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HOA4 Midterms Reviewer

Milestones in Philippine Architecture

Before we begin to study the architecture of the Philippines, you must first understand the people and the culture
from which it arose, and also their historical background.
The first inhabitants of the Philippine Islands arrived between 3000 and 000 B.!. They were of "alay#
Polynesian descent called $ustronesians.
The people lived in groups of 30#%00 families in societies known as barangay. &eaded by 'atu or (aha)&ari
or *akan
They were mainly an agricultural and fishing people, others were nomadic. Trade with mainland $sia,
especially !hina, was established by these people
In the %+th century, Islam was introduced in ,ulu and the %-th !. in "indanao
In %-%, "agellan stumbled upon the islands in his attempt to circumnavigate the world. This was the
introduction of the Philippines to the western world. .hat followed was 300 years of rule by the ,panish and
the acceptance of (oman#!atholicism, which led to the building of many great Baro/ue churches.
In %010, sovereignty was given to the Philippines and rule by the 2nited ,tates began. The Philippines
gained independence in %1+3.
Philippine Architecture: Pre-Spanish Era
4ur ancestors were called $ustronesians # meaning people of the southern Islands . They were the first seafarers in
the world.
!aves and rock shelters like the Tabon !ave in Palawan served as shelter for early 5ilipinos. *ater on the
invention of various tools allowed for the fabrication of tent#like shelters and tree houses.
6arly pre#&ispanic house were characteri7ed by rectangular structures elevated on stilt foundations and
covered by voluminous thatched roofs ornamented with gable finials and its structure can be lifted as a
whole and carried to a new site.
Ifugao &ouse
Bahay :ubo "aranao;s torogan
The Launa !opperplate "nscription
In %110, $ntoon Postma, a 'utch e8pert in ancient Philippine scripts and "angyan writing, and a long#time
resident of the Philippines, translated the document that came to be known as the *aguna !opperplate
Inscription . It became the beginning of Philippine &istory9 "onday, $pril %, 100 $'.
The emergence of Islam in the %+th !. in ,ulu and the %-th !. in "indanao led to the building of "os/ues,
the mas<id and the "nggar in Tausug and =akan or ranggar in "aranao, "aranao
Pagoda shaped mos/ues such as that in Taraka, *anao del ,ur show >avanese and !hinese influence.
Philippine Architecture: Spanish !olonial Era
In %-++ the 5ranciscans built the first hospital in the Philippines, &ospital (eal.
The %-?3 royal ordinances of :ing Philip II, known as *aws of the Indies was prescibed and stated that
every town was to have a gridiron design @cuadriculaA with a central s/uare @pla7aA
In %-03 Intramuros was destroyed by fire, re/uiring all new buildings to be costructed of stone and tile.
>esuit $ntonio ,edeno introduced stone and masonry construction.
Implementation of the hybrid type of construction called ar/uitectora me7tisa9
.ood on upper floor and stone on lower floor
&ouse posts or haligue supported the nd floor
,tone floors at the ground floor acted as a solid curtain concealing the wooden framework within
.ooden pegs and dovetail <oints connected the wooden structural system together
The Bahay na Bato, typically two stories with the ground level made of massive cut stones or brick walls and
the upper level built of hardwood, emerged from the %?th to the %1th centuries
The last /uarter of the %1th !. witnessed the rise of accesoria @apartment dwellingsA, single or two stories
high and having multiple units called viviendas.
,chool buildings surfaced9 the colegio or universidad @urban areasA and the escuel primaria @pueblosA, a
cluster of multi#story buildings in rectangular configuration with acentral courtyard.
The leading edge technology available at that time was employed to build ports, roads, bridges, lighthouses,
railways, and streetcar systems.
Philippine Architecture: American and #apanese Era
In %10, $mericans introduced the use of the toilet via pail conservancy system or cubeta in "anila.
