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Balinese alphabet

Balinese alphabet
Aksara Bali

Type

Abugida

Languages

Balinese
Sasak

Time period

c. 1000present

Parent systems Proto-Sinaitic alphabet


Phoenician alphabet

Aramaic alphabet

Brhm

Pallava

Old Kawi

Sister systems

Batak
Baybayin
Kulitan
Buhid
Hanun'o
Javanese
Lontara
Old Sundanese
Rencong
Rejang
Tagbanwa

ISO 15924

Bali, 360

Direction

Left-to-right

Unicode alias

Balinese

Aksara Bali

Unicode range U+1B00U+1B7F [1]

The Balinese script, natively known as Aksara Bali and Hanacaraka, is an abugida used in the island of Bali,
Indonesia, commonly for writing the Austronesian Balinese language, Old Javanese, and the liturgical language
Sanskrit. With some modifications, the script is also used to write the Sasak language, used in the neighboring island
of Lombok.[2] The script is a descendant of the Brahmi script, and so has many similarities with the modern scripts
of South and Southeast Asia. The Balinese script, along with the Javanese script, is considered the most elaborate
and ornate among Brahmic scripts of Southeast Asia.[3]
Though everyday use of the script has largely been supplanted by the Latin alphabet, the Balinese script has
significant prevalence in many of the island's traditional ceremonies and is strongly associated with the Hindu
religion. The script is mainly used today for copying lontar or palm leaf manuscripts containing religious texts.[4]

Balinese alphabet

Brhm
The Brahmic script and its
descendants

v
t

e [5]

Charateristics
There are 47 letters in the Balinese script, each representing a syllable with inherent vowel /a/ or// at the end of a
sentence, which changes depending on the diacritics around the letter. Pure Balinese can be written with 18
consonant letters and 9 vowel letters, while Sanskrit transliteration or loan words from Sanskrit and Old Javanese
utilizes the full set. A set of modified letters are also used for writing the Sasak language. Each consonant has a
conjunct form called gantungan which nullifies the inherent vowel of the previous syllable.
Punctuation includes a comma, period, colon, as well as marks to introduce and end section of a text. Musical
notation uses letter-like symbols and diacritical marks in order to indicate metrical information. Text are written left
to right without word boundaries (Scriptio continua).
There is also a set of "holy letters" called aksara modre which appears in religious texts and protective talismans.
Most of them are constructed using diacritic ulu candra with corresponding characters. A number of additional
characters, known to be used inline in text (as opposed to decoratively on drawings), remains under study and those
characters are expected to be proposed as Balinese extensions in due course.

Letters
A basic letter in Balinese is called aksara (), and each letter stands for a syllable with inherent vowel /a/.

Consonants
Consonants are called wianjana (), and there are 33 consonants letters in Balinese, though only 18 called
wrestra () are used for writing the Balinese language. The rest are mainly used for writing Sanskrit and
Kawi loanwords.
Wyanjana (Consonants)
Plosive

Velar

Palatal

Retroflex

Dental

Labial

Glottal

Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc.
ka

ka

ta

ca

ta

ta

pa

pa

ka

kha

ta

cha

ha

ta

tha

pa

pha

ga

ga

ja

da

da

ba

ba

ga

gha

jha

ha

da

dha

ba

bha

or

Balinese alphabet

Nasal

nga

Semivowel

nya

wa

Liquid
Fricative

na

na

ra

ra

la

la

sa

sa

ma

ma

ja

ya

ha

ha

Vowels
Vowels, called suara (), can be written as independent letters when vowels appear in initial position. They are
described in the following list:
Swara (Vowels)
Short

Aksara
IPA

Transcription

IPA

Transcription

ai

au

Long

Aksara

Gantungan
Adeg-adeg may not used in the middle of a sentence, so gantungan (appended letters) has to be used to kill the vowel
of a consonant letter in such case. Each consonant letter has a corresponding gantungan form, and the gantungan
eliminates the inherent vowel /a/ of the letter it is appended to. For example, if the letter na is appended with
gantungan da, the pronunciation becomes nda.
Gantungan and pangangge (diacritic) can be applied together to a letter. However, attaching two or more gantungan
to one letter is forbidden; this condition is known as tumpuk telu (three layers). Adeg-adeg may be used in the middle
of a sentence to avoid such situation.[6]
The forms of gantungan are as follows:
Gantungan
Plosive

