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08.03.2014 1
Capacitor in power inverter

Roland Gallay, Garmanage


8 May 2014
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08.03.2014 2
App||canons |n power |nverter
1. App||canons |n power |nverter
1. Snubber, clamp, resonanL, uC-llnk
2. CapaclLor Lechnologles
1. LlecLrochemlcal, elecLrolyuc, lm foll, meLallzed lm
3. LqulvalenL model
4. roperues and speclcauons
3. Agelng
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08.03.2014 3
App||canons of capac|tors |n Inverter
1. uC lLer
1 nl .. 220 l
2. uC llnk
1 nF !. 3800 F
3. Snubber
1nl ... 8 l, Low lnducLance
4. CuLpuL lLer
1 nl .. 600 l
3. 8esonanL
1 nF !. 600 F, +/-2%
Lpcos Mk lC Solar lnverLers
A88 Lracuon lnverLers
1Cv lnpuL lLer
1800vuC
8 ml
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08.03.2014 4
DC-||nk
Resonant capacitor (Saugkreiskondensator)
DC-link (Zwischenkreiskondensator)
A88 Lok2000 elecLrlcal deslgn
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08.03.2014 3
kesonant capac|tors
used Lo Lune serles or parallel resonanL clrculLs used ln
lndusLrlal medlum-frequency sysLems (resonanL
converLers)
- lrequencles beLween several hundred Pz and several
hundred kPz
- 8elauvely ughL Lolerances: oen AC/C <2
=> excluslon of cerLaln dlelecLrlcs
- Cnly consLralnLs Lo Lake lnLo accounL:
-volLage peak value (musL remaln smaller Lhan !")
-currenL rms-value (dlelecLrlc losses, ohmlc losses)
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08.03.2014 6
Commutanon capac|tors (snubber)
uellver currenL pulses necessary Lo block LhyrlsLors
- Severe consLralnLs, complex applled waveforms
- Classlcal LhyrlsLors dlsappear gradually replaced by C1C/lCC1
and lC81. 1hese acuve componenLs do noL need Lurn-o
commuLauon capaclLors.
- volLage conunuous, rms and peak value (musL remaln smaller
Lhan !")
- volLage varlauon raLe (dlelecLrlc losses lncrease wlLh hlgh d#/
d$)
- consLralnLs due Lo ohmlc losses and frequency
- CurrenL rms and peak value
- 8eacuve power (esumauon of loss power uslng Lan)
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08.03.2014 7
Capac|tor techno|og|es
1. Appllcauons ln power lnverLer
1. lllLer, uC-llnk, Snubber, clamp, resonanL
2. Capac|tor techno|og|es
1. LlecLrochemlcal, ceramlc, elecLrolyuc, lm foll (Mkv,), meLallzed lm (Mk, Mk1)
3. LqulvalenL model
4. roperues and speclcauons
3. Aglng
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08.03.2014 8
L|ectrochem|ca| Doub|e Layers Capac|tors
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08.03.2014 9
L|ectro|ync capac|tors
1. Cperaung LemperaLure: -33C Lo 123C
2. olarlzed
3. Large Lolerance +/- 20
4. resence of elecLrolyLe
3. lonlc low conducuvlLy
6. AL 100 Pz and 20C
1g ! = " r
s
C = 660 10
-4
for C = 8100 l
7. Plgh losses
Llfeume: u
n
, l
n
, 83C, 100'000 hours
uaLa from Lpcos Large slze LC
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08.03.2014 10
L|ectro|ync capac|tors
1. Cperaung LemperaLure: -33C Lo 123C
2. Cmax: 27 ml, 23 vuC
3. umax: 8.1 mF, 63 Vdc
4. AL 100 Pz and 20C
1g ! = " r
s
C = 660 10
-4
for C = 8100 l
uaLa from Lpcos Large slze LC
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08.03.2014 11
L|ectro|ync capac|tors
uaLa from llllnols L8A 47 Lo 47'000 l
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08.03.2014 12
