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[1]- K.H. Loo, D.A. Stone, R.C. Tozer, M. Zinno, R. Devonshire. Modeling The
Electrical Behavior of Fluorescent Lamp on The Basis of a Self-Consistent
Collisional-Radiative Model
[2]- K.H. Loo, D.A. Stone, R.C. Tozer, R. Devonshire. ! "#namic Conductance
Model of Fluorescent Lamp for Electronic Ballast "esign Simulation
[3]- M.A. Ca!ess. Lamp and Lighting "#oo$%.
I) M* +,'+ -./ 01 234 5'$ 67' (
Tron& '(i n)a *h+ $, ho-t ./n&, $hi '/t .i0n *1* *2a 3n& .4n .5n& vai
tr6 *atho7e v8 .i0n *1* $ia !8 ano7e, .i0n t) t-o ra t9 *atho7e 7o :h;t <- nhi0t s=
.>?* .i0n tr>@n& &ia t3* v8 va *h-' vAi *;* n&+Bn t) $hC tr>A* $hi tAi ano7e.
HDnh 1 thE hi0n *;* vFn& :h5n& .i0n *hCnh tron& 3n& .4n vAi *;* .i0n thG t>Hn&
In&. Tron& s+3t J+Kn& .>@n& n8, va *h-' *h2 G+ <L ra tron& vFn& .Mn& nhNt
:ositive *o!+'n "*/t 7>Hn&%. OhPn !An *Qn& s+Nt #R tiB+ t;n t-i .S. Do .5, 'Q
hDnh va *h-' T :h;t <- "*o!!ision-ra7iation% s= tU: tr+n& *h2 G+ v8o vFn& n8.
$%nh &- C'c v(ng ph)ng *i+n ch,nh trong -ng *.n v/ *i+n th0 t12ng 3ng
Tron& vFn& :ositive *o!+'n, .i0n t) 'Nt nVn& !>?n& #Wi #a *H *hG va *h-'
!8 va *h-' .8n hMi "e!asti* *o!!isions%, va *h-' $C*h thC*h "e<*itation *o!!isions%
v8 va *h-' ion h5a "ionization *o!!ision%. S1 tMn t-i *2a $hC hiG' "$hC .0'% tron&
3n& .4n &iX: $iE' so;t tCnh !inh ./n& *2a .i0n t), J+a .5 *5 thE t3i >+ h5a nVn&
!>?n& tr+n& #Dnh *2a .i0n t) tron& J+; trDnh t-o tia *1* tC' YZ. Do $hC .0' *5 ;:
s+Nt v8 n&>[n& ion h5a *ao hHn nhi\+ !Pn so vAi th2 n&Sn H&, nBn :hPn !An va
*h-' *2a .i0n t) s= !8 va *h-' vAi *;* n&+Bn t) $hC .0' v8 tron& th1* *hNt !8 va
*h-' .8n h]i. ^3i vAi ar&on, '/t .i0n t) s= tr+\n 1,3_<1`
-a
nVn& !>?n& tr+n&
#Dnh *2a n5 *ho n&+Bn t) ar&on tron& va *h-' .8n hMi. Do tPn s+Nt "rate% *ao,
nBn va *h-' .8n hMi &S ra 'Nt ';t nVn& !>?n& .;n& $E tron& 3n& .4n.
^3i vAi th2 n&Sn H&, &iLn .M *N+ trX* theo 'I* nVn& !>?n& .>?* trDnh
#8 trBn HDnh 2. bhcn& .i0n t) tC*h !d .2 nVn& !>?n& t3i thiE+, #en& vAi sai #i0t
nVn& !>?n& &ica hai 'I* tr-n& th;i $C*h thC*h *2a H&, *5 thE t-o ra va *h-' $C*h
thC*h. Sa+ '/t $hoLn& th@i &ian n&fn "*[ ns%, n&+Bn t) H& #R $C*h thC*h s= r@i
<+3n& 'I* nVn& !>?n& thN: hHn v8 :h;t ra '/t :hoton "!>?n& t)% #en& vAi nVn&
!>?n& $C*h thC*h. Tr>A* $hi tho;t $hgi .4n, :hoton *5 thE #R hN: thh #Wi n&+Bn t)
H& W 'I* $C*h thC*h thN: hHn, J+a .5 !8' tVn& 'Ut ./ n&+Bn t) H& W 'I* $C*h
thC*h *ao hHn. Do 'Ut ./ W 'I* s8n "&ro+n7% *ao hHn nhi\+ so vAi *;* n&+Bn t)
#R $C*h thC*h, nBn J+; trDnh t1 hN: thh :hoton */n& h>Wn& <L ra rNt '-nh '=, 7in
.Gn hi0+ In& &ji !8 k*P' tF #I* <- */n& h>Wn&l.
