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NAVAIR 00-80T-96

1 April 1996
Change 1 - 1 July 2001
U.S. NAVY
SUPPORT EQUIPMENT
COMMON
BASIC HANDLING & SAFETY MANUAL
N68936-01-D-0007
This change incorporates IRACs 2 thru 4.
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT C. Distribution authorized to U.S. Government agencies and their contractors
to protect publications required for official use or for administrative or operational purposes only, determined
on 1 October 1987. Other requests for this document shall be referred to Commanding Officer, Naval
Air Technical Data and Engineering Service Command, Naval Air Station North Island, P.O. Box 357031,
Building 90 Distribution, San Diego, CA 92135-7031.
DESTRUCTION NOTICE. For unclassified, limited documents, destroy by any method that will prevent
disclosure of contents or reconstruction of the document.
Published by Direction of Commander, Naval Air Systems Command
NATEC ELECTRONIC MANUAL
0800LP1016054
NAVAIR 00-80T-96
Change 1 - 1 July 2001 Page A
NUMERICAL INDEX OF EFFECTIVE WORK PACKAGES/PAGES
List of Current Changes
Original 0 1 April 1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(Including previously incorp. RAC 1)
Change 1 1 July 2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(IRACs 2 thru 4 Incorp.)
Only those work packages assigned to this manual are listed in this index. Insert Change 1, dated 1
July 2001. Dispose of superseded work packages. If changed pages are issued to a work package, insert
the changed pages in the applicable work package. The portion of text affected in a changed or revised
work package is indicated by change bars or the change symbol R in the outer margin of each column
of text. Changes to illustrations are indicated by pointing hands or change bars as applicable.
WP WP
Number Title Number Title
Title
Page A Numerical Index of Effective Work
Packages/Pages
TPDR-1 Li s t of Tec hni c al Publ i c at i ons
Deficiency Reports Incorporated
001 00 Alphabetical Index
002 00 Introduction
003 00 History and Prevention
004 00 Ge n e r a l Ha z a r d s o f Ai r c r a f t
Maintenance
005 00 Handling and Securing Equipment
006 00 Hoisting Equipment
007 00 Cryogenic Equipment
008 00 Hydraulic/Lube Oil Handling
009 00 Aircraft/SE Jacks
010 00 Electrical Power Sources
011 00 Air Conditioners
012 00 Air Start Systems
013 00 Engine Handling and Transporting
Equipment
014 00 Mai ntenance Pl atforms/De-i ci ng
Equipment
015 00 Corrosion Control
016 00 Firefighting Equipment
Total number of pages in this manual is 242 consisting of the following:
WP/Page No. Change No. WP/Page No. Change No. WP/Page No. Change No.
Title 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Page A - B 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Page C Blank 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TPDR-1 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TPDR-2 Blank 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
001 00
1 - 4 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
002 00
1 - 5 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6 Blank 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
003 00
1 - 10 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
004 00
1 - 11 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12 Blank 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
005 00
3 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 - 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
4 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4A 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4B Blank 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6 - 12 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13 - 14 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15 - 30 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
006 00
1 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 - 4 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4A 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4B Blank 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6 - 8 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9 - 12 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13 - 25 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26 Blank 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
007 00
1 - 6 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6A 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6B Blank 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8 - 9 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10 - 13 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14 - 16 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18 Blank 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
008 00
1 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 - 3 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4 - 5 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6 - 15 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 Blank 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
009 00
1 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 - 11 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12 - 13 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14 - 20 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
010 00
1 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 - 6 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6A - 6B 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7 - 10 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11 - 12 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NAVAIR 00-80T-96
Change 1 - 1 July 2001 Page B/(C blank)
WP/Page No. Change No. WP/Page No. Change No. WP/Page No. Change No.
13 - 15 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17 - 19 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 Blank 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
011 00
1- 7 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8 Blank 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
012 00
1 - 7 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8 Blank 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
013 00
1 - 9 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10 Blank 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
014 00
1 - 22 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
015 00
1 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4 - 11 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12 Blank 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
016 00
1 - 3 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK.
R 191247Z JUL 04 INTERIM RAPID ACTION CHANGE (IRAC) NR 6 FOR NAVAIR
00-80T-96 U.S. NAVY SUPPORT E
TO AIG 165
NATEC SAN DIEGO CA(UC)
CC COMNAVAIRSYSCOM PATUXENT RIVER MD(UC)
COMNAVSAFECEN NORFOLK VA(UC)
COMNAVAIRLANT NORFOLK VA
COMNAVAIRPAC SAN DIEGO CA
CNATRA CORPUS CHRISTI TX(UC)
COMNAVRESFOR NEW ORLEANS LA(UC)
NAVAIRWARCENACDIV LAKEHURST NJ(UC)
UNCLAS //N05600//
PASS TO OFFICE CODES
FM NAVAIRWARCENACDIV LAKEHURST NJ//3144//
TO AIG 165
NATEC SAN DIEGO CA//3.3.A.54//
INFO COMNAVAIRSYSCOM PATUXENT RIVER MD//4.1.10.2/
PMA-260//
COMNAVSAFECEN NORFOLK VA//000/01//
COMNAVAIRLANT NORFOLK VA//N422//
COMNAVAIRPAC SAN DIEGO CA//N422//
CNATRA CORPUS CHRISTI TX//N422//
COMNAVRESFOR NEW ORLEANS LA//N422//
MSGID/GENADMIN/NAVAIR LAKEHURST 3255 CL//
SUBJ/INTERIM RAPID ACTION CHANGE (IRAC) NR 6 FOR NAVAIR 00-80T-96
/U.S. NAVY SUPPORT EQUIPMENT COMMON BASIC HANDLING AND SAFETY MANUAL
/DTD 1 APR 1996 CHANGE 1 OF 1 JUL 2001//
REF/A/DOC/00-80T-96/-//
AMPN/REF A IS U.S. NAVY SUPPORT EQUIPMENT COMMON BASIC HANDLING AND
SAFETY MANUAL.//
POC/S. GRUBER/3.1.4.4/N68335/LOC:NAVAIR LAKEHURST
/EMAIL:SIDNEY.GRUBER@NAVY.MIL, TEL 732-323-4207, DSN 624-4207//
RMKS/1. PURPOSE OF CHANGE: TO INCORPORATE VALID TPDR RECOMMENDED
CHANGES AND A RECOMMENDED CHANGE FROM A EA-6B AIR GROUND MISHAP
SIR
2. DETAILED INFO:
A. PEN AND INK CHANGES TO TECHNICAL CONTENTS OF REF A ARE NOT
AUTHORIZED
B. WP 005 00, PAGE 20, DELETE BULLET "DON'T DRIVE UNDER, OR TOW
SE UNDER ANY PART OF AN AIRCRAFT WITHOUT A SAFETY OBSERVER" AND
REPLACE IT WITH THE FOLLOWING: "DON'T DRIVE SE WITHIN FIVE FEET
OF AN AIRCRAFT DIAMOND WITHOUT A SAFETY OBSERVER"
C. WP 002 00, PAGE 3, DELETE THE NUMBER "27" UNDER THE PARAGRAPH
HEADING "26"
D. WP 002 00, PAGE 5, PARAGRAPH 26, REPLACE "AG-750AO-OMN-000"
WITH "AG-750AO-MRC-000"
E. WP 002 00, PAGE 5, PARAGRAPH 26, REPLACE "AG-310AO-OMN-000"
WITH "AG-115AO-MRC-000"
F. WP 002 00, PAGE 5, PARAGRAPH 26, REPLACE "AG110CO-OMN-000"
WITH "AG-110CO-MRC-000"
G. WP 004 00, PAGE 1, ALPHABETICAL INDEX, "WEIGHT" CHANGE PAGE
"9" TO PAGE "10". "WORK HABITS" CHANGE PAGE "9" TO PAGE "10"
H. WP 005 00, PAGE 1, ALPHABETICAL INDEX, "TOW BAR" CHANGE PAGE
"5" TO PAGE "4A"; "UNIVERSAL" CHANGE PAGE "5" TO PAGE "4A".
I. WP 005 00, PAGE 25, PARAGRAPH 143, ADD NEW SUBPARAGRAPH "N"
TO READ "EXERCISE CAUTION TO ENSURE PROPER BOTTOM CLEARANCE OF
THE AIRCRAFT FROM DECK EDGE COMBING AND OTHER OBSTACLES"
J. WP 007 00, PAGE 1, REFERENCE MATERIAL REPLACE
"AG-750AO-OMN-000" WITH "AG-750AO-MRC-000"
K. WP 007 00, PAGE 1, REFERENCE MATERIAL, REPLACE
"AG-310AO-OMN-000" WITH "AG-115AO-MRC-000"
L. WP 007 00, PAGE 1, REFERENCE MATERIAL, REPLACE
"AG-110CO-OMN-000" WITH "AG-110CO-MRC-000"
M. WP 007 00, PAGE 9, PARAGRAPH 53, SUBPARAGRAPH (F), ADD AFTER
THE WORD CYLINDERS "OR WHEN SERVICING USING AIR DRIVE".
