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Experiment 1

Batch Report
Objectives of Experiment
To determine the reaction rate of saponification reaction at given temperature by
measuring the conversion against reaction time, evaluate the reaction rate constant at
constant temperature using differential and integral methods of analysis and the rate
constant at different temperature and activation energy determination from Arrhenius
Plot.
Introduction
The Batch reactor is the generic term for a type of vessel widely used in the process
industries. Its name is something of a misnomer since vessels of this type are used
for a variety of process operations such as solids dissolution, product
mixing, chemical reactions, batch distillation, crystallization, liuid!liuid extraction
and polymerization. A typical batch reactor consists of a tan" with an agitator and
integral heating!cooling system. #iuids and solids are usually charged via
connections in the top cover of the reactor. $apors and gases also discharge through
connections in the top. #iuids are usually discharged out of the bottom.
Batch chemical process is a discontinuous process, which has neither inflow nor
outflow of reactants or products while the reaction is being carried out. Thus the
mass balance euation for species A in an element of reactor volume $ obeys the
following statement%
&ate of A produced within volume element ' &ate of A accumulated within
volume element
In this experiment, the reaction to be studied is the saponification of ethyl acetate (t
)Ac* and sodium hydroxide +a,-. The reaction is shown in following euation.
Theory
There is no inflow and outflow in the batch reactor. Thus, the mole balance for
component . is reduced as euation below%
&ate of accumulation of . )moles!time* ' &ate of generation of . )moles!time*

' r
.
$
/uppose the conversion of component . in constant volume system is given by

0here, +
.1
' initial amount of . at t ' 1
+
.
' present amount at time t
0hen disappearance of component of ., the euation can be express as following,

By integrating the euation above,

/ince,

Therefore the time t necessary to achieve a conversion in term of concentration can
be express as below,

If the density of the fluid remains constant,

(uation 2.3 can be shown graphically,
Graph of reaction rate versus concentrations
The Arrhenius (uation is given by
4
.
4
.
4
.o

0here A ' pre5exponential factor of freuency factor
( ' activation energy, "6!mol or cal!mol
MATERIA! A"# E$%&ME"T
7. Batch reactor apparatus
8. Bea"ers
9. /tirrers
2. 0ater bath
:. /topwatch
;. 7 # of 1.7 < sodium hydroxide, +a,-
3. 7 # of 1.7 < ethyl acetate, (t)Ac*
=. 7 # of 1.7 < sodium acetate, +a)Ac*
>. 7 # of deionised water, -
8
,
#IAGRAM
?igure 7 % Batch &eactor