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Operating Systems

Prof . Antonette
Daligdig SYMBIAN
OS
Embedded Operating
System
Atienza , Lemuel Jay
Bacarra , Dan Paolo
Dulatre , Michael Angelo
Jimenez , John Edward
Llorca , Bryalle
Origin/History
n 1980
n Psion founded by David Potter
n Handheld devices evolved
n 1984
n Psion Organizer – the world’s first
handheld computer – launched
n 1986
n Vastly improved Psion Organizer II
launches, with a simple-to-use
database programming language,
OPL (Open Programming Language)
n
Origin/History
n 1987
n Psion begins development of its SIBO
(SIxteen Bit Organiser) family of
devices and its own new multitasking
operating system called EPOC to run
its PDA products
n 1989
n First EPOC16 devices, the MC400 and
MC200, ship with a primarily 1-bit,
keyboard-operated graphical
interface
Origin/History
n 1990
n Dramatic increase in use of mobile
phones
n Psion Computers manufactured
devices that were PDAs
n 1991
n Psion produced the Series 3: a small
computer with a half-VGA,
monochrome screen that could fit
into a pocket
Origin/History
n 1996
n Series 3c with additional infrared
capability
n Psion started to design a new 32-bit
operating system that supported
pointing devices on a touch screen,
used multimedia and was more
communication rich
n Introduction of the system as EPOC
Release 1
n 1997
n The first version of EPOC32 Release 1
appeared on the Psion Series 5 ROM
v1.0
Origin/History
n 1997
n EPOC32 operating system, at the time
simply referred to as EPOC, was later
renamed Symbian OS
n 1998
n In June, Psion Software became
Symbian : a major joint venture
between Psion and phone
manufacturers Ericsson, Motorola,
and Nokia.
n EPOC became known simply as
Symbian OS
Origin/History
n 1999
n The Psion Series 5mx, Psion Series 7,
Psion Revo, Diamond Mako, Psion
netBook, netPad, GeoFox One, and
Ericsson MC218 were released using
EPOC Release 5
n 2000
n The first phone : the Ericsson R380
was released using ER5u (Symbian
OS v5.1. u = Unicode) in November
Origin/History
n 2000
n Manufacturers were searching for a
new & advanced operating system
for its next generation of devices
n Psion and the leaders in the mobile
phone industry : including Nokia,
Ericsson, Motorola, and Matsushita
(Panasonic), formed a joint venture,
called Symbian
n Develop the EPOC operating system
core, new core design was called
Symbian OS
Origin/History
n2001
n The first open Symbian OS phone
: the Nokia 9210 Communicator,
was released in June and
Bluetooth support was added
n Almost 500,000 Symbian phones
were shipped in 2001, rising to
2.1 million the following year
n Symbian OS debuted at version 6
n
Origin/History
n 2003
n First shipment of Symbian OS 7.0 and
7.0s, an important Symbian release
which appeared with all contemporary
user interfaces including UIQ (Sony
Ericsson P800, P900, P910, Motorola
A925, A1000), Series 80 (Nokia 9300,
9500), Series 90 (Nokia 7710), Series 60
(Nokia 3230, 6260, 6600, 6670, 7610)
as well as several FOMA phones in Japan
n It also added EDGE support and IPv6
n One million Symbian phones were
shipped with the rate increasing to one
million a month by the end of 2003
Origin/History
n 2004
n Psion sells its stake in Symbian
n Symbian OS version 8, enhanced the
performance of Symbian OS,
particularly for its real-time functions
n 2005
n Symbian OS version 9, added concepts of
capability-based security and
gatekeeping installation
n Symbian OS version 9 also added the
flexibility for hardware that Symbian OS
version 7 added for software
Origin/History
n 2006
n Symbian helped bring forth the
explosion of mobile device innovation
—with Symbian software at the base
of more than 100 million phones
n 2008
n The next step of Symbian evolution
took place, with Nokia purchasing all
Symbian assets and starting the
software down the path to open
source
n Symbian acquired by Nokia; Symbian
Foundation formed
Characteristics : Processing
nThreads
n Threads : form the central unit of
multitasking
n Process is simply seen by the
operating system as a collection
of threads with a process control
block and some memory space
n Thread support in Symbian OS is
based in the nanokernel with
nanothreads
Characteristics : Processing
n Nanothreads
n Run in privileged mode and need a
stack to store their runtime
environment data
n Cannot run in user mode
n Nanothreads can be in the following
states:
n Suspended
n Fast Semaphore Wait
n DFC Wait
n Sleep
n Other
n
Characteristics : Processing
n Processes
n Concepts of process state and process
scheduling have already been
defined by Symbian OS threads and
nanothreads
n Scheduling a process, then, is really
implemented by scheduling a thread
and initializing the right process
control block to use for its data needs
Characteristics : Processing
n Processes
n Symbian OS threads organized under a
single process work together in
several ways:
n First,there is a single main thread that
is marked as the starting point for the
process
n Second, threads share scheduling
parameters. Changing parameters,
that is, the method of scheduling, for
the process changes the parameters
for all threads
Characteristics : Processing
n Processes
n Symbian OS threads organized under a
single process work together in
several ways:
n Third, threads share memory space
objects, including device and other
object descriptors
n Finally, when a process is terminated,
the kernel terminates all threads in
the process
Characteristics : Memory
n SystemsManagement
with No Virtual Memory
n Only storage available to the operating
system on these platforms is
memory; they do not come with a
disk drive
n Do not support a demand paged
virtual memory
n Memory space used in most small
platform devices. Typically, have two
types of storage: RAM and flash
memory
Characteristics : Memory
n SystemsManagement
with No Virtual Memory
n RAM
n Stores the operating system code (to be
used when the system boots)
n flash memory
n used for both operating memory and
permanent (file) storage
n it is possible to add extra flash memory
to a device (such as a SD [Secure
Digital] card), and this memory is
used exclusively for permanent
storage.