In %100 the concept of a well#planned neighborhood called ,anitary Barrio was introduced and led to tsalet,
a crossbreed of the tropical features of vernacular buildings with hygienic structural principles and modern
In %1%, the Bureau of &ealth endorsed several variations of tsalet
$merican architects 6dgar :. Bourne and .illiam 6. Parsons steered Philippine architecture to the proto#
modernist route. Their works were characteri7ed by unembellished facades with large windows. 'aniel &.
Burnham, the father of the !ity Beautiful movement, was commissioned to design master plans for "anila
and Baguio. Burnham endorsed the appointment of Beau8 $rts#trained .illiam Parsons as !onsulting
$rchitect @%10-#%1%+A whose contribution tolocal architecture includesB
The :ahn system of concrete reinforcement and concrete hollow blocks.
The use of termite#resistive Philippine hardwood.
The concept of mass fabrication of standard building types
In %10+ the construction of the $sylum for the insane in ,an *a7aro instigated the use of concrete as the
standard construction material for all government structures.
Buildings that defined the pre#war skyline of "anila include the 6l &ogar 5ilipino Building. &ongkong
,hanghai Bank Building, 5ilipinas Insurance !ompany Building, 5rench (enaissance *uneta &otel and the
"ariano 2y !haco Building
Birth of the C%st DenerationE 5ilipino architects who were sponsored by colonial officials to study architecture
and 6ngineering in the 2,. Together with the maestros de obras like $rcadio $rellano and Tomas $rguelles,
they combined Beau8 $rts elements # aesthetic proportions, optical corrections# with the influence of
modernism and the concepts of utility and honesty of architecture.
The Cnd generationE architects, namely $ndres de *una de ,an Pedro, 5ernando 4campo, Pablo $ntonio,
and >uan Fakpil, emerged in the late %10;s G 30;s and introduced $rt 'eco characteri7ed by e8uberant
e8oticism and ornamentation as evident in the facades of these buildings9 "etropolitan Theater, 6*P4
Building, "apua &ouse and Bautista#Fakpil Pylon.
Philippine Architecture: Post-$orld $ar "" Era
In %1+3, the independent Philippines e8pressed its identity by implementing "odernism through the
utili7ation of reinforced concrete, steel and glass, the predominance of cubic forms, geometric shapes and
!artesian grids, and the absense of applied decoration.
In %1+? a corps of architects and engineers were tasked to study the modern 2, and *atin $merican
capitals and formulate a master plan for "anila
5ederico Ilustre, consulting architect from the %1-0;s to %1?0;s, worked on the building at the 6lliptical (oad
in H.!. The centerpiece is the 3-#meter high $rt 'eco Hue7on "emorial "onument, composed of 3 pylons
topped by winged figures representing the 3 island groups.
The %1-0;s and 30;s staple architectural element were the brise#soleil, glass walls, pierced screens, and thin
concrete shells.
The post#war doctrine was Cform follows functionE professed by the C3rd generationE architects, namely,
!esar !oncio, $ngel Fakpil, $lfredo *u7, 4tillo $rellano,5elipe "endo7a, Dabriel 5ormoso and !arlos
The %1-0;s also witnessed ,pace $ge aesthetics and ,oft modernism, which e8perimented with the
sculptural plasticity of poured concrete to come up with soft and sinuous organic forms with the use of thin
shell technology. 68amples are9
,pace $ge# Iictor Tiotuycos;s 2P International !enter and >ose Jarago7a;s 2nion !hurch
,oft "odernism9 !hurch of the &oly ,acrifice, and Phil $tomic (esearch !enter
In the %1-0;s the height of buildings was limited to 30 meters by law. .ith the amendment of "anila
ordinance Fo. +%3%, a high#rise fever redefined "anila;s skyline9
$ngel Fakpil;s %#storey Picache Building, considered as the %st skyscraper in the Phils.
!esar !oncio;s Insular *ife Building, the %st office building to surpass the old 30#meter height
Philippine Architecture: The %ew Millenium
68emplified by the garish application paste colors and the mi8ing and matching of ornaments and styles.
,kyscrapers adopted the tripartite division of columnar architecture @Tower#on#the#PodiumA the podium, the
shaft, and the crown.
