grade
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Figure 7
As an Aside
Graduations require the ability to render parallel
straight lines and the ability to visually measure
the spaces between the lines.
130
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Supplies: paper, 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B pencils, pencil
sharpener, sandpaper block, erasers
The process for creating each of these
graduations is the same. The difference is that you
use a different grade of pencil for each (Figure 1).
Use Five Grades to
Hatch Five
Graduations
1. Use side-by-side straight
hatching lines to draw a
graduation of values with a
2H pencil (Figure 2).
Figure 1
Use pencil pressure to create a graduation of values
with a 2H, HB, 2B, 4B and 6B grade of pencil,
and side-by-side, straight hatching lines
Tip!
The process for rendering a graduation with a single
grade of pencil is as follows:
1. Use only the weight of the pencil to begin drawing
light values beginning on the left. Slowly apply a little
pressure to graduate the values darker toward the
right.
2. Gradually apply a little more pressure to your pencil
as you graduate middle values toward the right until
they begin to look dark.
3. Graduate the values darker toward the right by
increasing the pressure applied to the pencil until the
values are as dark as possible.
Activity
131 131
Part 4: Graduate to Hatching Graduations Use Five Grades to Hatch Five Graduations
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
2. Use an HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B grade of pencil in turn to create four more
graduations (Figures 3 to 6).
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
132
Introduction to Shading
Resource
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Graduations that are created with ve different grades
of pencils offer a far broader range of values than with
only one or two grades.
How to
Hatch a Graduation
with Five Grades
Caution!
Allow each grade of pencil
to create its own natural
range of values without
damaging the tooth of the
paper with too much pencil
pressure.
Figure 1
Discover the process of rendering a single
graduation with five grades of pencils
and straight hatching lines
The 2H grade is
best for the lightest
sections and the
6B is best for the
darkest sections.
The HB, 2B, and
4B grades provide
an innite range of
middle values.
Tip!
This type of graduation can
be rendered with or without a
drawing space. However, if you
outline a drawing space, you
have the option of extending
the hatching lines outside its
perimeters (Figure 1).
Drawing hatching lines that
begin and end precisely within
an outlined drawing space is
time consuming for a beginner!
133 133
Part 4: Graduate to Hatching Graduations How to Hatch a Graduation with Five Grades
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
As with all types of graduations, the objective is to
keep the transitions between the different values
owing smoothly into one another.
Step 1
This graduation begins on the left by pressing very
lightly with a 2H pencil and drawing the lines far
apart (Figure 2). As the values graduate darker,
the hatching lines are rendered closer together
and more pressure is applied to the pencil.
When the capabilities of the 2H are exhausted,
an HB is used to graduate darker values into the
middle.
Tip!
Remember to combine all three of
the following techniques to render a
super-smooth graduation:
Use at least ve different grades
of pencils.
Vary the density of the hatching
lines.
Vary the pressure used in holding
your pencils (press lightly for
light values and harder for darker
values).
Tip!
Remember to use
your natural hand
movement when
creating graduations.
The hatching lines
can be vertical,
slanted to the right, or
slanted to the left.
In this demonstration,
the lines slant toward
the right.
Figure 2
As an Aside
Drawing things makes them seem more
real and makes me feel more alive.
It also makes me pin down and
remember things landscapes,
season, weather, occasions, incidents,
people that would otherwise have
melted from my memory.
David Gentleman (London, Youre Beautiful:
An Artists Year)
Tip!
Pencil tips need
to be constantly
sharpened as you
graduate values
even more so
when you begin
using softer
grades of pencils.
134
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Step 3
Progressively darker values are added toward the end
of the graduation by pressing rmly with a 4B grade of
pencil and then by applying medium pressure with a
6B grade.
Firm pressure on a 6B pencil then brings the
graduation to its very dark ending (Figure 4).
Step 2
A 2B grade is used to add in middle
values that become progressively
darker as the pressure applied to the
pencil is increased and the lines are
rendered closer together (Figure 3).
The darker values close to the end of
the graduation are added by applying
light to medium pressure with a 4B
pencil.
As an Aside
When drawing actual subjects, graduations usually need to t
precisely within diverse shapes and spaces.
However, when learning how to draw graduations, a
rectangular drawing space (imaginary or outlined) is just ne.
Figure 3
As an Aside
I believe that most of us,
students and artists alike,
ought to concern ourselves
less with what we think is the
right way to draw and more
with letting our feelings ow
through our hand.
In this way, we stretch our
dynamic nature.
Our larger goal should be to
draw in a way that expresses
our vision.
Bert Dodson, Keys to Drawing)
As an Aside
Drawing is the art of being able to leave an
accurate record of the experience of what one isnt,
of what one doesnt know.
A great drawer is either conrming beautifully what
is commonplace or probing authoritatively the
unknown.
Brett Whiteley
135 135
Part 4: Graduate to Hatching Graduations How to Hatch a Graduation with Five Grades
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Challenge!
You can discover lots of ways to use graduations in your
drawings by examining the shading techniques of various
artists. Art has become very accessible in recent years through
galleries, art books, and the Internet.
Take time to appreciate the diverse range of art and artists that
is available to you. Through careful observation of drawings by
other artists, you will gain invaluable information that you can
then apply to your own drawings.
Figure 5
The graduation is then closely examined to nd sections that dont graduate as smoothly
as they should. A few more short hatching lines are added in between some others to make
the values graduate smoothly.
Figure 4
Have a peek at a close-up
view of the densely-spaced
hatching lines (Figure 5).
From a distance, this type
of graduation looks quite
smooth.
With patience, and lots of
practice, you can also draw
this type of graduation!
136
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Supplies: paper, 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B pencils, pencil sharpener,
sandpaper block, erasers
In addition to using ve different grades of pencils,
remember to also vary the density of the hatching
lines and the pressure you use to hold your pencils.
Hatch a
Single Graduation
with Five Grades
Tip!
This graduation can be rendered
with or without a drawing space.
However, if you outline a drawing
space, you have the option of
extending the hatching lines
outside its perimeters (Figure 1).
1. Begin the light values with
a 2H pencil and gradually
apply more pressure and
draw the lines closer
together (Figure 2).
2. Use the same technique
with an HB grade pencil
to graduate darker values
into the middle.
Figure 1
Render a single graduation with a combination of five
grades of pencils and straight hatching lines
Figure 2
Activity
137 137
Part 4: Graduate to Hatching Graduations Hatch a Single Graduation with Five Grades
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
3. Add in middle values with a 2B grade (Figure 3).
Remember to apply more pressure to the pencil and render the lines closer together as
the values darken. Also, continuously use your pencil sharpener or a sandpaper block to
keep the point of your pencil sharpened.
4. Add darker values toward the end of the graduation with a 4B pencil.
5. Add progressively darker values to the end of the graduation by pressing more
rmly with a 4B grade of pencil and rendering the lines closer together (Figure 4).
6. Use rm pressure on your 6B pencil to make the end of the graduation very dark.
7. Add nal touches to your graduation with each of your ve pencils in turn.
Examine your graduation and locate any sections that dont graduate smoothly. Use
the same grades that originally created the values in each section to add a few more
hatching lines in between others to make the values graduate more smoothly.
And nally, pat yourself
on the back and rub your
tummy at the same time!
Figure 3
Figure 4
Challenge!
Use the same process to draw another graduation with values
that graduate from dark to light instead of from light to dark.
138
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Supplies: paper, 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B pencils, pencil
sharpener, sandpaper block, kneaded and vinyl erasers
This activity has four sections:
Sketch Proportions and Outline Shapes
Graduate Values with Various Pencils
Burnish Values and Draw with Erasers
Shade, Burnish, and Erase Highlights on
Your Own
Sketch Proportions and
Outline Shapes
1. Use a 2H pencil to lightly sketch the
shapes of this toy proportionally correct
(Figure 1).
Although the model for this drawing is the
framed face and hat of a plastic toy, these
shading techniques also work well for many
other smooth textures.
ArtSpeak
Keep your outlines faint so the forms
look realistic after you add shading.
After all, objects in the real world are not
outlined with noticeable lines. Figure 3
shows how light the outlines are in the
actual drawing.
Hatch Forms with
Burnishing and
Erasing
Learn two invaluable shading techniques for
creating a smooth texture with hatching
Tip!
Burnishing: The process of applying
one or more layers of a dry medium
(e.g., colored pencils or graphite) over
another to lighten, darken, or blend
colors or values.
Kneaded eraser: A soft, pliable type of
eraser used to erase parts of a drawing
or to gently pat a drawing medium to
make a lighter value or line.
Blending: The process of gently rubbing
a section of shading with a blending tool
(e.g., paper towel) to evenly distribute
the medium over the papers surface.
Activity
139 139
Part 4: Graduate to Hatching Graduations Hatch Forms with Burnishing and Erasing
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 1
2. Neatly outline the shapes with an HB
pencil.
Continuously adjust the proportions until
your drawing looks like Figure 3.
3. Erase the initial sketch lines so only
the outline is left (Figure 4).
Childrens toys make fantastic models for
drawing. Most wont talk your ears off, and
they usually stay where you place them -
especially if you remove any batteries. :)
As an Aside
Figure 4
140
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
As youll see in the next
section, extending the
hatching lines outside the
outlines is a good idea at
this stage of shading!
Besides hatching inside
the outlines is much
too tedious and time
consuming.
Graduate Values with Various Pencils
4. Use a 2H pencil to graduate values on the hat from light on the left to slightly
darker on the right (Figure 5).
The light source in this drawing
originates mostly from above,
but also slightly from the front of
and left of the toy.
Tip!
Figure 5
Figure 6
Figure 7
5. Use an HB and 2B in
turn to graduate darker
values toward the right
(Figure 6).
6. Use a 4B pencil to
graduate dark shading
into the section of the
hat on the far right
(Figure 7).
7. Use the 4B pencil again
to add a rim of dark
shading along the lower
edge.
This section of the hats
form is in shadow.
141 141
Part 4: Graduate to Hatching Graduations Hatch Forms with Burnishing and Erasing
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Burnish Values
and Draw with
Erasers
8. Use the worn-down or
chisel point tip (Figure
8) of a 2H pencil to
gently shade over
your hatching until no
white sections are still
showing between the
lines (Figure 9).
Burnishing enables
you to softly blend your
shading without losing
the darker values.
9. Use the sharp edge
of a vinyl eraser (or
a kneaded eraser
molded to a thick
wedge) to erase all
shading lines outside
the contours of the hat
(Figure 10).
10. Use a kneaded eraser
molded to a point to
pull out (erase) the
highlights.
11. Use a kneaded eraser
molded to a thin
wedge to gently pat
the light shading
along the lower edge
of the hat on the left.
Be careful to not
completely erase this
shading just lighten
it slightly so that the
shadow section appears
darker.
Figure 10
Figure 8
Figure 9
The process of blending
values with a blending
tool usually lightens
your darker values by
pulling off some of the
graphite.
On the other hand,
burnishing lls in
only the white paper
between the shading
lines without changing
the dark values.
As an
Aside
142
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The 6B pencil is
only used for the
uppermost section
of the cast shadow
under the lower
edge of the hat.
Shade,
Burnish,
and Erase
Highlights on
Your Own
12. Take your time and
add shading to the
other sections of
the toy as shown in
Figures 11 to 13.
Use 2H, HB, 2B, 4B,
and 6B pencils.
Figure 12
Figure 11
I cannot rest, I must
draw, however poor
the result, and when I
have a bad time come
over me it is a stronger
desire than ever.
Beatrix Potter
As an
Aside
143 143
Part 4: Graduate to Hatching Graduations Hatch Forms with Burnishing and Erasing
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Remember the following process whenever you want to add shading with
hatching graduations, burnishing, and erasers:
Step 1: Use a combination of different grades of pencils to add graduated
shading to each section in turn.
Step 2: Burnish the values with the lightest grade of pencil used in the drawing.
Step 3: Use a vinyl or kneaded eraser to erase any stray hatching lines that
extend outside the subjects contours.
Step 4: Mold a kneaded eraser to a point to pull out any highlights that need
brightening.
Step 5: Mold a kneaded eraser to a wedge or a point to lighten any sections of
shading that are too dark.
Tip!
Find a still life object
(or a photo of a still life
object) with a smooth
texture and draw it
using the shading
techniques outlined in
this project.
Challenge!
Figure 13
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Supplies: paper, 2B pencil, pencil sharpener,
sandpaper block
This activity has two sections:
How to Hatch Random Vertical
Lines
Hatch Two Sets of Random
Vertical Lines
How to Hatch Random
Vertical Lines
Graduations of lengthways hatching
lines are made up of vertical lines
that are long (Figure 1) or short
(Figure 2).
Before you can draw these two types
of graduations, you need to practice
drawing their primary element:
randomly spaced long (Figure 3) and
short (Figure 4) individual lines of
different lengths and values.
These two hatching techniques are necessary for
drawing landscapes, animals, or people.
Hatch Vertical Lines
of Random Lengths
Create two sets of randomly placed hatching lines
of different lengths: one with long lines and the
other with short lines
Tip!
Figure 2 Figure 1
Activity
145 145
Part 4: Graduate to Hatching Graduations Hatch Vertical Lines of Random Lengths
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Figure 3
Figure 5 Figure 6
Figure 4
Figure 7
If you render hatching lines the same
length and the same distance apart
(Figure 5), your graduation will not be
smooth.
You will end up with an irreparable
horizontal stripe-like edge between the
values (Figure 6) instead of a smoothly
owing graduation of values (Figure 7).
To draw the hatching lines in either
type of lengthways graduation:
render individual lines of different
lengths.
vary the pressure on the pencil
so that all lines are not the same
value.
vary the sizes of the spaces in
between lines.
A step-by-step demonstration (beginning on the next page) illustrates randomly rendered
long and short vertical lines. The basic drawing process is the same for both.
When you render any
type of graduated
values, remember to
rotate your paper so
you are always using
your natural hand
movement.
Tip!
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To begin, draw only a few hatching
lines to establish the space a set of
lines will occupy (Figures 8 and 9).
Then add a few more random lines
of different lengths in between the
establishing lines (Figures 10 and 11).
Finally, add extra lines of different
lengths to ll in spaces until the desired
value is achieved (Figures 12 and 13).
As you can see, this example is a light
value and would probably become the
lightest value in a graduation of values.
Hatch Two Sets of
Random Vertical Lines
Use the three-step process
demonstrated in the previous section
to render sets of long and short
hatching lines (Figures 14 and 15).
If you prefer, you can outline two
drawing spaces on your paper before
you begin.
Figure 12 Figure 13
Figure 8 Figure 9
Figure 10 Figure 11
147 147
Part 4: Graduate to Hatching Graduations Hatch Vertical Lines of Random Lengths
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Figure 14 Figure 15
Do not:
draw the lines the same length
leave the same amount of space in between all the lines
make all the lines the same value
Caution!
Practice drawing randomly
spaced hatching lines of different
lengths every day for a week!
Challenge!
148
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How to
Hatch Lengthways
Graduations
Examine the process of rendering a graduation by
using lengthways hatching lines and
four grades of pencils
Resource
149 149
Part 4: Graduate to Hatching Graduations How to Hatch Lengthways Graduations
Graduations of lengthways hatching lines are used for
a vast range of textures, including hair, fur, and fabrics.
Depending on the texture you want, you can render
lengthways graduations with long or short lines (Figure 1).
Each type of graduation can be rendered to t into a short
space or a long space.
A very precise process of graduating lengthways hatching
lines ensures that the values ow smoothly. Most
importantly, the hatching lines must be of random lengths.
Figure 1
Tip!
The process for creating a lengthways graduation is the
same whether you work from light to dark or dark to light. The
difference is that you draw the hatching lines toward the dark
values for a graduation from dark to light and toward the light
values for a graduation from light to dark.
To create a graduation that is dark at the bottom (6B pencil) and light at the top (2H pencil),
begin with the darkest value (Figure 2).
Work your way upward toward lighter values while changing to lighter grades of pencils.
The shading lines themselves are rendered in a downward direction (in the direction of the
arrow).
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Conversely, when you
graduate values from light to
dark, begin with the lightest
value (as shown in the lower
section of Figure 3).
Draw the lines of the darker
values downward and into the
lighter values (in the direction
of the arrow).
You can also rotate your paper
in any direction so you are
always using your natural hand
motion (Figure 4).
In this demonstration, a
graduation from light to dark
(as in Figure 3) is used to show
you the process of drawing a
lengthways graduation.
The different values are
created by using four grades
of pencils and by varying the
density of the lines and the
amount of pressure applied to
the pencil.
As with any graduation, the goal is to keep the transitions between the different values
owing smoothly into one another.
Step 1: A 2H Grade of Pencil
The rst set of lines begins very lightly by applying very little pressure to a 2H pencil and
drawing random lines of different lengths far apart. They are drawn in a downward direction
and extend to the bottom of the drawing space.
Figure 3 Figure 2
Figure 4
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Figure 5 Figure 6
Caution!
