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LECTURE NOTES ON

SHIP CONSTRUCTION


Ship Construction General

General knowledge of the principal structural members of a ship and the
proper name for the various parts is essential for controlling the
operation of the ship and care for persons on board at the operational
level and to Maintain seaworthiness of the ship and actions to ensure
and maintain the watertight integrity of the ship are in accordance with
accepted practice. Stability conditions comply with the IMO intact
stability criteria under all conditions of loading.


UNDERSTANDING THE VARIOUS STRUCTURAL MEMBERS:


i. Bracket support the girder, etc
ii. Bulkheads a vertical partition between compartments
iii. Center girder In lieu of longitudinal, provide longitudinal strength
. Longitudinal framing in DB
iv. Floor A vertical athwartships member in way of the double-
bottom. It will run from the center girder out to the margin plate
on either side of the vessel.
v. Frame Internal support member for the shell plating. Vessel may
be framed longitudinally or transversely.
vi. Gusset triangular plate for joining angle bar to a plate
vii. Intercostals Side girder A side girder in the fore and aft line sited
either side of the keel. Integral connection with the tank top and
the ships bottom plating and rigidly connected by floors
viii. Keels center line plate from stem to the stern frame.
. Flat plate keels Generally used keel. Center girder is
attached to the keel and inner bottom plating by continuous
welding and no scallops permitted
a. Duct keels a form of flat plate keel with tow center girder.
Often fitted between collision bulkhead and forward engine
room bulkhead to provide tunnel for pipes and additional
buoyancy.
ix. Lightening holes holes cut into floors or intercostals to reduce
weight and to provide access to tank areas
x. Longitudinal A fore and aft strength member connecting the
athwartships floors. It must be continuous for ship > 215m.
Additional longitudinal are to be found in pounding area
xi. Margin plate a fore and aft plate sited at the turn of the bilge. The
upper edge is normally flanged to allow connection to the tank top
plating, while the opposite end is secured to the inside of the shell
plate by an angle-bar connection. It provides an end seal to the
double bottom tanks, having all the floors joining at right angles,
up to the collision bulkhead.
xii. Panting beams athwartships members in the forepart introduced
to reduce the in & out tendency of the shell plating, caused by
varying water pressure on the bow.
xiii. Panting stringers internal horizontal plates secured to the shell
plating and braced athwartships by the panting beams.
xiv. Scantlings used to indicate the thickness of plates, angles and
flanges.
xv. Sheer strake the continuous row of shell plates on a level with
the uppermost continuous deck.




VARIOUS STRESSES ENCOUNTERED BY A SHIP


Bending, Shear, Hogging, Sagging, Racking, Pounding, Panting.


DEFINITIONS:

HOGGING

When the peak of a wave is amidships, causing the hull to bend so the
ends of the keel are lower than the middle. The opposite of sagging.


SAGGING:

When the trough of a wave is amidships, causing the hull to deflect so
the ends of the keel are higher than the middle. The opposite of hogging.


PANTING:
The pulsation in and out of the bow and stern plating as the ship
alternately rises and plunges deep into the water


POUNDING:

Pounding, as a boat will do in short seas when the bow lifts clear of the
water then comes crashing down. The term is local to English ports on
the North Sea.


RACKING:

The effect of distortion of a vessel into a parallelogram shape due to the
low transverse strength of the vessel is called as racking. Racking stress
occurs in a seaway when the vessel is sailing in heavy weather and
encountered heavy accelerations due to roll and heave.

Racking stress and its causes
In a seaway as a ship rolls from one side to the other the different areas
of the ship have motion which are dependent on the nature of the subject
area. The accelerations are thus not similar due to the various masses of
the different sections (although joined together). These accelerations on
the ships structure are liable to cause distortion in the transverse
section. The greatest effect is under light ship conditions.


Local Stresses

Panting
This is a stress, which occurs at the ends of a vessel due to variations in
water pressure on the shell plating as the vessel pitches in a seaway. The
effect is accentuated at the bow when making headway.



Pounding:

Heavy pitching assisted by heaving as the whole vessel is lifted in a
seaway and again as the vessel slams down on the water is known as
pounding or slamming. This may subject the forepart to severe blows
from the sea. The greatest effect is experienced in the light ship
condition.