Characteristics : Memory
n SystemsManagement
with No Virtual Memory
n Absence of demand-paged virtual
memory does not mean the absence
of memory management
n Smaller platforms are built on
hardware that includes many of the
management features of larger
systems includes features such as :
n Paging
n Address Translation
n Virtual /Physical Address Abstraction
n
Characteristics : Memory
Management
nSystems with No Virtual
Memory
n Memory management consists of
the following tasks:
n Management of application
size
n Heap management
n Execution in-place
n Loading DLLs
n Offload memory management
to hardware
n
Characteristics : Memory
Management
nHow Symbian OS Addresses
Memory
n Symbian OS is a 32-bit operating
system, addresses can range up
to 4 GB
n Symbian OS divides memory into
virtual pages and physical
frames
n Symbian OS adopts a two-level
page table strategy (shown in
next slide)
Characteristics : Memory
Management
n How Symbian OS Addresses
Memory

S ym b ia n O S u se s a tw o -le ve lp a g e ta b le
to re d u ce ta b le a cce ss tim e a n d sto ra g e
Characteristics :
Input/Output
nDevice Drivers
nDevice driver in Symbian OS
is split into two levels:
nA logical device driver (LDD)
n Presents an interface to
upper layers of software
nA physical device driver
(PDD)
n Interacts directly with
hardware
Characteristics :
Input/Output
n Kernel Extensions
n Kernel extensions are device drivers
that are loaded by Symbian OS at
boot time
n Provided for two reasons:
n First,it matches the object-oriented
design abstractions we have come to
see as characteristic of microkernel
design
n Second, it allows the separate platforms
that Symbian OS runs on to run
specialized device drivers that enable
the hardware for each platform
without recompiling the kernel
Characteristics :
Input/Output
nDirect Memory Access
n Device drivers frequently make
use of DMA and Symbian OS
supports the use of DMA
hardware
n DMA hardware consists of a
controller that controls a set of
DMA channels
Characteristics :
Input/Output
n Special Case: Storage Media
n Media drivers are a special form of
PDD in Symbian OS that are used
exclusively by the file server to
implement access to storage media
devices
n The file server in Symbian OS can
support up to 26 different drives at
the same time
n Local drives are distinguished by their
drive letter, as in Windows
Characteristics :
n Blocking Input/Output
I/O
n Symbian OS deals with blocking I/O
through active objects
n The weight of all threads waiting on I/O
event affects the other threads in the
system
n Active objects allow blocking I/O calls
to be handled by the operating
system rather than the process itself
n Active objects are coordinated by a
single scheduler and implemented in
a single thread
n
Characteristics :
Input/Output
n Removable Media
n Removable media needs a controller, a
driver, a bus structure, and will
probably communicate to the CPU
through DMA
n Symbian OS provides software
controllers that control each
supported card
n Symbian OS provides a series of
events that occur when state
changes happen
Features
n Client-Server Architecture
n In Symbian OS, clients are programs
that have user interfaces, and
servers are programs that can only
be accessed via a well defined
interface from other programs
n Event Management
n Event management has long been
considered core strength of Symbian
OS - reflecting the fact that Symbian
OS was designed from the start to
have event based time sharing in a
single thread
Features
n Object Oriented Design
n Because Symbian OS has an object
oriented design, it is easy to
configure for different sorts of
hardware, and being component
based, it allows manufacturers to add
or remove components
n This will provide a stable base as the
telecommunications industry moves
from 2G to 2.5G to 3G to 4G, with the
further introduction of new
technologies such as SyncML,
BlueTooth, and Multimedia
Messaging amongst many
Features
n Power Management
n Symbian OS users are used to the
performance of mobile phones - and
so demand similar performance in
terms of weight and operating times
when they adopt new devices
n Power management is built into the
kernel of Symbian OS and is
designed to make efficient use of the
processors and peripherals and so
minimize power usage
Features
nRobust and Dependable
n Devices should not lose user data,
crash or require rebooting
n Symbian achieves this in two
ways:
n Eachprocess runs in a protected
address space, thus it is not
possible for one application to
overwrite another’s address
space. The kernel also runs in a
protected address space, so that
a bug in one application cannot
overwrite the kernel’s stack or
Features
nRobust and Dependable
n Symbian achieves this in two
ways:
n The client-server architecture of
Symbian OS allows applications
to exchange data without
compromising overall system
integrity. This meets the
requirement to work on stand
alone portable devices, even
though Symbian devices offer
greatly enhanced functionality
over standard mobile phones.