Remember to draw hatching lines of
random lengths! If you begin each
hatching line at the same horizontal
plane, you will end up with an
irreparable horizontal stripe-like
edge.
By pressing a little more on the pencil, slightly
darker lines are added above the lightest value
to randomly ll in spaces between the upper
sections of the lightest lines.
Dont worry if the upper section of the graduation
looks messy it will be mostly covered with
darker values anyway.
This second grouping of lines does not extend
all the way to the bottom of the drawing space.
Hence, you can already see a very slight
graduation of values in the lower section of the
drawing space (Figures 5 and 6).
As an Aside
The values in Figure 5 are so light that
they had to be darkened in Photoshop
so you could see them more clearly
(Figure 6).
Tip!
You can easily adjust a section of a
graduation that is too light or too dark.
To make a section darker, draw
over hatching lines with a little
more pressure and add additional
lines in between others.
To make a section lighter, use
a kneaded eraser molded to a
wedge to gently pat the section
that is too dark.
Tip!
As you begin using softer pencils,
sharpen their points frequently so the
graduation continues to ow smoothly
from one value to the next.
Step 2: An HB Grade of Pencil
As the graduation moves into and past the
middle of the drawing space, an HB pencil is
used to graduate darker lines (Figure 7).
151 151
Part 4: Graduate to Hatching Graduations How to Hatch Lengthways Graduations
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Dont expect your rst try at
graduating lengthways lines
to turn out well. Give yourself
the gift of practicing this skill as
frequently as you can.
The values graduate darker by adding more hatching lines in
between others and extending them a little ways downward
into the lighter value below.
Step 3: A 2B Grade of Pencil
Additional hatching lines begin in the upper section of the
drawing space with a 2B pencil and graduate slightly darker
into the medium value below it (Figure 8).
Step 4: A 4B Grade of Pencil
The nal sets of hatching lines begin at the top of the
drawing space with a sharpened 4B pencil and graduate
downward into the middle values. More and more hatching
lines are added until the top of the drawing space is quite
dark (Figure 9).
Tip!
The same four-step process applies
to rendering a vertical graduation
of values with short lines instead of
long. Refer back to the graduation
on the right in Figure 1 (Page 149).
Figure 7
Figure 8 Figure 9
152
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Supplies: paper, 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B pencils, pencil sharpener, sandpaper block, erasers
1. Use 2H and HB pencils in turn to render a graduation of long lines in the lower
half of an outlined drawing space.
Hatch Two Types of
Lengthways
Graduations
Begin by applying very little
pressure to a 2H pencil and draw
randomly spaced long lines in a
downward direction toward the
bottom of the drawing space
(Figure 1).
Press a little harder with the 2H
pencil to add slightly darker lines
above the lightest value. (Do not
extend this second set of lines all
the way to the bottom of the drawing
space.)
As the graduation moves into and
past the middle of the drawing
space, use an HB pencil to graduate
darker values (Figure 2).
To graduate the values darker, add
more hatching lines in between
others and extend them down a bit
into the lighter value below.
Render a graduation with long lines and another with
short lines by using lengthways hatching lines
Figure 1 Figure 2
Activity
153 153
Part 4: Graduate to Hatching Graduations Hatch Two Types of Lengthways Graduations
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2. Add additional hatching lines in the upper section
with a 2B pencil (Figure 3).
These hatching lines graduate slightly darker into the
medium values below.
3. Add dark hatching lines close to the top with a 4B
pencil (Figure 4).
4. Use a 6B to graduate the darkest values from the
top of your drawing space downward into the dark
hatching lines.
5. Use the same process to draw another graduation
with short lines (Figure 5).
Figure 4
Tip!
Touch up any sections
that dont graduate
smoothly:
To make a section
darker, draw over
some hatching lines
with a little more
pressure and add
additional lines in
between others.
To make a section
lighter, use a kneaded
eraser molded to a
wedge to gently pat the
section that is too dark.
Figure 3
Figure 5
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Supplies: paper, 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B pencils, pencil
sharpener, sandpaper block, erasers
This project has three sections:
Sketch Proportions
Plan Shading
Shade Graduations
Sketch Proportions
In this section, you use an HB pencil to lightly
sketch a tranquil scene that is close to the
proportions of the sketch in Figure 1.
The focal points of the scene are a section of
land with a palm tree and an island.
1. Examine the subject.
The sketch in Figure 1 is your primary
reference image.
Sketch a Scene
with Hatching
Graduations
ArtSpeak
Atmospheric perspective: (also called
aerial perspective) A visual depth of
eld created by various particles in
the atmosphere. As an object recedes
farther into distant space, it becomes
lighter in value and its edges become
more blurred.
Focal point: (also called center of
interest or center of focus) A term used
to identify the most important element(s)
in an artwork.
Shading map: (also called a value map)
A plan or blueprint for adding shading to
a drawing.
Foreground: The sections of an artwork
that are closest to the viewer. Subjects
in the foreground are usually rendered
with more detail and a greater contrast
of values than those in the middle
ground or background.
Background: (also called distant space)
The sections of a drawing or painting
that are farthest away from the viewer.
Use graduated hatching, atmospheric perspective,
and a shading map to draw a tranquil scene with
a palmtree, an island, and calmwater
Activity
155 155
Part 4: Graduate to Hatching Graduations Sketch a Scene with Hatching Graduations
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
The palm tree is the part
of the scene that is closest
to you (foreground) and
the mountain range and
sky are the farthest away
(background or distant
space). Everything in
between the distant space
and the foreground is
considered middle ground.
Figure 3
2. Use an HB pencil to sketch the
basic components of the scene
(Figures 3 and 4).
Continue adjusting your sketch
lines until you are happy.
Figure 1
Tip!
You can outline a drawing space
that is approximately the same
proportions as your reference
image, if you prefer. However,
scenery is quite forgiving of slight
variations in proportions, so you
may prefer to just begin drawing
without a drawing space.
If you use a drawing space,
remember to allow the hatching
lines to extend outside the
borders (Figure 2).
Figure 2
156
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Check the relationships of objects
to one another, and observe that
angles, sizes, and proportions are
relatively accurate.
Plan Shading
The shading in this drawing is based
on values created with 2H, HB, 2B,
4B, and 6B pencils.
A shading map (Figure 5) shows
which grades of pencils can be used
to create the various graduations in
the scene.
Tip!
As you add
shading to
your drawing,
continue to
refer back to
your subject
(Figure 1) and
the shading
map (Figure 5).
Figure 4
Figure 5
Note that the
overall values
are rendered
lighter in the
distant space
than in the
foreground to
create the illusion
of a three-
dimensional
reality.
157 157
Part 4: Graduate to Hatching Graduations Sketch a Scene with Hatching Graduations
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Shade Graduations
In this section, the planned sketch is transformed into a completed sketch! Most of the
values used to create the shading in this drawing graduate into others, either from dark to
light or from light to dark.
Figure 7
Figure 6
3. Use a 2H pencil to add
the lightest values
(Figure 6).
The lightest values are
added to the sky with
diagonal hatching lines
and to the water with
horizontal hatching lines.
4. Use an HB pencil to
graduate slightly darker
values into the light
values (Figure 7).
Darker values graduate
downward from the upper
section of the sky into the
light values.
The darker horizontal
hatching lines used for the
water in the foreground
graduate into the light
values and help create
the illusion of ripples.
5. Erase the horizontal
line cutting through the
island.
6. Add a few simple
hatching lines with an
HB pencil to indicate the
value of the mountain
in the distant space
(Figure 8).
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Figure 9
7. Use a 2B pencil to add
middle values to the
island (Figure 9).
To create the forms of hills
and rocks, the graduations
of the island are not
smoothly rendered.
8. Add the reection of the
island in the water with a
2B pencil and graduation
lines that are horizontal
to the lower edge of the
distant mountain range
(Figure 10).
Figure 8
As an Aside
To help create the illusion of
atmospheric perspective, the
three land masses are shaded
differently according to their
positions in the drawing.
The distant mountain is shaded
lightly with an HB pencil; the
island in the middle ground is
shaded with both 2B and 4B
pencils; and the tiny section
of land in the foreground is
rendered with darker values
using 4B and 6B pencils.
Figure 10
Tip!
When adding shading to the
reection, you may want to turn
your drawing sideways so you
can more easily identify the
symmetrical shapes.
159 159
Part 4: Graduate to Hatching Graduations Sketch a Scene with Hatching Graduations
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Figure 13
Figure 12
Figure 11
9. Add a layer of dark values with a 4B pencil to
the land in the foreground (Figure 11).
10. Using 4B and 6B pencils, add shading to the
trunk of the palm tree (Figure 12).
Note that the values are lighter on the left, which
provides insight into the origin of the light source
(the left). Remember to refer back to Figure 1 and
the shading plan (Figure 5).
11. Use a freshly sharpened 6B pencil to add
a few squiggly lines to represent small
shrubs and foliage.
12. Return to the island and use a 4B pencil to
add dark shadow sections along the lower
part (Figure 13).
The shading of the island graduates unevenly
from light at the top to dark in the lower
sections.
Remember to leave a tiny horizontal sliver of
light values to identify a sandy beach where
the land meets the water.
13. Use a freshly sharpened
2B pencil to draw a few
tiny trees and shrubs on
the island.
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Figure 15
Figure 14
14. Add the stems (or
branches) of the
palm tree with curved
lines and a 2B pencil
(Figure 14).
15. Use freshly sharpened
2B, 4B, and 6B pencils
and curved hatching
lines to complete the
leaves on the upper
section of the palm tree.
Refer to the close-up
image in Figure 15.
Observe how some palm
leaves are lighter in value
than others especially
the ones that seem
farther away.
In other words, the leaves
that are in the foreground
are considerably darker
in value. This illusion
of depth is a result of
atmospheric perspective.
Add the smallest and
shortest leaves rst
with a 2B pencil.
Use a 4B pencil to
add slightly larger
and darker leaves
that overlap sections
of the smaller ones.
Use a 6B pencil
to add a few large
leaves in the
foreground that
also overlap a few
sections of other
leaves.
161 161
Part 4: Graduate to Hatching Graduations Sketch a Scene with Hatching Graduations
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Figure 16
16. Step back from your drawing and compare the overall values in your drawing to
the reference image (Figure 16).
You may need to make some areas lighter and others darker.
To make a section darker, simply add more hatching lines in between others.
To make a section lighter, pat the lines gently with a kneaded eraser molded to a
wedge or point.
Sign your name, date the back of your drawing, and put a big smile on your face.
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
163
Part 5: Contour Hatching Around Forms
Part 5
Contour
Hatching
Around Forms
This part of the book begins with an illustrated discussion on how
curved hatching lines help create highly realistic textures and three-
dimensional forms.
You then put theory into practice by using contour hatching
graduations to transform a circular shape and a segment of a
sphere into three-dimensional forms.
Your ability to render contour hatching graduations naturally
progresses as you add shading to a tulip and a section of its stem
and leaf; render smooth shading and the texture of realistic hair;
and draw the forms of a young childs face and hair.
Checking Out Contour Hatching...................................165
Rendering Contour Hatching Naturally.........................171
Shade a Simple Form with Contour Hatching..............173
Graduate Curved Hatching Lines Lengthways.............177
Shade a Tulip with Contour Hatching...........................183
Hatch Harrys Realistic Hair..........................................191
Contour a Childs Straight Hair.....................................201
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
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165
Part 5: Contour Hatching Around Forms Checking Out Contour Hatching
Curved hatching lines can depict the illusion of depth much
better than straight lines, especially when you want to
transform a circular shape into a three-dimensional form.
See this for yourself by comparing two drawings based on
identical circular shapes:
The rst shape (Figure 1) is shaded with straight
hatching lines and looks relatively at and two-
dimensional like the sheet of paper on which it is
rendered.
The second shape (Figure 2) is shaded with curved
hatching lines that follow the contours of its perceived
forms. The illusion of a three-dimensional form on a at
sheet of drawing paper is successfully created thanks
to contour hatching.
Examine graduations and drawings to see how curved
hatching lines help create highly realistic textures
and three-dimensional forms
ArtSpeak
Contour: The outline of a
shape or form.
Contour hatching:
A classical shading
technique in which sets
of curved hatching lines
follow the outlines,
contours, and/or forms of
the drawing subject and
accentuate the illusion of a
three-dimensional reality.
Curved
hatching
lines can also
transform a
quick sketch
of a simple
icon into an
interesting
cartoon with
detail and
depth.
Figure 1
Checking Out
Contour Hatching
Figure 2
Resource
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
166
Introduction to Shading
Hatching with straight lines doesnt work very
well when you want to draw hair or fur on a
form. Examine the very at looking hair that is
shaded with long, straight lines on the head of
a cartoon in Figure 3.
His face, nose, and ears also look very boring
and two-dimensional.
The illusion of a three-
dimensional reality is created
when long, curved lines are used
to shade the hair of his twin
brother (Figure 4).
Short, straight hatching lines work
beautifully to bring out the forms
of his face, nose, and ears.
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
Curved hatching lines can be any length.
Refer to Figure 5 and compare contour
hatching with long lines to contour hatching
with short lines.
In Figure 6, a simple circle becomes a
sphere when its shaded with graduations
of curved hatching lines of different lengths
and values.
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Have a close-up look
at the curved lines
used to create a very
smooth graduation
(Figure 7). The
transitions between
the hatching values
are seamless.
The curved hatching
lines in the darkest
shadow sections are
barely noticeable
because they are
really close together
with hardly any of the
white paper showing
through.
This type of
graduation is perfect
for rendering smooth
and shiny textures,
such as a drawing of
an apple in Figure 8.
More noticeable hatching lines can
be used to add shading to other
types of smooth textures such as
the petals of owers (Figure 9).
Figure 7 Figure 6
Figure 8
Figure 9
167
Part 5: Contour Hatching Around Forms Checking Out Contour Hatching
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168
Introduction to Shading
Highly-detailed
drawings of
animals with fur
simply cannot
look realistic
without contour
hatching.
Closely examine
the intricate curved
hatching lines that
make up the fur of
Katie the Pitweiler in
Figure 12.
In addition, we cant
forget all the bugs,
birds, and plush toys
that are best rendered
with contour hatching.
Examine the shading
lines used to render
the drawings in
Figures 13, 14, and 15
(on the next page).
Figure 11
Figure 10
Figure 12
Any real or imaginary animal with fur or feathers
can also be shaded with contour hatching.
Check out the shading used for cartoon drawings
of a pig and penguin (Figures 10 and 11). Note
that most of the hatching lines are shorter than
those used for the ower drawing.
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Figure 13
Figure 14
Figure 15
And, of course, people
have all sorts of
textures and rounded
forms on their body and
clothing that can be
rendered with contour
hatching.
Human hair, for
example, can be
realistically rendered
with contour hatching.
Identify contour
hatching lines
in drawings of
overlapping strands of
hair (Figure 16) and the
hair of a young man
(Figure 17).
169
Part 5: Contour Hatching Around Forms Checking Out Contour Hatching
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170
Introduction to Shading
Even fantasy hair needs
contour hatching to create
the illusion of depth
(Figure 18).
As you can tell, contour
hatching is simply a must-
have technique for all
artists, from beginner to
professional!
Figure 16
Challenge!
Look around you and
nd at least ve objects
with rounded forms or
textures that can be
shaded with contour
hatching.
Figure 17
Figure 18
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Resource: Checking out Contour Hatching (Page 165)
Getting to know yourself as an artist is as important to drawing as techniques and tools.
Surprisingly, very few artists are aware of which hand motions can create the best lines
when they draw. Thankfully, its very easy to nd out!
How to find and use your most natural drawing
motions for shading with contour hatching
Rendering Contour
Hatching Naturally
Contour hatching
is a must-have
technique for
rendering realistic
drawings.
To achieve
smooth shading
with contour
hatching, you
need to be aware
of and in control
of your own
natural hand
movements.
Tip!
All you need for this little exercise is a calm mind, a relaxed body,
a pencil, and a piece of paper.
Use a pencil and paper to discover your natural hand
movements for drawing sets of curved hatching lines
(Figure 1).
Draw several sets of slightly curved lines. As you draw, take
note of how you make these lines, how smooth the lines look,
and how comfortable you feel while drawing them.
Try many different ways of moving your pencil, rotating your
paper, or changing the directions of your lines until you nd the
motions that are the most natural for you.
One potential motion consists of lines that curve upward from
the lower right toward the upper right (marked 1 in Figure 1).
Another is from the upper right curving downward toward the
lower right (marked 2).
Even if youre comfortable with one or more of the strokes in
Figure 1, be sure to also experiment with others that are not
illustrated.
Resource
171
Part 5: Contour Hatching Around Forms Rendering Contour Hatching Naturally
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172
Introduction to Shading
The motions indicated in sets
1 and 2 in Figure 1 are the
ones that work best for me.
As you can tell by the
awkwardness of the lines in
sets 3 to 8, these sets of lines
dont follow my natural hand
motion.