Stresses caused by localized loading
Localized heavy loads may give rise to localized distortion of the
transverse section.
Such local loads may be the machinery (Main engine) in the engine room
or the loading of concentrated ore in the holds.
xvi. Panting beams athwartships members in the forepart introduced
to reduce the in & out tendency of the shell plating, caused by
varying water pressure on the bow.
xvii. Panting stringers internal horizontal plates secured to the shell
plating and braced athwartships by the panting beams.
xviii. Sheer strake the continuous row of shell plates on a level with
the uppermost continuous deck.
SOME IMPORTANT QUESTIONS & ANSWERS:
Q. describes racking stress and its causes
Q. describes what is meant by 'panting' and states which parts of the
ship is affected
Q. describes what is meant by 'pounding' or 'slamming' and states
which part of the ship is affected
Q. describes what is meant by 'hogging' and by 'sagging' and
distinguishes between them
Q. describes the loading conditions which give rise to hogging and
sagging stresses


1. Describe the circumstances which cause panting and pounding
stresses.

i. Panting stresses is an in and out motion of the plating in the
bows of a ship and is caused by unequal water pressure as the
bow passes through successive waves.

ii. Pounding stresses is exist when ships is pitching. Ships bows
lift clear of the water and come down heavily. It causes damage
to the bottom and girder at the bow.


2. Sketch a transverse section through the forward part of a large
cargo vessel, showing the structural arrangements which resist the
stresses.

i. Panting stress

Tiers of panting beams are fitted forward of the collision
bulkhead below the lowest deck. These are similar to deck
beam and are connected to frames by beam knees, but are
only fitted at alternative frames. Tiers of beams are spaced 2
meters apart vertically and supported by wash plates or
pillars.
Panting stringers, similar to deck stringers, are laid on each
tier of beams.
To stiffen the joint between each beam and the inner edge of
the stringer, the plate edge may be shaped or gussets fitted.
At intermediate frame without beams, the stringer is support
by a beam knee of half its depth.
At fore ends, the stringers are joined by flat plate called
Breasthooks.

ii. Pounding stress is resisted by strong cellular double bottom.
For a large cargo vessel, longitudinally framed bottom is used.
The outer bottom plating covering the flat of the bottom must
be thickened.
The connections of the shell and inner bottom girder-work
are made stronger
Plate floors are fitted at alternate frames
Longitudinal are stronger than normal
Side girders are no more than 2.1 meters apart.

Members compensating stress


Racking
Heavy
weight
Water
pressure
Local
Stress
Hoging &
Sagging
SF BM
Dry-
docking
Pounding Panting
Beam
knee

Beams
Bulkheads
Decks
Floors
Frames
Long'
girders

Pillars
Shell
plating






SOME MORE EXAMINATION QUESTIONS

i. Describe the circumstances which cause panting and pounding
stresses.

a. Panting stresses is an in and out motion of the plating in the
bows of a ship and is caused by unequal water pressure as
the bow passes through successive waves.
b. Pounding stresses is exist when ships is pitching. Ships
bows lift clear of the water and come down heavily. It causes
damage to the bottom and girder at the bow.

ii. Sketch a transverse section through the forward part of a large
cargo vessel, showing the structural arrangements which resist
the stresses in (1).

a. Panting stress
i. Tiers of panting beams are fitted forward of the
collision bulkhead below the lowest deck. These are
similar to deck beam and are connected to frames by
beam knees, but are only fitted at alternative frames.
Tiers of beams are spaced 2 meters apart vertically
and supported by wash plates or pillars.
ii. Panting stringers, similar to deck stringers, are laid on
each tier of beams.
iii. To stiffen the joint between each beam and the inner
edge of the stringer, the plate edge may be shaped or
gussets fitted.
iv. At intermediate frame without beams, the stringer is
support by a beam knee of half its depth.
v. At fore ends, the stringers are joined by flat plate
called Breasthooks.
b. Pounding stress is resisted by strong cellular double bottom.
For a large cargo vessel, longitudinally framed bottom is
used.
i. The outer bottom plating covering the flat of the
bottom must be thickened.
ii. The connections of the shell and inner bottom girder-
work are made stronger
iii. Plate floors are fitted at alternate frames
iv. Longitudinal are stronger than normal
v. Side girders are no more than 2.1 meters apart.

iii. Sketch a longitudinal section of a bulk carrier, showing and
naming all the main compartments. // Explain the reasons for
this arrangement of compartments.

a. Large, clear holds without tween deck to load and
discharge cargo quickly
b. Large hatches with steel covers for safety
c. Engine place aft
d. Topside tank enable water ballast to be carried high up to
reduce GM
e. Sloping side tanks at the bilge assist in handling bulk
cargo since it helps the self-trimming of cargo

iv. List the structural members of a ship which are designed to
resist the main longitudinal stresses in a ships hull. // State
briefly how structural continuity is maintained in these
members to enable them to perform their designed function.

