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SAEINDIA organized

Two day
Faculty Leadership Development
Programme
on 21
st
& 22
nd
June 2013
at Priyadarshini College of Engineering,
Nagpur.
Baja Design Report, DFMEA Baja Design Report, DFMEA
& Validation Presentation & Validation Presentation
Dr. K.C. Vora Dr. K.C. Vora
BROAD CLASSIFICATION BROAD CLASSIFICATION
CHASSIS AND ROLL CAGE
SUSPENSION SYSTEM
ENGINE AND TRANSMISSION BRAKES AND STEERING
Vehicle Configuration Vehicle Configuration
Four Four or or more more wheels wheels..
Capable Capable of of carrying carrying single single seated seated person person 190 190..5 5 cm cm
( (6633) ) tall tall and and weighing weighing 113 113..44 kg kg ((250 250 pounds) pounds)..
Maximum Maximum vehicle vehicle width width should should be be less less than than 64 64 Maximum Maximum vehicle vehicle width width should should be be less less than than 64 64
including including tyres tyres and and maximum maximum length length should should be be less less
than than 108 108..
It It must must possess possess all all terrain terrain capability capability..
It It should should have have adequate adequate ground ground clearance clearance and and traction traction..
Top speed Top speed 50km/hr 50km/hr
Approximate weight Approximate weight 210kg 210kg
Ground clearance Ground clearance 99--10 10
Wheel base Wheel base 56 56
Typical Design Targets Typical Design Targets
Wheel base Wheel base 56 56
Track width Track width 60 60
Turning radius Turning radius 8 8
Different parts of vehicle Different parts of vehicle
Engine/Air Filter/Silencer
Transmission/Clutch/Differential
Seat
Roll Cage
Body
Axle/Balancing Rods
Suspension Suspension
Tyres
Brakes
Steering
Fuel System
Safety
Asthetics/Colour
Spares
Manufacturing Kit/Tool Kit
Innovation
BAJA BAJA SAEINDIA SAEINDIA Competitions Competitions
require require use use of of Engine Engine provided provided
by by Briggs Briggs & & Stratton, Stratton, USA USA of of
following following specifications specifications::
44 stroke stroke air air- -cooled cooled 10 10hp hp OHV OHV
ENGINE ENGINE
44 stroke stroke air air- -cooled cooled 10 10hp hp OHV OHV
Intek Intek Model Model 205432 205432
305 305cc, cc, 19 19..66 66Nm@ Nm@2800 2800rpm rpm
79 79..25 25mm mm bore, bore, 61 61..67 67mm mm stroke, stroke,
88::11 compression compression ratio ratio
AA governor governor restricts restricts the the
maximum maximumspeed speed to to 3800 3800 rpm rpm
POWERTRAIN
EXHAUST
Lombardini LGA 340 Briggs & Stratton
Standard Muffler of Sagar
Industries with integrated
Catalytic Converter
Integrated Exhaust
system
Engine Crankshaft
Key
Adapter
Spacer
Couple
r
8 8
Fig. Modified coupler exploded view
Fig. F.E. Analysis of adapter Fig. Back pressure of
Exhaust
PARAMETER VALUE
Max Equivalent
Stress
176 MPa
Max Shear
Stress
97.8 MPa
Max
Deformation
0.06 mm
Factor of Safety 4.54
Roll Cage Roll Cage
Roll cage must incorporate appropriate: Roll cage must incorporate appropriate:
Rear roll hoop (RRH) Rear roll hoop (RRH)
Lateral diagonal bracing (LDB) Lateral diagonal bracing (LDB)
Roll hoop overhead members (RHO) Roll hoop overhead members (RHO)
Lower frame side members (LFS) Lower frame side members (LFS)
Side impact members (SIM) Side impact members (SIM)
Tubular frame to take the loading and protect the
driver in a rollover.