b&+Bn t) #R $C*h thC*h W '/t s3 'I*, 'I* siB+ #\n "'etasta#!e%, $hQn&
thE :h;t <- :hoton 7o #R *N' #Wi J+ !+Ut vUt !m, s= .>?* 7+ trD *ho tAi $hi va
*h-' tiG: theo .>a *hXn& tAi '/t 'I* $h;*. MI* siB+ #\n *5 th@i &ian tMn t-i 78i
hHn v8 !8 In& viBn *hCnh *ho J+; trDnh ion h5a t9n& #>A*.
Tron& tr-n& th;i :!as'a ]n .Rnh, 'Ut ./ tr+n& #Dnh *2a .i0n t) $hQn& tha
.]i theo th@i &ian, tI* !8 tPn s+Nt sinh ra *n: *n: .i0n t) - ion #en& vAi tPn s+Nt '8
*hXn& 'Nt .i. T]n hao tron& :!as'a ;: s+Nt thN: *h2 G+ !8 7o hi0n t>?n& $h+G*h
t;n a'#i:o!ar " % tAi th8nh 3n& .4n, nHi *hXn& t;i h?: v8 tga ra nhi0t.
S3 !>?n& .i0n t) *5 nVn& !>?n& .2 !An .E ion h5a n&+Bn t) H& tVn& theo
h8' e<:onent vAi nhi0t ./ .i0n t) $T
e
"o2pq3 , tron& .5 p !8 nVn& !>?n& tr+n& #Dnh
*2a .i0n t)%. ^n* tr>n& $T
e
:hh th+/* .>@n& $Cnh 3n& .4n v8 ;: s+Nt $hC n-:. TrR
s3 $T
e
th>@n& $hoLn& 1eZ, $hQn& .2 .E tr1* tiG: ion h5a n&+Bn t) H& W 'I*
s8n, nBn .i0n t) *hr *5 thE $C*h thC*h n&+Bn t) H&.
ZD vU, J+; trDnh ion h5a *h2 G+ <L ra theo *H *hG t9n& #>A*, thQn& J+a
*;* tr-n& th;i $C*h thC*h. ^n* #i0t, hai tr-n& th;i s
3
O
`
v8 s
3
O
2
&5: :hPn '-nh '=
v8o *H *hG n8 #Wi n&>[n& nVn& !>?n& thN: v8 th@i &ian s3n& *ao. Hai tr-n& th;i
n8 !8 siB+ #\n, #Wi *hXn& $hQn& .>?* :h;t <- .E trW v\ 'I* n\n.
$%nh 4- 5i6n *7 c8u tr9c m3c n:ng l1;ng c<a th<# ng=n $g > m?i t@n h1Ang l@n
tr@n t12ng 3ng vAi va chBm ion h)a C*1Dng li@n tEcF v/ va chBm G,ch th,ch
C*1Dng *3t *oBnF M?i t@n *Hm h1Ang Iu-ng d1Ai G.m theo J1Ac s)ng Ct,nh JKng
nmF l/ ph't IB tL c'c m3c Gh'c nhau MN d/# c<a c'c m3c thO hi+n trBng th'i JP
G,ch th,ch vAi mHt *N t12ng 3ng

$%nh Q- C1Dng *N v/ hi+u su8t J3c IB 4RQSTnm trong -ng *.n RU&VmmS 'p su8t
!rgon QTorr phE thuNc dWng "C Ctr'iS nhi+t *N vX Y4
Z
CF v/ nhi+t *N vX Cph6iS
dWng "C ZSY!F
Tr-n& th;i s
3
O
1
ne' W 'I* nVn& !>?n& nhg hHn '/t n)a nVn& !>?n& ion
h5a, *5 #>A* s5n& #I* <- 2a3,_n' rNt hc+ C*h .E $C*h thC*h !A: :h2 :hos:hor
:h;t <- ;nh s;n& $hL $iGn. C>@n& ./ #I* <- 2a3,_n' "tCnh #en& tq' theo *hi\+
78i *2a :ositive *o!+'n% :hh th+/* v8o 76n& .4n v8 nhi0t ./ vg 3n& .4n. ^M thR
*2a s1 :hh th+/* n8 .>?* #iE+ 7iun trBn HDnh 3.