As an Aside
Figure 1
To take advantage of your natural hand movement, you
need to continuously rotate your drawing paper as you
draw. Practice drawing contour lines to help you get a
feel for rotating your paper in the most natural direction.
For example, imagine for a moment that your natural
hand motions are similar to the motions demonstrated
in samples 1 and 2 in Figure 1. When you need to
curve your contour hatching lines in the opposite
direction, simply turn your paper upside-down.
When your contour lines need to change direction
again, rotate your paper accordingly until you nd
yourself using your natural hand motion again.
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Resources:
Checking out Contour Hatching (Page 165)
Render Contour Hatching Naturally (Page 171)
Supplies: paper, 2H, HB, 2B and 4B pencils, pencil
sharpener, sandpaper block, erasers
Drawing contour hatching graduations is
very similar to drawing lengthways hatching
graduations with straight lines, with one
exception: you use curved lines instead.
1. Lightly sketch a circular shape with
your HB pencil (Figure 1).
No need to make your shape exactly
like this one, but try to come close. This
shape looks like a cross between a
kidney bean, a potato, and a cocoon!
Keep your lines light by pressing gently
with your pencil.
2. Sketch a few curved lines to map the
directions in which the hatching lines
will curve (Figure 2).
Tip!
Always place a piece of clean paper under
your hand as you draw.
Each time you work on a new section,
remember to move your paper so its always
under your hand.
This prevents you from smudging your
drawing and protects the paper from the oils
in your skin.
Use contour hatching graduations to depict the
illusion of depth by transforming a circular
shape into a three-dimensional form
Shade a Simple Form
with Contour Hatching
Figure 1
Activity
173
Part 5: Contour Hatching Around Forms Shade a Simple Form with Contour Hatching
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
As you draw, visualize
wrapping string around a
circular form.
3. Use a 2B pencil and curved
hatching lines to add shading
to the lower section of the
circular shape (Figure 3).
The hatching lines are not long
and continuous; rather, they are
of various lengths and follow
the perceived contours of the
surface of the form.
4. Use a 2H or HB pencil to
add more shading lines that
follow the contours of the
surface of the form (Figure 4).
5. Switch to a freshly sharpened
4B pencil and add darker
curved lines around the
perimeter of the shape
(Figure 5).
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
Tip!
Remember to take advantage of
your natural hand movement and
constantly rotate your paper as you
draw.
174
Introduction to Shading
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This dark value will
enhance the illusion of a
three dimensional form.
The dark curved lines
need to feather gently
toward the center
sections.
Remember to use
curved hatching lines
that are raggedy and of
various lengths.
6. Use 2H, HB, and
2B pencils to add
light and medium
values that graduate
smoothly toward the
dark values (Figures 6
and 7).
Figure 6 shows you
where to draw:
light values (marked
1) with 2H and HB
pencils.
medium values
(marked 2) with HB
and 2B pencils.
Figure 7 is the
completed drawing.
The curved hatching
lines are barely
noticeable anymore
because they are really
close together with
hardly any of the white
paper still showing
through.
The transitions between
all the values are very
smooth.
Figure 5
Figure 6
175
Part 5: Contour Hatching Around Forms Shade a Simple Form with Contour Hatching
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Challenge!
Practice drawing forms with contour hatching lines
every chance you get!
With only half an hour a day of practice, youll see
a signicant improvement in your drawings in only
a week.
If your shading
isnt as smooth as
you would like, you
can touch it up.
To make lines
lighter, pat them
with your kneaded
eraser molded to a
wedge shape.
You can make
sections darker
by drawing more
short, curved lines
in between others.
Touch up any
sections with
which you arent
happy.
Figure 7
176
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Resources:
Checking out Contour Hatching (Page 165)
Render Contour Hatching Naturally (Page 171)
Supplies: paper, 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B pencils, pencil sharpener,
sandpaper block, kneaded eraser
Graduations are the primary component of realistic
shading.
When your goal is to create a smooth texture for
a three-dimensional form, you need to keep the
transition between the different values owing into
one another as smoothly as possible.
To render a graduation with curved hatching lines:
use different grades of pencils
vary the density of the hatching lines
hatch curved lines far apart for light values
hatch curved lines closely together for dark
values
draw individual hatching lines of different lengths
vary the pressure used when holding your pencils
use your natural hand movements
ArtSpeak
Contour hatching: A classical
shading technique in which sets
of curved hatching lines follow
the outlines, contours, and/
or forms of a drawing subject
to accentuate the illusion of a
three-dimensional reality.
Use curved hatching lines to smoothly render a
graduation that depicts the illusion of form
on a segment of a sphere
Graduate Curved
Hatching Lines
Lengthways
As an Aside
It is good to love many things,
for therein lies the true strength,
and whosoever loves much
performs much, and can
accomplish much, and what is
done in love is well done.
Vincent van Gogh
Activity
177
Part 5: Contour Hatching Around Forms Graduate Curved Hatching Lines Lengthways
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
3. Add light shading to the upper section of the map (Figures 3 and 4).
The shading begins very light around the edge of the highlight and becomes gradually
darker farther away.
In this activity, graduations of curved hatching lines help render a section of a sphere by
illustrating light and shadow.
1. Lightly sketch a small circular shape
to represent the highlight section of a
form (Figure 2).
The center of this circular shape will be
left white, and represents the section
closest to a light source emanating from
the upper right.
2. Add three curved lines to map the
directions in which the hatching lines
curve.
Figure 1
A drawing of a
sphere (Figure
1) shows the
components
of light and
shadow
that are
represented in
this graduation:
highlight,
shadow, and
reected light.
Tip!
You can rotate your drawing paper or sketchbook
as you draw curved hatching lines to take
advantage of your natural hand movements.
Highlight
Reected light
Shadow
Figure 2
178
Introduction to Shading
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Tip!
4. Continue to add shading that
becomes progressively darker
farther away from the light
(Figures 5 and 6).
If your shading isnt as smooth as youd
like, you can touch it up.
To make lines lighter, pat them with your
kneaded eraser molded to a wedge
shape.
To make sections darker, add more short,
curved hatching lines in between others.
Figure 4 Figure 3
Figure 5
179
Part 5: Contour Hatching Around Forms Graduate Curved Hatching Lines Lengthways
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6. Continue adding darker values until
the end of the graduation is very dark
(Figures 9 and 10).
A 6B pencil will create the very darkest
values. As you add the dark shading,
constantly check the transition between
the different values and adjust the
hatching lines as needed.
Figure 6
Figure 8
5. Graduate the darkest shading
downward to identify the shadow
sections (Figures 7 and 8).
The values are dark here because less
light reaches a shadow area on a form.
Figure 7
180
Introduction to Shading
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Figure 10
The transition between the
hatching values is very smooth.
The curved hatching lines in the
darkest shadow sections are barely
noticeable because they are really
close together with very little white
paper showing through.
7. Add raggedy, curved hatching
lines to the lower section below
the darkest shadow.
The lines need to feather gently
downward toward a lighter value.
Switch to lighter pencils that are
freshly sharpened to prepare for
adding a rim of reected light.
From here, the shading will need to
graduate lighter to indicate the light
values of reected light.
8. Graduate the shading from the dark
shadow into the section of reected
light (Figures 11 and 12).
Use lighter pencils, make your lines
farther apart, and press more lightly
with your pencils until the end of the
graduation is light.
9. Touch up any sections with which
you arent happy.
To smooth out the transition between
values, add a few short, curved hatching
lines in between some others using
freshly sharpened pencils.
Figure 9
181
Part 5: Contour Hatching Around Forms Graduate Curved Hatching Lines Lengthways
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Challenge!
The ability to shade a rounded
form opens up many creative
possibilities.
Use the shading techniques in
this activity along with your artistic
licence to draw an object or living
being from your imagination.
To help get your creative juices
owing, refer to Figure 13.
Figure 12 Figure 11
Figure 13
182
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Resources:
Identifying Light and Shadow on Forms (Page 7)
Checking out Contour Hatching (Page 165)
Supplies: paper, 2H, HB, 2B, and 4B pencils, pencil
sharpener, sandpaper block, erasers
This activity has four sections:
Sketch Proportions
Turn a Sketch into a Contour Drawing
Add Light and Medium Values
Add Dark Values and Final Touches
Outline and then use contour hatching graduations to
add shading to a tulip and a section of its stemand
leaf based on a light source
Shade a Tulip with
Contour Hatching
Figure 1
As an Aside
Several of these very
lightly rendered sketches
were darkened in
Photoshop to help you
see them clearly.
Sketch Proportions
1. Outline a square drawing space to help you render
the tulips proportions.
An ideal size is 4 by 4 in (10.16 by 10.16 cm).
2. Use an HB pencil to very lightly sketch a large
triangle and an angle line as shown in Figure 1.
The triangle becomes the tulip and the angle line
becomes the leaf. The leaf overlaps the large triangle.
Activity
183
Part 5: Contour Hatching Around Forms Shade a Tulip with Contour Hatching
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
7. Add the long, tiny section of a
petal on the right.
This petal is mostly out of sight
behind the main section of the tulip.
8. Pat your sketch lines gently with
your kneaded eraser until you can
barely see them.
3. Draw the circular shape of a tulip
approximately the same size as
the triangle (Figure 2).
The lower section is wider than the
top, and the top is gently pointed
upward. Keep your sketch lines light
you may want to erase them later!
4. Add two short lines below the
tulip to represent its stem.
These two lines are tilted at an angle
rather than straight up and down.
Figure 4
Figure 3
5. Sketch the leaf (Figure 3).
6. Sketch a long oval shape on the
left of the tulip to represent a large
petal (Figure 4).
This petal is in front of the main
section of the tulip.
Figure 2
184
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Turn a Sketch into a Contour Drawing
With the completion of the proportional sketch comes a decision: do you prefer drawing in
the style of realism or illustrative realism?
Drawings in the style of realism (Figure 5) do not have highly noticeable outlines whereas
drawings in the style of illustrative realism (Figure 6) have obvious outlines.
If you prefer realism, render your contour lines much lighter than you see in the upcoming
illustrations.
If you prefer illustrative realism, use dark lines to outline your drawing.
Figure 6 Figure 5
Caution!
Dont simply draw over your sketch
lines.
Rather, examine the illustrations
closely and draw new lines where
you see them.
Tip!
Use sharpened pencils for the outlines.
Draw slowly. Accuracy is more
important than speed. Your speed will
automatically improve the more you
practice.
9. Use an HB pencil to draw a thin line around the leaf and large petal (Figure 7).
10. Draw the main body of the tulip with gently curved lines.
185
Part 5: Contour Hatching Around Forms Shade a Tulip with Contour Hatching
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Add Light and Medium Values
The light source in this drawing is coming from
above and slightly to the right.
To protect your drawing from smudging, place a
piece of clean paper under your hand as you add
shading. Each time you work on a new section,
remember to move your paper so its always under
your hand.
11. Outline the stem with
slightly curved lines
(Figure 8).
12. Outline the long, thin
section of the other petal
on the right.
13. Check over your contour
drawing and erase and
redraw sections with
which you arent happy.
Figure 8
As an Aside
By shading the light values rst,
you can then layer your medium
shading on top of the light
shading. This layering creates a
nice, smooth transition between
different values.
Tip!
You can create different values by
using various grades of pencils
and varying the density of the lines
and the pressure you use when
holding your pencils.
For light lines, press very lightly
with your pencil. Press a little
harder to make darker lines.
Figure 7
186
Introduction to Shading
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15. Use HB and 2B pencils to
add medium shading to the
main section of the tulip, the
tiny petal on the right, and
the stem (Figures 10 and 11).
The edges of the darker
shading are not abrupt stops
but feathered (or ragged) to
give a smoother appearance.
Take note of the small section
of white on the upper section
of the tiny petal on the right
(Figure 11).
Also note the section of the
stem thats left white this
helps to make the stem look
rounded rather than at.
Figure 10
Figure 9
14. Use 2H and HB
pencils to add
graduations of light
values to the main
section of the tulip
and its large petal
(Figure 9).
The hatching lines are
of various lengths and
slightly curved to follow
the contours of the form
of the tulip.
Hatching lines on
the petal are more
horizontal than vertical.
187
Part 5: Contour Hatching Around Forms Shade a Tulip with Contour Hatching
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16. Add shading to
the wide section
of the leaf with
your HB pencil.
Before you begin,
draw a faint line on
the left to represent
the edge of the
leaf.
Leave this section
white for now.
Add Dark
Values and
Final Touches
The darkest values are
added in layers over
the light and medium
values.
Figure 11
Figure 12
17. Add darker shading to the lower
sections of the leaf with 2B and 4B
pencils (Figure 12).
18. Use a 2B pencil to add shading to the
leafs edge.
19. Add medium values to the left side
of the large petal with an HB (refer to
Figure 13 on the next page).
20. Use a 4B to ll in the tiny dark section
under the large petal.
21. Use a 2B to add darker shading to the
upper section of the stem under the
ower.
188
Introduction to Shading
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23. Use various pencils to complete the graduated
shading of the main section (Refer to Figure
15 or 16 on the next page).
Step back from your drawing and examine the
graduations. Add nal touches to the shading if
needed.
Sometimes a short line placed inside a space
between two others helps make the transition
look smoother.
You can make areas lighter by patting them
gently with the edge of your kneaded eraser.
To make a section darker, simply add more
hatching lines in between others.
Figure 14
Figure 13
22. Use your 2B
pencil to add
more shading
to the small
section of the
petal on the
right (Figure
14).
This shading
is very dark
close to the
main section
of the tulip
and graduates
lighter toward
the outer edge.
Also, a tiny
section at the
top is left white.
189
Part 5: Contour Hatching Around Forms Shade a Tulip with Contour Hatching
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Challenge!
Take a photo of a tulip
from a slightly different
angle than the one in this
project (or you may prefer
to draw from an actual
ower).
Render a detailed drawing
using contour hatching
graduations for the
shading.
Your goal is to capture a
full range of values from
very light to very dark, as
shown in the drawing of a
tulip in this project.
With a few nal touches
of darker values,
the tulip looks three-
dimensional.
Figure 16
Figure 15
190
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Resources:
How to Use a Value Map (Page 35)
Render Contour Hatching Naturally (Page 171)
Supplies: paper, HB, 2B, and 4B pencils, pencil sharpener, sandpaper block, erasers
Hatch Harrys
Realistic Hair
Use a shading map and hatching graduations to
render both smooth shading and the
texture of realistic hair
Most illustrations in
the rst two sections
have been darkened
in Photoshop so you
can see them clearly.
As an
Aside
Dont press too hard
with your pencils
several sections will
need to be erased
later!
Caution!
This activity has four sections:
Sketch and Outline Harry
Map a Shading Plan
Shade the Face, Nose, and Ears
Shade Realistic Hair with Curved Lines
Sketch and Outline Harry
In this section, you render Harrys head in three stages:
Sketch proportions with a line of symmetry
Outline the basic shapes
Neatly outline his face, nose, ears, and hair
Sketch proportions with a line of symmetry
1. Use an HB pencil and your ruler to lightly draw a
vertical line down the center of your drawing space.
Activity
191
Part 5: Contour Hatching Around Forms Hatch Harrys Realistic Hair
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Figure 3 Figure 2
Figure 1
This line of symmetry serves as a
reference to help keep both sides of
your sketch symmetrical.
2. Use an HB pencil to sketch an egg-
shaped head with ears on either
side.
Make it any size you wish, as long as
the wider part is at the top (Figure 1).
Outline the basic shapes
3. Use a sharpened HB pencil to neatly
outline Harrys ears, head, and face.
Refer to Figures 2 and 3. As you
sketch, constantly check the
relationships of lines and spaces to one
another and to the line of symmetry.
4. Carefully erase the initial sketch lines (Figure 4).
5. Use a kneaded eraser to pat your outlines until they are very faint.
192
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Figure 7
Figure 4
Figure 6
Figure 5
Neatly outline his face,
nose, ears, and hair
6. Use an HB pencil to outline a nose and
the two strands of hair on either side.
Examine Figure 5 to see how to create the
illusion that the nose is in front of the hair.
7. Add a tiny circle under the nose to
represent the mouth and a curved line
below the mouth to represent the edge
of the lower face.
8. Outline Harrys hair with thin,
neat lines and re-draw the outer
sections of his ears.
Refer to Figures 6 and 7 as well as
Figure 8 on the next page.
The outlines of the hair are drawn outside
the perimeter of the head. Hence, the
upper half of the head (including the hair)
is now wider and higher.
Dont miss the two little cowlicks on top of
the head or the two small sections of hair
below the ears!
193
Part 5: Contour Hatching Around Forms Hatch Harrys Realistic Hair
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Also, note that
some sections of
hair appear to be
behind the ears,
and others are in
front, covering the
eyes and most of
the face.
9. Erase the rough
sketch lines of
the upper section
of the head, the
inner sections of
the ears, and the
sides of the face
(Figure 8).
Map a
Shading Plan
A shading map allows
artists to plan where
they want to place
different values in a
drawing.