N. WP 007 00, PAGE 16, PARAGRAPH 92, END OF FOURTH LINE, CHANGE
WORD "SHOULD" TO "SHALL".
O. WP 007 00, PAGE 17, PARAGRAPH 94, DELETE BULLET "DO USE ONLY
CLEAN TOOLS" AND REPLACE IT WITH "DO USE ONLY GREASE FREE CLEAN
NON SPARKING TOOLS KEEPING IN MIND THAT NON SPARKING TOOLS CAN
CAUSE SPARKS UNDER CERTAIN CONDITIONS".
P. WP 008 00, PAGE 1, REFERENCE MATERIAL, REPLACE "NAVAIR
17-600-65-6-1" WITH "AG-140BA-MRC-100".
Q. WP 010 00, PAGE 1, REFERENCE MATERIAL, DELETE "PREOPERATIONAL
CHECKLIST, MMG-1A NAVAIR 19-600-144-6-1"
R. WP 010 00, PAGE 3, PARAGRAPH 6A, FOURTH LINE, CHANGE "15" TO
"115".
S. WP 011 00, PAGE 1, REFERENCE MATERIAL, CHANGE
"AG-180AO-MRC-010" TO "AG-180AO-MRC-000".
T. WP 011 00, PAGE 4, PARAGRAPH 28, CHANGE "AG-180AO-MRC-010"
TO "AG-180AO-MRC-000".
U. WP 012 00, PAGE 5, PARAGRAPH 23(K), FIRST LINE, CHANGE "1"
TO "2".
V. WP 012 00, PAGE 5, PARAGRAPH 26, SECOND LINE, CHANGE "1" TO
"2".
W. WP 015 00, PAGE 3, PARAGRAPH 10, SIXTH LINE, DELETE "IT IS
SPRING LOADED TO VERTICAL" AND REPLACE WITH "IT WILL MOVE TO THE
VERTICAL LOCKED POSITION".
X. TPDR-1. ADD FOLLOWING TPDR'S TO LIST:
IDENTIFICATION NR/QA SEQUENCE NR LOCATION
08981-2002-0017 WP004 00 PG 1 ALPHABETICAL INDEX
WP005 00 PG 1 ALPHABETICAL INDEX
08988-2003-0033 WP012 00 PG 5 P.23(K)
09092-2004-0009 WP007 00 PG 1 REFERENCE MATERIAL
09092-20040-010 WP007 00 PG 1 REFERENCE MATERIAL
09092-2004-0011 WP007 00 PG 1 REFERENCE MATERIAL
09092-2004-0012 WP002 00 PG 5 P.26
09092-2004-0013 WP002 00 PG 5 P.26
09092-2004-0014 WP002 00 PG 5 P.26
09193-2000-0002 WP008 00 PG 1 REFERENCE MATERIAL
09199-2004-0018 WP012 00 PG 5 P.26
09303-2002-0237 WP005 00 PG 25 P.143
09364-2004-0033 WP010 00 PG 1 REFERENCE MATERIAL
21847-2000-0111 WP007 00 PG 17 P.94
39783-1999-0002 WP008 00 PG 1 REFERENCE MATERIAL
44328-2003-0120 WP010 00 PG 3 P.6A
44329-2003-0192 WP007 00 PG 9 P.53F
52814-2002-0003 WP015 00 PG 3 P.10
52995-2002-0041 WP007 00 PG 16 P.92
65185-2003-0037 WP011 00 PG 1 REFERENCE MATERIAL
65185-2003-0064 WP011 00 PG 1 REFERENCE MATERIAL
3. RELATED INSTRUCTIONS
A. IRAC WAS VALIDATED BY NAVAIR LAKEHURST CODE 4.8.2.5.
B. FOR PAPER COPY: MAINTAIN IRAC WITH APPLICABLE MANUAL BY
PLACING OR ATTACHING IT DIRECTLY BEHIND THE TITLE PAGE. MARK
SPECIFIC CHANGE IN MARGIN OF EACH PAGE AFFECTED WITH A VERTICAL
LINE AND INCLUDE IRAC NUMBER, DATE TIME GROUP (DTG) OF IRAC
MESSAGE. THIS IRAC SHALL NOT BE REMOVED UNTIL RECEIPT OF FORMAL
CHANGE PAGES.
C. FOR IRACS AFFECTING MANUALS ON CD-ROM: AFFIX AN ADHESIVE LABEL
TO CD-ROM WITH APPLICABLE PUBLICATION NUMBER, IRAC NUMBER, DTG OF
IRAC MESSAGE. LABEL SHOULD BE POSITIONED TO ALLOW FOR ADDITIONAL
UPDATES AS THEY OCCUR. MAINTAIN IRAC ON FILE UNTIL RECEIPT OF
SUPERSEDING CD-ROM.
D. SUBJECT IRAC WILL BE INCORPORATED INTO REF A UPON NEXT
REVISION.//
NAVAIR 00-80T-96
Change 1 - 1 July 2001 TPDR-1/(TPDR-2 blank)
LIST OF TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS DEFICIENCY REPORTS INCORPORATED
U.S. NAVY
SUPPORT EQUIPMENT
COMMON
BASIC HANDLING & SAFETY MANUAL
This WP supersedes TPDR WP dated, 1 April 1996.
Identification No./QA Sequence No. Location
00213-97-0001 WP015 00 pg.3 p.12
0543A-97-0011 WP010 00 pg.5 p.21
08988-2000-0026 WP007 00 pg.1 Reference
Materials
09289-97-0050 WP007 00 pg.2 p.2, pg.3 f.1
09298-97-0027 WP007 00 pg.2 p.2, pg.3 f.1
09630-96-0017 WP007 00 pg.13 p.75.c.
44321-2001-0030 WP002 00 pg.3 p.23
55140-1999-0059 WP007 00 pg.1 Alphabetical
Index, pg.2 p.2, pg.3 f.1 Title
55151-97-1014 WP007 00 pg.3 f.1
55201-99-D008 WP009 00 pg.13 Warning
55646-97-0009 WP008 00 pg.5 p.18
62507-1999-0018 WP007 00 pg.2 p.2, pg.3 f.1
63922-2000-0004 WP008 00 pg.4 p.17
63922-2000-0002 WP008 00 pg.5 p.18
SEE IRAC # 6
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 001 00
1 April 1996 Page 1
ALPHABETICAL INDEX
U.S. NAVY SUPPORT EQUIPMENT
COMMON
BASIC HANDLING & SAFETY MANUAL
WP
Title Number
Abbreviations 002 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air Conditioners 011 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air Start Hose Hazards 012 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air Start Systems 012 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air Start Systems Safety Precautions and Procedures 012 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aircraft Handling Hazards 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chocks 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Restraints 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spotting Dolly 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tiedowns 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Towbars 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tractors 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aircraft Hazards 004 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engines, Propellers, and Rotors 004 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Movable Surfaces 004 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Noise 004 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Protuberances 004 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Weight 004 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aircraft Movement Safety Precautions and Procedures 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Movement Team 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Towing With Engines Running 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aircraft/SE Jacks 009 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alphabetical Index 001 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automotive Jacks 009 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dolly Type Jacks 009 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scissor Jacks 009 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Background 002 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chocks 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Polyurethane 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rubber 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wooden 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Corrosion Control 015 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Corrosion Control Support Equipment 015 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Corrosion Control Cart, A/M32M-18A 015 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dry Honing Machine, C-150-6 and C-150-7 015 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Jet Engine Corrosion Control Cart 015 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Model T Foamer 015 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pressure Jet Steam Cleaner, A/M48A-5 015 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 001 00
Page 2
Crash and Salvage Cranes 006 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AACC 006 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CVCC 006 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cryogenic Equipment 007 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deicers 014 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hazards 014 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Safety Precautions and Procedures 014 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trailer Mounted/Tactical Aircraft Deicer, A/M32U-20 014 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Truck Mounted Deicer, A/S32M-16 014 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Distribution Sets (FLEDS) 010 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deckedge Power Distribution System 010 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power Distribution Set, Flight Line, Model A/E24A-166B 010 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electrical Power Sources 010 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Handling and Transporting Equipment 013 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Installation and Removal Trailers 013 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Models 4000A and 4000B 013 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Removal Trailer 013 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Environmental Hazards 004 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Light 004 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Noise 004 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Weather 004 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wind 004 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Work Area 004 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Firefighting Equipment 016 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fire Fighting Equipment Hazards 016 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fire Fighting Equipment Safety Precautions and Procedures 016 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Floodlights 010 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Floodlight Set, A/M42M-2 010 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gas Turbine Engine Hazards 012 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Hazards of Aircraft Maintenance 004 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GTC Noise Hazards 012 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Handling and Securing Equipment 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hazards 006 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AACC and CVCC Hazards 006 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hangar Deck Crane Hazards 006 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-1/2 Ton A/C Maintenance Crane Hazards 006 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Straddle Type Engine Hoist Hazards 006 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hazardous Materials 004 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hazards of Mobile Air Conditioners 011 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A/M32C-17 Hazards 011 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A/M32C-21 Hazards 011 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
History 003 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Historical Data 003 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Problem 003 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
History and Prevention 003 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hoisting Equipment 006 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hoists 006 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2,000 Pound Straddle Type Portable Engine Hoist 006 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7,000 Pound Capacity Portable Straddle Type Engine Hoist 006 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hydraulic/Lube Oil Handling 008 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hydraulic Axle Jacks 009 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hand Carried Jacks 009 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Outrigger Axle Jacks 009 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hydraulic Power Supply 008 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Portable Hydraulic Power Supply, A/M27T-5 008 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Portable Hydraulic Power Supply, A/M27T-7 008 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 001 00
Page 3
Hydraulic SE Safety Precautions and Procedures 008 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hydraulic Servicing Units 008 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hydraulic Dispensing Unit, A/M27M-10 008 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hydraulic Fill Unit, H-250-1 008 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hydraulic Fluid Servicing Unit, HSU-1 008 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Individual Responsibility 003 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Attitude 003 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Awareness 003 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General 003 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Knowledge 003 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary 003 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Introduction 002 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Jacking Hazards 009 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Jacking Safety Precautions and Procedures 009 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lessons Learned/Accident Reports 006 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