Velar

Palatal

Retroflex

Dental

Labial

Glottal

Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc. Aksara IPA Transc.
ka

ka

ta

ca

ta

ta

pa

pa

ka

kha

ta

cha

ha

ta

tha

pa

pha

ga

ga

ja

da

da

ba

ba

ga

gha

jha

ha

da

dha

ba

bha

Balinese alphabet

Nasal

4
a

nga

Semivowel

nya

wa

wa

Liquid
Fricative

na

na

ra

ra

la

la

sa

sa

ma

ma

ja

ya

ha

ha

Diacritics
Diacritics (pangangge, pronounced /pae/, also known as sandhangan when referring to the Javanese script) are
symbols that cannot stand by itself. When they are attached to the independent letters, they affect the pronunciation.
The three types of diacritics are pangangge suara, pangangge tengenan (pronounced /tnan/) and pangangge
aksara.

Pangangge suara
If a consonant letter is embellished with a pangangge suara, its vowel is changed. For example, the letter na with ulu
becomes ni; ka with suku becomes ku. The diacritics in this category is summarized in the following list:
Pangangge Swara (Vowel Diacritic)
Short

Long

Pangangge

IPA

Transcription

IPA

Transcription

ai

au

Pangangge

Many consonants can form ligatures with tedung:

Pangangge tengenan
Pangangge tengenan, except adeg-adeg, adds a final
consonant to a syllable. It can be used together with
pangangge suara. For example, the letter na with bisah
becomes nah; ka with suku and surang becomes kur.
Adeg-adeg kills the inherent vowel /a/ in the consonant
letter. Compared to Devanagari, bisah is analogous to
visarga, cecek to anusvara, and adeg-adeg to virama.

Balinese alphabet

Symbol

Pronunciation

Name

/h/

Bisah

/r/

Surang

//

Cecek

Adeg-adeg

Pangangge aksara
Pangangge aksara is appended below consonant letters. Pangangge aksara are the appended (gantungan) forms of
the ardhasuara (semivowel) consonants. Guwung macelek is the appended form of the vowel ra repa.
Symbol

Pronunciation

Name

/ra/

Cakra/Guwung

/r/

Guwung macelek

/a/

Suku kembung

Balinese alphabet

6
/ja/

Nania

Numerals
Balinese numeral

Hindu numeral

Name

Balinese numeral

Hindu numeral

Name

Bindu/Windu

Lima

Siki/Besik

Nem

Kalih/Dua

Pitu

Tiga/Telu

Kutus

Papat

Sanga/Sia

Balinese numerals are written in the same manner as Hindu numerals. For example, 25 is written with the Balinese
numbers 2 and 5. If the number is written in the middle of a text, carik has to be written before and after the number
to differentiate it from the text. Below is an example of how a date is written using Balinese numerals (date: 1 July
1982, location: Bali):
Balinese script

Transliteration

Bali, 1 Juli 1982.

Balinese alphabet

Other symbols
There are some special symbols in the Balinese script. Some of them are punctuation marks, and the others are
religious symbols. The symbols are described in the following list:
Symbol

Don Dapdape

Name

Remarks

Carik or Carik Siki.

Written in the middle of a sentence, like a comma (,). Also, written surrounding numerals to
differentiate them from the text.

Carik Kalih or Carik


Pareren

Written at the end of a sentence, like a full stop (.).

Carik pamungkah

Functions like a colon (:).

Pasalinan

Used at the end of a prose, letter, or verse.

Panten or Panti

Used at the beginning of a prose, letter, or verse.

Pamada

Used at the beginning of religious texts. This symbol is a ligature of the letters ma, nga, ja, and pa,
forming the word mangajapa, which roughly means "praying for safety".

Ongkara

Sacred symbol of Hinduism. This symbol is pronounced "Ong" or "Om".