(ise of master#planned micro#cities like Bay !ity, 6astwood !ity, 5ort Bonifacio Dlobal !ity and (ockwell
!enter. (etail environments ," "all of $sia, Dateway "all, Trinoma, and Dreenbelt "all9 and gated
communities of suburban pretensions.
Dlobal architectural firms bestow Cdesigner labelsE to "ega#structures like
"ichael Draves;s # .orld Trade 68change
I.". Pei;s K 6ssensa Towers
$r/uitectonica;s K Pacific Pla7a Tower
:P5 $ssociates; K *:D Tower
,4";s K (!B! =uchengco Tower
$rchitects were labelled as Clate modernistE and later as Cneo#modernistE and Csuper modernistE
Inspiration were drawn from aircraft technology, robotics, and cyberspace as demonstrated by the 4ne ,an
"iguel Building, and the PB!om Tower, and the DT International Tower.
"aterials such as reflective blue glass or a/uamarine curtain walls, aluminum cladding, metallic sun#visors,
and metal mullions are mainstays of millennium skyscrapers.
Presence of architectural deconstruction, which is characteri7ed physically by controlled fragmentation,
stimulating predictability, assymetrical geometries, and orchestrated chaos like the works of $le8ius "edalla,
6duardo !alma, and >oey =upangco
$dvances in !$' and !$ manufacturing technologies
Implementation of 9green architectureE to reverse the negative impact of buildings on human health and on
the environment by enhancing efficiency and moderating the use of materials, energy and space.
Prehistor& and "ndienous ' Pre-Spanish Philippine Architecture
I. Introduction
Philippine architecture is very comple8, since only few records have been saved, we are
still not sure of our own architecture. In our contemporary era, many buildings are of the ,paniards
and above inspiration. "ultiple countries coloni7ed us, as this affects our architecture. *et us lapse
to the period before the ,panish came. .hat are the edifices seeableL 2nlike other countries with
records, we may have a bad time discovering.
Fipa huts will surely come to our mind, also the banaue rice terraces, what elseL
5ilipino $rchitecture is not indienous. It is an admi8ture of the "uslim, "alayan, chinese
and ,panish influences. the indigenous tribes of the Philippines which were /uite a diverse group
and of nomadic nature had little art of building to speak of. Their architectural art was revealed in
their houses of nipa, cogon and bamboo. $lthough these simple buildings were not as enduring as
the colossal pyramids of 6gypt nor as magnificent as the grand temple of Dreece, yet they were
suitable to the tropical conditions of the islands.
II. !limate
The climate in the Philippines is a tropical monsoon climate. The annual lowland
temperature is () derees * +,- derees !./ It is marked by wet and dr& seasons.
a. "onsoons
Fortheast K $mihan
,outheast K &abagat
III. Deography
$n archipelago of ?000M islands with more than half of the land mountainous and hilly.
*and area9 11,30% s/uare kilometers.N
!oastline9 %?,-00 kilometers.
*ocation9 + degrees from the e/uator.
:nown as CPearl of the 4rient ,easE
II. Deology
a. 'omestic ,tructures K characteri7ed by lightness and airiness
b. "aterials used in the 5ilipino house are found near the site. 'epending on the ecology of the area,
the materials may differ around the Philippines. $bout ++O covered with forest
The ma<or Indigenous building materials used in pre#,panish architecture are still abundant9 bamboo
@kawayanA, rattan @yantokA, various native woods, native palms like palma brava @anahawA, and nipa palms,
cane, and cogon.@a long grass for thatchingA
,tone and clay are sometimes used as well as bricks, limestone, marble, adobe, granite, coral stone, asbestos,
lime, gravel, sand
"any kinds of trees used for building construction
c. .ood variety9 3,000 species
d. Farra, Ipil, molave, yacal, gui<o, apitong, tanguile, red and white lauan, almon, palosapis, Benguet
pine, tindalo, kamagong, among others.
e. "inerals # Dold, silver, iron, tin, nickel, copper, 7inc, lead, manganese, chromite, aluminum,
platinum, uranium
I. (eligious
.orship includes the veneration of spirit9 Anitos and Manales, good and bad, respectively.