List of Technical Publications Deficiency Reports TPDR-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Load Banks 010 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dummy Load Electric, DA-675-MSM 010 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lube Oil Safety Precautions and Procedures 008 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maintenance and Update 002 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maintenance Cranes 006 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Motorized 006 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Non-motorized 006 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maintenance Platforms 014 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Motorized Servicing Platforms 014 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Non-Motorized Maintenance Platforms 014 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maintenance Platforms/De-icing Equipment 014 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Major Firefighting Equipment 016 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Firefighting Truck, A/S32P-16A 016 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Twin Agent Fire Extinguisher, TAU(H)-2 016 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Minor Firefighting Equipment 016 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CO
2
Portable Fire Extinguishers 016 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dry Chemical and PKP Portable Fire Extinguishers 016 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Extensions 016 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Halon Fire Extinguishers 016 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mobile Air Conditioner Units 011 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air Conditioner A/M32C-17 011 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air Conditioner A/M32C-21 011 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mobile Air Start Systems 012 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tractor Mounted 012 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trailer Mounted 012 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mobile Electric Power Plant 010 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Self Propelled 010 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trailer Mounted 010 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nitrogen Servicing 007 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A/U26U-4 (NAN-4) 007 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A/M34M-2 (NAN-Jr) 007 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TMU-84/E 007 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Walkaround Bottle 007 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Numerical Index of Effective Work Packages/Pages Page A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Objective 002 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oil Servicing Units 008 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Large Volume Pre-Oiler, A/M32M-32 008 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pre-Oiler,PON-6 008 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 001 00
Page 4
Oxygen Servicing 007 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gaseous 007 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Liquid Oxygen (LOX) 007 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prevention 003 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General 003 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Licensing 003 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mishap Reporting 003 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Misuse/Abuse 003 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist 003 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Safety Organization 003 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Purpose 002 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reference Material 002 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Requisitioning and Automatic Distribution 002 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Restraints 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aero Full Power 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MXU-657/W 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Safety Precaution and Procedures 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chocks 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spotting Dolly 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tiedowns 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Towbars 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tractors 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Safety Precautions and Procedures, Air Conditioner Units 011 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scope 002 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tiedowns 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TD-1A/B 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tow Bars 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Peculiar 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Universal 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tow Tractors 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A/S32A-30A 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A/S32A-31A 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A/S32A-32 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A/S32A-37 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trailer Hazards 013 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trailer Safety Precautions and Procedures 013 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transportation Trailers 013 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NET-4 013 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Small Engine Trailer 013 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tripod Jacks 009 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Uses 002 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Warnings, Cautions, and Notes 002 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wells Air Start System 012 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wording 002 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Work Habits 004 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 002 00
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INTRODUCTION
U.S. NAVY SUPPORT EQUIPMENT
COMMON
BASIC HANDLING & SAFETY MANUAL
This WP supersedes WP002 00, dated 1 April 1996.
Reference Material
None
Alphabetical Index
Subject Page No.
Abbreviations 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Background 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maintenance and Update 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Objective 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Purpose 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reference Material 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Requisitioning and Automatic Distribution 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scope 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Uses 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Warnings, Cautions, and Notes 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wording 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Record of Applicable Technical Directives
None
1. BACKGROUND.
2. Although hazards and safety precautions are
now a part of most technical manuals, the precau-
tions generally address only the specific equipment
described and not the man-equipment-aircraft inter-
face in the hazardous work environment of naval
aviation. They appear mainly in stark Warnings,
Cautions, and Notes, without reason other than the
potential consequences of death, injury, or damage.
3. Plain language explanation of the whys and
wherefores of hazards, safety precautions, protec-
tive gear, and safe procedures are vital to their
awareness, acceptance, and use by todays young
airmen. Straight talk explanations are vital in our
efforts to emphasize individual responsibility and
create an awareness that people cause accidents.
They are vital in our efforts to foster understanding
of accident cause factors. They are vital in our efforts
to promote behavioral modifications and attitude
changes that will reduce the ground accident rate.
4. The challenging duties, responsibilities, and
performance requirements necessary for the safe
ground support of complex naval aircraft are thrust
early on the shoulders of young inexperienced
airmen. They may be basically well trained but no
depth of training can substitute for experience. This
situation is aggravated by the ever decreasing
experience level of supervisors - those who provide
the whys and wherefores of safety.
5. The adage There are no new accidents, only
new people causing the same accidents is relevant.
What he or she has not experienced personally
must be learned by listening to, and reading of,
the experiences of others and from lessons learned
the hard way by those who have gone before them.
Such information is promulgated through safety
periodicals, posters, handbooks and manuals. The
U.S. Navy Support Equi pment Common Basi c
Handling and Safety Manual is an additional attempt
to bridge the experience gap for young airmen.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 002 00
Change 1 Page 2
6. PURPOSE.
7. The pur pose of t hi s manual i s t o r educe
personnel injuries, aircraft and equipment damage,
loss of operational readiness, and loss of dollars
resulting from ground accidents, particularly those
involving ground support equipment (SE). This
purpose can be served by providing SE operators
with all of the basic information required for the
safe and professional use of SE in the hazardous
work environment of naval aviation.
8. OBJECTIVE.
9. The objective of the manual is to present, in
plain language, the whys and wherefores of the
hazards, the basic handling procedures, and the
safety precautions related to the operation or use
of typical common SE. It is designed to emphasize
individual responsibility, to increase hazard aware-
ness, to stimulate the acceptance and use of proper
procedures and safety precautions, and to supple-
ment the experience level of our young airmen.
10. USES.
11. The manual is designed to be used as:
a. A self-study text for various aviation ratings
preparing for duties as SE operators.
b. A comprehensive source of basic informa-
tion concerning SE hazards and safety precautions.
c. A prime reference aid to the SE Operator
Training /Licensing Program and to Unit airman/
plane captain indoctrination programs, but not
intended to replace SE technical manuals.
12. SCOPE.
13. Although the depth of coverage is considered
thorough, the scope is necessarily limited. Only
those types of Common Support Equipment (CSE),
in most general use by various ratings during
performance of aircraft handling, servicing, and
organizational maintenance are covered. Within
each type of SE not all models are discussed, only
one or two which represent the type.
14. Avi oni cs and armament CSE have been
omitted, as have other CSE which requires special-
ized training or is operated by a limited number
of ratings and personnel. Crash and rescue, major
firefighting and aircraft refueling equipments are
considered in this category and have been omitted.
Mobi l e Faci l i ti es have been omi tted, refer t o
AG-360MF-IIN-000 for handling, movement, and
specific safety precautions. All Peculiar Support
Equipment (PSE) have been omitted.
15. Many of the basic and immediate causes of
ground accidents, their hazards, and elements of
accident prevention are covered as they relate to
the SE being discussed. The manual was written
to reflect the safety philosophy and techniques of
accident prevention.
16. MANUAL MAINTENANCE AND UPDATE.
17. To insure that the manual contains the latest
and correct information on hazards, safety precau-
tions, and procedures, you are encouraged to
suggest improvements or recommend changes to
this manual.