a. Longitudinal stress: hogging, sagging
b. Longitudinal work in the double bottom:
1. Deck stringer and sheer-strake thicken
2. Deck girder and longitudinal bulkhead
3. Special steel for sheer-strake and bilge strake
4. Longitudinal frames and beams in the bottom
and under the strengthen deck
5. Stress is greatest amidships, so strengths of the
parts is made greater amidships
c. Hull is strengthen at about the half-depth of the ship to
resist the shearing stress

v. It is useless to make one part very strong if an adjacent part which
has to resist the same stress is weak. Hence, it is important to
maintain structural continuity
vi. When material has to be cut away, compensations must be made
to preserve continuity of strength. Square corners should be
avoided as far as possible since it has been found that these are
always a source of weakness.
vii. Parts which are very strong compared to the neighboring parts
should not be ended suddenly, as there would be a tendency for
them to tear away where they end. They should be gradually
tapered off and merge into the weaker parts.


viii. List the functions of : bilge wells, stern tubes.
a. Stern tube: to support the shaft and to make a watertight
joint where the shaft enters the hull.
i. Steel tube. The fore end with flange bolted to after
peak bulkhead and a large nut in aft end
ii. Inside tube, a brass bush which has grooves in it
iii. Strips of lignum vitae in grooves act as bearing for
shaft
iv. Studding box to prevent water getting into hull
b. Bilge well: when the cellular double bottom extends out to
the ships side there are no proper bilges. In this case the
holds drain into bilge well, which are sunken compartments
in the double bottom. It is to collect water from rain, cargo
sweat, ship sweat, refrigerated container water, etc


ix. Sketch a cross section of a rudder carrier.

x. Sketch a transverse midship section of a general cargo ship
constructed on a combined framing system. List the functions
of longitudinal framing.

xi. Functions of longitudinal framing: Resist hogging and sagging,
water pressure, pounding, dry-docking and shear stresses.

xii. Draw a sketch showing the contact between a steel hatch cover
and the hatch coaming indicating how watertightness is
achieved.

a. The lower rollers are mounted on an eccentric bush which
enables them to be raised or lowered. This enables the hatch
covers to be raised for rolling and stowage, or lowered so that
they can be secured and made watertight.
b. The hatches are made watertight by rubber jointing, being
pull down by cleats and cross-joint wedges.


xiii. Sketch a longitudinal section of a VLCC showing and naming all
the main compartments. Explain the reasons for this
arrangement of compartments.

xiv. List the functions of floors and double bottoms in a general
cargo ship.

Floor: resist water pressure, dry-docking stresses, heavy weights,
local stresses, racking, vibration and pounding.

Double bottom: resist pounding, etc


xv. Draw a sketch showing the layout of the bilge piping
arrangement in a general cargo ship with the engine room
amidships. // Explain the reason for separate pipelines to
each bilge.

a. Not pass through deep tank, double bottom tanks and oil
fuel bunkers
b. Bilge pipes are fitted with non-return valve to avoid hold
flooding
c. Suction are usually placed at the aft end of each hold since
ship normally trim by the stern and water can be collected at
the aft end of the bilges
d. Separate pipelines to each bilge since:

xvi. Sketch a transverse section through a cargo vessel showing and
naming the structural members which resist: Racking stresses
and Water pressure.

a. Racking Resisted by tank side brackets and beam knees.
Also, transverse bulkhead, web frames or cantilever frames,
floor, shell plating and pillar. (Ship racked by wave action or
rolling. Stresses come on the corners.)
b. Water pressure Resisted by bulkheads and by frames and
floors, also beam, deck, longitudinal girder, pillar and shell
plating (water pressure push-in the side and bottom of ship)

xvii. List and briefly describe the main drawings and plans available
on board ship.

xviii. Draw sketches showing the transverse stresses which can be
exerted on a ships hull and name the structural members
which resist these stresses.

xix. Sketch and list out the various part of a general dry container.
Describe the various types of container, their sizes, and their
usage. State the precautions that should be observed on
Container Stowage before and after operations in a cellular
container ship.

xx. List the function of : longitudinal bulkheads and longitudinal
framing


xxi. Sketch a transverse section of a double bottom tank in way of
a bracket floor, naming the main structural members.

xxii. Sketch a transverse midship section of a general cargo ship
constructed on a combined framing system.
(OR) List the three basic types of ship construction.

a. Transverse system closely spaced transverse frames to
hold the planks together so that the seams could be caulked.
It provides considerable transverse strength to resist the
racking stress. Mostly for small ship and sailing ships

b. Longitudinal system has longitudinal frame at the
bottom, sides and decks, supported by widely spaced
transverse web. Strong longitudinal strength resists hogging
and sagging stresses for long ships.

c. Combination system longitudinal frames in the bottom
and strength deck, transverse frames on the ship side where
longitudinal stresses are smaller. Plate floor and transverse
beams are fitted at intervals to give transverse strength.

