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ELEMENTS OF POETRY

1. FIGURES OF SPEECH
Simile
-a comparison using the words like or as
Ex. (He is like a dog the way he treats her.)
Metaphor
-a comparison that does NOT use “like” or “as”
Ex. (He is a dog the way he treats her.)
Alliteration
-Two or more words which have the same initial sound
-repeated sound in the first letters of each word in the sentence
Ex. (Tiny Tom tipped the tall tree onto the table.)
Assonance
-A partial rhyme which has the same internal vowel sounds amongst
different words
Onomatopoeia
-formation of a name or word by imitating the sound associated with
the thing designated, as in buzz, hum, cuckoo, slap, splash, bang, etc.
Repetitions
-poets often choose to repeat sounds, words, phrases or whole lines in
a poem. This helps the poet emphasize an idea or give a certain feeling
(think of your favorite song that repeats the same line during the
chorus section)
Hyperbole
-A figure of speech in which exaggeration is used for emphasis or
effect
Personification
-Giving an animal or object human-like qualities (the rough edge on the
desk ate away at his arm as he took the exam)

2. RHYME
-The repetition of sounds within different words, either end sound,
middle or beginning
-poets often choose to repeat sounds, words, phrases or whole lines in
a poem. This helps the poet emphasize an idea or give a certain feeling
(think of your favorite song that repeats the same line during the
chorus section)

3. RHYTHM
-is the poem’s beat; a pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables
-The flow of words within each meter and stanza

4. SYMBOL
-Something that represents something else through association,
resemblance or convention
-Often poems will convey ideas and thoughts using symbols.
- A symbol can stand for many things at one time and leads the reader
out of a systematic and structured method of looking at things.
-Often a symbol used in the poem will be used to create such an effect.

5. THEME
-This is what the poem is all about.
-The theme of the poem is the central idea that the poet wants to
convey.
- It can be a story, or a thought, or a description of something or
someone – anything which is what the poem is all about.

6. STYLE
-The way the poem is written. Free-style, ballad, haiku, etc.
- Includes length of meters, number of stanzas along with rhyme
techniques and rhythm.

7. METER
-This is the basic structural make-up of the poem. A poem is made up
of blocks of lines, which convey a single strand of thought. Within
those blocks, a structure of syllables which follow the rhythm has to be
included. This is the meter or the metrical form of poetry.

KINDS OF POETRY

ABC POEM
-An ABC poem has a series of lines that create a mood, picture, or feeling.
Lines are made up of words and phrases. The first word of line 1 begins with
an A, the first word of line 2 begins with a B etc.
CINQUAIN
-Cinquain Poetry Type has five lines. Line 1 has one word (the title). Line 2
has two words that describe the title. Line 3 has three words that tell the
action. Line 4 has four words that express the feeling, and line 5 has one
word which recalls the title.
ACROSTIC
-Poetry that certain letters, usually the first in each line form a word or
message when read in a sequence.
TANKA
-Tanka is a Japanese poetry type of five lines, the first and third composed of
five syllables and the rest of seven. Tanka is the oldest type of poetry in
Japan.
CONCRETE
-In this kind of poetry, the topographical arrangement of words supports the
meaning conveyed by the poem. The poems form a picture of the topic on
which they are centered.
LIMERICK
-A short sometimes vulgar, humorous poem consisting of five anapestic lines.
Lines 1, 2, and 5 have seven to ten syllables, rhyme and have the same
verbal rhythm. The 3rd and 4th lines have five to seven syllables, rhyme and
have the same rhythm.
COUPLET
-It is a very simple form of a verse, which contains two rhyming lines.
HAIKU
-Haiku Poetry Type is a Japanese poem composed of three unrhymed lines of
five, seven, and five syllables. Haiku poetry originated in the sixteenth
century and reflects on some aspect of nature and creates images.

DIAMOND
-This type of poetry is one of the simplest ones to write. The first line of a
diamante is a single word; the second line consists of two adjectives
describing that word, third line contains three words about the subject while
the fourth line contains four. The fifth line and the lines that follow consist of
a similar pattern of words describing the idea opposite to the subject of the
poem.
EPIC
-Epic Poems are long, serious poems that tell the story of a heroic figure. This
genre of poetry is a type of narrative literature that narrates stories of
mythological heroes.

TYPES OF POETRY

LAY POETRY
-Lay Poetry Types are long narrative poems, especially those that were sung
by medieval
minstrels and French trouveres.
CLASSICISM POETRY
-Poetry which holds the principles and ideals of beauty that is characteristic
of Greek and Roman art, architecture, and literature.
ROMANTICISM POETRY
-Nature and love were a major themes of Romanticism favoured by 18th and
19th century poets such as Lord Byron, Percy Bysshe Shelley and John Keats.
Emphasis in such poetry is placed on the personal experiences of the
individual.
IDYLL POETRY
-Idyll Poetry Types are either short poems depicting a peaceful, idealized
country scene, or long poems that tell a story about ancient heroes. The word
is derived from the Greek word 'eidyllion' meaning "little picture". Also
spelled Idyl.
CANZONE POETRY
-anzone Poetry Type is usually a medieval Italian lyric poem, with five or six
stanzas and a shorter concluding stanza (or envoy). Canzone literally means
"song" in Italian.
NARRATIVE POETRY
-Narrative Poetry is found in different types of poetry such as Ballads,
Epics, and Lays.
RHYME ROYALE POETRY
-Rhyme Royal Type is a type of poetry introduced by Geoffrey Chaucer
consisting of stanzas of seven lines in Iambic pentameter.
ANALOGY
-An Analogy is a likeness or similarity between things (a subject and an
analog) that are otherwise unlike. Analogy is the comparison of two pairs
which have the same relationship.

Source:
http://www.types-of-poetry.org.uk/
http://www.buzzle.com/articles/kinds-of-poetry.html
http://www.poemofquotes.com/articles/poetry_forms.php
http://basar.longwoodteachers.com/poetry.htm
http://www.poemofquotes.com/articles/elements-of-poetry.php
http://www.buzzle.com/articles/basic-elements-of-poetry.html