18. Recommended changes should be submitted
by letter, citing the work package, paragraph, page,
or figure and describing the recommended change.
19. Reports of technical deficiencies such as
improper procedures, incorrect nomenclature or
publication numbers, poor legibility, or technical
errors shall be reported using a Technical Publica-
tions Deficiency Report (TPDR), OPNAV Form
4790/66 as directed in the Naval Aviation Mainte-
nance Program, OPNAVINST 4790.2 (series).
20. WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES.
21. The following definitions apply to all WARN-
INGS, CAUTIONS, and NOTES found throughout
the manual:
An operating procedure, practice, or con-
dition, etc., which may result in injury
or death, if not carefully observed or
followed.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 002 00
Change 1 Page 3
An operating procedure, practice, or con-
dition, etc. which, if not strictly observed,
may damage equipment.
NOTE
An operating procedure, practice, or con-
dition, etc. which is essential to empha-
size.
22. WORDING.
23. The word usage and intended meaning which
has been adhered to in preparing this manual is
as follows:
Shall has been used only when application
of a procedure is mandatory.
Should has been used only when applica-
tion of a procedure is recommended.
May and need not have been used only
when application of a procedure is optional.
Will has been used only to indicate futurity
never to indicate any degree of requirement
for application of a procedure.
Preoperational Inspection These inspec-
tions are performed to verify, by static and
functional inspection, a unit of SE is properly
serviced and ready for use. Preoperational
inspections are performed prior to each use
as specified in the Periodic Maintenance
Requi rements Manual (PMRM), Mai nte-
nance I nst r uct i on Manual s ( MI Ms) , or
Manufactures Handbook. Preoperational in-
spections shall be documented on the SE
Preoperational Record (OPNAV 4790/52).
24. ABBREVIATIONS.
25. All abbreviations are in accordance with MIL-
STD-12 except the following:
AFFF Aqueous Film Forming Foam
AIMD Aircraft Intermediate Maintenance
Department
BUMED Bureau of Medicine
EDC Engine Driven Compressor
FH Fixed Height
FLEDS Flightline Electrical Distribution
System
FOD Foreign Object Damage/Debris
GTC Gas Turbine Compressor
IMA Intermediate Maintenance Activity
JBD Jet Blast Deflector
MCO Maintenance Control Officer
MEPP Mobile Electric Power Plant
MIM Maintenance Instruction Manual
OJT On the Job Training
PIS Placed in Service
PKP Potassium Bicarbonate
PMRM Periodic Maintenance Requirements
Manual
PPE Personal Protective Equipment
PQS Personal Qualification Standard
PSE Peculiar Support Equipment
TPDR Technical Publication Deficiency
Report
TYCOM Type Commander
VH Variable Height
26. REFERENCE MATERIAL.
27. Reference material related to and used in
conjunction with this manual is listed below. These
reference materials also appear on the title page
of the applicable work packages.
SEE IRAC # 6
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 002 00
Change 1 Page 4
Title Number
Abbreviations for Use on Drawings and in Specifications, Standards,
and Technical Documents MIL-STD-12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accident Investigating and Reporting OPNAVINST 5102.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aircraft Securing and Handling Procedures NAVAIR 17-1-537 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aircraft Weapons Systems Cleaning and Corrosion Control NAVAIR 01-1A-509 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aviation Hose and Tube Manual NAVAIR 01-1A-20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aviation Hydraulics Manual NAVAIR 01-1A-17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CV NATOPS Manual NAVAIR 00-80T-105 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C800 Ford Truck NAVAIR 19-25E-512 Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Distribution of Aeronautic Technical Publications NAVAIRINST 5605.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GTE (GTCP-100) Tractor Mounted Enclosure, A/S47A-1 NAVAIR 19-600-215-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index and Application Tables for Aircraft Jacks NAVAIR 19-70-46 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inspection and Proofload Testing of Lifting Slings for Aircraft
and Related Components NAVAIR 17-1-114 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Jet Aircraft Start Unit, Preoperational Checklist, A/M47A-4 NAVAIR 19-600-217-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Launching and Recovering Ships Boats NAVSEA S9LHD-AA-OSB-010/LHD-1 CL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LHA/LPH/LHD NATOPS Manual NAVAIR 00-80T-106 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Management and Procedures Manual NAVAIR Weight Handling Support Equipment NAVAIR 00-80T-119 . . . .
Management of Ozone Depleting Substances OPNAVINST 5090.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Marine Corps Ground Mishap Reporting MCO 5101.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mobile Facility Site Planning and Installation Instructions AG-360MF-IIN-000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NATOPS U. S. Navy Aircraft Crash & Salvage Operations Manual (Ashore) NAVAIR 00-80R-20 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NATOPS U. S. Navy Aircraft Firefighting and Rescue Manual NAVAIR 00-80R-14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NATOPS Crash and Salvage Operations Manual (AFLOAT) NAVAIR 00-80R-19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Naval Air Systems Command Technical Manual Program NAVAIR 00-25-100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Naval Aviation Maintenance Program OPNAVINST 4790.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Naval Aviation Safety Program OPNAVINST 3750.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Navy Occupational Safety and Health (NAVOSH) Program Manual OPNAVINST 5100.23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oxygen Equipment Aviation Crew Systems NAVAIR 13-1-6.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oxygen/Nitrogen Systems NAVAIR 06-30-501 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Platform, Adjustable AC Maintenance, Type B-4A NAVAIR 19-15-7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Platform, Adjustable AC Maintenance, Type B-5A NAVAIR 19-15-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Platform, Aircraft Servicing Maintenance, Type B-2 NAVAIR 19-15-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, 2 Ton Generating Plant, LOX/LN2 NAVAIR 19-600-309-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, 50 Gal. LOX Trailer, TMU-27/M NAVAIR 19-600-282-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, 50 Gal. LOX Trailer, TMU-70/M NAVAIR 19-600-138-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, A/M27M-10 NAVAIR 17-600-107-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, A/M27T-5 NAVAIR 17-600-127-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, A/M27T-7 NAVAIR 17-600-150-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, A/M32C-17 NAVAIR 19-600-167-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, A/M32C-21 AG-180AO-MRC-010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, A/M42M-2 NAVAIR 19-600-237-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, A/M42M-2A NAVAIR 19-600-301-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, A/S37A-3 NAVAIR 19-600-300-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, AACC AG-310DO-MRC-010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Aircraft Hydraulic Jacks NAVAIR 19-600-135-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Aircraft LOX Converter Purge Unit, A/M26M-3 NAVAIR 19-600-177-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Aircraft Maintenance Platforms
B-1, B-2, B-4A, B-5A NAVAIR 19-600-19-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Aviation Breathing Oxygen Analyzer Set, A/E24T/226 NAVAIR 17-600-190-6-1 . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Cryo Service System, 1000/2000 Gal. NAVAIR 19-600-262-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Cryo Service Systems, TMU-79F NAVAIR 19-600-206-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, CVCC NAVAIR 19-600-277-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 002 00
Change 1 Page 5/(6 blank)
Preoperational Checklist, DA-675-MSM NAVAIR 17-600-91-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Fire Extinguisher, TAU(H)-2 NAVAIR 19-600-239-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Firefighting Truck, A/S32P-16A NAVAIR 19-600-168-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, FLEDS NAVAIR 19-600-164-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, GTE (GTCP-100) Tractor Mounted Enclosure,
A/S47A-1 NAVAIR 19-600-215-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, H-250-1 NAVAIR 17-600-40-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Hangar Deck Crane NAVAIR 17-600-96-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, HSU-1 NAVAIR 17-600-65-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Jet Aircraft Start Unit, A/M47A-4 NAVAIR 19-600-217-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Jet Engine Corrosion Control Cart NAVAIR 19-600-77-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, LOX Converter Test Set NAVAIR 17-600-152-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Maintenance Crane A/S32M-14 NAVAIR 19-600-196-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Maintenance Crane A/S32M-17 NAVAIR 19-600-266-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, MMG-1A NAVAIR 19-600-144-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, NC-10A NAVAIR 19-600-42-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, NC-2A NAVAIR 19-600-38-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, NC-8A NAVAIR 19-600-94-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Nitrogen Servicing Cart, NAN-3 NAVAIR 19-600-163-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Nitrogen Servicing Hand Truck, A/M34M-2 NAVAIR 19-600-193-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Nitrogen Servicing Unit, A/M26U-4 AG-750AO-OMN-000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Oxygen/Nitrogen Generator, GGU-9/M NAVAIR 19-600-274-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Oxygen-Nitrogen Monitor, X540A NAVAIR 17-600-X540-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Oxygen/Nitrogen Trailer, 400 Gal. AG-310AO-OMN-000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Portable Nitrogen Cylinder, 3000 PSI. NAVAIR 19-600-213-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Recharging Unit, LOX/LN2 AG-110CO-OMN-000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Straddle Type Portable Engine Hoist NAVAIR 19-600-270-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Trailer Mounted Recharge Unit, LOX/LN2 NAVAIR 19-600-314-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Ultra Sonic Cleaning System NAVAIR 17-600-UCS-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Start System Air, Preoperational Checklist NAVAIR 19-600-25-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Support Equipment Cleaning, Preservation, and Corrosion Control NAVAIR 17-1-125 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Safety Program MIL-STD-882 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Towbar, Aircraft, Model ALBAR and Model NT-4/NT-4A NAVAIR 19-1-137 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2,000 Pound Straddle Type Portable Engine Hoist NAVAIR 19-15B-20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10,000 Pound Straddle Type Portable Engine Hoist NAVAIR 19-15B-504 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 7 . R E Q U I S I T I O N A N D A U T O M AT I C
DI STRI BUTI ON OF NAVAI R TECHNI CAL
MANUALS.