Balinese alphabet

Unicode
Balinese script was added to the Unicode Standard in July, 2006 with the release of version 5.0.
The Unicode block for Balinese is U+1B00 ... U+1B7F. Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points.
Balinese[1]
Unicode.org chart [1] (PDF)

U+1B0x
U+1B1x
U+1B2x
U+1B3x
U+1B4x
U+1B5x
U+1B6x
U+1B7x

Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 6.3

Gallery

Page from a
Bible printed
with Balinese
script

Balinese palm-leaf
manuscript

Sign at Pura
Puseh Temple,
Batuan, Bali

Street sign in Singaraja, written


in Latin and Balinese script

Notes
[1] http:/ / www. unicode. org/ charts/ PDF/ U1B00. pdf
[2] Everson, Michael; Suatjana, I Made (2005). Proposal for encoding the Balinese script in the UCS (http:/ / std. dkuug. dk/ jtc1/ sc2/ WG2/
docs/ n2908. pdf).
[3] Kuipers, Joel (2003). Indic Scripts of Insular Southeast Asia: Changing Structures and Functions (http:/ / home. gwu. edu/ ~kuipers/ kuipers
insular seasia scripts. pdf). Tokyo: Tokyo University of Foreign Studies.
[4] Fox, Richard (2013). Rival Styles of Writing, Rival Styles of Practical Reasoning (http:/ / www. materiale-textkulturen. de/ mtc_blog/
2013_003_Fox. pdf). Heidelberg: Institut fr Ehtnologie.
[5] http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ w/ index. php?title=Template:Brahmic& action=edit
[6] Tinggen, p. 27

Balinese alphabet

References
Tinggen, I Nengah. 1993. Pedoman Perubahan Ejaan Bahasa Bali dengan Huruf Latin dan Huruf Bali.
Singaraja: UD. Rikha.
Surada, I Made. 2007. Kamus Sanskerta-Indonesia. Surabaya: Penerbit Paramitha.
Simpen, I Wayan. Pasang Aksara Bali. Diterbitkan oleh Dinas Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Provinsi Daerah
Tingkat I Bali.

External links
Entry on Balinese (http://www.omniglot.com/writing/balinese.htm) at Omniglot.com -- A guide to writing
systems (http://www.omniglot.com/writing/)
Computerization of Balinese Script (http://www.babadbali.com/aksarabali/presengl.htm)
Michael Everson, Coding of Balinese Script to Unicode (http://std.dkuug.dk/jtc1/sc2/wg2/docs/N2908.pdf)
http://unicode-table.com/en/sections/balinese/
http://www.alanwood.net/downloads/index.html and download http://www.alanwood.net/downloads/
aksrbali.zip

Article Sources and Contributors

Article Sources and Contributors


Balinese alphabet Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=609662230 Contributors: 23prootie, Aladdin Ali Baba, Alteaven, Angela, Angr, BD2412, Bazonka, Billinghurst, Bogdan
Nagachop, Buhay Tao, Caniago, CommonsDelinker, Dana boomer, Dbachmann, DePiep, DerBorg, Drmccreedy, Evertype, Grover cleveland, Hvn0413, Hzb pangus, Indexheavy, Joost, Joseph
Solis in Australia, JuTa, JurgenNL, Karsten11, Koavf, Kwamikagami, LakanBanwa, Lotje, Made Adiputra, Mahali syarifuddin, Marcus Cyron, Meursault2004, Mkouklis, Nohat, Octahedron80,
Pationl, R'n'B, Rosomak, Sardanaphalus, SatuSuro, Tasnu Arakun, Tircul language, Verdy p, Wiki Raja, Xezbeth, , 19 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


