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Cut off, Active and saturation regions of a transistor :

Transistor Biasing:-
The application of suitable dc voltages across the transistor terminals is
called biasing. Each junction of a transistor may be forward biased or reverse biased
independently.These are following three different ways of biasing a transistor ,which is
also known as modes of transistor operation.
Forward active:-
Emitter-Base junction is forward biased
Collector- base junction is reverse biased.
Saturation Region:-

Emitter-Base junction is forward biased
Collector- base junction is forward biased
n this mode transistor has a very large value of current. The transistor is operated in this
mode, when it is used as a closed switch.
Cut- off Region:-
Emitter-Base junction is reverse biased
Collector- base junction is reverse biased
n this region both the junctions are !everse Biased. n this mode transistor has "ero
current. The transistor is operated in this mode, when it is used as an open switch.
Output characteristics of Common Emitter Transistor
odes of transistor action:

#.no $unction bias condition
%.
&.
'.
(ode Emitter-base Collector-base
)orward-*ctive
#aturation
Cut-off
)orward
)orward
!everse
!everse
)orward
!everse