Bathala# creator of &eaven, 6arth and men @:abunyan for the Ifugaos and *aon or $lba for the
people in IisayasA
Dood spirits9 $nitosB bad spirits9 "angales
,acrificing @took place in own homeA
Post#,panish 6ra
13O !hristian @mostly !atholicismA
Influ8 of ,panish missionaries.
In %300, the PPropaation o0 "slamP began in the ,ulu Islands and "indanao, where
Islam remains the ma<or religion. The "uslim influence had spread as far north as *u7on when
5erdinand "agellan arrived in %-% to claim the archipelago for ,pain.
These religions affected the architecture of the 5ilipinos, with superstitious 1elie0s,
people will do their best to protect their family. "oreover, their construction consists of religious
procedure: Site Selection2 Time 0or 1uildin a house2 rituals 1e0ore construction2 etc/
,ite ,election procedure
$n e is buried for 3 days,. 4n the fourth day it is unearthed, if the egg shakes, the
construction is postponed.
!oconut is buried and left overnight, if it shakes during observation, it means there are
evil spirits.
"any "ore
(ituals before starting !onstruction
3u4idnons K site shall not have particular trees. Babaylan ) healer)pries or a bukidnon
may perform the initial step of selecting site.
Mano1os K In selecting the site of a house, certain omens, dreams and oracles are
Tausu K &ouse site must be as strong as the strength of the human body. 4nly in
specific months of the tausug calendar mast a house to be built.
5a4an K .hen diiging for the post holes are done, they observes if there are white ants
or worm, if white ants K lucky, worms K corpse
3atranue0los K rituals are practiced
"lo4anos K the father, at the fading daylight, prays in the site.
Hilia&noms K !onsults an almanac which contains dates, months, lunar cycles, high
and low tides and other events
II. ,ocio#!ultural) &istorical
6arliest settlers lived in the Ta1on !ave, wherein it is a very large cave capable of sheltering a lot
of family.
6arly inhabitants are believed to have reached the area over land bridges connecting the islands to
"alaysia and !hina.
Before the coming of the ,paniards, the primitive non#!hristian 5ilipinos lived in small communities
called 1arana& ruled by a datu. They were ruled by local laws. the oldest source of
law, it was believed, was the goddess PLu1lu1anP. The laws were announced by village
informer who went around the village at night to make announcements. The laws carried
many sub<ects such as marriage, inheritance, loans, contracts, and descents. The !ode of
6alantiaw and the !ode of Maratas were the oldest laws. They believed in auuries
and superstitions.
,ocial !lasses
a. %o1les K "aharlikas
b. *reemen K Timawas
c. Slaves # $lipin
III. 4ther Planning 'etails
Iillages established their house near bodies of water or slashed and burned agriculture.
%. The diet of early 5ilipinos are foods from the sea, animals like chicken, pig,
carabaos are for ritual or events.
. 5ishing implements provided more yield than those used for hunting
3. .ater are means of good travel
+. Bodies of water were the ma<or source for bathing, washing and drinking
-. Plans were either s/uare, rectangular or octagonal, most are elevated. $voiding
floods and heat from ground.
3. (oofs are hipped, gabled or pyramidal in form with wooden or bamboo framing
?. ,tairs may be a single log.
0. Toilets are separate structures build some few meters away from the house
IIII. Buildings) structures)dwellings
Tabon !ave
(ice Terraces
6thnic &ouse)dwellings
!ave K Tabon !ave in Palawan,
%. .ind#shield or one#sided lean#to with or without flooring
. ,ingle#pitched roof supported by tree trunks
Tree &ouse
%. Bamboo and rattan are most commonly used. To withstand strong wind and
storm, the whole house is anchored to nearby trees by means of rattan
1/ 3aha& 6u1o2 %ipa Hut2 %ipa House
The structure was usually four#walled with tukod windows which had swinging shades, which could
be propped open during the day.
There was usually one simple multi#use space on the interior. This open interior again
provided ventilation, but also gave the simple dwelling a spacious feel. This space could
be used for cooking, eating, and sleeping.