Side impact members (SIM) Side impact members (SIM)
Front bracing members (FBM) Front bracing members (FBM)
Fore aft bracing members (FAB) Fore aft bracing members (FAB)
Lateral cross member (LC) Lateral cross member (LC)
Helmet, Head Restraint, Helmet, Head Restraint,
Firewall, Fire Firewall, Fire--extinguisher, extinguisher,
Safety Belt, Spares, Design Safety Belt, Spares, Design
report, Cost report and report, Cost report and
Insurance are mandatory. Insurance are mandatory.
The rear roll hoop functions The rear roll hoop functions
to separate the driver from to separate the driver from
the engine. the engine.
The fire wall is mounted on The fire wall is mounted on
the RRH. the RRH.
Rear Roll Hoop (RRH) Rear Roll Hoop (RRH)
The driver seat may not The driver seat may not
protrude the plane of RRH. protrude the plane of RRH.
The RRH should also be 29 The RRH should also be 29
inch or greater at a height of inch or greater at a height of
27 inch from the base of the 27 inch from the base of the
drivers seat. drivers seat.
Rear Roll Hoop Lateral Diagonal Rear Roll Hoop Lateral Diagonal
Bracing (LDB) Bracing (LDB)
Lateral bracing for the Rear Roll Hoop will begin at a Lateral bracing for the Rear Roll Hoop will begin at a
point along the vertical portion of the RRH within 12.7 point along the vertical portion of the RRH within 12.7
cm (5 in) vertically of point BL or BR and extend cm (5 in) vertically of point BL or BR and extend
diagonally to a point no farther than 12.7 cm (5 in) above diagonally to a point no farther than 12.7 cm (5 in) above
point AR or AL. point AR or AL.
Roll Hoop Overhead Member (RHO) Roll Hoop Overhead Member (RHO)
The The RHO RHO shall shall be be
located located above above the the
drivers drivers seat seat by by aa
minimum minimum of of 104 104..11
cm cm((41 41 inches) inches). .
Points Points CC should should be be
located located forward forward of of
the the drivers drivers seat seat by by aa
minimum minimum of of 30 30..55 cm cm
((12 12 inches) inches)..
Lower Frame Side Member (LFS) Lower Frame Side Member (LFS)
Lower Lower frame frame side side
members members shall shall
join join the the RRH RRH and and
LC LC and and extend extend to to LC LC and and extend extend to to
points points forward forward of of
the the drivers drivers heel heel
to to aa front front lateral lateral
cross cross member member..
Side Impact Member (SIM) Side Impact Member (SIM)
Side impact members Side impact members
shall join the RRH at shall join the RRH at
points S and extend points S and extend
horizontally to points horizontally to points
SF forward of the SF forward of the
drivers toes. drivers toes.
The SIM should be The SIM should be The SIM should be The SIM should be
between 8 to 12 inc as between 8 to 12 inc as
measured from the measured from the
base of the drivers base of the drivers
seat. seat.
The driver body The driver body
should not be in should not be in
contact with the SIM contact with the SIM
members. members.
Front Bracing Member (FBM) Front Bracing Member (FBM)
Front Front bracing bracing
members members shall shall join join
the the RHO, RHO, the the SIM SIM
and and the the LFS LFS.. and and the the LFS LFS..
The The angle angle between between
the the FBMUP FBMUP and and the the
vertical vertical should should be be
less less than than 45 45
degrees degrees..
Rear Bracing Members. Rear Bracing Members.
The Rear bracing The Rear bracing
acts as a cage acts as a cage
carrying the engine carrying the engine
and transmission and transmission and transmission and transmission
box. box.
The bracing should The bracing should
be fully triangulated. be fully triangulated.
FABRICATION FABRICATION FABRICATION FABRICATION
USE OF DESIGN SOFTWARES USE OF DESIGN SOFTWARES
PTC/ANSYS/ALTAIR SOFTWARES
Software design Software design
Vehicle Dynamics Simulation Vehicle Dynamics Simulation
Animation
Math Model
Vehicle Data
Maneuver
Plots
Road and Wind
Road course,
skidpad, grades,
cross-slopes,
split-mu, crosswind
Hill Climb Test Hill Climb Test
At 20kmph
At 30kmph
At 40 kmph
MATERIAL SELECTION MATERIAL SELECTION
Steel members with at least Steel members with at least
equal bending stiffness and equal bending stiffness and
bending strength. The bending bending strength. The bending
stiffness and bending strength stiffness and bending strength stiffness and bending strength stiffness and bending strength
have to be calculated about an have to be calculated about an
axis that gives the lowest value. axis that gives the lowest value.
