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1.1. EIA
1.2. EIA in Development Projects
1.3. EIA in Bangladesh
1.4. EIA in Decision Making
1.5. Objectives
1.6. Outcomes
2. Methodology
2.1. Existing Methods
2.2. Practices
3. EIA Practices in Bangladesh
3.1. EIA Frameworks
3.2. Environmental Rules and Policies Associated to EIA
3.3. Sectoral EIAs
3.4. Experience from Studies
4. Effectiveness in EIA Implication from Sectoral Studies
4.1. Evaluation Criteria
5. Discussion
5.1. Effectiveness in EIA implementation
5.2. Future and Prospects of EIA in Bangladesh
6. Conclusions

1. Introduction:


Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a procedure to assess the likely
consequences that can flow from a proposed development activity. It is a tool of
planning and management of sustainable development which identifies the type,
magnitude and probability of environmental and social changes likely to happen
directly or indirectly as consequence of a project or policy and to design the
possible mitigation procedure (Vanclay and Bronstein, 1995; Harvey, 1998;
Momtaz et al., 1998; Thomas, 1998). The legislative basis for EIA which is
known as National Environmental Policy Act 1969, was the result of wide spread
recognition in the US in the 1960s that some major environmental complications
were created by the actions of governments. All federal agencies were required
to consider the environmental consequences of their actions according to this
legislation. By 1990s, most of the Asias developing countries achieved the same
level of EIA practice as the developing world (Gilpin, 1995). Today, EIA is
practiced in plenty in planning process in many of these countries. However,
many authors (see, for example, Briffett, 1999) suggested that environmental
degradation continues to be a major concern in these countries, despite of the
existence of good EIA guidelines and legislation. It is not the procedure to
achieve complete environmental sustainability assurance (ESA) for these
countries (Sadler, 1999). In Bangladesh, it was first introduced in 1992 for the
water sector development. Bangladesh enacted EIA legislation in 1995 and EIA
rules in 1997 (Salim Momtaz, 2002).