,ometimes the cooking was done over an open fire built on the heap of earth in one
corner or partitioned off in a space in front of the ladder.
,ometimes, there was an open front porch, pantaw or batalan, where <ars of water
would be kept to wash dishes. This gallery also served as an anteroom or lounging
area. The structure could easily be added to, should the need arise.
,teeply sloping pitch protects it from the wind and rain in typhoon season and also provided wide overhang
eaves to shade from the hot sun.
6levated 3 to + meters off the ground, supported by + or more wood or bamboo posts.
,pace underneath the house, called the silong, can also serve as a workspace, a storage space, granary,
pen for livestock and also aids in air circulation beneath the house. In addition, the raised structure sits out
of the floods, and also keeps small rodents and other creatures from entering the main structure.
$ ladder, hagdan, is used to enter the main structure. It could be drawn up at night or when the owners went
%. *ocation9 *ow lands all over the Philippines
. Parts9 Plan
Bulwagan9 area for guest, receiving area
,ilid9 private room, bedroom, room used for sleeping
Paglulutuan or gilir9 kitchen area
'apogan K table on top of the river stone @kalanA
Bangahan K bangguera)banggerahan place for drying pots
Batalan K unroofed area where water <ars are kept.
,ilong9 space found underneath the house used as storage space.
5loor9 Bamboo
,tructural 6lements9
5our main posts are erected @main supportA
.alls9 made of nipa leaves or flattened bamboo
floor beams9 The =awi patukuran
Protective 6lements9
!over w) steep gabled roof.
!irculatory 6lements9
Bamboo ladder, resting on wooden threshold is provide for the entry to the house from
the ground.
Kawayang tinik K cut only from 'ec %3#>an 3, to eliminate all insects soak in river or
lake or bury in sand for si8 months before using.
Nipa K the best ones come from Paombong, Bulacan. 4ther roofing materials9 cogon,
rice stalks, sugarcane leaves, split bamboo, anahaw
.alls9 sawali, split bamboo, coconut leaves, abaca leaves, anahaw.
Rattan for lashing.
7pland and lowland houses
&ouses in the !ordillera tend to be enclosed at times with solid planks of wood and
have fewer or no windows because of the chilly air.
*owland structures tend to have a more open, airy interior.

7pland Ethnic Houses o0 the !ordilleras
*ocation9 "ountains of the !ordilleras
"0uao House +3aleh or *aleh.
,ingle room house w) an area of +.oo 8 3.oo m
5or cooking ang sleeping
5loor9 %.- K m above ground made of wooden planks.
'ecorative elements9 !arabao ,kulls, pig <aws indicate status
ambubulan figure as protection from evil spirits.
,tructural 6lements9
&ouse posts made from trunks of the amuguawan tree buried into a hole dug about half
a meter into the ground.
5loor girders carved w) mortises on both ends to fit into the pointed upper end of the
posts act as the tenons support 3 solid floor <oists upon which the wood flooring
attached by means of wooden pegs.
'oors and windows in the cabin allow light and air inside.
"sne House or 3inuron
Binuron, the Isneg house is built slightly off the ground and is also a one#room dwelliing like
the fale but has more light and is bigger.
3ontoc House
The Bontoc house sits on the ground, has a hip#thatched roof and a second floor granary
within the house. The rice granary @rightA is a common sight in the !ordilleras.
!arabao horns and pig skulls and <aws are signs indicating the owner;s wealth.
:ankanay &ouse
:alinga &ouse or Binayon
Houses in the South:
The 3ad8ao House
*ocation9 !oastal .ater of Tawi Tawi
&ouse built above shallow water using stilts
"ain room9 !ombination of sleeping area and sala
$ccessible to each other by means of bamboo planks
'ecorative elements9
"irror K indication of the Q of children the family has, moreover, used for driving away bad
4kir K dominates the sides
The Toroan or Maranaw House
The ancestral home of the "aranao sultan or datu has a soaring, salakot#shaped
roof, ornate beams and massive posts, all proclaiming e8alted status.