Bending stiffness is proportional Bending stiffness is proportional
by the EI product and bending by the EI product and bending
strength is given by the value of strength is given by the value of
SyI/c. SyI/c.
M.S. 1.25 O.D. 16gauge
Material Material
Material for the frame and chassis Material for the frame and chassis
1018 Circular steel tubing with OD 2.5 cm 1018 Circular steel tubing with OD 2.5 cm
(1 inch) & wall thickness of 3.05 mm (1 inch) & wall thickness of 3.05 mm
(0.120 inch). (0.120 inch). (0.120 inch). (0.120 inch).
Equivalent AIS 4130 or BIS 1875. Equivalent AIS 4130 or BIS 1875.
Dimensions Dimensions
Overall Length: 84 inches Overall Length: 84 inches
Wheel Base: 63.5 inches Wheel Base: 63.5 inches
Track: Front 50 inches Track: Front 50 inches Track: Front 50 inches Track: Front 50 inches
Rear 52 inches Rear 52 inches
Overall Weight 300 kg (w/o Driver) Overall Weight 300 kg (w/o Driver)
Rods are cut and welded for Rods are cut and welded for
chassis. Pipe bending can be chassis. Pipe bending can be
used as an alternate measure. used as an alternate measure.
Aim should be to reduce excess weight Aim should be to reduce excess weight
without compromising any structural without compromising any structural
rigidity or the safety of the driver. rigidity or the safety of the driver.
Centre of gravity should be maintained as Centre of gravity should be maintained as
low as possible. low as possible.
The body panels protects the drivers body
and provides a suitable enclosure.
Roll cage padding reduces the damage in
case of impact.
Specifications Specifications
Frame was manufactured to fit a seat that Frame was manufactured to fit a seat that
allowed for maximum driver comfort and safety, allowed for maximum driver comfort and safety,
features consumers demand features consumers demand
The swing arm requires the engine to be The swing arm requires the engine to be The swing arm requires the engine to be The swing arm requires the engine to be
mounted rigidly to the frame, and out of the way mounted rigidly to the frame, and out of the way
from the traveling suspension. This causes the from the traveling suspension. This causes the
center of gravity to be moved higher, and center of gravity to be moved higher, and
creates much more sprung mass. creates much more sprung mass.
Roll cage padding protects drivers head from Roll cage padding protects drivers head from
impact. impact.
Body Body
CAMBER
ANGLE
a
0
IMPORTANT SUSPENSION VARIABLES
TRACK WIDTH
DIRECTION OF
SUSPENSION
TRAVEL
ANGLE
VARIATION
GROUND
CLEARANCE
GENERAL OBJECTIVES GENERAL OBJECTIVES
The suspension system forms the link between the The suspension system forms the link between the
frame and the wheels. The suspension of the car frame and the wheels. The suspension of the car
prevents the shocks from the road to reach you. prevents the shocks from the road to reach you.
For All Terrain vehicles the suspension travel should For All Terrain vehicles the suspension travel should
be as much as possible. be as much as possible. be as much as possible. be as much as possible.
The links and the shockers should be strong enough The links and the shockers should be strong enough
to sustain various shocks and fatigue resistant. to sustain various shocks and fatigue resistant.
The geometry should aid maximum tyre The geometry should aid maximum tyre- -road road
contact. contact.
There are many types systems available . There are many types systems available .
IMPORTANT DESIGN IMPORTANT DESIGN
CONSIDERATIONS CONSIDERATIONS
The ground clearance should be optimum. The ground clearance should be optimum.
The track width may be kept as much as The track width may be kept as much as
possible but within the limits specified in the possible but within the limits specified in the
rules. rules. rules. rules.