Ceram|c capac|tor
uaLa from Avx
uaLa from Lpcos CeraLlnk (AnuferroelecLrlc)
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08.03.2014 13
Ceram|c capac|tor
uaLa from Lpcos
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08.03.2014 14
I||m fo|| capac|tors
Metal
Metal
Dielectric
1yplcal 3 m Alumlnum foll + mulu-layer
of and/or A and/or L1 lms
Cll lmpregnauon
very low losses
ln uC musL be proLecLed wlLh fuses
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08.03.2014 13
Meta||zed h|m capac|tors
Metallized film
Metallized film
Metallized film
Metallized film
Selmeallng: capablllLy of dlsconnecung
area around a breakdown. 1he meLallzauon
ls evaporaLed by Lhe shorLenlng currenL
unul Lhe avallable energy ls blg enough.
ulelecLrlc lm wlLh a 100 nm
layer of meLallzauon deposlLed
on Lhe surface
MeLallzauon of Zn, Al or Zn-Al
Peavy edge Lo lncrease Lhe
conLacung
SegmenLauon or prole of Lhe
meLallzauon Lo lmprove Lhe
safeLy
Cll, gas or drled execuuon
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08.03.2014 16
Meta||zed h|m capac|tors
1Cv lnpuL lLer 1800 v, 8 ml
CapaclLance loss
MeLallzed lm
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08.03.2014 17
Compar|son
Lnergy
denslLy
[!/cm3]
CurrenL
denslLy
[A/cm3]
Loss
denslLy
[m!/cm3]
volLage
[vdc]
CurrenL
[A] C [ml]
8s
[mChm] 1g [1]
1max [C] /L
[P]
volume
[cm3] 8ef
Mkk-oll 0.32 0.009 1.8 2700 320 3 0.6 0.0002 73 / 130'000 33941 823730P1698k004
Mkk-gas 0.23 0.006 1.3 4000 290 1.4 0.7 0.0001 73 / 130'000 43161 823630P4148k004
Mkk-reslne 0.16 0.014 2.4 800 330 12.3 0.3 0.0001 70 / 100000 23300 823640u8129k000
Mkv 0.02 0.032 6.2 4000 80 0.004 1.3 0.0002 1339 823836k2403k003
LlecLrolyLlc 0.33 0.303 37.6 63 14.6 8.1 13 0.6 123 / 2000 48 84160388818M00
Ceramlc 0.48 0.119 23.8 400 2 0.1 100 0.1 83 17
CeraLlnk l88
Pyp: 2 A
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08.03.2014 18
Doma|n
1echnlque de l'lngenleur, u3280, Cerard Mourles
hup://upload.wlklmedla.org/
wlklpedla/commons/9/93/
kondensaLoren-kap-versus-Spg-
Lngllsh.svg
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08.03.2014 19
Capac|tor construcnon
Ser|es connecnon
Plgh volLage
ara||e| connecnon
Plgh power
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08.03.2014 20
Lqu|va|ent mode|
1. Appllcauons ln power lnverLer
1. Snubber, clamp, resonanL, uC-llnk
2. CapaclLor Lechnologles
1. LlecLrochemlcal, elecLrolyuc, lm foll, meLallzed lm
3. Lqu|va|ent mode|
4. roperues and speclcauons
3. Agelng
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08.03.2014 21
Lqu|va|ent mode|
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08.03.2014 22
ower |osses: 1angent de|ta
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08.03.2014 23
S|mp||hed mode|s
Ser|es mode|
ara||e| mode|
8
p
lncludes
- dlelecLrlc losses
- leakage currenL
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08.03.2014 24
ropernes and spec|hcanons
1. Appllcauons ln power lnverLer
1. Snubber, clamp, resonanL, uC-llnk
2. CapaclLor Lechnologles
1. LlecLrochemlcal, elecLrolyuc, lm foll, meLallzed lm
3. LqulvalenL model
4. ropernes and spec|hcanons
3. Agelng
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08.03.2014 23
D|e|ectr|c character|sncs
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[