Figure 9
Figure 8
To refresh your memory of how a shading map works,
examine the shading of his nose in Figure 9.
The primary light source originates from the upper left
and slightly in front. The drawing of Harry has light,
medium, and dark values.
Light values (L) are rendered with an HB pencil;
medium values (M) with a 2B; and dark values (D) with
a 4B. The highlight is left white.
As an Aside
Both cartoon drawings and
realistic portraits of people
often follow the same basic
rules of facial proportions.
194
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Figure 11
Figure 10
10. Add
circular
shapes
with an HB
pencil to
represent
highlights
on the nose
and ears
(Figure 10).
11. Map the
dark values
on the
nose and
ear on the
right and
mark them
with a D
(Figure 11).
12. Map the
dark values
of the part
in the hair,
the hair in
the middle
and lower
sections,
and the
shadows
on the face.
Take your
time. Your
patience will
pay off when
you start to
shade your
drawing.
195
Part 5: Contour Hatching Around Forms Hatch Harrys Realistic Hair
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14. Outline the light
values and mark
them with an L
(Figure 13).
The unmarked
sections represent
highlights and are left
white.
Figure 12
13. Map the medium values and mark them with an M (Figure 12).
Keep the
following in mind
as you shade the
hair:
The hatching
lines are
of various
lengths, rather
than long and
continuous.
The overall
values are
lighter closer
to the light
source and
darker farther
away.
The hatching
lines used on
the top half of
the head are
all curved.
Tip!
Knowing trees,
I understand
the meaning of
patience.
Knowing grass,
I can appreciate
persistence.
Hal Borland
As an
Aside
It is very strange that the years
teach us patience that the
shorter our time, the greater our
capacity for waiting.
Elizabeth Taylor
As an Aside
196
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Figure 18
Figure 14
Figure 13
Shade
the Face,
Nose and
Ears
Hatching
graduations
with straight
lines are used
to add shading
to Harrys face,
nose and ears.
Remember to
use an HB pencil
for light values
(L), a 2B for
medium values
(M), and a 4B for
dark values (D).
16. Use hatching
graduations to
add shading
to the face,
nose, and ears
(Figures 14
through 16).

15. Check over your map
carefully and make
sure youve included
all the outlines for
each value.
197
Part 5: Contour Hatching Around Forms Hatch Harrys Realistic Hair
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Shade
Realistic Hair
with Curved
Lines
In this section, follow
your shading map by
adding dark values,
then medium values,
and nally light
values.
17. Use mostly gently-
curving hatching
lines to shade the
hair (Figures 17
through 20).
The hatching
graduations are
rendered with curved
lines that follow the
perceived contours of
the head.
To take advantage
of your natural hand
motion, remember
to rotate your
sketchbook as you
draw the hatching
lines.
Tip!
Figure 17
Figure 16
Figure 15
198
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Figure 18
Figure 19
He that can have
patience can have
what he will.
Benjamin Franklin
The strongest of
all warriors are
these two: time
and patience.
Leo Tolstoy
As an
Aside
18. Add nal
touches to
any sections
of shading
that dont
look quite
right.
Step back
from your
drawing,
compare it
to Figure 20,
and have a
look at the
overall values.
As an
Aside
199
Part 5: Contour Hatching Around Forms Hatch Harrys Realistic Hair
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Figure 20
You can make some areas lighter by patting the lines with your kneaded eraser shaped
to a wedge. You can make sections of the hair darker by simply drawing more hatching
lines in between others wherever necessary.
Sign your name, date the back of the drawing, and put a smile on your face!
200
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Resource: Render Contour Hatching
Naturally (Page 171)
Supplies: paper, 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and
6B pencils, pencil sharpener, sandpaper
block, kneaded and vinyl erasers
Contour a Childs
Straight Hair
Draw the realistically proportioned head of a young
child with straight hair that curves around
the contours of his cranium
Contour: The outline, or a section of the outline, of a
shape or form.
Symmetry: An arrangement of lines, shapes, and/or values
on opposite sides of an often imaginary center line that
appear to be duplications or mirror images of one another.
Both sides are said to be symmetrical.
Line of symmetry: A real or imaginary line dividing an
object or drawing space into two equal sections. In a
drawing, an outline on one side of the line of symmetry
needs to be a mirror image of the other side.
Upper eyelid: A fold of skin that opens and closes
automatically (blinks) to protect the eyeball.
Eyebrow: An arched group of hairs above the eye.
Eyelashes: Fine hairs that grow from the outer edges of
the upper and lower eyelids.
Lower eyelid: The fold of skin that protects the lower
section of the eyeball. The lower eyelid cannot move
without help from facial muscles around the eye.
Iris: The colored circular section of an eyeball surrounding
the pupil.
Pupil of an eye: The dark circular shape within the iris that
constricts or expands under different lighting conditions.
ArtSpeak
As an Aside
Several illustrations were
darkened in Photoshop so you can
see them clearly.
This activity has four sections:
Sketch Facial Proportions
Prepare the Hair and Face
for Shading
Use Curved Lines to Shade
Straight Hair
Add Shading to the Eyes
and Face
Activity
201
Part 5: Contour Hatching Around Forms Contour a Childs Straight Hair
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Figure 3
Figure 2
Figure 1
3. Sketch two vertical lines inside each side of
the lower section of the egg-shape.
The small, triangular shapes created should be
close to the same width.
4. Add two curved lines below the curved line
to identify the location of his upper eyelids.
5. Sketch two U-shapes below the two curved
lines to represent the irises of his eyes
(Figure 3).
6. Draw a curved line to mark the lower
section of his nose.
7. Add a three part curved line
to represent the opening of
his mouth.
Sketch Facial Proportions
1. Use an HB pencil to lightly sketch an egg shape
with the wider section at the top (Figure 1).
The subject of this activity is a child named J amie,
and this is the basic shape of his head. To help sketch
his head symmetrically, lightly draw a line of symmetry
down the center of your page.
2. Lightly sketch a gently-curved line dividing
Jamies head into two sections (Figure 2).
Imagine a dot in the center of this curved line. If you
drew vertical lines from this dot to the top and bottom
of his head, both distances should be about the same.
Tip!
Remember; different values are
created by varying the density of
the hatching lines and the pressure
used when holding your pencils.
202
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Figure 4
Prepare the Hair and Face for Shading
8. Add a few strategically placed lines and shapes to enhance Jamies facial
features (Figure 4).
Sketch a curved line above each eye as the upper eyelid creases (his eyebrows are
partially hidden under his hair).
Add a shorter, curved line below each eye as the edge of the lower eyelid.
Sketch a round shape above the curved line that marks his nose.
Add a smaller round shape on each side of this round shape.
Outline the upper lip with a curved line in the center and a downward diagonal line
on each side.
Sketch the lower lip with a horizontal line in the middle and an upward diagonal line
on each side.
9. Visually choose a point on the
top of the skull close to the
middle, and place a small dot
there (Figure 5).
This is the point from which the
hair seems to originate.
10. Continue using an HB pencil
to lightly sketch several short,
curved lines from the center
point at the top of the head
downward to serve as guides
for shading.
Imagine these lines following
the three-dimensional form of
his head.
Note that the line in the center
is almost straight.
The lines become increasingly
curved as they move toward the
outside edge of J amies head.
11. Erase the curved line that
marked the lower edge of the
bangs of Jamies hair (Figure 6).
12. Erase the upper sections of the lines that mark the sides of his face.
Figure 5
.
203
Part 5: Contour Hatching Around Forms Contour a Childs Straight Hair
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The hatching lines are several
different lengths and most are
slightly curved.
The edges are feathered and
ragged to give a more realistic
appearance.
16. Use your kneaded eraser to
lighten the sketch lines in the
upper section of hair.
17. Add additional shading to the
hair with an HB pencil and
hatching lines as shown in
Figure 8.
Keep your hatching lines of
varying lengths, rather than long
and continuous.
18. Use a 2B pencil to add slightly
darker shading on the right.
The dominant light source
comes from the upper left.
Hence, the hair and face are
lighter closer to the light source
and darker farther away.
Figure 7
Figure 8
Figure 6
13. Outline the lower edges of Jamies ears.
14. Gently pat your sketch lines with a
kneaded eraser until they are very faint.
Use Curved Lines to
Shade Straight Hair
15. Use an HB pencil to add gently-curved
hatching lines along the lower section
of Jamies hair (Figure 7).
204
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Figure 9
Figure 10
21. Use a 2H and
an HB pencil
in turn to add
light shading
to the eyes
and face.
22. Use a 2B to
add middle
values to
the darker
sections
of the eyes
and facial
features
(Figure 11).
19. Use a 4B pencil to
add a few darker
sections of hair to
the top of the head
and on the right
(Figure 9).
The overall values
range from white in
the shiny areas to
dark in the shadow
sections.
Add Shading
to the Eyes
and Face
20. Outline the pupils
and highlights of
the eyes with an HB
pencil (Figure 10).
205
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Turn your drawing
upside-down to look
for sections that can
be improved:
To make a
section of
shading darker,
simply add more
hatching lines in
between others.
Use your
kneaded eraser
molded to a
wedge to lighten
areas that are too
dark.
Figure 12
23. Add a few soft and
wispy lines around
the edges of his
hair (Figure 12).
24. Use a 6B pencil to
shade the pupil of
the eye.
25. Compare your
drawing to Figure
12 and x any
sections you dont
like.
Figure 11
Erase any ngerprints
or smudges with your
kneaded or vinyl
eraser, sign your
name, date the back
of your drawing, and
put a big smile on
your face!
206
Introduction to Shading
To Blend or Not to Blend...............................................209
Shade and Blend Bobby Blob......................................213
White Egg on a White Surface.....................................217
Shine Up a Simple Sphere...........................................221
Shade an Apple with Contour Hatching........................227
Realistic Petals on a Flower..........................................233
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207
Part 6: Smooth Out Shading with Blending
Part 6
Smooth Out
Shading with
Blending
This nal part of the book begins by sharing numerous tried and
true techniques and helpful tips for successfully blending shading.
You then try your hand at blending: a smooth three-dimensional
cartoon face, a realistic white egg on a white surface, and a sphere
with a shiny surface.
Finally all your new shading skills come together as you render
two highly realistic masterpieces: a fresh, shiny Macintosh apple
and the smooth, delicate petals of a beautiful ower.
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
This tutorial has three sections:
Blending Gone Bad!
Beautiful Blending!
Blending Tools to Try
Blending Gone Bad!
Most beginners to drawing try
blending as a remedy for weak
shading skills. Their drawing
ends up looking smudged and
at instead of realistic; so they
try again. More disappointment
and spoiled drawings ensue.
Blending cannot transform
poorly rendered shading into
beautiful smooth shading no
matter what tools you use or
how much time you spend
trying.
For example, compare a set of
shading lines before blending
(Figure 1) to the same lines
after blending (Figure 2).
ArtSpeak
Blending: The process of using a blending tool to gently
pat or rub sections of a drawing to smooth out graduations
of values.
Blending tool: Any object used by an artist to blend a
medium.
Blending stump: (also called a tortillon, stump, or blender)
A thin cylindrical tool that is pointed at both ends, made of
tightly wound paper or felt, and used to blend dry media.
Dry media: Non-liquid drawing mediums (such as graphite
and charcoal).
Caution!
Never use your ngers to blend the shading of drawings
you may someday value. Dont even touch your drawing
paper where you plan to blend. The powder component of
graphite works like the ngerprinting powder used by police
departments. Your skin transfers oil to your paper and the
oil becomes visible after you add and blend graphite.
To protect your drawings as you work, place a piece of
paper under your drawing hand.
To Blend or
Not to Blend
Tips and techniques for using blending tools to
successfully blend shading graduations
209
Part 6: Smooth Out Shading with Blending To Blend or Not to Blend
Resource
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Figure 3 Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
Figure 2 Figure 1
Even if the surface of your
paper survives your blending
attempts, you may still end
up with messy, smudgy
shading. A less extreme
example has similar results
(Figures 3 and 4).
Beautiful Blending!
All artists should have blending in their repertoire of drawing skills. The key to successfully
rendering blended shading is to meticulously shade smoothly graduated values before
blending.
Shading lines need to be rendered closely together in a smoothly owing graduation
(Figure 5). You then use a blending tool to gently blend your graduation from the lighter
section toward the darker section (Figure 6).
Tip!
You should blend hatching
graduations in the same
direction as the shading
lines. When you blend
across hatching lines,
your drawing may smudge
and no longer look three
dimensional.
Squirkling graduations
should be blended with
small circular motions.
When your shading is
rendered with chisel-point
pencils, you should pat or
use small circular motions
to blend graduations.
210
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Figure 8
The shading of an
apple was created
with a full range
of hatching values
that graduated
around its contours
(Figures 7 and 8).
A cotton swab
(also called a
cotton bud) and
a sheet of paper
towel were used
to gently blend the
values in the same
direction as the
contour hatching
lines.
The lightest values
were blended rst; then
the medium and dark
values.
The highlights and light
spots were then pulled
out with a kneaded
eraser molded to a point
(Figures 9 and 10).
Figure 7
Figure 9
Figure 10
Tip!
Always blend from the lightest
values toward the darkest values.
If you work in reverse from dark
to light you may lose some
middle and light values and end
up with a smudged and at-
looking drawing.
Tip!
Expect to not like
your rst few tries at
blending. Remember,
you need strong
skills with rendering
graduated values for
blending to work.
With time, patience,
and lots of practice,
your shading skills get
stronger!
211
Part 6: Smooth Out Shading with Blending To Blend or Not to Blend
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
As an Aside!
If you shade and blend correctly and
are still unhappy with your shading,
the problem may be with your pencils,
paper, and/or blending tools.
Experiment with different combinations
of drawing supplies until you are able
to create blended shading you like.
Figure 11
Blending
Tools to Try
Experiment with lots of
different blending tools
(Figure 11) until you nd
what works best for you.
A few popular blending
tools include:
Soft paintbrushes
(dry not wet) are
ideal for beginners,
especially if you
dont want to cross
that line from smooth
to smudged.
You simply use the brush to pat the shading
with small circular motions. The graphite
moves a little but is not ground into the
paper.
Facial tissues and paper towels work well
to smooth out pencil strokes. However,
be careful to not wear the tissue away so
your ngers are doing the blending instead
of the tissue. Wrap several layers around
your nger and check often that the tissue
isnt wearing away. Paper towels are more
durable than facial tissues.
Blending stumps do their best work when you blend the values from light to dark.
When the tips of blending stumps become too dirty or dull to work properly, they can
be sharpened with a sandpaper block or a piece of ne sandpaper. Thick blending
stumps are great for large sections of shading and thin ones work nicely for small
sections.
Cotton swabs work beautifully for tiny detailed sections of drawings and offer lots of
control.
Chamois is ideal for creating the texture of a very smooth surface such as glass.
212
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Resource: To Blend or Not to Blend (Page 209)
Supplies: paper, 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B pencils, pencil sharpener, sandpaper
block, vinyl and kneaded erasers, facial tissues and/or paper towels
This activity has four sections:
Outline a Fun Blob Shape
Shade and Blend Light and Medium Values
Shade and Blend Dark Values
Create a Fun Face
Shade and Blend
Bobby Blob
Outline a shape, add graduated values with squirkles,
and blend the shading to create a smooth three-
dimensional cartoon face
Figure 2
Outline a Fun Blob Shape
You cant go wrong when outlining blobs any
circular shape will do nicely! Check out the three
blobs in Figure 1 for ideas.
1. Use an HB or 2B pencil to outline a circular
shape of any size (Figure 2).
2. Choose a highlight section to leave white or
light in value.
You can outline its shape or simply remember
where it is. The highlight helps make the blob
look three-dimensional.
Figure 1
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Part 6: Smooth Out Shading with Blending Shade and Blend Bobby Blob
Activity
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Shade and Blend Light
and Medium Values
3. Use squirkling graduations and
2H and HB pencils to add light
values to your blob (Figure 3).
The light source originates from
the front and upper left.
The values begin very light
around the highlight and become
progressively darker the closer
they are to the edge of the blob.
Caution!
Dont blend from darker values into light values
or you may end up with the same value all over
your blob. Blend from light values into darker
values.
When your tissue (or paper towel) becomes
dirty, nd another. If you blend the light sections
with a tissue full of graphite, the light values may
become too dark.
Dont use your ngers to blend. The oils in your
skin will penetrate the papers surface and make
smooth blending impossible.
Figure 3
Figure 4
Remember: squirkling lines that are very
close together produce the smoothest
blended shading.
4. Use your 2B pencil to add middle values
(Figure 4).
Make the shading darker closer to the edge.
5. Use a facial tissue or piece of paper
towel to gently rub the surface of your
graduation until it is smoothly blended
(Figure 5).
Step 1: Wrap a folded facial tissue or piece
of paper towel around the top of your nger.
Step 2: Use circular motions to gently blend
the lightest values around the highlight.
Step 3: Slowly and carefully blend the light
values into the darker values.
Step 4: If the shading becomes too light,
add more graphite and blend again.