File:Aksara Bali1.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Aksara_Bali1.png License: unknown Contributors: Alteaven
File:Bali Ka.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_Ka.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Bali Ca.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_Ca.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Bali Ta latik.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_Ta_latik.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Bali Ta.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_Ta.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Bali Pa.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_Pa.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Bali Ka mahaprana.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_Ka_mahaprana.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors:
M. Adiputra
File:Bali Ca laca.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_Ca_laca.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: M. Adiputra
File:Bali Ta latik mahaprana.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_Ta_latik_mahaprana.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors:
User:Alteaven
File:Bali Ta tawa.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_Ta_tawa.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Bali 8, Pha.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_8,_Pha.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Bali Ga.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_Ga.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Bali Ja.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_Ja.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Bali Da madu.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_Da_madu.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Bali Da.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_Da.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Bali Ba.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_Ba.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Bali Ga gora.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_Ga_gora.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Bali Ja jera.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_Ja_jera.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Alteaven, M. Adiputra,
Marcus Cyron
File:Bali Da murda mahaprana.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_Da_murda_mahaprana.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0
Contributors: User:Alteaven
File:Bali Da madu murdhanya.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_Da_madu_murdhanya.png License: Public Domain Contributors: M. Adiputra
File:Bali Ba kembang1.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_Ba_kembang1.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Bali Ba kembang2.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_Ba_kembang2.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: M. Adiputra
File:Bali Nga.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_Nga.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Bali Nya.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_Nya.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Bali Na rambat.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_Na_rambat.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Bali Na.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_Na.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Bali Ma.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_Ma.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Bali Wa.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_Wa.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Bali Ya.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_Ya.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Bali Ra.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_Ra.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Bali La.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_La.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Bali Sa saga.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_Sa_saga.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Bali Sa sapa.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_Sa_sapa.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Bali Sa.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_Sa.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Bali Ha.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_Ha.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Bali vowel A kara.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_vowel_A_kara.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Bali vowel I kara.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_vowel_I_kara.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Bali vowel U kara.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_vowel_U_kara.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Bali vowel Ra repa.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_vowel_Ra_repa.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: M. Adiputra
File:Bali 2-vowel La lenga.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_2-vowel_La_lenga.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made
Adiputra
File:Bali 6-vowel E kara.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_6-vowel_E_kara.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made
Adiputra
File:Bali 3-vowel O.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_3-vowel_O.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Bali vowel A kara-tedung.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_vowel_A_kara-tedung.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors:
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File:Bali vowel I kara-tedung.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_vowel_I_kara-tedung.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors:
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File:Bali vowel U kara-tedung.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_vowel_U_kara-tedung.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors:
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File:Bali vowel Ra repa-tedung.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_vowel_Ra_repa-tedung.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: M.
Adiputra
File:Bali vowel La lenga-tedung.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_vowel_La_lenga-tedung.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0
Contributors: M. Adiputra
File:Bali vowel Airsanya.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_vowel_Airsanya.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made
Adiputra
File:Bali vowel O kara-tedung.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_vowel_O_kara-tedung.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors:
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10