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]
PP 2.2 5 640 10^18 5 10^13 105
PET 3.3 25 570 10^17 10^14 CTI225 VTM-2 125
PEN 2.9 20 600 10^17 VTM-2 137
PPS 2.9 10 300 10^16 10^17 CTI100 VTM-0 200
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08.03.2014 26
o|ypropy|ene temperature
character|sncs
" Variation Epsi (T)
" Variation Tg (T)
" Insulation resistance
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08.03.2014 27
L1 d|e|ectr|c strength
" Dielectric strength as a function of:
Lhe lm Lhlckness
1emperaLure
humldlLy
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08.03.2014 28
D|e|ectr|c temperature dependence
" Variation C and tg (T) main
dielectric used for capacitors
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08.03.2014 29
D|e|ectr|c frequency dependence AC-DC
" Variation C and tg (f)
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08.03.2014 30
L|ectr|c he|d
Dry
Impregnated
d
d
h
E = U / d = 180 V/!m
E = U / (d+h) = 180 V/!m
E
C
= U / d = 200 V/!m
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08.03.2014 31
o|ypropy|ene
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08.03.2014 32
AC ||m|tanon as a funcnon of the frequency
s
CR
i
Zi U
!
= =
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08.03.2014 33
Age|ng
1. Appllcauons ln power lnverLer
1. Snubber, clamp, resonanL, uC-llnk
2. CapaclLor Lechnologles
1. LlecLrochemlcal, elecLrolyuc, lm foll, meLallzed lm
3. LqulvalenL model
4. roperues and speclcauons
S. Age|ng
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08.03.2014 34
We|bu|| d|str|bunon
Surv|vor funcnon
1he Survlvor funcuon l(L) ls Lhe number of elemenLs
of Lhe sLausucal sample whlch have noL falled or losL
Lhelr funcuon aL ume L and are sull worklng.
Ia||ure rate
1he fallure raLe ls glven ln ll1 (lallure ln 1lme) whlch
ls Lhe number of fallures occurrlng durlng 10
9
hours
of worklng of 1 ob[ecL. #
o
ls a consLanL
(lndependenL of ume, buL dependenL on Lhe
LemperaLure and volLage) whlch corresponds Lo Lhe
lnverse of Lhe ume necessary for 63 of Lhe sample
Lo fall.
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08.03.2014 33
Lxamp|e
Initial batch of 50 capacitor samples
The Failure in % is represented in a Weibull graphic which is a Log(Log(1/F(t)))
function as a function of Log(t).
t [s] N * F(t) Log(Log(1/F(t)))
1 50 -9.0037887
113 49 -2.0568061
149 48 -1.7513214
184 47 -1.5706976
187 46 -1.4411454
200 45 -1.3395378
209 44 -1.2555714
219 43 -1.1837484
242 42 -1.1207853
256 41 -1.0645625
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08.03.2014 36
Acce|eranon factor: temperature
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08.03.2014 37
Acce|eranon factors: temperature, hum|d|ty
Exponential law
(Arrhenius law)
1emperaLure

PumldlLy
Power law
(Hallberg-Peck law)
m
n
Hn
RH
RH
t RH t
!
"
#
$
%
&
= ) (
!
!
"
#
$
$
%
&
!
!
"
#
$
$
%
&
' =
n B
a
Tn
T T k
E
t T t
1 1
exp ) (
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08.03.2014 38
Acce|eranon factors: vo|tage
volLage lnverse power law
volLage exponenual law
n
n
un
U
U
t t
!
"
"
#
$
%
%
&
'
=
!
!
"
#
$
$
%
&
'
' =
n
n
un
U
U U
t t
(
exp (
n = 13
$ = 13
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08.03.2014 39
1emperature and vo|tage deranng
" Vishay MKP " Epcos-TDK MKP
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08.03.2014 40
Acce|eranon factor: vo|tage
Cygan et al.: Lifetime of Films under Combined
Stresses , IEEE Transactions on Electrical
Insulation , vol. 24 No. 4, August 1989, p. 619
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08.03.2014 41
Ia||ure modes
Selmeallng Corroslon




Corona