Step 5: Continue applying graphite to
sections that dont graduate smoothly and
repeat the blending process until you are
happy with the results.
214
Introduction to Shading
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Figure 5
Figure 7
Figure 6
Shade and Blend Dark Values
6. Add dark squirkles with a 4B pencil
(Figure 6).
Note that the dark shading does not extend
all the way to those edges that are farthest
away from the light source.
This slight rim of reected light will help your
blob look more three-dimensional.
7. Blend the medium shading toward the
dark values until you achieve a smooth
transition of values from light to dark
(Figure 7).
Refer back to the 5-step process in
Instruction 5.
8. Use a 6B pencil to add the darkest values
to the outer sections of your blob and
blend them until you are happy with the
results (Figures 8 and 9).
9. Use your kneaded eraser molded to a
wedge to clean up any smudges outside
the edges of your blob.
Figure 8
215
Part 6: Smooth Out Shading with Blending Shade and Blend Bobby Blob
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Challenge!
You now know how to blend shading! Create another
cartoon character and use the techniques in this
activity to make it look three-dimensional with
blended shading.
Figure 10
Create a Fun Face
10. Outline facial features on your blob with
your 2B pencil (Figure 10).
Bobby can be the name of a boy (Robert)
or girl (Roberta), so feel free to add any
face you want!
11. Use your vinyl and kneaded eraser to
erase the inside sections of the eyes.
Dont worry if these sections dont come
completely white. As long as theyre lighter
than the shading around them they are just
ne!
12. Outline irises inside the white sections
of the eyes (Figure 11).
13. Draw a tiny circle inside each iris as
highlights.
The highlights stay white to help make the
eye look shiny.
14. Use your 6B pencil to shade the irises.
Remember to leave a highlight in each
eye.
15. With a nice sharp 6B pencil (or a ne-
tip, black marker), outline the mouth
and eyes.
You can even add hair, eyebrows, and a
hat if you wish!
Figure 11
Figure 9
216
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Supplies: paper, 4H, 3H, 2H, HB, B, 2B, 3B, 4B, and 5B
pencils; pencil sharpener, sandpaper block, kneaded eraser, soft
paintbrush for blending, ruler
This activity has three sections:
Shade Around and Outward from the
Highlight
Graduate from the Shadow into the
Reected Light
Hatch the Cast Shadow from Light to Dark
ArtSpeak
Key: The overall range of light and/or
dark values in an artwork.
Low key: (think of low levels of light)
A range of mostly dark values.
High key: (think of high levels of light)
A range of mostly light values.
Shade Around and
Outward from the
Highlight
1. Use a 2H pencil to lightly outline
the shape of an egg (Figure 1).
2. Press gently with a 4H pencil to
outline a small circular shape as
a highlight.
Refer to the location and size of the
highlight in Figure 2.
Use squirkling graduations to define the formof a high
key subject and hatching to render its cast shadow
White Egg on a
White Surface
Figure 1
217
Part 6: Smooth Out Shading with Blending White Egg on a White Surface
Activity
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
3. Use a 4H pencil to add a light
graduation around the highlight.
Press gently on your pencil to add
the lightest value over top of the
highlights outline. However, dont
add any shading to the highlight
itself; it needs to stay white.
Figure 2
Then, gradually add a little more pressure to your
pencil so the graduation becomes slightly darker
farther out from the highlight.
4. Use 3H and 2H pencils in turn to
graduate darker values outward in all
directions toward the outline of the egg
itself (Figures 3 and 4).
The shading with the 2H pencil should
extend upward to touch the upper outline of
the egg directly above the highlight.
5. Use an HB pencil to graduate darker
values outward (Figure 5).
Do not add additional shading to the
section directly above the highlight.
Graduate from the
Shadow into the
Re ected Light
6. Use B, 2B, 3B, and 4B pencils
in turn to graduate darker
values downward and outward
(Figures 6 to 9).
The shadow section on the egg
is caused by the form of the egg
itself blocking some light from the
upper left.
218
Introduction to Shading
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Figure 7 Figure 6
Figure 8
The shading of this shadow section gradually becomes darker toward the lower contour of
the egg. Make sure you leave room for a section of reected light.
Figure 9
7. Use 3B, 2B, and B pencils
in turn to graduate
progressively lighter
values to the lower outline
(Figure 10).
This is a rim of reected light.
Light from the white surface on
which the egg is sitting reects
light back onto the lower section
of the egg.
Figure 10
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Part 6: Smooth Out Shading with Blending White Egg on a White Surface
Figure 11
Hatch the Cast Shadow from Light to Dark
8. Sketch a curved guideline to indicate the shape of the cast shadow (Figure 11).
9. Use a ruler to draw a few horizontal guidelines to identify the directionality of the
hatching lines for shading the cast shadow.
Figure 11 has been darkened so you can clearly see the guidelines.
10. Use a 5B pencil to draw a curved
line along a short section of the
lower contour of the egg.
This line represents the darkest
value of the cast shadow.
11. Use 2H, HB, 2B, 3B, 4B, and 5B
pencils in turn to add shading to
the cast shadow.
Begin at the outer edges of the cast
shadow with light values (Figure 12)
and graduate the shading darker
until you meet the curved guideline
on the egg (Figure 13).
12. Use a soft paintbrush to gently
blend the shading of the egg and
its cast shadow (Figure 13).
Figure 13
Figure 12
13. Compare the
shading in your
drawing to
Figure 13 and
x any sections
of shading that
do not graduate
smoothly.
Use a soft
paintbrush,
kneaded eraser
and/or various
grades of pencils.
Date and sign your
drawing!
220
Introduction to Shading
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electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without theprior writtenconsent of BrendaHoddinott andDrawspacePublishing.
221
Part 6: Smooth Out Shading with Blending Shine Up a Simple Sphere
Activity
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electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without theprior writtenconsent of BrendaHoddinott andDrawspacePublishing.
Supplies: paper, 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, 5B, and 6B pencils, pencil
sharpener, sandpaper block, vinyl and kneaded erasers, soft
paintbrush, blending tool
This activity has three sections:
Sketch Proportions and Shading Guides
Add Shading with Contour Hatching
Blend, Burnish, Blend, and Pull Out Highlights
Shine Up a
Simple Sphere
Use contour hatching, burnishing, blending, and
erasing to create a realistic drawing of a
sphere with a shiny surface
Figure 1
Self-correction is integral to
drawing independently. As you
work, constantly go back over
your drawing and adjust sections
to make them more accurate.
Tip!
Sketch Proportions and
Shading Guides
1. Press gently with an HB pencil to
sketch a circle (Figure 1).
These lines will be covered with shading
later on, so no one will know if you decide
to use a compass to draw the circle!
2. Use an HB pencil to lightly sketch a
circular shape in the upper left of the
circle (Figure 2).
The circular shape identies the location
of the highlight.
222
Introduction to Shading
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Figure 3
Figure 2
Figure 4
The light source originates from the
frontal, upper left.
3. Sketch faint curved lines as
guides for adding shading.
The contour hatching lines will
follow the directionality of these
sketch lines.
4. Lighten your sketch in
preparation for shading.
Pat your sketch gently with a
kneaded eraser until the lines are
very faint, but still visible.
Vary the lengths of the individual hatching lines
so the shading graduates smoothly along the
perceived contours of the sphere.
Tip!
The values that are farther away from the
highlight should graduate slightly darker.
Add Shading with
Contour Hatching
5. Use an HB pencil to add curved
hatching lines of random lengths all
around the highlight (Figures 3 and 4).
Follow the directionality of your guidelines
and constantly rotate your paper so
you are always using your natural hand
motions.
223
Part 6: Smooth Out Shading with Blending Shine Up a Simple Sphere
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6. Use a 2B pencil to graduate darker
curved hatching lines outward and
toward the lower right (Figure 5).
Begin this shading slightly into the
outer edges of the previous shading.
As you work, visualize the form of the
sphere and follow its contours.
Figure 6
Figure 5
As you work, focus on the
broad range of values that exist
in between the darks and the
lights. Very light and very dark
values are fairly easy to achieve;
the real challenge is creating
medium values.
Tip!
7. Use 4B and 5B pencils in
turn to graduate darker
shading away from the
highlight and downward, as
shown in Figures 6 and 7.
Figure 7
8. Use a 6B pencil to
graduate the darkest
values close to the lower
right edge of the sphere
(Figure 8).
224
Introduction to Shading
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Figure 9
The white space left
along the lower right will
become the reected
light.
9. Use a 2B pencil to
graduate lighter
values down to the
lower right edge.
These values represent
a rim of reected light
(Figure 9).
Figure 8
Blend, Burnish,
Blend, and Pull
Out Highlights
10. Use a soft paintbrush
to gently blend your
shading, beginning
with the lightest
value and ending with
the darkest values
(Figure 10).
11. Use 2H, HB, and 2B
pencils with well-worn
tips to burnish your
shading.
Never blend dark values
into light values! More than
likely the light values will
darken and the dark values
will lighten leaving you with
an irreparable blob of mostly
medium values.
Caution!
225
Part 6: Smooth Out Shading with Blending Shine Up a Simple Sphere
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Figure 10
Use a 2H for light values, an
HB for middle values, and
a 2B for the darkest values.
An HB is best for the rim of
reected light in the lower
right.
12. Use a kneaded eraser
molded to a wedge to clean
up the smudges around the
circle.
Any time you blend shading,
plan to clean up around
the edges of your subject
(an unavoidable aspect of
blending).
13. Use a soft blending tool
(such as cloth, paper towel,
a blending stump, etc.) to
gently blend the values
again from light into dark
(Figure 11).
Figure 11
Remember: do not
blend from dark to light.
14. Use various pencils
to darken any
sections of shading
that became too light
during the blending
process and blend
the values again.
15. Repeat steps 12 and
13 until you are happy
with the results.
16. Use a kneaded
eraser to lighten the
highlight and clean
up the smudges
around the edges of
the sphere.
226
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Figure 12
17. Sketch the shape of the
cast shadow and add a few
horizontal lines as shading
guides (Figure 12).
18. Graduate horizontal hatching
lines to render the cast shadow
(Figure 13).
The values of the cast shadow
are very dark close to the sphere
and graduate lighter as they move
farther away from the sphere.
19. Gently blend the values of the
cast shadow from the light
values into the dark values
(Figure 14)
Figure 13
Figure 14
20. Check over the
graduations in
all sections of
your drawing
and make
any changes
required to
further smooth
out the shading.
Sign and date
your drawing,
and give yourself
a big hug!
Supplies: paper, 4H, 3H, 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B pencils,
pencil sharpener, sandpaper block, vinyl and kneaded erasers,
soft blending tool
This fun project is designed to challenge your
vision and brain by asking you to rely mostly on
illustrations to guide you as you work.
Shade an Apple
with Contour Hatching
Render a realistic drawing of a shiny Macintosh
apple by using blending to smooth out
contour hatching graduations
1. Lightly sketch an apple and
rene the lines until your
sketch becomes a neatly
rendered contour drawing
(Figures 1 and 2).
2. Follow along with Figures 3 to
16 in sequence to add shading
to your apple with contour
hatching graduations.
Figure 1
Figure 2
227
Part 6: Smooth Out Shading with Blending Shade an Apple with Contour Hatching
Activity
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electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without theprior writtenconsent of BrendaHoddinott andDrawspacePublishing.
Copyright 2013 Drawspace Publishing and Brenda Hoddinott. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any formor by any
means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Figure 3 Figure 4
For the most part you are on your
own to select grades of pencils that
can give you the results illustrated.
This being said, the rst few
illustrations were darkened slightly in
Photoshop to help you better see the
individual hatching lines.
Hence, to help get you started, use
the following grades for each section
of shading added in Figures 3 to 7:
Figure 3: 4H
Figure 4: 3H
Figure 5: 2H
Figure 6: HB
Figure 7: 2H
Figure 5 Figure 6
228
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Figure 7 Figure 8
Figure 10
Figure 9
Figure 11
229
Part 6: Smooth Out Shading with Blending Shade an Apple with Contour Hatching
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
As an Aside
The test of a vocation is the love of
the drudgery it involves.
Logan Pearsall Smith
Figure 12 Figure 13
Figure 14 Figure 15
230
Introduction to Shading
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3. Use a soft blending tool to blend the
values from the light values into the
dark (Figure 17).
Figure 16
Figure 17
Caution!
Over blending can totally destroy the illusion of
a three dimensional form. Your goal is to slightly
blend your shading without losing any of the
values that identify the individual components of
light and shadow.
Blend in the direction of
the contour lines.
4. Add guidelines to
help you add shading
to the cast shadow.
Draw horizontal lines
below the apple where
the cast shadow
belongs (refer to the
darkened image in
Figure 18).
These lines will serve
as guidelines for the
horizontal hatching
lines used to shade
the cast shadow (peek
ahead to Figure 19).
Add curved lines to
identify the shapes of
the cast shadow. The
shading is darkest
Figure 18
below the base of
the apple and the
values becomes
progressively
lighter farther
outward.
231
Part 6: Smooth Out Shading with Blending Shade an Apple with Contour Hatching
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Figure 19
Sign your
drawing, pat
yourself on
the back, and
nd another
drawing
project!
5. Use your guidelines and horizontal hatching lines to shade the cast shadow and
then slightly blend its values.
Refer to Figure 19, which is shown larger than the original drawing.
6. Make any changes needed to make your drawing more realistic.
Use a kneaded eraser molded into an appropriate shape to:
gently pat the lighter sections to pull out highlights.
dot various sections of shading to pull out a random pattern of light spots; make sure
they are different shapes and sizes.
clean up any smudges around the apples edges created by the blending process
232
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Supplies: paper, 4H, 3H, 2H, HB, 2B, 3B, 4B, 5B, and 6B
pencils; pencil sharpener, sandpaper block, erasers
This activity has three sections:
Sketch Petal Contours
Establish a Full Range of Values
Shade Light and Shadow
Sketch Petal Contours
1. Use a 2H or HB pencil to lightly
outline the owers petals (Figures
1 to 4).
Figure 1 shows how lightly rendered the
original sketch is in reality.
Figures 2 to 4 have been darkened in
Photoshop to more clearly demonstrate
the three-step process used to draw the
contours of each petal.
Realistic Petals
on a Flower
Use a chisel point on nine grades of pencils to render
a detailed drawing of a flower with a focus
on shading light and shadow
Figure 1
Most illustrations are shown larger than the
actual drawing so you can better see how
the shading is rendered.
As an Aside
233
Part 6: Smooth Out Shading with Blending Realistic Petals on a Flower
Activity
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Figure 4
Figure 3 Figure 2
I spend as much time
as I can sketching
from nature.
Dartmoor contains
such a rich variety of
landscape, as many
boulders, foaming
rivers and twisted
trees as my heart
could ever desire...
When I look into a
river, I feel I could
spend a whole
lifetime just painting
that river.
Alan Lee
As an
Aside
234
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Establish a Full
Range of Values
2. Sharpen all nine grades of
pencils to a chisel point.
3. Use 5B and 6B pencils to
shade four of the darkest
shadow sections of the
ower (Figure 5).
All other values used
to render this ower fall
somewhere in between the
white of the paper and these
very dark values.
4. Use 4H, 3H, 2H, HB, 2B, 3B,
and 4B pencils to shade the
visible sections of the three
petals in the upper left of
Figure 5.
Refer to Figures 6 to 10.
Figure 7
Figure 5
Figure 6
Figure 8
235
Part 6: Smooth Out Shading with Blending Realistic Petals on a Flower
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
You now have at
least nine different
values (the base
value of nine
pencil grades)
represented in
your drawing
(Figure 10).
As an Aside
Figure 9
Figure 11
Shade Light and Shadow
5. Use pencils from 4H to 4B to add shading to
all the other petals (Figures 11 to 17).
Examine each reference
image closely and choose
whichever pencils can
render the same ranges of
graduated values.
Figure 10
The rst function of an art
student is to observe, to study
nature.
Kimon Nicolaides, The Natural
Way to Draw
236
Introduction to Shading
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
If you are not sure where a
specic petal is located on
the ower, peek ahead to
Figure 19.
When I draw something, I try to build
some kind of history into it.
Drawing an object that has a certain
amount of wear and tear or rust; or a
tree that is damaged.
I love trying to render not just the
object, but what it has been through.
Alan Lee
Figure 12
Figure 14
Figure 13
As an Aside
I keep drawing the trees, the rocks, the
river, Im still learning how to see them; Im
still discovering how to render their forms.
I will spend a lifetime doing that. Maybe
someday Ill get it right.
Alan Lee
As an Aside
237
Part 6: Smooth Out Shading with Blending Realistic Petals on a Flower
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Alan Lee is a world renowned illustrator of
books as well as a conceptional designer and
illustrator for movies. He was born on August
20, 1947 in Middlesex, England.
Alan studied at the Ealing School of Art and
specialized in illustration.
As an Aside
As an Aside
Alan Lee is probably best known
for his award winning work on
the The Lord of The Rings and
The Hobbit by J .R.R. Tolkien.