28. Procedures to be used by Naval activities and
other Department of Defense activities requiring
NAVAIR technical manuals are defined in NAVAIR
00-25-100 and NAVAIRINST 5605.5A.
29. To automatically receive future changes and
revisions to NAVAIR technical manuals, an activity
must be established on the Automatic Distribution
Requirements List (ADRL) maintained by the Naval
Air Technical Data and Engineering Service Com-
mand (NATEC). To become established on the
ADRL, notify your activity central technical publica-
tions librarian. If your activity does not have a
library, you may establish your automatic distribu-
tion by contacting the Commanding Officer, NATEC,
Attn: Distribution, NAS North Island, Bldg. 90, P.O.
Box 357031, San Diego, CA 92135-7031. Annual
reconfirmation of these requirements are necessary
to remain on automatic distribution. Please use your
NATEC assigned account number whenever refer-
ring to automatic distribution requirements.
30. If additional or replacement copies of this
manual are required with no attendant changes in
the ADRL, they may be ordered by submitting a
MILSTRIP requisition in accordance with NAVSUP
485 to Routing Identifier Code NFZ. MILSTRIP
requisitions can be submitted through your supply
office, Navy message, or SALTS to DAAS (Defense
Automated Address System), or through the DAAS
or NAVSUP web si t es. For assi st ance wi t h a
MILSTRIP requisition, contact the Naval Inventory
Control Point (NAVICP) Publications and Forms
Cust omer Servi ce at DSN 442-2626 or (215)
697-2626, Monday through Friday, 0700 to 1600
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SEE IRAC # 6
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 003 00
1 April 1996 Page 1
HISTORY AND PREVENTION
U.S. NAVY SUPPORT EQUIPMENT
COMMON
BASIC HANDLING & SAFETY MANUAL
Reference Material
Accident Investigating and Reporting OPNAVINST 5102.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Marine Corps Ground Mishap Reporting MCO 5101.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Naval Aviation Maintenance Program OPNAVINST 4790.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Naval Aviation Safety Program OPNAVINST 3750.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Safety Program MIL-STD-882 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alphabetical Index
Subject Page No.
History 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Historical Data 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Problem 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Individual Responsibility 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Attitude 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Awareness 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Knowledge 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prevention 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Licensing 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mishap Reporting 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Misuse/Abuse 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Safety Organization 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Record of Applicable Technical Directives
None
1. HISTORY.
2. The Naval Air community has a safety problem.
That problem is aircraft ground accidents and how
to prevent them from happening. Why is accident
prevention necessary? Our business is flying, our
product is national defense, and our profit is
freedom. In order to keep that profit weve got to
run our business better than anyone else in the
world. Trouble is, there is only so much to work
with and that leaves no room for waste. Accidents
produce waste. They waste people, waste equip-
ment, waste aircraft, waste time, and waste money.
Therefore, if we prevent ground accidents, we
prevent waste and stay number 1 in the deadly
serious business of flying.
3. THE PROBLEM.
4. How bad is the problem? During the three years
(1992 through 1994) there were a total of 211
aircraft ground accidents. Thats an average of 70
a year. As a result of those accidents,
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 003 00
Page 2
239 aircraft were damaged and 79 ground person-
nel were injured. Those figures average out to 80
aircraft damaged and 26 people injured or killed
per year. We had 6 fatalities during those three
years.
5. Dollar Cost. You can guess that this rate of
accidents has cost us a lot, not only in the tragic
loss of lives and disabled airmen, but in the Navys
readiness, cost of repair and replacement, and in
manhours lost to sickbay or wasted in repair of
damage. In other words, it put a serious crimp into
running our business and weve got to put a stop
to it.
6. We can translate the above annual aircraft
damage into straight dollar cost - $3.2 million for
the three years, or an average of $1 million per
year. Thats big bucks, but figures dont really tell
us the whole story on how ground accidents effect
us all. Lets take a close look at how just one aircraft
ground accident might hurt a typical squadron and
the people in it.
7. Typical Accident. Joe Cool jumps on a tow
tractor and heads out to an airplane on the line to
remove the screens from the intake ducts. He
assumes the tractor is OK so he doesnt do a
preoperational inspection. He knows he cant reach
the screens from the ground, so on the way there
he figures hell just pull up underneath the ducts and
stand on the tractor to get the job done quickly. No
sweat, hes done it before without any problems. Only
this time, as he pulls up to the airplane, the tractor
brakes dont hold. He tries to turn but slams into
the nose gear strut. The tractor hood catches on
the nose gear door and is rammed back into Joe
Cools chest and knocks him out of the seat to the
ground, as the nose of the aircraft collapses down
onto the tractor.
8. Real Cost. Now, whats this accident really going
to cost everybody? Well first of all Joes really hurting.
Hes in the dispensary with a broken collar bone,
four broken ribs, and a punctured and collapsed left
lung. Besides his own pain, hes worried about his
new brides mental anguish over the accident and
the time-off from work shes had to take.
9. Meanwhi l e back at t he squadron the l i ne
supervisor is now a man short, and the crew has
to put out extra effort to keep up. Aircraft move-
ments to the high power turn-up area and into the
hangar are delayed because the squadron has to
wait to borrow a tractor. The safety officer has
missed a planned inspection and has to cancel
a safety petty officer meeting because of being
tied up with the accident report. The maintenance
officer has delayed scheduled maintenance checks
on other aircraft to fit in the repair work on the
damaged aircraft.
10. The operations officer is trying to revise the
flight schedule for the next thirty days because
theyre one airplane short. The maintenance chief
is revising the night check schedule because the
Skipper has decided on extending the work day
to get in the extra flights needed on the remaining
airplanes. Several pilots are worried because it
looks like theyll get even less field carrier landing
practice this month than last.
11. The SE repair supervisor is explaining to his
division officer that because of a lack of spare parts,
the damaged tractor cant be repaired. He adds
that even if they had the parts, the backlog of
repairs to other SE damaged in accidents, and the
shortage in qualified manpower, would delay repair.
He also mentions that his wife was complaining
about having to wait two hours at the dispensary
to get his kids infected foot treated because the
doctor was delayed while treating an emergency
accident case.
12. Those are some of the real costs of a ground
accident that people tend to overlook. If you multiply
those costs agai nst the average 80 Joe Cool
crunches per year, its plain to see how the waste
can hurt our business. Accidents waste not only
dollars, but hurt personal lives, hurt morale, and
definitely hurt our ability to do our job better than
anyone else in the world. We just dont have the
people, equipment, aircraft, time, or money to
replace the waste produced by ground accidents.
13. Your Part. Where do you fit into this problem?
As a member of the Naval Air team, you play an
important part in the business of flying, and you also
share in the problem in several different ways. First,
you provide the support for aircraft. Without that, there
is no flying and were all out of business - and profit.
Second, we said that accidents waste people. The
Navy doesnt want to see you get wasted anymore
than you or your family does. Third, years of safety
research prove that accidents dont just happen -
people cause accidents. That means that you could
be one of the prime causes of our problem! Fourth,
if you are the prime cause, then youre the only one
who can really solve our problem. If you do solve
the problem,
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 003 00
Page 3
two things happen. You stay safe and Naval Air
stays number 1 in business and thats what this
manual is all about.
14. This Manuals Part. For years aircraft support
equipment (SE) has been the leader in the field of
aircraft ground accidents. Thats what this manual
will concentrate on. Well describe the SE youll be
using, so youll know what were talking about. Well
cover the hazards of that gear and the hazards of
the dangerous environment youll be using it in. Well
cover the hazards of the aircraft youll be using that
gear on and around. Well cover the safety precau-
tions and safe procedures you should follow in
handling aircraft and using SE. Finally, well relate
some actual accidents - lessons learned the hard
way by others before you.