Being the main features of all terrain vehicles, Being the main features of all terrain vehicles,
the wheel travel should be as much as possible. the wheel travel should be as much as possible.
The camber variation should be as less as The camber variation should be as less as
possible to improve the possible to improve the tyre tyre--ground contact ground contact
which aids in traction.. which aids in traction..
Safety Features Safety Features
Safety is the primary consideration in the design of Baja Safety is the primary consideration in the design of Baja
SAE vehicles and the conduct of the competitions. SAE vehicles and the conduct of the competitions.
Teams need to include safety considerations in all parts Teams need to include safety considerations in all parts
of their program. of their program.
Roll cage Roll cage
A head restraint must be provided on the car to limit A head restraint must be provided on the car to limit A head restraint must be provided on the car to limit A head restraint must be provided on the car to limit
rearward motion of the head. rearward motion of the head.
In all cases, a minimum of 15.2 cm (6 inches) vertical In all cases, a minimum of 15.2 cm (6 inches) vertical
clearance must be provided from the helmet top of the clearance must be provided from the helmet top of the
teams tallest driver to the bottom of the roll cage top teams tallest driver to the bottom of the roll cage top
tubes or members. tubes or members.
All drivers must be able to exit on either side of the All drivers must be able to exit on either side of the
vehicle within five (5) seconds. vehicle within five (5) seconds.
AA firewall firewall between between the the cockpit cockpit and and the the engine engine
and and fuel fuel tank tank compartment compartment is is mandatory mandatory.. It It must must
cover cover the the area area between between the the lower lower and and upper upper LC LC..
All drivers must use a minimum of a 4 strap restraint All drivers must use a minimum of a 4 strap restraint
harness. harness.
Harness Belt means a belt Harness Belt means a belt
which is essentially a which is essentially a
combination of lap strap and combination of lap strap and
diagonal strap across the diagonal strap across the
What is 4 What is 4 -- Point Harness belt? Point Harness belt?
diagonal strap across the diagonal strap across the
shoulder and chest. shoulder and chest.
It is called as S It is called as S--type belt type belt
in ECE Regulation. in ECE Regulation.
STANDARD
ADJUSTER
STANDARD
ADJUSTER
STANDARD
FASTENER
STANDARD
FASTENER
WEBBING LOOPS THROUGH THESE SLOTS FOR ADJUSTMENT
1500 MM (ADJUSTER
FULLY EXTENDED)
1500 MM (ADJUSTER
FULLY EXTENDED)
Specification
STANDARD
STITCHING
STANDARD
BUCKLE
STANDARD
STITCHING
STANDARD
ADJUSTER
STANDARD
ADJUSTER
STANDARD
FASTENER
STANDARD
FASTENER
170 MM
700 MM (ADJUSTER
FULLY EXTENDED)
WEBBING LOOPS THROUGH THESE SLOTS FOR ADJUSTMENT
700 MM (ADJUSTER
FULLY EXTENDED)
HIGH G CRASH TEST
To Validate belt assembly or a restraint system
affecting the restraint of the occupant shall break and
no buckles or locking system or displacement system
shall release or unlock
Engineering Design Engineering Design
Engineering design assessment consists Engineering design assessment consists
of two events of two events
1) Design Report 1) Design Report 1) Design Report 1) Design Report
2) Design Evaluation 2) Design Evaluation
The design report should clearly explain the engineering and design The design report should clearly explain the engineering and design
process that was used in developing each system of the teams Mini process that was used in developing each system of the teams Mini
Baja vehicle. Baja vehicle.
The process for each system could include: The process for each system could include:
1> Objectives 1> Objectives
Design Report Design Report
1> Objectives 1> Objectives
2> Customer requirements 2> Customer requirements
3> Alternatives considered 3> Alternatives considered
4>The result(s) of design calculations 4>The result(s) of design calculations
5>Stress Analysis 5>Stress Analysis
6>Testing 6>Testing
Design reports must follow the format for SAE Technical Papers Design reports must follow the format for SAE Technical Papers
Design Report Design Report -- Format Format
The design report file must be named as follows:
Car #_college name
EXAMPLE: Car # 14 VIT
Design Report Design Report Page Limit Page Limit
The technical paper segment of design report is limited to
ten (10) pages, excluding the cover page. Additionally the
report may, at the teams option, include up to four (4) non-
text, pages of plans, graphics, photographs or other data for
a maximum of fourteen (14) pages of information. The only a maximum of fourteen (14) pages of information. The only
text permitted on the four (4) optional pages are captions.