$%nh Y- M7 thP J@n tr'i JiOu di[n tha# *\i c<a mHt *N *i+n t] Ctr@nF v/ nhi+t *N
c<a *i+n t] Cd1AiF theo phaseS J@n ph6i l/ c1Dng *N ph\ ph't IB theo t,nh to'n
m^ phXng tBi t_n s- YZG$` "a Gi+n > -ng *.n RU&VmmS 'p su8t !rgon QTorrS
nhi+t *N vX Y4
Z
CS dWng hi+u dEng ZSY!
II) '+ +89'$ 234 /:' ;5 (
1) Mt v nhit in t tha .]i theo tPn s3, nh> #iE+ 7iun trBn HDnh v. CL
hai .\+ thVn& &i;n& $h; '-nh W tPn s3 a`Hz v8 ]n .Rnh hHn t-i v`$Hz. w tPn s3
*ao, 'Ut ./ .i0n t) hP+ nh> $hQn& tha .]i 7o $hQn& .;: In& $R: t3* ./ #iGn
thiBn *2a .i0n tr>@n&, *6n nhi0t ./ "nVn& !>?n&% .i0n t) tha .]i *hU' hHn.
T9 $Gt J+L .o .-* n8, *5 thE tCnh to;n 'Q :hgn& .>?* :h] #I* <- *2a H&
t-i tPn s3 v`$Hz. xI* <- 2a3,_n' *5 *>@n& ./ '-nh hHn '/t v8i #U* so vAi *;*
#I* <- W *;* #>A* s5n& $h;*.
2) Cng bc x 253,7nm .K .>?* #Dnh th>@n& h5a "nor'a!ize7% #iGn thiBn
theo :hase t>Hn& .3i "re!ative :hase% *2a *;* tPn s3 $h;* nha+, nh> trDnh #8 trBn
HDnh a. C5 thE thN !8 $hi tPn s3 tVn& 7Pn thD #iGn thiBn *>@n& ./ &ica &i; trR t3i
thiE+ v8 t3i .a *8n& th+ hy: !-i, J+a .5 &i; trR tr+n& #Dnh *dn& tVn& theo "nh>n&
*Pn !>+ m !8 $hQn& :hLi tVn& v\ trR s3 t+0t .3i%.
$%nh R- C1Dng *N J3c IB 4RQSTnm *b J%nh th1Dng h)a theo phase t12ng *-iS tBi
c'c t_n s- Gh'c nhau > CaF &ZZ$`S CJF &G$`S CcF RG$`S CdF 4ZG$` M1Dng li@n tEc
l/ t,nh to'n theo m^ phXng C'c *iOm l/ s- li+u *o thcc t0
3) ng c t!ng v"n#$m%& .>?* thE hi0n trBn HDnh s, *ho thN n&a *L W tPn
s3 *ao *dn& $hQn& :hLi !8 t+Gn tCnh, tI* !8 n/i trW *2a 3n& .4n $hQn& thE *oi !8
.i0n trW th+Pn, '8 *5 7-n& hsteresis. Hi0+ In& hsteresis :hLn ;nh '3i J+an h0
&ica *N: ./ :!as'a *2a J+; trDnh ion h5a vAi tha .]i .i0n ;: theo th@i &ian. w tPn
s3 thN: a`Hz, .i0n ;: trBn .4n #iGn thiBn t>Hn& .3i *hU', .2 .E :!as'a $R: .i\+
*hrnh san& tr-n& th;i 'Ai t>Hn& In& vAi 'I* .i0n ;: t-i '(i th@i .iE'. Khi tPn s3
tVn& tAi v8i *hh* $Hz, :!as'a $hQn& tha .]i $R: theo t3* ./ #iGn thiBn *2a .i0n
;:, vD vU 7i0n tC*h 7o .>@n& hsteresis &iAi h-n #R th+ hy: !-i, *hr *6n 'an& tCnh
*hNt tr+n& #Dnh.