15. What thi s manual won t t el l you are t he
step-by-step procedures required to operate the
SE. Its not a substitute for the technical manuals
on the equipment. THIS MANUAL WONT TELL
YOU THE STEP-BY-STEP PROCEDURES RE-
QUIRED TO USE THE SE ON A SPECIFIC TYPE
AIRCRAFT. ITS NOT A SUBSTITUTE FOR THE
AI RCRAFT MAI NTENANCE I NSTRUCTI ON
MANUALS (MIMS). This manual will not tell you
of every hazard you will ever meet, nor every safe
procedure you will ever need. Its not a substitute
for common sense.
16. HISTORICAL DATA.
17. If we are going to prevent support equipment
accidents we should understand something about
the what, where, when and why of accidents. For
that we can look at some historical hazard data
collected from accident reports. When the data is
analyzed it gives us a good idea of what went
wrong, how often, and what should be done to
correct the problem. Personally, it can tell you where
youre likely to get into trouble and therefore, where
you should be extra cautious.
18. Accidents Involving SE and Aircraft. If we
analyze the data for only the ground accidents which
involved SE and aircraft, we come up with some
interesting conclusions. The data is general, covers
8 years of accidents, and all the figures listed should
be considered as approximate.
19. First of all we are lousy drivers. Sixty one
percent (61%) of all SE mishaps involve self-pro-
pelled SE. Tow-tractors are the most hazardous
and account for 82 of the total 168 mishaps reported
from 1987 to 1994. Next come maintenance plat-
forms, MEPPs, forklifts, maintenance jacks, and
maintenance vehicles.
20. Maintenance platforms have claimed the sec-
ond highest mishap number, 13 and that equals
to 9 aircraft damaged, 4 minor/1 major injury. All
were personnel failures and occurred ashore.
21. Mobi l e el ectri c power pl ants (MEPP) are
involved in the next highest number of SE/aircraft
mishaps - 8 out of the total 124 SE mishaps ashore.
Of those 8 mishaps, 2 resulted in death, 2 in major
and minor injuries and 4 resulted in damage to
8 aircraft. All were caused by personnel errors.
22. Forklifts account for 7 SE/aircraft mishaps with
6 ashore and all personnel caused.
23. Maintenance platforms (work stands) contrib-
ute about 13 accidents out of 124. They are usually
towed, pushed, or blown into aircraft. Maintenance
jacks contribute another 6 accidents per 124. Those
are usually a result of the jacks slipping off the
jack pad, improperly secured, or collapsing.
24. Maintenance vehicles have contributed to 5
SE/aircraft mishaps ashore.
25. If youre keeping track, that leaves about 47
out of 168 mishaps which involve nonself-propelled
SE; engine stands, cranes, hoists, airstart units,
hydraulic units, NAN cart, 0
2
cart, etc. Keep in mind
that every kind of SE has been, involved in a mishap
at one time or other.
26. Although conditions aboard ship are more
hazardous, we have three ti mes as many SE
accidents ashore than we do aboard ship. For
tractor/aircraft accidents its almost one and a half
times as many ashore than aboard ship.
27. Aboard ship more accidents occur on the flight
deck than on the hangar deck except for mainte-
nance jacks. Theyre not generally used on the
flight deck. Ashore more crunches happen on the
flight line than in the hangar except for jacks. Both
ashore and aboard ship more accidents involve
parked aircraft than towed aircraft.
28. About 96 percent of all SE/aircraft accidents
are attributable to some kind of personnel error
and the other 4 percent to some type of material
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 003 00
Page 4
failure. Carelessness, inattention, or complacency
on the part of operators is the immediate cause
listed most frequently in reports. Only about 7
percent of all mishaps involved operators who were
not licensed, qualified, or authorized. That means
the vast maj ori ty of acci dents are caused by
supposedly qualified people.
29. Conclusions. If we summarize what the SE/air-
craft accident report data tells us, we can draw the
following conclusions concerning our safety problem:
(a) Self-propelled SE is involved in 61% of all
SE/aircraft mishaps over the last eight years.
(b) The SE involved most often in SE mishaps
are tractors, forklifts, work platforms, mobile electric
power plants, jacks, and maintenance vehicles.
(c) Our problem is three times worse ashore than
aboard ship.
(d) Lack of supervision, no formal training, no
OJT, careless, inattentive, or complacent operators
cause 96% of all SE mishaps.
(e) Accidents dont just happen, people cause
accidents.
30. PREVENTION.
31. GENERAL.
32. The Navys effort to solve the problem of
SE/aircraft accidents has resulted in a number of
different programs. These programs are designed
to provide you with:
(a) Soundly designed and safe SE to work with.
(b) Quality maintenance of SE to keep it in safe
operating condition.
(c) Technical publications on SE and aircraft for
specific guidance on how to....
(d) Performance and qualification standards you
need to ensure efficient and safe operation of SE.
(e) Formal and on-the-job training in the proce-
dures you need to meet the standards and stay
safe.
(f) A safety organization to manage and improve
accident prevention efforts at every level, including
yours.
(g) Ground accident investigation, reporting, and
analysis to detect hazards so they can be corrected.
(h) Safety and accident prevention education
through movies, slides, magazines, posters, stick-
ers, and manuals like this one.
33. You can see that the Navys efforts to keep
you safe and to solve our aircraft ground accident
problem are pretty heavy and most of them have
been going on for sometime. We cant possibly
cover all of the programs here but we will cover
some as they apply directly to this manual.
34. Equipment Safety. We mentioned above that
programs exist to make sure you get the safest
possible SE to work with. One of the most important
programs to insure this is the System Safety Program
spelled out in MIL-STD-882 (Military Standard). The
purpose of the program is to systematically identify
all the possible hazards of a piece of SE in the design,
operation, or maintenance of it. Once the hazards
are identified they are either eliminated from the
design, reduced by modifying the design, or reduced
by specific operating/maintenance procedures and
warning placards.
35. This safety program goes on for the life of
the equi pment. I f a new hazard shows up, a
technical directive to correct it can be issued. A
good example is the mobile electric power plant.
Accident reports showed lots of operators were
driving away with the power cable still attached
to the aircraft. On the NC-8A MEPP, an SEC change
was issued to modify it so that it couldnt be driven
away until the power cable was completely stowed
and plugged into a receptacle on the MEPP. That
change has reduced accidents.
36. Even with system safety there is no way to
eliminate all the hazards and still get SE which
will do the job at a reasonable cost. Thats why
proper operati ng/mai ntenance procedures and
warning placards are so important to your complete
safety.
37. Equipment Maintenance. To make certain that
SE is properly maintained, the Navy has put SE under
the same Planned Maintenance System
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 003 00
Page 5
as aircraft. This program ensures that all SE is
periodically inspected in accordance with published
Per i odi c Mai nt enance Requi r ement s Manual
(PMRM).
38. As an operator, the only PMRM youll get
involved with is the one for the preoperational
checklist. This checklist is done to verify that the
SE is properly serviced, ready for use, and safe
to operate in all respects. As a SE operator it will
be your direct responsibility to perform this checklist
prior to each use.
39. Al l repai r and mai ntenance of SE i s t he
responsibility of the SE Division of the station or
ship Aircraft Intermediate Maintenance Department
(AIMD) or designated repair activity. For further
information refer to OPNAVINST 4790.2 (series).
40. Publications. There are three prime written
sources of information youll use in connection with
SE operation and use. We mentioned the Periodic
Maintenance Requirements Manual above. Youll get
acquainted with PMRMs during Phase 1 training at
SE school and use them practically every day.
41. Each type of SE also has a Technical Manual
(TM) written for it. The manual is a handbook of
operation, service, and repair instructions, usually
with an illustrated parts breakdown. Technical
manuals are located in repair activities technical
libraries.
42. Ai rcraft Mai ntenance Instructi on Manual s
(MIMs) contain all the exact procedures for the
use of SE to move, secure, service, and maintain
your specific type aircraft. As an SE operator, the
MIM you may refer to most often is General Aircraft
Information. This is really the bible concerning the
mating of SE and your specific aircraft type/model/
series. It contains all the proper and safe proce-
dures with warnings, cautions, and notes youll need
for working with your aircraft.
43. LICENSING. Shall be in accordance with
OPNAV 4790.2 series and TYCOM instructions.
44. PREOPERATIONAL CHECKLIST.
45. The preoperational checklist provides abbrevi-
ated minimum inspection requirements that are
necessary to ensure the integrity of the equipment
for operati on, and to determi ne the need for
servicing. They prescribe in the most logical order
the maintenance requirements that must be accom-
plished on a given item prior to each use.
46. SAFETY ORGANIZATION.
47. Unit.
48. Any safety program, to be successful, has
to be organized and managed by someone. Squad-
ron, shipboard, and shore station unit accident
prevention programs are similar in most respects.
All three are run through the chain of command,
directed and supported by the commanding officer,
and have assigned safety officers responsible for
the management of the program.