Features
n Memory Management
n For stand alone portable devices, memory
management is important
n The need to minimize weight, device size and
cost means the amount of memory
available on a Symbian OS device is often
quite limited
n Symbian OS always assumes that the
memory available is limited, and minimizes
consumption at every turn
n Consequently, less memory is actually
required by the system also having less
memory helps to keep down power
consumption
Features
n Full Multitasking
n Symbian OS runs each application as a
separate process, allowing multiple
applications to run concurrently
n An Open Operating System
n Symbian OS is an open OS
n Open to anyone to license
n Open to anyone to develop application
n Based on open standards
n Owned by the industry
n
Strengths
n Memory Management
n The absence of demand-paged virtual
memory does not mean the absence of
memory management, smaller platforms
are built on hardware that includes many of
the management features of larger
systems
n Execution in-place
n Platforms with no disk drives usually support
execution in-place
n Flash memory is mapped into the virtual
address space and programs can be
executed directly from flash memory,
without copying them into RAM first
n
Weakness
nNo Virtual Memory
n The only storage available to the
operating system on these platforms
is memory; they do not come with a
disk drive
n Smaller systems, from PDAs to
smartphones to higher level
handheld devices, do not support a
demand paged virtual memory
n
Example of Applications
where the Symbian OS is
being
n Nokia Series used
80 interface
n Nokia 9210 Communicator smartphone (32-
bit 66 MHz ARM9-based RISC CPU)
(2001), 9300(2004), 9500 Communicator
(2004) using the Nokia Series 80 interface
n UIQ interface
n Used for PDAs such as Sony Ericsson P800
(2002), P900 (2003), P910 (2004), P990 (20
05), W950 (2006), M600 (2006), P1 (2007),
W960 (2007), G700 (2008), G90 (2008), G7
02 (2008), Motorola
A920, A925, A1000, RIZR Z8, RIZR Z10,
DoCoMo M1000, BenQ P30, P31 and Nokia
6708 using this interface
n
Example of Applications
where the Symbian OS is
being
n Nokia S60 (2002) used
interface
n Nokia S60 is used in various phones, the first being
the Nokia 7650, then the Nokia 3650, followed by
the Nokia 3620/3660, Nokia 6600,Nokia 7610, Nokia
6670 and Nokia 3230
n The Nokia N-Gage and Nokia N-Gage
QD gaming/smartphone combos are also S60
platform devices
n It was also used on other manufacturers' phones such
as the Siemens SX1, Sendo X, Panasonic
X700, Panasonic X800,Samsung SGH-D730, SGH-
D720 and the Samsung SGH-Z600
Example of Applications
where the Symbian OS is
being
n Nokia S60 (2002) used
interface
n Recent, more advanced devices using S60 include the Nokia
6620,Nokia 6630, the Nokia 6680, Nokia 6681 and Nokia
6682, Nokia 6120 classic, Nokia 6121 classic, Nokia
6220,a next generationNseries, including the Nokia
N70, Nokia N71, Nokia N72, Nokia N73, Nokia N75, Nokia
N76, Nokia N77, Nokia N78, Nokia N79, Nokia N80, Nokia
N81, Nokia N82, Nokia N85, Nokia N90, Nokia N91, Nokia
N92, Nokia N93, Nokia N95, Nokia N96 and Nokia N97
n The enterprise (i.e. business) model Eseries, including
the Nokia E50, Nokia E51, Nokia E60, Nokia E61, Nokia
E62, Nokia E63, Nokia E65,Nokia E66, Nokia E70, Nokia
E71, Nokia E71x, Nokia E78, and Nokia E90 and some of
the models of Nokia Xpress music mobiles likeNokia
5320, Nokia 5700, Nokia 5800 and Nokia 5530
XpressMusic
n Nokia Series 90 interface
n Nokia 7710 (2004) using the Nokia Series 90 interface
n
Screenshots

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