$%nh d- M1Dng *ec tr1ng v^n-ampe c<a -ng *.n T&4 tBi t_n s- RZ$` Ctr'iF
v/ t_n s- cao Cph6iF
$%nh T- "Bng s)ng c<a *i+n 'p Ctr@nF v/ dWng *.n Cd1AiF
Ghi t_n s- tha# *\i *Nt ngNt tL YZG$` Iu-ng 4ZG$`
H8nh vi *2a tr-n& th;i :!as'a W *;* tPn s3 $h;* nha+ .>?* :hLn ;nh J+a
.i0n ;: v8 76n& .i0n *2a .4n. HDnh _ trDnh #8 $Gt J+L .o .i0n ;: v8 76n& .i0n
$hi tPn s3 &iL' ./t n&/t t9 v`$Hz <+3n& *6n 2`$Hz, *ho thN .i0n ;: trBn .4n
tha .]i $hQn& nhi\+, son& 76n& .4n tVn& .;n& $E. Hen& s3 th@i &ian $hoLn&
`,3's !iBn J+an tAi J+; trDnh *h+En tiG: *2a tr-n& th;i :!as'a.
') in (%, )*ng in v c"ng +,-t .n .\+ #R Lnh h>Wn& #Wi tPn s3. KGt J+L tCnh
to;n v8 .o !>@n& th1* n&hi0' .>?* trDnh #8 trBn HDnh _. C5 thE thN, $hi tPn s3
tVn& 7Pn t9 2`$Hz !Bn v`$Hz thD .i0n ;: hi0+ 7hn& "r's% *dn& tVn& theo nh>n&
$hQn& '-nh, son& 76n& hi0+ 7hn& v8 *Qn& s+Nt thD &iL' ./t #iGn, *hr *6n '/t n2a
t-i v`$Hz so vAi #an .P+ t-i 2`$Hz.

CaF CJF
$%nh T- fnh h1gng c<a t_n s- tAi > *i+n 'p hi+u dEng CtrWnFS dWng hi+u dEng Ctam
gi'cF v/ c^ng su8t trung J%nh Cvu^ngF *-i vAi *.n YZh CaF v/ 4Zh CJF C'c *iOm
tring l/ G0t ju6 t,nh to'n theo m^ phXngS c'c *iOm *en l/ G0t ju6 *o thcc t0 k0t
ju6 n/# ch1a t,nh *0n 6nh h1gng c<a cuNn chenS tE d=# t)clGhi tha# *\i t_n s-
T5' tft hU+ J+L *2a tVn& tPn s3 z
1% !8' tVn& J+an& thQn& *2a .4n, 7o tVn& #I* <- tr+n& #Dnh 2a3,_n'{
2% !8' tVn& .i0n ;: trBn .4n{
3% !8' &iL' 76n& .4n, 7in .Gn &iL' *Qn& s+Nt .4n.
III) V4< /=> 234 ?+@ 6AB (
1% !8' &iL' .i0n ;: $hWi ./n& *Pn thiGt *ho :h5n& .i0n. Hi0+ J+L tF th+/* !o-i
$hC .>?* s) 7hn&, thC 7h Ar&on &iX: $hWi ./n& 7u 78n& hHn, tron& $hi .5 Kr:ton
!8' $hWi ./n& $h5 hHn.
2% *5 t;* 7hn& #Lo v0 .i0n *1* v8 !A: :h2 :hos:hor, !8' &iL' t;* ./n& #fn :h;
*2a *;* ion 7>Hn&, &iX: $|o 78i t+]i thj *2a .4n n5i *h+n&. KhC .0' *5 :hSn t)
!>?n& *8n& !An thD hi0+ J+L #Lo v0 *8n& *ao.
3% t-o ra s1 *Sn #en& &ica tPn s+Nt ion h5a v8 $C*h thC*h n&+Bn t) H&, &iX: t3i >+
h5a :h;t <- YZ.
v% !8' n&i+ nhiBn h5a h>An& *h+En ./n& *2a *;* .i0n t) tron& vFn& :h5n& .i0n,
J+a .5 $iE' so;t .>?* t3* ./ *2a *hXn& v8 $hoLn& *;*h 7i *h+En t1 7o "}ree :ath
!en&th%.
Zi0* !1a *hjn *h2n& !o-i v8 ;: s+Nt $hC .0' :hh th+/* nhi\+ G+ t3, tron&
.5 *5 $C*h th>A* *2a 3n& .4n ".>@n& $Cnh, *hi\+ 78i~%