49. In a typi cal squadron, a mai ntenance or
ground safety officer, assisted by division or work
center safety petty officers, coordinates accident
prevention in the maintenance and ground handling
of aircraft. Most units have a safety committee,
made up of the safety petty officers and work center
supervisors, and chaired by the safety officer. This
committee provides grass roots information on
the program to the commanding officer. They hold
regular meetings and publish minutes concerning
all the aspects of the safety program.
50. Most important to you is the safety petty
officer. The safety petty officer is available to you
at the working level for any inputs or suggestions
you may have concer ni ng any aspect of t he
program. The safety petty officer inspects and
observes to detect hazardous conditions and viola-
tions of standard maintenance practices and proce-
dures. The safety petty officer is an important part
of the program and needs your help and coopera-
tion to keep you and your shipmates safe and
prevent ground accidents. Remember, safety is
everybodys job, not just the safety petty officers
or safety officers.
51. One procedure youll be a part of in aviation
squadrons is the Safety Standdown. Thats when
all operations are halted for a day or two and
accident prevention is reemphasized. Your supervi-
sor may conduct a review or retraining in some
particular procedure he feels is not just right, or
cover specific safety precautions for a certain
operation. Safety standdowns usually take place
after a letdown in the tempo of squadron operations
such as after Christmas holidays; or after a general
leave period following a shipboard deployment; or
it can come right in
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 003 00
Page 6
the middle of heavy operations if the commanding
officer feels things have become critical in some
way and safe operations are in danger.
52. Safety Center
53. Just as the commanding officer of a squadron,
ship or shore activity is responsible for the safety
program of the unit, the Chief of Naval Operations
is responsible for the overall Navy safety program.
The CNOs safety officer is the Commander of
the Naval Safety Center. The safety officer advises
and assists the CNO in promoting, monitoring, and
evaluating the entire Navy Safety Program.
54. The job of the Naval Safety Center is summed
up in their motto, OUR PRODUCT IS SAFETY,
OUR PROCESS IS EDUCATION, AND OUR PROF-
IT IS MEASURED IN THE PRESERVATION OF
LI VES AND EQUI PMENT AND I NCREASED
READINESS. Your own personal contact with the
Naval Safety Center comes in a couple of important
ways. One way is through the really informative
pubs they put out for you. The other is during the
safety surveys they conduct for units.
55. Publications.
a. APPROACH/MECH - published four times
a year and contains articles on flight operations
and aviation safety. It has articles of interest for
the entire aviation community. It presents the latest
and most accurate information available on prevent-
ing maintenance caused accidents, particularly in
the area of ground safety,. Some of the articles
are written by experts in the field of aircraft ground
support. Many of the articles are written by people
just like you, to pass along to others a mishap
or hazard theyve run into on the job. APPROACH/
MECH is available to you in your shop or division
spaces. Take full advantage of the chance to learn
from others by reading it.
b. SAFETYLINE - Designed to keep people
with the DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY knowledge-
able about current concerns and emerging develop-
ments within their areas of expertise for the purpose
of enhancing their professional development. Pub-
lished bi-monthly.
56. Safety Surveys. This is the other way youll have
personal contact with the Naval Safety Center. A team
of well qualified, fleet experienced people visit your
unit and take a look at how youre doing your job.
Safety is the primary goal of a survey. Experience
has shown that it is really helpful to have an outsider
take a look at all the safety aspects of how your
unit is operating. A survey usually turns up a lot of
hidden hazards and unsafe procedures which have
developed over a period of time without your being
aware of them. Its a valuable tool the Naval Safety
Center uses to keep you and your shipmates safe
and more productive.
57. MISHAP REPORTING.
58. The single most important way of preventing
accidents is to learn from what has happened
before. To do this we need to thoroughly investigate
each accident and near-accident to determine the
causes. Only then can we attempt to eliminate those
causes so the accident wont happen again. Thats
the only reason for accident investigation. Its not
to place blame on someone for disciplinary pur-
poses. In fact, naval aviation investigations and
reports are privileged documents. That means
they cannot be used as evidence in any legal or
punitive action.
59. Once an accident has been investigated, an
accident report is sent to the Naval Safety Center.
Aviation ground mishaps are reported in accordance
with OPNAVINST 3750.6 Series, The Naval Aviation
Safety Program; or OPNAVINST 5102.1, Accident
Investigating and Reporting; or MCO 5101.8, Marine
Corps Ground Mishap Reporting. The safety center
mai ntai ns a mast er fi l e of al l acci dents i n i ts
computer files. That data is used for improvements
to SE design, safety devices, operating and mainte-
nance procedures, safety precaution and training
courses. The accident report is not a useless form
of record keeping, but actually tells us we have
a problem and shows us where we have to take
action to correct the problem. The data in the
HISTORICAL DATA paragraph is an example of
what report files can tell us.
60. Accident prevention is an all hands responsi-
bility. We have to make sure that all accidents or
near-accidents are reported, no matter how small
or uni mpor t ant t hey may seem. You have t o
understand that unsafe conditions or unsafe acts
cant be corrected unless theyre recognized; and
unless theyre corrected, even minor occurrences
can lead to serious accidents. Small or minor
accidents are very important. From 1992 to 1994
for every major injury there are about 3 minor
injuries, and 59 minor damage accidents. If we
eliminate the small accidents, we wont have any
big accidents.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 003 00
Page 7
61. MISUSE/ABUSE.
62. It is the responsibility of all hands to report
SE misuse or abuse when discovered or witnessed.
OPNAV 4790/108 (Fi gure 1) i s used to report
instances of misuse and abuse. Reports are routed
in accordance with the OPNAV 4790.2 (series).
Reports can and do result in disciplinary action
for improper operation, negligence, or vandalism.
63. Commanding officers have the responsibility
to revoke an SE operators license when:
a. An individual displays unsafe operator hab-
its or behavioral traits that constitute unsafe or
abusive use of SE.
b. For any reason the individuals U.S. Govern-
ment Motor Vehicle Operators Identification Card
or state drivers license becomes invalid (this applies
to self-propelled equipment only).
c. An i ndi vi dual i ntenti onal l y mi suses or
abuses SE.
d. For any other reasons deemed appropriate.
64. Once a license is revoked an individual must
pass the written and practical tests required for
a first time licensee to requalify.
65. INDIVIDUAL RESPONSIBILITY.
66. GENERAL.
67. Safety is everybodys business. Youve prob-
ably seen or heard that slogan before. Its true.
Trouble is, people have a tendency to read it as
everybody elses business and then it turns out
to be nobodys business. Why does safety have
to be everybodys business? Its simple. We are
all capable of having an accident, any time, and
f or any of t he r easons we ve t al ked about -
carelessness, complacency, daydreaming, distrac-
tion, haste, ignorance, overconfidence, shortcuts,
horseplay, skylarking, negligence, anger, frustration,
resentment, showing-off, recklessness, defiance,
convenience, comfort, alcohol, drugs, fatigue, sick-
ness, misunderstanding, stress, - there are probably
as many reasons as there are people!
68. The point is that unless there is a firm, positive
commitment by each individual to be safe, every
hour, of each day, were going to continue to hurt
people, break equipment, and damage aircraft.
Each of us must be aware, understand, and believe
that accidents dont just happen, people and their
problems cause accidents. The facts have been
proving it for years.
69. How do you stay safe and avoid accidents?
There are lots of ways to answer that question
but lets try to sum it up in three areas vital to
safety - knowledge, awareness, and attitude.
70. KNOWLEDGE.
71. The first rule of being safe and preventing
accidents is to know exactly what youre doing.
It doesnt take a smart person to figure that out,
but then why do so many of us voluntarily take
on jobs that we dont know how to do? Pride?
Determination? Can-do spirit? Or fear of being
considered incompetent or a slacker? Whatever the
reason, its a sure route to getting hurt or causing
damage. Knowledge comes from training and expe-
rience. Lack of knowledge - people doing things
they dont know how to do - is one of the biggest
causes of accidents.
72. Training. The Navy will do its best to check
you out on every job but a big part of it is up to
you. Take your training seriously and learn the
equipment, learn the aircraft, learn the proper proce-
dures to follow, and learn what safety precautions
are required. If your memory is short, then retrain
yourself periodically by using the pubs. Dont be shy
about asking your supervisor to double check your
procedures. Your supervisor has been where you are
now.
73. Experience. Experience is extremely important
to staying safe. The facts prove it. More experience
- less accidents. Its hard to come by. It takes time.
Make up for your lack of experience by reading and
listening. Two worn out phrases are still true here
Read and heed and Listen and learn. Read the
TMs and manuals. Ask to see all the movies and
slide programs the Navy has spent so much of our
money on. Youll learn things that could keep you
alive while youre getting experience.