Power posts K the massive posts made from tree trunks portend power. The round
stones on which they rest are believed to protect the house from earth/uakes.
Panolong K the panolong flaring out from the beams is the most arresting feature of
the torogan. Its okir carving usually features the naga or serpent as well as floral
and star#and#bud motifs.
Beginnings of settlements
%-3- K settlement of the ,panish in !ebu
%-?% K settlement in "anila, taking over the remains of (a<ah ,oliman;s fort
The settlement followed the prescriptions issued by :ing Philip II in %-?3
"anila became the capital of the ,panish colony and the model for town development
It also became the center for political, religious and economic power.
!it& plannin
Principal pla7a
,econdary pla7as
Dridiron pattern
!athedral, government buildings, houses of ranking persons
Initially built w wood and bamboo
!ommon cause of destruction9 fire
Iolcanic turf /uarries were discovered in ,an Pedro, "akati in the %-00s
Populatin and plannin the towns
(educciones # system of gathering newly !hristiani7ed tribes into compact settlements, arranged on a grid
pattern, around a church
4rdenan7as of %-?3 or CPrescriptions for the Foundation of Hispanic Colonial TownsE by Philip II
$ set of 0 ordinances containing practical directions on establishing settlements in the colonies
Pla=a Ma&or ' was the town center
!asa (eal
&ouses of prominent individuals
The !hurch 3uildin
*ocation9 center of the town, choice part of the pla7a, acted as refuge during emergencies or calamities
!onvento and bell tower
Plan9 rectangular or cruciform
.alls9 high, thick, supported by buttresses
.indows9 small
Bell towers9 watchtowers
$dobe @volcanic tuffA
!oral stone
!ombination stone and brick
"ortar9 lime, crushed coral, crushed shells, molasses, sugar cane <uice, goat;s blood, carabao milk, egg
shells and egg white
3asic *orm
Plain rear and side walls
4rnaments are found on the facade9
!olumns, cornices, niches, blind arches, blind balustrades, low relief carvings
!lassic traditions for ornaments9
Tuscan, 'oric, Ionic, !orinthian, Baro/ue, (ococo, "oorish
!lassi0ication 1ased on materials
'e ligero K light construction, tabla @woodA, cana y nipa @bamboo and thatchA
'e harigue K with collonade of tree trunks
'e cari7o K stone
'e sillar K cut stone
'e mamposteria K rubble
'e cota K old stones from previous construction
'e ladrillo K brick
'e tabigue K rubble, brick or stone
Parts o0 a colonial church
!oro ' choir area2 near the entrance or altar
>er8as ' rills
*acistol ' choir lectern
Sillerias ' choir stalls
3autisterio ' 1aptistr&
%aveto ' nave
!omulatorio ' communion rail
Santuario ' sanctuar& or altar area
Altar ma&or w reta1lo
3aro?ue !hurches o0 the Philippines/ These 0our churches were the 0irst 1uilt 1& the Spanish in the late
9;th centur&/ Their architectural st&le is uni?ue 0or its reinterpretation o0 European 3aro?ue 1& !hinese
and Philippine artisans/
San Austin !hurch Manila
La Asuncion de la %uestra Senora2 Santa Maria2 "locos Sur
St/ Auustine !hurch2 Paoa&2 "locos %orte
Sto/ Tomas de >illanueva !hurch2 Mia-ao2 "lioilo
The 3aha& na 3ato
Parts o0 the 3aha& na 3ato: characteristics
$all partitions wood with calado a1ove
!eilins canvas2 sawali or tin
@round 0loor charcoal2 sand or ravel 0loored over with mortared stone or 1ric4
Roo0 hipped at a hih anle
with wide overhans
had vents all around
nipa2 tile and alvani=ed iron
with utters all around
$indows tall and wide +9m A :m.
8alousies or capi= shells
had ventanillas w 1lan4 1oards as cover
*loors wooden on the second 0loor
slats on the 4itchen or dinin rooms
Galeria, corredor or galeria volada
Azotea tiled terrace 0or wor4 and relaAation
where the water 0rom the rains was 4ept/
CA@7A% -