All pages must be either 8 x 11 or A4.
NOTE: If your paper exceeds 10 pages of technical report or
4 pages of graphics, then only the first 10 technical and 4
graphic pages will be evaluated.
Design Report Design Report Deadline and Deadline and
Submission Submission
Design reports must be received not later than the due date of Design reports must be received not later than the due date of
15 15
th th
Dec 2014 Dec 2014. Any Design Report not received by the due . Any Design Report not received by the due
date will be subject to a penalty of ten (10) points for each day date will be subject to a penalty of ten (10) points for each day
after the deadline. Both soft & hard copies are required. after the deadline. Both soft & hard copies are required. after the deadline. Both soft & hard copies are required. after the deadline. Both soft & hard copies are required.
Teams that do not submit a Design Report will not be judged Teams that do not submit a Design Report will not be judged
in either part of the Design Event and will receive zero (0) in either part of the Design Event and will receive zero (0)
points. points.
Design Evaluation Design Evaluation
Design Evaluation will be conducted at the event site on the Design Evaluation will be conducted at the event site on the
first full day of the competition. Cars are expected to be first full day of the competition. Cars are expected to be
presented for Design Evaluation in essentially finished presented for Design Evaluation in essentially finished
condition, i.e. fully assembled, complete and ready condition, i.e. fully assembled, complete and ready--to to--run. run.
Vehicles presented in an unfinished condition may receive Vehicles presented in an unfinished condition may receive
lower, or zero points for any incomplete areas that can not lower, or zero points for any incomplete areas that can not
be fully assessed by the design judges. Additionally, the be fully assessed by the design judges. Additionally, the
judges have the right to refuse to evaluate incomplete judges have the right to refuse to evaluate incomplete
vehicles. Teams that are refused judging because of vehicles. Teams that are refused judging because of
incompleteness will receive zero points for Design incompleteness will receive zero points for Design
Evaluation. Evaluation.
Design Evaluation Design Evaluation
During design evaluation team members During design evaluation team members
are expected to be able to fully explain are expected to be able to fully explain
and discuss all aspects of their vehicles and discuss all aspects of their vehicles
design and the rationale behind their design and the rationale behind their
design decisions. Teams that are unable design decisions. Teams that are unable design decisions. Teams that are unable design decisions. Teams that are unable
to adequately explain the various aspects to adequately explain the various aspects
of their design to the judges satisfaction of their design to the judges satisfaction
will receive lower scores down to, and will receive lower scores down to, and
including, zero (0) points. including, zero (0) points.
DFMEA DFMEA
Design Failure Mode Design Failure Mode Design Failure Mode Design Failure Mode
& Effect Analysis & Effect Analysis
Potential
Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
(Design FMEA)
__ System
__ Subsystem
__ Component
Model Year/Vehicle(s):
Core Team:
Design Responsibility
Key Date:
FMEA Number:
Page 1 or 1
Prepared by:
FMEA Date (Orig.):
Item
Function
Potential
Failure
Mode
Potential
Effect(s) of
Failure
Potential
Cause(s)/
Mechanism(s)
Of Failure
Current
Design
Controls
Prevention
Current
Design
Controls
Detection
Recommended
Action(s)
Responsibility
& Target
Completion
Date
Actions
Taken
Action Results
S
E
V
C
L
A
S
S
O
C
C
U
R
D
E
T
E
C
R.
P.
N.
S
E
V
O
C
C
D
E
T
R.
P.
N.