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


File:Gantungan Ka.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gantungan_Ka.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Gantungan Ca.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gantungan_Ca.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Gantungan Ta latik.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gantungan_Ta_latik.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Gantungan Ta.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gantungan_Ta.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Gempelan Pa.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gempelan_Pa.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Gantungan Ka mahaprana.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gantungan_Ka_mahaprana.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0
Contributors: M. Adiputra
File:Gantungan Ca laca.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gantungan_Ca_laca.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Gantungan Ta latik mahaprana.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gantungan_Ta_latik_mahaprana.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0
Contributors: User:Alteaven
File:Gantungan Ta tawa.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gantungan_Ta_tawa.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Gantungan Pa kapal.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gantungan_Pa_kapal.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Gantungan Ga.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gantungan_Ga.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Gantungan Ja.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gantungan_Ja.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Gantungan Da madu.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gantungan_Da_madu.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Gantungan Da.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gantungan_Da.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Gantungan Ba.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gantungan_Ba.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Gantungan Ga gora.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gantungan_Ga_gora.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Gantungan Ja jera.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gantungan_Ja_jera.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Alteaven,
Billinghurst, M. Adiputra
File:Gantungan da madu alpaprana.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gantungan_da_madu_alpaprana.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0
Contributors: User:Alteaven
File:Gantungan Da madu murdhanya.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gantungan_Da_madu_murdhanya.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike
3.0 Contributors: M. Adiputra
File:Gantungan Ba kembang.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gantungan_Ba_kembang.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made
Adiputra
File:Gantungan Nga.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gantungan_Nga.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Gantungan Nya.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gantungan_Nya.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Gantungan Na rambat.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gantungan_Na_rambat.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Gantungan Na.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gantungan_Na.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Gantungan Ma.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gantungan_Ma.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Pangangge Suku kembung.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pangangge_Suku_kembung.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made
Adiputra
File:Pangangge Nania.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pangangge_Nania.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Pangangge Cakra.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pangangge_Cakra.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Gantungan La.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gantungan_La.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Gantungan Sa saga.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gantungan_Sa_saga.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Gempelan Sa sapa.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gempelan_Sa_sapa.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Gempelan Sa danti.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gempelan_Sa_danti.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Gantungan Ha.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gantungan_Ha.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Pangangge Ulu.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pangangge_Ulu.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Pangangge Suku.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pangangge_Suku.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Pangangge Guwung macelek.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pangangge_Guwung_macelek.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors:
Made Adiputra
File:Gantungan La lenga.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gantungan_La_lenga.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: M.
Adiputra
File:Pangangge Taling.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pangangge_Taling.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Pangangge Taling-tedung.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pangangge_Taling-tedung.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made
Adiputra
File:Pangangge Pepet.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pangangge_Pepet.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Pangangge Tedung.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pangangge_Tedung.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Pangangge Ulu sari.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pangangge_Ulu_sari.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Pangangge Suku ilut.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pangangge_Suku_ilut.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Pangangge Guwung macelek-tedung.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pangangge_Guwung_macelek-tedung.png License: Creative Commons
Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: M. Adiputra
File:Gantungan La lenga-tedung.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gantungan_La_lenga-tedung.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0
Contributors: M. Adiputra
File:Pangangge Taling detya.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pangangge_Taling_detya.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made
Adiputra
File:Pangangge Taling detya-tedung.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pangangge_Taling_detya-tedung.png License: GNU Free Documentation License
Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Aksara Bali polih tedung.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Aksara_Bali_polih_tedung.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors:
M. Adiputra
File:Pangangge Bisah.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pangangge_Bisah.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Bali Surang.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_Surang.png License: unknown Contributors: File:Pangangge Cecek.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pangangge_Cecek.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Pangangge Adeg-adeg.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pangangge_Adeg-adeg.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Pangangge_Cakra.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pangangge_Cakra.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Pangangge_Guwung_macelek.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pangangge_Guwung_macelek.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors:
Made Adiputra
File:Pangangge_Suku_kembung.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pangangge_Suku_kembung.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made
Adiputra
File:Bali 0.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_0.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Bali 5.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_5.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Bali 1.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_1.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made Adiputra

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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


File:Bali_6-vowel_E_kara.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_6-vowel_E_kara.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made
Adiputra
File:Bali 2, Lalenga.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_2,_Lalenga.png License: unknown Contributors: File:Bali 7.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_7.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Bali 4.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_4.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Bali 9.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_9.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Made Adiputra
File:Balinese text, example.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Balinese_text,_example.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: M. Adiputra
File:Bali Carik1.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_Carik1.png License: unknown Contributors: File:Bali Carik2.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_Carik2.png License: unknown Contributors: File:Bali Pamungkah.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_Pamungkah.png License: unknown Contributors: File:Bali Pasalinan.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_Pasalinan.png License: unknown Contributors: File:Bali Panti.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_Panti.png License: unknown Contributors: File:Bali Pamada.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bali_Pamada.png License: unknown Contributors: File:Modre_symbol_Omkara.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Modre_symbol_Omkara.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Made
Adiputra
File:Bible printed with Balinese script.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bible_printed_with_Balinese_script.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Alteaven
File:COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Geschrift op lontarblad TMnr 1534-8b.jpg Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:COLLECTIE_TROPENMUSEUM_Geschrift_op_lontarblad_TMnr_1534-8b.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Alteaven, RobertLechner,
Till.niermann
File:Pura Puseh 05153.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pura_Puseh_05153.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: JuTa, Lin1, Wknight94
File:JL DIPONEGORO 200507.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:JL_DIPONEGORO_200507.jpg License: unknown Contributors: User:

License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
//creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/

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