He created unique conceptional
images and illustrations for
these books and for the movies
that were directed by Peter
J ackson.
His phenomenal illustrations can
also be seen in a broad range
of popular books including:
Faeries (with Brian Froud), The
Mabinogion, Castles, Merlin
Dreams, The Black Ships of
Troy, and The Wanderings of
Oysseus.
Figure 16
Figure 15
Examine the values of each cast shadow
to help you choose the appropriate
pencils for their graduations.
238
Introduction to Shading
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Figures 17 and 18 are
shown the same size as
the original drawing.
A painter told me that nobody
could draw a tree without in
some sort becoming a tree; or
draw a child by studying the
outlines of its form merely...
But by watching for a time his
motions and plays, the painter
enters into his nature and
can then draw him at every
attitude.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
As an Aside
Figure 17
Figure 18
6. Use HB and 2B
pencils to add
additional middle
values where
needed (Figures 18
and 19).
7. Compare your
drawing to Figure
19 and make any
changes that bring
your drawing closer
to the original.
The tiny white
sections in the core of
the ower were pulled
out with a kneaded
eraser molded to a
point.
239
Part 6: Smooth Out Shading with Blending Realistic Petals on a Flower
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means, including electronic, digital, mechanical, recording, photographing, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace Publishing.
Figure 19
Sign and date your drawing, and go nd another ower, leaf, or tree to draw.
240
Introduction to Shading
241
Glossary of Art Terms
Definitions of art-related terms used in Drawspace Curriculum
A
Abstract: A style of art that may not depict a person, place,
or thing. In some cases, the subject exists in reality but may
be unrecognizable in the artwork. The subjects of abstract
drawings are created with such elements as line, color,
value, form, pattern, and shape.
Abstraction: A movement away from realistic depictions of
objects, nature, or living beings. Partial abstraction depicts a
subject that exists in reality, but may be unrecognizable (e.g.,
using geometric shapes to render a human face). Complete
abstraction employs line, color, form, pattern, and shape to
suggest emotion or a non-gurative subject.
Achromatic: Only featuring black, white, or shades of gray
(i.e., colorless).
Acid-free: An archival quality, long-lasting paper product
that has had the acid removed from the pulp in the paper-
making process.
Acrylic painting: (noun) An artwork rendered with acrylic
paints. Acrylic paintings look very similar to oil paintings;
however, acrylic paints are considerably more stable than
oils, which tend to yellow or become brittle with age.
Acrylic painting: (verb) The process of creating an acrylic
painting.
Acrylic paints: Water-based, fast-drying artists paints that
are thicker and stronger than tempera or watercolor paints.
Although water is used to dilute acrylics, they become water-
resistant when dry. Acrylics work in much the same way
as watercolor paints. However, unlike watercolors, acrylics
cannot be rehydrated (i.e., brought back to a liquid) once dry.
Age progression: The art of rendering individuals older
than they are. Often used in police work, age progression
may help update an image of a child who has been missing
for a considerable amount of time. Although peoples faces
change throughout their lives in natural and predictable
stages, its impossible to accurately determine how an
individual will look at a specic age. For this reason, age
progression and age regression techniques are generally
considered both an art and a science.
Age regression: The art of rendering individuals younger
than they are.
Ambidextrous: Demonstrating the ability to use both the left
and right hand equally well to perform such tasks as writing,
drawing, or playing sports.
Anatomist: An expert in, or a student of anatomy.
Anatomy: The branch of science that studies the physical
structures of living beings.
Anchor: A component of composition in which a section of
a drawing subject appears to extend outside the edges of a
drawing or painting.
Angle: The size of the space between two straight lines that
intersect or meet, usually measured in degrees.
Angle line: A line created when two straight lines meet or
intersect to form an angle(s). Angle lines are used to draw
shapes such as squares, rectangles, and triangles.
Archaeologist: A person who studies ancient peoples by
nding and documenting the objects they left behind. Many
archeologists have excellent drawing skills.
Architect: A person who renders building plans and designs.
Art(work): An artistic creation in any art discipline (e.g.
dance, music, theater, writing, or visual arts) by an artist who
begins with an idea and ends with an original work of art.
Artist: A person who practices one or more art disciplines
(e.g. dance, music, theater, writing, or visual arts).
Art elements: (also called design elements) The creative
components of an artistic creation, such as lines, shapes,
spaces, values, forms, textures, and color.
Art principles: The unique expression of art elements in an
artistic creation.
ArtSpeak: A fun word used to describe the vocabulary of art.
An understanding of art-related words and terms enhances
art curriculum comprehension.
Asymmetry: An imbalance or lack of equivalence
(symmetry) between parts of a whole.
Resource
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Glossary of Art Terms
242
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Drawing on Your Brain
Atmospheric perspective: (also called aerial perspective)
A visual depth of eld created by various particles in the
atmosphere. As an object recedes farther into distant space,
it appears to become lighter in value and its edges seem to
become more blurred.
Avant-garde: The creation and application of new, original,
or experimental ideas and techniques.
B
Background: (also called distant space) The sections of a
drawing or painting that are farthest from the viewer.
Balance: A stable arrangement of subjects and values within
a drawing composition.
Ball of a nose: The large, central, rounded form of the lower
half of the nose.
Base of a nose: (also called the septum) The part of the
nose between the nostrils that connects the nose to the
lower face above the upper lip.
Basic colors: The six most common colors, including the
primary colors (yellow, red, and blue) and the secondary
colors (orange, purple, and green.) A box of eight childrens
crayons typically includes the basic colors plus black and
brown.
Bilateral: Neural responses that occur across the left and
right brain hemispheres.
Binder: (also called a three-ring binder) A sturdy folder for
organizing hard copies such as reference materials, lesson
les, printed electronic books, and small drawings. Small
drawings can be sprayed with a xative and inserted into
three-ring, transparent vinyl sheet protectors before they are
added to a binder.
Binding agent: (sometimes referred to as a binder) An
ingredient in paint that solidies as it dries, thereby binding
pigment particles together so that the paint adheres to
a surface. Binding agents are also added to powdered
mediums such as charcoal so that the particles can be
compressed into solid sticks for sketching and drawing.
Black: The complete absence of light. In painting, replicating
black requires a mixture of paints that create the darkest
possible value. In drawing, soft graphite or charcoal can
make a powerful black.
Blending: The process of gently rubbing a section of
shading with a blending tool (e.g., paper towel) to evenly
distribute the medium over the papers surface.
Blending stump: (also called a tortillon, stump, or blender)
A long, thin, cylindrical artists tool that is pointed at both
ends and made of tightly wound paper or felt. Blending
stumps are used to blend charcoal, graphite, and pastel
drawings. When the tips become too dirty or dull to work
properly, they can be sharpened. Blending stumps are sold
in art supply stores and are available in small to large sizes.
Big blending stumps are great for large areas of shading,
and tiny blending stumps work well for smaller, more detailed
sections.
Blending tool: Any object used by an artist to blend a
medium.
Blind contour drawing: A slightly unconventional method of
contour drawing in which artists look only at the subject and
not at their drawing paper as they work. By visually following
the edges of the subject while drawing, both memory and
visual intelligence are enhanced.
Blue: A primary color that represents tranquility, harmony,
and peace. Think of a blue sky, a calm ocean, or an iceberg.
Brain stem: The posterior part of the brain that connects to
the spinal cord and regulates the central nervous system.
Bridge of a nose: (also called the nasal bone) The section
of a nose where the upper bony part joins the cartilage.
While barely visible on young children, the bridge of an adult
nose often protrudes as a noticeable bulge or bump. The
contoured outline of the bridge is most obvious when the
nose is viewed in prole.
Bulls eye: The center of a drawing space. A composition is
weakened when the primary subject is drawn within the bulls
eye.
Burnishing: The process of overlapping layers of a dry
medium (e.g., colored pencils or graphite) to lighten, darken,
or blend the colors or values.
C
Carbon pencil: A drawing medium that makes soft, velvety
marks that are perfect for sketching.
Caricature: A type of cartoon, usually based on an actual
person, with the individuals various characteristics and facial
features exaggerated for comic or satirical effect.
Cartoon: A drawing or sketch that is humorous, lighthearted,
or satirical.
Cast shadow: A dark section on an object or a surface
adjacent to a subject that receives little or no direct light. The
values of a cast shadow are darkest next to the object and
gradually lighten as they move farther away.
Cerebellum: (Latin for small brain) The part of the brain that
controls movement, balance and posture.
Cerebral cortex: The wrinkled outer layer of the cerebrum
that controls functions related to perception, learning,
reasoning, and memory.
243
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Glossary of Art Terms
Cerebral hemisphere: Either half of the cerebrum (left or
right.)
Cerebrum: The largest part of the human brain, which is
divided into two hemispheres.
Chalk pastels: A drawing medium available in chalk pencil
or stick form. Chalk pastels are ideal for blending to create
soft, realistic still-life subjects and portraits. The sharp
corners and edges of sticks can be used to draw thin lines
and the sides can make broad strokes.
Chalk: A drawing medium composed mostly of calcium
carbonate with small amounts of clay and silt. Chalk is
available in a broad range of natural browns and sepias
that are ideal for rendering studies of great masters chalk
drawings.
Charcoal: A drawing medium made from a burnt organic
material such as wood. Charcoal comes in various grades
and is available in pencil, powder, and stick form.
Charcoal pencil: A thin, cylindrical wooden casing lled with
compressed charcoal powder.
Charcoal powder: A powdered form of charcoal that works
well for shading large areas of a drawing or preparing a base
for drawing with erasers.
Charcoal sticks: A drawing medium made by compressing
powdered charcoal and a binding agent into cylindrical or
rectangular sticks.
Chiaroscuro: A drawing and painting technique that was
introduced during the Renaissance in which light and
dark values are balanced to create the illusion of a three-
dimensional reality.
Chisel point: (also called at point) A versatile shape on
the working end of a dry medium (such as a wood-encased
pencil) that has both a sharp edge and a at angled surface.
The sharp edge is used to render thin lines and ne details,
and the at surface is used for shading.
Circle: A geometric shape in which all points on the
circumference are an equal distance from the center point.
Circular shape: A shape created when the ends of a curved
line meet (such as in the letter O). Circular shapes are often
used to outline the forms of various objects and living beings.
Classical drawing: The drawing techniques invented by
ancient Greeks and Romans for creating realistic drawings.
Classical drawing was later enhanced by the great masters
of the Renaissance.
Clay: A naturally occurring material that hardens when dried.
Clay is mixed with graphite to make graphite mediums.
Clip: A tool usually made of metal thats used to securely
clamp sheets of paper to a drawing board. When artists draw
outdoors, clips can prevent their drawings from falling on the
ground or blowing away.
Clockwise: A circular motion that follows the direction of the
hands of a clock.
Cognition: The process by which the brain recognizes and
understands information.
Collage: An artwork created by afxing a selection of objects
(e.g., photographs, ribbons, and/or colored papers) to paper,
board, or canvas.
Color: The visual qualities of objects based on individual
perceptions of their hues and values. Basic colors include
yellow, orange, red, purple, blue, and green.
Color wheel: A circular arrangement of colors used
to reference primary, secondary, intermediary, and
complementary colors.
Colored pencils: A dry medium created by combining
various synthetic or organic pigments with binding agents
and wax. Colored pencils range from recreational to
professional grade depending on the permanency rating of
the pigment, which helps determine the quality of the pencils.
Colored pencils are relatively inexpensive, not messy,
portable, and work equally well for subjects that are soft and
delicate or bold and bright.
Commercial arts: A diverse range of artistic careers in
which professional artists create artworks and/or typography
for the production, manufacture, processing, promotion, or
merchandising of products or services.
Commission: An order placed with an artist for an original
work of art.
Complementary colors: A set of two colors that are directly
opposite one another on a color wheel (e.g., red and green,
yellow and purple, and orange and blue). When placed
beside one other, these colors seem brighter and more
vibrant.
Composite art: The best-known discipline of forensic art
in which a sketch artist translates the visual and verbal
memories of a crime witness or victim into a drawing.
Composition: The arrangement of various parts of a
drawing subject within the borders of a drawing space.
Compound curved line: A curved line that changes
direction to travel in both clockwise and counterclockwise
directions (e.g., the letter S).
Conservation framing: (preservation framing) The
process of framing an artwork to protect it from long-term
deterioration or damage from environmental pollutants, acid,
and light. Special materials such as museum-quality archival
glass are used in the process of conservation framing.
Cont crayon: A drawing medium composed of pigments,
non-adhesive binders and wax. Cont performs like a cross
between a chalk pastel and a childs wax crayon.
Continuous line: A line that is rendered without lifting the
medium from the drawing surface.
Contour: The outline or a section of the outline of a shape
or form.
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Drawing on Your Brain
Contour crosshatching: A classical shading technique that
employs crisscrossing lines to create the illusion of three-
dimensional forms.
Contour drawing: (noun) A drawing comprised of outlines
that follow the contours of the edges of various components
of a drawing subject.
Contour drawing: (verb) The process of creating a contour
drawing.
Contour hatching: A classical shading technique in which
sets of curved hatching lines follow the outlines, contours,
and/or forms of the drawing subject and accentuate the
illusion of a three-dimensional reality.
Contour lines: Real or imaginary lines formed when the
shared edges of spaces or forms meet. You can draw
everything you can see or imagine with contour lines.
Contrast: The comparison of different ranges of values
when compared side by side. Contrast is an invaluable tool
for accentuating various components of composition.
Cool colors: Blue, green, purple, and mixtures of any of
these three colors with one another or white or black. Cool
colors are usually soothing and calming (e.g., colors that
reect on snow and ice.)
Copyright: A form of protection that grants artists the
exclusive right to sell, reproduce, or exhibit their own original
artworks. In a country that has signed the Berne Union for
the Protection of Literary and Artistic Property (also known
as the Berne Convention), artists automatically own the
copyrights to their original creations from the moment each
is completed.
Counterclockwise: (also called anticlockwise) A direction
or motion that is opposite to the movement of the hands of a
clock.
Cranial mass: (also called the cranium) The large section of
the skull at the upper back of the head.
Cranium: The bones of the skull that cover and protect the
brain.
Creativity: The ability to generate unique, original, and
functional ideas beyond the familiar or established.
Crosshatching: A shading technique in which sets of
straight or curved lines overlap or crisscross.
Curved contour lines: Lines that follow the contours of a
drawing subject and illustrate its three-dimensional forms.
Curved line: A line that curves or bends (e.g., the letters C
and U). Curved lines can be drawn in any direction and be
any length.
Curved-sided shapes: Shapes that are created with
curved lines and have sections where two or more of the
curved lines meet at a point or points (e.g., heart or teardrop
shapes).
D
Diagonal line: A line that is neither vertical nor horizontal but
rather slants at an angle.
Diamond shape: A parallelogram in which a straight line
drawn from two opposite points is perpendicular to a line
connecting the second set of opposite points.
Diptych: A set of two related works of art (e.g., paintings,
sculptures, or drawings) that come together as a single
artwork.
Distant space: (also called the background) The sections of
a drawing or painting that are farthest away from the viewer.
Divergent thinking: A thought process that explores various
possible scenarios to generate creative concepts.
Drafting desk: (also called drafting table) An adjustable
worktable with a slanted top.
Drawing: (noun) The image that results from the application
of a medium to a surface. A drawing denes an artists
choice of subjects from his or her own unique perspective.
Drawing: (verb) The process of applying a medium to a
surface to create an image.
Drawing accessories: Any tools or products that enhance
an artists drawing experiences.
Drawing board: An unbendable, portable, smooth surface
used to support an artists sketchbook or drawing paper.
Drawing paper: Acid-free paper thats designed specically
for artists and is available in various weights, colors,
textures, and sizes.
Drawing powder: Tiny, loose particles of a dry drawing
medium which have been broken down from a solid into a
powder.
Drawing space: The area in which a drawing is rendered
within a specic perimeter. It can be the shape of a sheet of
paper itself or a shape outlined on paper, such as a square,
rectangle, or circle.
Drawing stick: A drawing tool made by compressing and
shaping a medium (e.g., cont crayon, chalk, or chalk
pastels) into a cylindrical or rectangular chunk.
Dry media: Non-liquid drawing mediums (e.g., colored
pencils, graphite, or charcoal).
Dry mixing: The process of using a dry medium such as
colored pencils to mix two or more different colors together
to make a new color.
Dry mount: The process of adhering paper artwork or
photographs to a board by using dry adhesive substances,
high heat, and/or a dry mount press.
Duct tape: (also called duck tape) A strong, exible,
fabric-backed sticky tape used for a vast range of artistic,
professional, and creative applications.
245
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Glossary of Art Terms
E
Ear: The organ for hearing in humans and many animals.
Ear canal: The opening to the inner ear.
Easel: An artists accessory often made from wood or metal
that can be used to support a canvas when painting or a
sheet of drawing paper attached to a drawing board when
drawing. An easel can be any size, from a simple tabletop
collapsible tripod to a large, oor-to-ceiling studio type with a
large base.