Q. Sketch a transverse section of a double bottom tank in way of
a plate floor.
Q. Sketch a transverse section of a double bottom tank in way of
a bracket floor.
Q. Sketch a transverse section of a double bottom tank in way of
a solid water tight floor.

Q. Sketch a transverse section of a double bottom tank in way of
a solid not-tight floor.



SHEAR FORCE AND BENDING MOMENTS:


When a section such as a beam is carrying a load there is a tendency for some parts to be
pushed upwards and for other parts to move downwards, this tendency is termed
Shearing.
The Shear force at a point or station is the vertical force at that point. The shear force at a
station may also defined as being the total load on either the left hand side or the right
hand side of the station; load being defined as the difference between the down and the
upward forces, or for a ship the weight would be the downward force and the buoyancy
would be the upward thrust or force.
The longitudinal stresses imposed by the weight and buoyancy distribution may give rise
to longitudinal shearing stresses. The maximum shearing stress occurs at the neutral axis
and a minimum at the deck and keel. Vertical shearing stresses may also occur.

Bending Moment
The beam, which we have been considering, would also have a tendency to bend and the
bending moment measures this tendency.
Its size depends upon the amount of the load as well as how the load is placed together
with the method of support.
Bending moments are calculated in the same way as ordinary moments that is
multiplying force by distance, and so they are expressed in weight length units.
As with the calculation of shear force the bending moment at a station is obtained by
considering moments either to the left or to the right of the station.
Hogging and sagging
Hogging When a beam is loaded or other wise is subjected to external forces such that
the beam bends with the ends curving downwards it is termed as hogging stress.
For a ship improper loading as well as in a seaway when riding the crest of a wave the
unsupported ends of the ship would have a tendency similar to the beam above.


Sagging In this case the beam is loaded or other wise subjected to external forces
making the beam bend in such a way that the ends curve upwards, this is termed as
sagging.
Similar with a ship if improper loaded or when riding the trough of a wave with crests
at both ends then the ship is termed to be sagging.

For Hogging the ship ends to curve downwards would mean that the weight/ load
amidships is much less than at the end holds/ tanks.
For Sagging the ship would have been loaded in such a manner that a greater percentage
of the load is around the midship area.
In a seaway the hogging and the sagging stresses are amplified when riding the crests and
falling into the troughs. Thus especially for large ships there are two conditions in the
stability software Sea Condition and Harbour condition.


A ship loaded while set in the harbour condition may allow loading with hogging/
sagging stresses reaching a high level, when this state of loading is transferred to a Sea
condition in the software the results would be catastrophic since now the wave motions
have also been incorporated.
Thus planning a loading should always be in the Sea Condition.


Discharging in port may be planned in the Harbour Condition.
Hogging and sagging cause compressive and tensile stresses on the ship beam notably
on the deck and the keel structure.
Water pressure and Thrust
Pressure is force per unit area and water pressure is dependent on the head of the water
column affecting the point of the measurement of the pressure.
Let us assume an area of 1sq.m. then this area of water up to a depth of 1 m below the
surface would have a volume of 1sq.m. x 1m =1cbm and the weight of this volume
would be 1cbm x density of the water =1MT (assuming that it is FW) or 1000kgf,
therefore the pressure exerted by this mass would be 1000kgf/sq.m.
Similarly if now the depth of measurement is increased to 3m then the volume of this
area subtending up to the 3m mark would be 1sq.m x 3 =3cbm and the weight of the
water would be 3MT or 3000kgf and the pressure exerted would be 3000kgf/sq.m.
If now the liquid had not been FW but any other then the weight would be found by
multiplying the volume by the density of the liquid. And thus the pressure exerted would
be found.
If we now increase the area of the square of water plane would it make a difference in the
pressure?
Let us consider a area of 2000sq.m then the volume of this water at a depth of 1 m would
be 2000cbm and the weight would be 2000MT (consider FW) and the pressure exerted
would be 2000,000kgf/ 2000sq.m which would give us again 1000kgf/sqm, thus the
pressure is independent of the area of the water plane.
Thrust however is different, thrust is taken to be the total weight of the liquid over an
area. Thus for the previous example the thrust would be 2000 tonnes.

Thus the thrust is given by: the area of the water plane x pressure head x density of the
liquid.
Thrust always acts at right angles to the immersed surface and for any depth the thrust in
any of the directions is the same. The pressure head which is used in the above
calculation of thrust is the depth of the geometrical centre of the area below the surface of
the liquid.
For a ship the thrust on the ship side changes as the depth increases, however the bottom
is affected uniformly for a set depth.
Centre of pressure of an area is the point on the area where the thrust could be considered
to act. It is taken that the centre of pressure is at 2/3rds the depth below the surface for
ordinary vertical bulkheads and at half the depth in the case of collision bulkheads.