48
Recommend
Consider effects, if above
failure mode happens
List all conceivable
failure modes
Re- evaluate
(New RPN )
Define Responsibility
& Time- frame
FMEA Procedure
List all Function &
requirements
Recommend
improvements
Look possible causes &
mechanism for
failures mode
failure mode happens
Assess the frequency of
occurrence of
failure modes (O)
Assess the possibility of
Failure being
detected ( D )
Assess the Severity of effect (s)
Calculate the Risk
Priority Number (RPN)
Subsystem
Function
Requires
Potential
failure
mode
Potential
Effect(s) of
Failure
S
E
V
C
L
A
S
S
Potential
Cause(s)
Mechanism(s)
of Failure
O
C
C
U
R
Current Controls D
E
T
E
C
T
I
O
N
R
P
N
Recommende
d
Action(s)
Responsi
bility &
Target
completio
n date
Action results
Act-
ions
take
S
E
V
O
C
C
D
E
T
R.
P.
N.
FMEA Sequence
take
n
V C T N.
What are the
Functions,
Features or
Require-
ments?
What can go
wrong?
- No function
- Partial/ over/
degraded
function
- Intermittent
function
- Unintended
function
What are the
effect(s)?
How bad
is it?
What are
the
cause(s)?
How often
does it
happen?
How can this
be prevented
and detected?
How good is this
method at
detecting it?
What can be done?
- Design changes
- Process
changes
- Special controls
- Changes to
standards,
procedures, or
guides
S.O.D. Tables & its usage S.O.D. Tables & its usage
Probability of Failure Possible Failure Rates Ranking
Very High : Persistent
failures
> 100 per thousand vehicles/ items 10
50per thousand vehicles/ items 9
Occurrence (o)
Suggested Evaluation Criteria:
Occurrence table
failures
50per thousand vehicles/ items 9
High : Frequent failures 20 per thousand vehicles/ items 8
10 per thousand vehicles/ items 7
Moderate : Occasional
failures
5 per thousand vehicles/ items 6
2 per thousand vehicles/ items 5
1 per thousand vehicles/ items 4
Low : Relatively few
failures
0.5 per thousand vehicles/ items 3
0.1 per thousand vehicles/ items 2
Remote : Failure is
unlikely
< 0.010 per thousand vehicles/ items 1
Effect Criteria : severity of Effect Ranking
Hazardous
without
warning
Very high severity ranking when a potential failure mode affects safe
vehicle operation and/or involves noncompliance with government
regulation without warning.
10
Hazardous
with warning
Very high severity ranking when a potential failure mode affects
safe vehicle operation and/or involves noncompliance with
government regulation with warning.
9
Very High Vehicle/ item inoperable (loss of primary function). 8
Severity table
Very High Vehicle/ item inoperable (loss of primary function). 8
High Vehicle/ item operable but at reduced level of performance.
Customer very dissatisfied.
7
Moderate Vehicle/ item operable, but Comfort/ Convenience item(s)
inoperable. Customer dissatisfied.
6
Low Vehicle/ item operable, but Comfort/ convenience item(s) operable
at a reduced level of performance. Customer somewhat dissatisfied.
5
Very Low Fit & Finish/ Squeak & Rattle item does not conform. Defect noticed
by most customers (greater than 75%).
4
Minor Fit & Finish/ Squeak & Rattle item does not conform. Defect noticed
by 50% of customers.
3
Very Minor Fit & Finish/ Squeak & rattle item does not conform. Defect noticed
by discriminating customer (less than 25%).
2
None No discernible effect. 1
Detection Criteria : Likelihood of Detection by Design Control Ranking
Absolute
Uncertainty
Design control will not and/or can not detect a potential cause/
mechanism an subsequent failure mode; or there is no Design
control
10
Very Remote Very remote chance the Design control will detect a potential
cause/ mechanism and subsequent failure mode.
9
Remote Remote chance the Design control will detect a potential cause/
mechanism and subsequent failure mode.
8
Very Low Very low chance the Design control will detect a potential cause/ 7
Detection table
Suggested Evaluation Criteria: For
detection
Very Low Very low chance the Design control will detect a potential cause/
mechanism and subsequent failure mode.