Egg tempera: A water-based paint made with an egg yolk
binder.
Electroencephalography (EEG): An electrical brain
recording that measures voltage uctuations within the
neurons of the brain. EEG recordings are sometimes used to
study creative processing in the brain.
Elements of art: The fundamental visual symbols found
in visual art; including, but not limited to: line, shape, form,
texture, value, and color.
Eye: The organ of sight and light sensitivity.
Eyeball: (also called the white of the eye) The entire
spherical section of an eye that is safely protected within
an opening in the skull (called the orbital socket or orbital
cavity.)
Eyebrow: An arched group of hairs above the eye.
Eyelashes: Fine hairs that grow from the outer edges of the
upper and lower eyelids.
F
Facial expressions: Voluntary and involuntary movements
of facial muscles in response to various emotions.
Facial features: The eyes, nose, and mouth.
Facial guidelines: Proportional guides that identify the
approximate locations of human features and ears within
specic spaces on an average head.
Facial mass: (also called the face or facial area) The lower
frontal section of a human head.
Facial muscles: The muscles of a face.
Facial slope: The slant of a persons face (excluding the
nose) when viewed in prole. The angle of the facial slope
is measured from the base of the upper teeth upward to the
forehead.
Feathered line: A series of short lines that appear to be a
single line.
Figurative: The visual depiction of a human body in a
drawing or painting.
Figure: The body of a human being.
Fixative spray: An aerosol liquid that is lightly sprayed
on artworks to adhere a medium to paper and lessen the
likelihood of smudging.
Focal point: (also called center of interest or center of
focus) The dominant and/or most striking element(s) in
an artwork. When there is more than one focal point in an
artwork, they are considered the primary and the secondary
focal point(s).
Folk art: A genre of art that depicts the traditional or
indigenous lifestyle, customs, culture, and values of a
specic society.
Foreground: The sections of an artwork closest to the
viewer. Subjects in the foreground are usually rendered with
more detail and a greater contrast of values than those in the
middle ground or background.
Forensic art: Artistic techniques used by police
departments and investigative agencies in the identication,
apprehension, and/or conviction of wanted or missing
persons.
Foreshortening: A component of perspective in which
objects and living beings appear visually distorted when
viewed from extreme angles. The term foreshortening
applies to a single object or gure, whereas the term
perspective refers to an entire scene.
Form: A component of art that creates the illusion of a three
dimensional space on a two-dimensional surface, such as
paper or canvas. A range of values and/or colors are used to
visually transform shapes into three-dimensional structures.
Fresco: (also called a mural) An artwork painted on a thin
layer of plaster that covers a wall or ceiling. Frescoes that
date back more than 3,500 years have been discovered in
Greece. The ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome is also a
fresco that was painted by Michelangelo between 1508 and
1512.
Friable: The extent to which a dry drawing medium crumbles
or breaks. Drawings created with friable mediums are
usually sprayed with a xative to prevent the medium from
eventually falling off the drawing surface.
Frontal lobe: One of the brains four main lobes, located
in front of the central sulcus. It is associated with such
functions as motor cortex (parts of movement and speech),
reasoning, emotions, planning, and problem-solving.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI): A scan
that measures blood ow and neural activity in the brain.
fMRI scans are the second most common tool used to study
creativity in the brain, next to EEG recordings.
246
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Introduction to Contour Lines
G
Geometric perspective: (also called linear perspective) A
precise drawing technique used to render a visual depth of
eld with a horizon line, vanishing point(s), and perspective
lines. As an object appears to recede into distant space, it
becomes progressively smaller until it seems to disappear
into a vanishing point.
Gesture sketch: A quickly rendered, simple sketch that
captures the energy of the past, present, or potential
movements of living beings.
Golden Mean: (also called the Golden Ratio or Divine Ratio)
A mathematical formula devised by the ancient Greeks and
used to create a balanced composition through the strategic
placement of focal points.
Grade: The softness or hardness of the mixture used in the
process of manufacturing drawing mediums.
Graduation: (also called gradient, graduated shading, or
graduated values) A continuous, seamless progression of
values from dark to light or light to dark.
Graphite: A soft black form of opaque carbon found in
nature that is usually mixed with clay in the process of
manufacturing various types of drawing tools.
Green: A soothing, nurturing, and calming secondary color
that is made by mixing yellow and blue.
Grid: An arrangement of squares of exact sizes
proportionately drawn on both a photo and a drawing
surface.
Gum arabic: A binding agent that is added to various media
to improve the bonding properties of their ingredients.
H
Handmade paper: Any type of paper that is made without
modern technology or machinery.
Hardcover: A durable type of book cover that is made from
a thick and unbendable material.
Hardness: The numerical rating of H-grade media (e.g.,
graphite and charcoal) according to their ingredients. Harder
mixtures have higher numbers.
Hatching: A series of lines (called a set) drawn closely
together to give the illusion of values. Depending on the
shading effects desired, the individual lines in hatching sets
can be far apart or close together.
Heightening: The technique of applying a light pigment such
as white chalk to a drawing in order to enhance the illusion
of mass, form, and light.
Hematite: The ingredient in natural red chalk that
determines its specic hue.
Heptagon: A straight-sided shape with seven sides and
seven angles.
Hexagon: A straight-sided shape with six sides and six
angles.
High contrast: Shading that is created by drawing the
darkest values adjacent to the highlights and lightest values.
High Renaissance: (also see Renaissance) The styles
and techniques of the early sixteenth-century paintings of
Florence and Rome characterized by technical mastery and
humanistic content.
Highlight: A small section of a drawing subject that is
rendered with white or a very light value to identify the
brightest area where light bounces off its surface. Highlights
are more pronounced on shiny or glistening surfaces than
dull or matte surfaces.
History: A past record of the lives and activities of human
beings and their environments.
Horizon line: (also called eye level) An imaginary horizontal
line that exists at the viewers eye level and divides their line
of vision. Depending on where an artist chooses to render
the horizon line, the viewers of that artwork perceive their
own vantage point to be above, below, or on the same plane
as the subject.
Horizontal line: A geometric object that is at a right angle to
a vertical line and parallel to a level surface.
Horizontal: A at surface or line that is at a right angle to
vertical lines and is parallel to a level surface.
Hot pressed: A type of paper that is pressed through hot
cylinders during the manufacturing process. Many smooth
watercolor papers are hot pressed.
Hue: Another word for color (e.g., red, purple, or teal).
I
Icon: A visual image or graphic symbol used to identify
information or a specic task. Icons can identify sidebars in
books or specic functions on computer screens.
Illustration: An image used to enhance a book or
publication and/or to help explain textual concepts.
Illustrations are used throughout many books to further the
readers comprehension of the text.
Illustrative realism: A style of art often used by commercial
artists such as illustrators, designers, and graphic artists in
which realistic subjects are rendered with techniques (e.g.,
unrealistic outlines, stylization, and/or distortion) to help the
image stand out strongly in digital and printed documents.
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Glossary of Art Terms
Image modication: An artistic technique used by forensic
artists to modify an image. The process can be as simple as
adding or removing a beard or mustache from a photograph
of a suspect, or as complicated as drawing an entire face
hidden behind a ski mask using nothing more than a video
image as a reference.
Impressionism: A style of painting and drawing originating
in France in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries
that sought to capture a visual impression of a subject rather
than its objective reality.
In-home studio: A personal drawing place within or adjacent
to an artists home. An ideal in-home studio has adequate
space for the artist and his or her art supplies. It can range
from a small section of a table to a large, fully-equipped
professional art studio.
Ink: A pigmented, thin liquid that is applied to a surface with
a brush or pen to write, paint, or draw. Inks have been used
by artists for hundreds of years. Most Renaissance pen-
and-ink drawings were rendered with black and/or various
shades of brown, red, and orange. The most popular inks
for traditional and classical drawing are India, Chinese, and
Bistro.
Inner corner of an eye: A small, reddish, triangular or
oval-shaped form in the inside corner of the eye close to the
nose.
Intensity: The brightness or dullness of a color.
Interhemispheric: Pertaining to both hemispheres of the
brain (right and left.)
Intermediary colors: Colors that are created by combining
adjacent primary and secondary colors.
Iris: The colored circular section of an eyeball surrounding
the pupil.
J
Juxtaposition: An aspect of composition that refers to the
close placement of elements in order to compare or contrast
their relationships and/or enhance the message or meaning
of the artwork. Artists can put two or more objects together
that have opposite associations or interpretations (e.g.,
putting something new and shiny beside an object that is old
and weathered).
K
Key: The overall amount of light and dark values in a
drawing.
Kneaded eraser: A soft, pliable type of eraser used to erase
parts of a drawing or to gently pat a drawing medium to
make a lighter value or line.
L
Landscape format: (also called horizontal format) A
rectangular shape with its two longer sides on the top and
bottom (e.g., an outlined drawing space that is wider than it
is high).
Landscape: A drawing or painting depicting an expanse of
natural scenery that includes some components of land such
as trees, mountains, or beaches.
Lateral: A strong neural response on either the left or right
brain hemisphere.
Leadpoint: (Also known as metalpoint) An ancient
drawing tool made of lead or a lead alloy that left marks on
unprepared paper. Leadpoint produced a beautiful faint line
that could be erased.
Level: The comparison of one horizontal surface or line to
another or others.
Life drawing: (noun) An artwork created by using living
beings as references rather than objects.
Life drawing: (verb) The process of drawing from a living
being rather than a photo or sketch.
Light source: The direction from which a dominant light
originates. A light source identies the light and shadow
areas of a drawing subject, allowing artists to know where to
add light or dark lines and values in their artworks.
Line drawing: An artwork created with only lines. A line
drawing aims to accurately outline the contours of the
various shapes and/or forms of a drawing subject.
Line of symmetry: A real or imaginary line dividing an object
or drawing space into two equal sections. In a drawing, the
outline on one side of the line of symmetry needs to be a
mirror image of the other side.
Line: A visually identiable path of a point moving in space.
Straight, angle, and curved lines can vary in width, direction,
and length, and are used in drawings to visually separate
and/or dene the forms of a drawing subject.
Lineweight: (also called the weight of a line) The value and/
or width of a line.
Localized: Associated with a specic area of the brain.
Low contrast: Shading with a limited range of values, such
as mostly light values or mostly dark values.
Lower eyelid: The fold of skin that protects the lower section
of the eyeball. The lower eyelid cannot move without help
from facial muscles around the eye.
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Drawing on Your Brain
M
Manga: A J apanese word for comic book that refers to a
popular style of cartooning which originated in J apan. Manga
also refers to reprints of J apanese comics that are translated
from J apanese into other languages, including English.
Manikin: (or mannequin) An accurately proportioned human
or animal model that can be bent and contorted into various
poses. Many manikins are designed specically for artists as
references for practicing gurative drawings and establishing
accurate human proportions for a specic pose in an
artwork.
Markers: Drawing and writing tools with a soft tip often
made of felt that are lled with colored or black liquid or ink.
Markers are available with tips ranging from ne to thick.
Master: A term of respect and honor earned by
accomplished artists with exemplary skills in their specic
discipline.
Matte: A surface texture that is dull and lusterless. Many
fabrics, rocks, and unnished wood have a matte texture.
Mechanical pencil: A drawing tool with an internal
mechanism that pushes a thin graphite lead placed in a tiny
tube upward through the tip.
Medium: An art material, such as clay, paint, or graphite that
is used to make art. Almost anything can be an art medium,
from the burnt end of a stick to computer software.
Mediums: (also called media) More than one medium.
Metalpoint: A drawing tool popular during the Renaissance
that was made from a relatively soft metal, such as lead,
silver, gold, or copper.
Middle ground: The sections of an artwork located in
between the foreground and the background.
Mixed lineweight: A single contour line made up of a
combination of different lineweights (e.g., thick, thin, light,
and/or dark).
Mixed media: An artwork created with two or more different
mediums.
Modernism: A style of art that makes a distinctive break
away from all previous genres.
Monochromatic: A drawing or painting rendered with a
range of values/tints of a single color.
Mummy portrait: A painting of a man, woman, or child that
was attached to the face of a burial mummy. Many date back
to the Roman occupation of Egypt.
Mural: A drawing or painting on a wall, ceiling, or other large
surface.
N
Negative space: The area, space, or background that
visually surrounds or appears behind an object, person, or
another space.
Neural: Relative to, or located in a nerve or the nervous
system.
Neuroscience: The scientic study of the human bodys
nervous system.
Newsprint: An inexpensive paper that is not acid-free and
is generally used for printing newspapers. Newsprint is not
recommended for drawing because it is very thin, tears
easily, and quickly yellows due to its acidic content.
Nose: The organ of smell and the entrance to the respiratory
tract.
Nostrils: The two openings on the lower section of a nose.
O
Occipital lobe: One of the brains four main lobes, located
at the back of the brain behind the temporal and parietal
lobes. It processes various aspects of vision.
Octagon: An eight-sided shape with eight angles.
Oil paint: (also called oil or oils) A painting medium that is
made by mixing a nely ground adhesive pigment with an
oil binder. Oil paint was the primary painting medium of the
High Renaissance and has continued to dominate painting
for the past 500 years. Oil-based paints take much longer
to dry than acrylics but offer a greater ease of manipulation,
and their colors change very little when dry.
Oil painting: A work of art created by applying oil paints to a
surface such as canvas, heavy linen, or board.
Oil pastels: A dry drawing and painting medium made by
mixing pigments with a very dense oil binder. Oil pastels are
available in cylindrical and rectangular sticks covered with a
thin paper. Oil solvents such as turpentine can be brushed
over an oil pastel drawing to blend the colors for a more
painterly appearance.
One-point perspective: The technique of using a single
vanishing point to create the illusion of a straight-on view into
distant space. One-point perspective occurs when a face
of an object such as a cube is closer to the viewer than its
sides.
Opaque: A medium or material through which light cannot
be detected.
Optical illusion: (also called a visual illusion) An image that
differs from objective reality, but, when processed by the
subconscious brain, is interpreted as reality.
Orange: A secondary color created with yellow and red.
Orange is energetic, vibrant, and amboyant.
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Glossary of Art Terms
Orbital socket: (also called the orbital cavity) The bone
cavity of the face that keeps the eyeball protected.
Original: An artwork that was created by an artist who was
the rst to bring the work from its intellectual conception to
its creative conclusion. There can never be more than one
original; however, reproductions can be made by the artist or
with the written permission of the artist.
Oval: (also called an ellipse) An elongated circle.
Overlapping: A perspective and composition technique in
which subjects are rendered in front of or behind one another
to create the illusion of a three-dimensional reality on a at
surface.
P
Paint: An art medium (e.g., watercolor, oil, or acrylic) made
from a mixture of pigment and a thick or thin liquid. Paint is
applied to a surface such as paper, fabric, or board with a
tool such as a brush, palette knife, or ngers.
Painter: A person who paints.
Painting: An artistic composition created by applying a liquid
medium such as paint or ink to a surface.
Parallel: Two or more straight lines that slant in the exact
same direction and can extend to innity without ever
intersecting.
Parallelogram: A four-sided shape with two sets of parallel
sides that are equal in length and in which the opposite
angles are identical.
Parchment: (also called vellum) An ancient drawing
or writing surface made from calf, sheep, or goat skin
that was widely used before paper was easily available.
Contemporary artists generally prefer synthetic parchment
paper as its much less expensive and more readily
available.
Parietal lobe: One of the brains four main lobes, located
behind the central sulcus. It processes such stimuli as pain,
pressure, touch, and temperature.
Pastels: Dry drawing mediums available in either sticks
or pencils that are manufactured by mixing dry, powdered
pigments with binding agents.
Pattern: The visual arrangement of the different values of a
drawing subject as represented by lines and/or shading.
Pencil: A broad category of writing and drawing tools that
have a medium inside a holder. It wasnt until the end of the
nineteenth century that the word pencil specically referred
to a stick of graphite encased in a cylindrical piece of wood.
Pens: Disposable, rellable, or rechargeable drawing tools
used for commercial art, sketching, and drawing.
Pentagon: A straight-sided shape with ve sides and ve
angles.
Perception: The manner in which you understand and
process sensory information.
Perpendicular: A real or imaginary straight line that meets
or intersects another straight line to form at least one ninety-
degree angle.
Perspective: (also called geometric or linear perspective) A
technique comprised of a precise series of rules that makes
subjects in drawings appear to recede into distant space.
Perspective lines: Imaginary straight lines that extend from
the edges of drawing subjects back to a vanishing point (or
points) on the horizon line.
Photorealism: A genre of drawing and painting based on
photographs that are used by the artist as references to
create a highly realistic artwork with photographic qualities.
Pigment: The material that is mixed with dry or liquid
mediums to create the colors in a colored artwork.
Plotting and dotting: The process of visually measuring
distances and marking small dots along the sides of grid
squares or drawing spaces to help artists outline a subject
that is proportionately correct.