7
Low Low chance the Design control will detect a potential cause/
mechanism and subsequent failure mode.
6
Moderate Moderate chance the Design control will detect a potential cause/
mechanism and subsequent failure mode.
5
Moderate High Moderate high chance the Design control will detect a potential
cause/ mechanism and subsequent failure mode.
4
High High chance the Design control will detect a potential cause/
mechanism and subsequent failure mode.
3
Very High Very high chance the Design control will detect a potential cause/
mechanism and subsequent failure mode.
2
Almost Certain Design control will almost certainly detect a potential cause/
mechanism an subsequent failure mode.
1
RPN / Risk Priority Number RPN / Risk Priority Number
Top 20% of Failure
Modes by RPN
R
P
N
Failure Modes
DVP&R DVP&R
Design Validation Design Validation Design Validation Design Validation
Plan & Report Plan & Report
Why Why Design Design Validation Validation?? ??
Are we building it right? Are we building it right?
Major costs of projects are incurred in early design stages. Major costs of projects are incurred in early design stages.
The cost of fixing a design and faulty decisions at later The cost of fixing a design and faulty decisions at later
stages is exponentially greater than at an earlier stage. stages is exponentially greater than at an earlier stage.
Early involvement of CFT in product development saves Early involvement of CFT in product development saves
time and money over product life. time and money over product life.
Validation Definition Validation Definition
The documented act of proving that any The documented act of proving that any
procedure, process, equipment, material, procedure, process, equipment, material,
activity or system, actually leads to the activity or system, actually leads to the
expected results. expected results. expected results. expected results.
Design Validation Design Validation means establishing by means establishing by
objective evidence that device specifications objective evidence that device specifications
conform to user needs and intended uses. conform to user needs and intended uses.
Requirements Requirements of of
Design Design Validation Validation
Design validation shall be performed under defined Design validation shall be performed under defined
operating conditions on initial production units, lots or operating conditions on initial production units, lots or
batches, or their equivalents. batches, or their equivalents. batches, or their equivalents. batches, or their equivalents.
It includes testing of production units under actual or It includes testing of production units under actual or
simulated use conditions. simulated use conditions.
It includes software validation and risk analysis. It includes software validation and risk analysis.
The Validation must be documented in Design The Validation must be documented in Design
Validation Plan. Validation Plan.
Design Validation Process Design Validation Process
Validation Plan Validation Plan
Validation Review Validation Review Validation Review Validation Review
Validation Methods Validation Methods
Validation Report Validation Report
Comparison Between Validation, Comparison Between Validation,
Verification & Review Verification & Review
Design Design Validation Validation Plan Plan (DVP) (DVP)
Design Validation is next step to DFMEA. Design Validation is next step to DFMEA.
Depending upon RPN in DFMEA the Depending upon RPN in DFMEA the
components are arranged in DVP. components are arranged in DVP. components are arranged in DVP. components are arranged in DVP.
It contains all the information regarding the It contains all the information regarding the
acceptance criteria, responsible person or acceptance criteria, responsible person or
team, type of test and start team, type of test and start && finish dates. finish dates.
Validation Methods Validation Methods
Testing ( Static as well as Dynamic) Testing ( Static as well as Dynamic)
Analysis ( Using software's and simulations) Analysis ( Using software's and simulations)
Inspection Methods(Visual or with Test Rigs) Inspection Methods(Visual or with Test Rigs)
Compilation of relevant scientific literature Compilation of relevant scientific literature
Study of historical evidences of similar design Study of historical evidences of similar design
Examples of validation methods & activities Examples of validation methods & activities
Worst case analysis of an assembly. Worst case analysis of an assembly.
Fault tree analysis of a process or design. Fault tree analysis of a process or design.
Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA). Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA).
Package integrity tests. Package integrity tests.
Testing of materials. Testing of materials.
Comparison of a design to previous vehicles Comparison of a design to previous vehicles
having an established history of successful use. having an established history of successful use.
All the best for BAJA SAEINDIA 2014 All the best for BAJA SAEINDIA 2014