Pointillism: A method of drawing or painting with
several layers of small colored dots, strokes, or individual
brushstrokes. When viewed from a distance, the dots in
pointillist paintings and drawings appear to blend together
to create the illusion of depth, visual masses, and forms.
Nineteenth-century French impressionistic artists including
George Seurat and Paul Signac helped this genre to become
a highly respected style of painting, and more recently,
drawing.
Polychromatic: An artwork created with several different
colors.
Portable studio: Drawing or painting materials packed into
an easily transportable container and used to create art at
locations beyond ones home.
Portfolio of work: A body of work (i.e., drawings, paintings,
and designs) created by an artist for self-promotion and/
or to supplement applications for career advancement
opportunities, such as educational applications or gallery
exhibitions.
Portfolio: A hard-sided case in which artists transport and
store such items as paintings, drawings, sheets of drawing
paper, and other artworks.
Portrait format: (also called vertical format) A rectangular
shape with its two shorter sides on the top and bottom (e.g.,
an outlined drawing space that is higher than it is wide).
Portrait: An artwork depicting a likeness to the face and
sometimes the entire body of a person or animal.
Positive space: The space in a drawing or painting that is
occupied by an object or living being.
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Drawing on Your Brain
Post-mortem reconstruction: Artistic techniques used by
forensic artists to sculpt a model of a three-dimensional head
and face based on the measurements of the skull.
Pouncing: A technique that was most popular during the
Renaissance for transferring the outlines of an image to
another surface (e.g., transferring a drawing on paper to a
canvas or wall). First, the outline of the image is perforated
with a series of tiny holes and placed on or taped to the
nal surface. A ne powdered medium such as charcoal is
sprinkled or gently rubbed over the image outlines causing
some of the powder to fall through the holes onto the new
surface. The original image is removed to reveal guidelines
on the new surface for creating another drawing or painting
of the image.
Powdered: A drawing medium such as graphite that has
been ground into a ne powder.
Prehistoric: The time period that pre-dates recorded
history. Prehistoric humans drew pictures on many surfaces,
including the walls of caves.
Prepared paper: A paper coated with a substance that
seals, colors, or alters its absorbency and/or tooth. The
surfaces of many drawing papers used during the fteenth
century were coated with several layers of white lead
and ground bone that was tinted with a pigment and then
tempered with glue sizing.
Primary colors: Yellow, red, and blue. All other colors
originate from primary colors and no combinations of other
colors can make primary colors. Primary colors are high-
intensity and go well together to create a drawing that looks
incredibly bright. By mixing the primary colors with other
colors in various combinations, millions of different colors
can be created.
Primary focal point: The single most important center of
interest or focus in a drawing. For example, in a drawing
of an animal, it may be the eyes. The face itself or an
interesting section of the body may then become the
secondary focal point.
Proportion: The relationship in size between two or more
components of an artwork.
Pupil of an eye: The dark circular shape within the iris that
constricts or expands under different lighting conditions.
Purple: A secondary color that is spiritual, mysterious,
exotic, and represents royalty, nobility, and enlightenment.
Some shades of purple that feature more red than blue fall
into the category of warm colors.
Q
Quill: A pen made from a feather. The hard, hollow straw
of the feather is dipped in ink and then scratched across
a surface. Quills were a popular drawing tool during the
Renaissance and were usually made from goose, swan, or
turkey feathers.
R
Realism: A style of art in which living beings and objects are
represented in an artwork as they appear in real life without
stylization or distortion.
Realist: An artist who creates artworks in the style of
realism. A well-known realist is Canadian painter, Robert
Bateman (b. 1930).
Realistic sculpture: A three-dimensional art form that
portrays recognizable shapes, objects, or people.
Ream: A unit of 500 sheets of paper used to calculate a
papers weight.
Rectangle: A parallelogram with four straight sides, four
right angles, and unequal adjacent sides.
Red chalk: (also called sanguine) A drawing medium made
from a combination of clay and hematite or iron. Leonardo
da Vinci is thought to be the rst artist to use red chalk
extensively for drawing toward the end of the fteenth
century.
Red: A primary color considered to be the warmest and most
energetic color. It is associated with love, energy, and danger
(as in a red trafc light or warning sign).
Reected light: A faint light reected or bounced back on an
object from nearby surfaces.
Renaissance: (from the French word for rebirth) A period
in European history from the fourteenth century to the
seventeenth century. The era is dened by great advances
in education and intellectual pursuits and great social
and political upheaval. During these centuries, visual art
developed more than at any other time since the beginning
of history. Between 1480 and 1527, during the period known
as the High Renaissance, many of historys most renowned
artists created some of the greatest masterpieces in the
history of art.
Render: The process of making or creating something. For
example, an artist can render a sketch by drawing lines on a
sheet of paper.
Resource les: (also called resources) A collection of
information (such as books, articles, photos, and digital
images) used by artists as references for writing about or
creating art.
Right angle: A geometric object that is formed when two
straight perpendicular lines meet at a ninety-degree angle.
Romanticism: A genre of art during the late eighteenth and
early nineteenth centuries that celebrated nature rather than
civilization.
Rough sketch: A quickly rendered visual notation of an
image or idea that illustrates the important elements of a
subject using very few details. Rough sketches can capture
a pose or gesture, establish values, suggest proportions,
and/or arrange the major components of a composition.
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Glossary of Art Terms
Rough: The surface texture of abrasive, lumpy, irregular, or
jagged objects.
Rule of thirds: A compositional formula that identies four
ideal locations within a rectangular drawing space for a focal
point. The rule of thirds is a variation of an old traditional
compositional formula known as the Golden Mean.
S
Sandpaper block: A block with tear-off sheets of ne
sandpaper used to sharpen the points of pencils.
Score: To cut slightly but not sever. Cardboard or matboard
should be scored less than halfway into its total thickness.
Sculptor: An artist who creates sculptures. A well-known
sculptor of the Renaissance was Michelangelo (14751564)
who created the statue of David.
Sculpture: A three-dimensional artwork that is made of a
material such as wood, bronze, rock, or marble.
Secondary colors: The colors orange, green, and purple,
which are created by mixing two primary colors together.
Secondary focal point: One or more centers of interest in
a drawing composition that are signicant but not quite as
important as the primary focal point.
Sepia ink: A thin, brown liquid medium used for painting,
writing, and/or creating drawings with rellable or
rechargeable pens.
Sepia: The popular brown colors used in various media.
The word sepia (derived from Latin and Greek words for
cuttlesh) was used in the Renaissance to describe an
artists brownish-gray pigment made from the dried ink sacs
of cuttlesh and squid.
Set of lines: A grouping of several lines used to create
shading.
Set of straight lines: A grouping of two or more vertical,
horizontal, or diagonal straight lines often drawn parallel to
one another.
Shading map: (also called a value map) A plan or blueprint
for adding shading to a drawing. The shapes of various
values are identied and lightly outlined on the drawing
paper before the shading is added.
Shading: The process of adding values to a drawing to
create the illusion of texture, form, and/or three-dimensional
space.
Shadow: A dark area on an object or living being that
receives little to no light.
Shape: A two-dimensional geometric object that can serve
as the outline of a three-dimensional object. For example, a
circle is the shape of a sphere.
Sharpener: A tool for sharpening pencils. An ideal sharpener
for artists is hand held, made of metal, and has two openings
for regular and oversized pencils.
Shiny: A texture that has highlights reecting off its surface.
Shiny objects can be glossy or highly polished, such as the
surface of a new coin or polished brass.
Sidebar: A section of text in a document that provides
additional information about a topic. Many instructional art
books have sidebars that provide readers with denitions of
art-related words and terms.
Single curved line: (also called a simple curved line) A
curved line that curves in only one direction, either clockwise
or counterclockwise.
Sketch: (noun) A simple representation, outline, or drawing
that captures the integral aspects of a subject quickly and
efciently.
Sketch: (verb) The process of rendering a sketch.
Sketchbook: Several sheets of drawing paper that are
bound together and contained within a soft or hard cover.
Skull: The skeletal part of the head made up of the bones of
the face and cranium.
Smooth: A texture with very few surface features. A hand
run over a smooth surface feels little or no unevenness or
roughness.
Softcover: A exible book cover that is usually made of
paper.
Softness: The numerical rating of B-grade media according
to their ingredients. Softer mixtures have higher numbers.
Sphere: A perfectly round geometric object (e.g., a three-
dimensional circle) in which all points on the surface are
equal distance from the center point. Balls and globes are
examples of spheres.
Spinal cord: A cord of nervous tissue that extends from the
bottom of the brain through the spinal column, transporting
coordination and reex impulses.
Spiral line: A curved line that can never meet itself to
form a shape. It can continue in either a clockwise or
counterclockwise direction and simply becomes larger (or
smaller) and less (or more) curved the longer it gets.
Spray xative: A transparent aerosol coating that is sprayed
onto an artwork to help prevent smudging.
Square: A parallelogram with four straight sides of equal
length and four right angles.
Squirkles: Randomly drawn, overlapping curved lines and
shapes that are used to create a shading technique called
squirkling.
Squirkling: A shading technique in which randomly drawn,
overlapping curved lines and shapes (squirkles) create
values.
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Drawing on Your Brain
Sticks: A type of drawing tool in which a medium is
compressed into rectangular or cylindrical sticks. Sticks
come in various sizes, which make them highly adaptable
for diverse mark-making styles and techniques. Large sticks
are great for large sketches, and smaller sticks work well for
smaller works.
Still life: An artwork that depicts representational, inanimate
objects such as fruit, owers, and/or bottles.
Stippling: (also called stipple or stippled) A shading
technique in which a series of dots are arranged in groups to
create the illusion of values.
Storage portfolio: A hard-sided foldable case in which
artists store drawings and sheets of drawing paper to protect
them from damage.
Straight line: A geometric object that provides the shortest
connection between any two points. Straight lines can
be rendered thick or thin, long or short, and drawn in any
direction. They are categorized into three basic types:
vertical (straight up and down and at a right angle to a
horizontal line), horizontal (level and at a right angle to a
vertical line), and diagonal (slanting or sloping at an angle).
Straight-sided shape: A geometric object such as a square,
rectangle, or triangle that is created when three or more
straight lines connect to form a shape.
Stump: A pointed, solid stick of soft paper or leather used for
blending and shading drawings.
Style: An artists individual approach to his or her own art.
An artists style is dened by an accumulation of her/his
inherent preferences, life experiences, artistic philosophy,
personal goals, and academic background. When an artists
personal style is critiqued and/or examined by others, the
resulting label may focus more on a particular historical
period or artistic movement than the artists true style.
Stylus: (also called leadpoint or metalpoint) A thin metal
stick used for drawing that was popular before the invention
of pencils. It was typically cast with a ne point at one end
and a blunter point at the opposite end to provide artists with
the creative freedom to vary the width of their lines as they
worked. A stylus leaves a thin deposit of metal on the surface
of paper producing a very ne line. Silver was very popular
with Renaissance artists because it eventually tarnished and
took on a beautiful, luminous, brown tone.
Subject: Any object or living being that an artist chooses to
capture in an artwork.
Surrealism: An artistic style and movement that began
in Europe during the early twentieth century in which the
subjects of artworks are stylized, distorted, or reinvented.
Surrealist: An artist who creates artworks in the style of
surrealism. One of the most famous surrealists was Salvador
Dali (1904-1989).
Symmetry: An arrangement of lines, shapes, and/or values
on opposite sides of an often imaginary center line that
appear to be duplications or mirror images of one another.
Both sides are said to be symmetrical.
T
Talent: A process of self-discovery throughout which artists
acknowledge their interest and motivation to become
exceptional in a specic area.
Technical pens: Drawing tools available in both rellable
and pre-lled (disposable) holders that work beautifully for
creating the sharp, even lines used for detailed drawings,
drafting, graphic design, and commercial art.
Technique: A well-known method of accomplishing a
particular activity or task (e.g., a specic way to render
shading).
Temporal lobe: One of the brains four main lobes, located
below the lateral ssure. It processes memory and hearing.
Texture: The surface details of an object that can be
identied by sight, touch, or a general knowledge of the
subject.
Thumbnail: A preliminary sketch that is typically smaller
than the planned size of the nal drawing. Thumbnails are
rendered before an artist begins a drawing and designed to
work through potential problems with composition, values,
perspective, or proportions.
Tone: (also called value) The degree of lightness or
darkness of an area in an artwork. Tone varies from the
bright white of a light source through shades of gray to the
deepest black shadows.
Tooth: The surface texture of paper. Paper with a smooth
tooth is at with a silky texture; a medium tooth is uneven
with a slightly rough texture; and a coarse tooth is bumpy
with a very rough texture.
Torso: The primary structure of a human body to which the
head, arms, and legs are connected.
Traditional realist: An artist who prefers to draw subjects as
they exist in reality.
Trapezoid: A four-sided shape in which only two sides are
parallel.
Triangle: A shape with three straight sides and three angles.
Triptych: An artwork consisting of three related paintings or
drawings.
U
Underdrawing: A loosely rendered sketch or drawing
created as a guide for a nal artwork.
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Glossary of Art Terms
Unity: A balanced composition in which the various
components of a subject come together to create a sense
of harmonious integration.
Upper eyelid: A fold of skin that opens and closes
automatically (blinks) to protect the eyeball.
V
Value map: (also called a shading map) A plan or
blueprint for adding shading to a drawing.
Value scale: A range of different values that are drawn in
order from light to dark or from dark to light.
Values: The various shades of gray in an artwork. A broad
range of values can be achieved by using various grades
of a medium and by varying the density of the shading
lines and the pressure used when applying the medium to
a surface.
Vanishing point: (also called VP) Imaginary point(s) on
the horizon line where perspective lines converge.
Vertical line: A geometric object that is straight up and
down and at a right angle to a level surface.
Viewnder frame: An adjustable, see-through frame
that allows artists to look at a subject from various
viewpoints. A viewnder frame is invaluable when planning
a composition for any type of drawing or painting (e.g.,
portraits, gures, and landscapes). An easily constructed
viewnder frame consists of two adjustable L-shaped
pieces of heavy paper, cardboard, or matboard that are
held together with paper clips.
Vinyl eraser: A soft white eraser with a plastic texture
used for erasing sections of drawings.
Vision: (1) The sense of sight which enables you to
see objects and living beings. (2) An artists creative
aspirations.
Visual art: Artworks that can be appreciated with the
sense of sight (e.g., drawings, paintings, and sculptures).
Visual intelligence: (also called spatial intelligence and
seeing as an artist) The ability to visually interpret and
mentally store and retrieve visual information. Individuals
with highly developed visual intelligence, such as
Leonardo da Vinci and Steven Spielberg for example, are
better able to retain information about what they see and
then transfer these images to a visual art discipline.
Visual perception: The ability to use ones eyesight to
interpret information in ones surroundings.
Visual-object intelligence: Ones ability to process the
visual properties of an object, such as texture, shape and
color.
Visual-spatial intelligence: Ones ability to process the
ways in which objects are spatially oriented and relative to
one another in space.
W
Warm colors: Yellow, orange, and red, as well as mixtures
of any of these three colors with white or black or with one
other. Warm colors are usually invigorating (e.g., the colors
of re).
Weight of paper: The thickness of individual sheets of
paper. Thin paper weighs very little but is easily torn and
damaged. Thick paper is more durable than thin because it
weighs more.
White of the eye: The large visible section of an eyeball that
is light in value and color but is not really white.
Wings of a nose: The two softly rounded (often triangular
shaped) forms extending from the sides of the ball of the
nose.
Wood-encased pencil: (also called a wooden pencil) A
drawing or writing tool with a thin cylindrical stick of medium
held inside a wooden casing.
Woodless pencil: A thick cylindrical stick of graphite
wrapped in a vinyl casing. Woodless pencils are ideal for
large graphite drawings that require wider strokes than
regular pencils can provide. When sharpened, they can also
make thin lines.
Y
Yellow: A primary color that is bright, cheery, and powerful. It
is the color of happiness, sunshine, and many owers.

Drawspace professional lessons are the
primary focus of the Drawspace Certication
Program and are taught in Drawspaces ofcial
interactive online classrooms. Featuring
an abundance of illustrations and in-depth
demonstrations, these lessons give students
the foundational skills required by both
commercial and recreational artists.
Drawspace professional lessons are used by
art students and educators all over the world
and can be licensed for education purposes in
digital format at www.drawspace.com.
About the Author
Brenda Hoddinott is an award-winning artist,
author of art instruction books, graphic
designer, art educator, and curriculum designer.
As an internationally certied forensic artist, she
worked with diverse police departments and
investigative agencies for 25 years.
Through the creation of a passion for the
subject matter, the quest for knowledge is
deepened.
Brenda Hoddinott
Students who prefer to teach themselves
Schools, colleges, and universities
Independent art teachers
Homeschooling families
Now everyone can draw!
Drawspace Curriculum is designed to provide
easy-to-use, high-quality curriculum for:
Drawspaces
Introduction to
Shading
offers an enjoyable
approach to the
fundamentals of
shading.