74. Skill. Knowing how to do something is not
always enough. Experience also brings skill and most
of the jobs involved in the operation of SE to maintain
aircraft take some skill. Reading and listening wont
give you skill. You can only get it through practice.
Recognize that fact. Realize
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 003 00
Page 8
Figure 1. Support Equipment Misuse/Abuse Form OPNAV 4790/108
003001
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 003 00
Page 9
that until you get that skill you are much more likely
to have an accident. Therefore, even after youve
learned how to do a new job, you need close
supervision and need to be extra cautious until
youve had enough practice, and are skilled enough,
to do it safely on your own.
75. Safety Knowledge. Besides knowing SE, your
aircraft, the procedures and safety precautions, you
also need some knowledge of safety itself. Weve
already mentioned some things above. The more you
know about safety facts and what causes accidents,
the more you can do to stay safe and prevent
accidents. You can get safety smart by reading the
safety literature and materials from the Naval Safety
Center and those from your own unit, especially the
minutes of the safety committee meetings.
76. AWARENESS.
77. You l l hear and see many references to
awareness in accident prevention. The word has
a lot of meanings - alert, awake, alive, conscious,
vigilant, watchful, knowing, recognizing, realizing.
Webster defines it as an alertness in being able
to draw conclusions or make judgments from what
we see, hear, or learn. We can also call it being
heads-up.
78. Hazard Awareness. In this dangerous business
of ground support of aircraft, being heads-up is critical
to staying safe. Your everyday work environment is
full of hazards, anyone of which can reach out and
bite you when you least expect it. Youve got to learn
to live safely in this hazardous environment by being
constantly aware of the hazards. Living safely with
these hazards must become a part of you. Let hazard
awareness and safety awareness become a habit.
79. Safety Habits. Habits are formed by doing
something over and over again. There are good (safe)
habits and bad (unsafe) habits. You must train
yourself to recognize and correct dangerous condi-
tions; to recognize and avoid unsafe acts. Those
actions must become habitual - so you do it naturally
without even thinking about it.
80. Your personal safety habits in your work
environment determine your chances of having an
accident. You are far less likely to have an accident
if you live day by day in such a manner that, by
your habits, you avoid hazards. Train yourself to
be constantly aware of the hazards and make safe
behavior a habit.
81. ATTITUDE.
82. Your attitude - the way you react toward
something - is extremely important to your safety.
A positive attitude toward things generally supports
safe behavior. A negative or unfavorable attitude
toward something usually results in behavior which
is unsafe. You develop your attitudes through your
experiences, or learn them from other people, or
by reading, or by watching movies or TV. Attitudes
arent fixed in concrete. They can be strongly
influenced by what happens to you, by what you
see or hear, and mostly by the people you work
and associate with.
83. Behavior. Your attitudes are important to your
safety because they generally shape your motivations
to behave in one way or another. Take SE for
instance. When you finished SE school at AIMD you
were all pumped up about how good the gear looked
and operated, how important it was to take good
care of it, and how if anything went wrong with it
all you had to do was turn it in and an AS would
solve the problem or replace the gear. Our attitudes
toward the gear and the SE division was positive.
You were well checked out and motivated to operate
it safely and give it the care and respect the AS
said it deserved.
84. However, after a month back on the line at
the squadron your attitude changed. It seemed like
every time you did a preoperational inspection on
a piece of gear thered be something wrong with
it. Youd return it to the SE division and check out
another. Then sometime during the day that would
break down. Pretty soon you formed the opinion
that most of the gear was junk. Thats the way
the rest of the crew was treating it. In fact they
called it junk and started to hassle you about always
taking too much time checking it and turning it in
to the SE division.
85. So your atti tude changed. You l ost your
motivation to perform preoperational inspections on
the gear before you used it. Your behavior towards
it changed. You treated it like junk. You operated
unsafe equipment because it took too much time
to turn it in. You were behaving in an unsafe manner
because of your negative attitude. In the back of
your mind you knew things werent right. You were
aware of a problem but your bad attitude towards
SE motivated you towards unsafe behavior. All
these things went through your mind after the
accident!
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 003 00
Page 10
86. Outside influence on our attitude is strong and
can be good or bad. Dont be led astray. Resist
negative peer pressure. Keep a positive attitude
and even more - set an example for your buddies
and influence their attitude in a positive way.
87. Safety Attitude. There is one positive attitude
youve got to have if you want to stay safe, prevent
accidents, and do a professional job. That is your
safety attitude. No matter what your attitude toward
work, equipment, procedures, or whatever, a good,
positive attitude towards safety can overcome nega-
tive ones. A negative attitude towards tractors can
motivate you to express resentment and drive in a
reckless way. But a strong safety attitude will stop
you and make you think twice. Itll tell you that risking
an arm or a leg, just to display the fact that youre
upset at tractors, doesnt make any sense. Dont let
a poor attitude rule out your common sense.
88. SUMMARY.
89. In this work package we outlined the serious
aircraft support equipment accident problem we
have. We talked about how bad it is and what it
can cost you and the Navy. We took a look at
some of the historical hazard and accident data
and came to the conclusion that SE/aircraft acci-
dents dont just happen - theyre caused by people
and their problems.
90. We also went heavily into the Navys efforts
to sol ve t he probl em - t he equi pment safety,
maintenance, training, licensing, pubs, and unit
safety organizational programs. We covered the
Naval Safety Center and what it is doing to help
sol ve the probl em through pubs and acci dent
investigations and the collection of accident data.
91. Finally we discussed the fact that since it is
people who cause accidents, safety must be every-
bodys business. When we get right down to it,
your safety and the prevention of accidents must
be an individual responsibility.
92. We hope this manual will help. The safety,
training, licensing, and publications programs can
help but they cant stop accidents. Only you can
do that. If you dont know what youre doing, youll
have an accident. If you arent always aware of
the hazards, youll have an accident. If you dont
have a positive attitude, particularly a positive safety
attitude, youll have an accident. No one can protect
you but YOU - and it will take an effort every day
for as long as you want to live.
93. Safety is knowing that everyone has to go
sometime - but making a maximum effort not to
volunteer yourself for an early departure. Why not
make your exit when youre very old - and in your
sleep.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 004 00
1 April 1996 Page 1
GENERAL HAZARDS OF AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE
U.S. NAVY SUPPORT EQUIPMENT
COMMON
BASIC HANDLING & SAFETY MANUAL
Reference Material
None
Alphabetical Index
Subject Page No.
Aircraft Hazards 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engines, Propellers, and Rotors 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Movable Surfaces 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Noise 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Protuberances 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Weight 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Environmental Hazards 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Light 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Noise 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Weather 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wind 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Work Area 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hazardous Materials 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Introduction 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Work Habits 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Record of Applicable Technical Directives
None
1. INTRODUCTION.
2. We all want to be known as can do sailors
and if we dont recognize a job is dangerous we
probably wont hesitate to try it. Hazard awareness
i s a bi g f act or i n doi ng any j ob saf el y and
professionally. But when we try to do dangerous
things without knowing the dangers, the chance
of having an accident is very high.
3. Where do these hazards come from? Some
are there naturally, they come from the environment,
the aircraft, and the SE. Others we create by our
own work habits, attitudes, and behavior.
4. Many of the hazards are uncontrollable; the
weather, jet blast, intake suction, turning rotors and
props, rolling decks, the list goes on. Since we
cant control the hazards, we have to minimize the
danger by being constantly aware of them, by using
approved procedures, and by using/wearing protec-
tive equipment and clothing. The hazards we create
ourselves we can do something about by having
a positive attitude about safety and our work and
by forming safe work habits and behavior.
5. ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS.
6. WEATHER. Weather is probably chief among the
uncontrollable hazards. In addition to the bad effects
of fatigue from heat or frostbite from cold, weather
brings moisture. Moisture in whatever form means
slippery, and slippery means dangerous. Winters
snow and ice just
SEE IRAC # 6
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 004 00
Page 2
make it worse and a pitching rolling deck doesnt
make it any better. If theyre wet, your shoe soles
are slippery, your gloves are slippery, so are the
tractor pedals and steering wheel, the airplane
youre working on, and the surface youre working
or driving on.
7. Cold, heat, or moisture usually mean youre
going to be uncomfortable when you have to work
in it. When youre uncomfortable everything seems
to take longer, be harder, or go completely wrong
and make you more uncomfortable and angry. Its
only natural for you to want to avoid as much
discomfort as possible. Thats when you tend to
hurry, take shortcuts, skip important steps, take
risks - have an accident. Stop! Think about it a
second! Is this the way you want to die?
8. Remember, the right way is the safe way -
even when theres sweat in your eyes or your hands
are numb with cold or youre standing in water over
your ankles.
9. WIND. High or gusty wind is a fact of life aboard
ship and a frequent occurrence ashore. Wind blows
off improperly secured canopies and access panels.
It sets rotor blades and warning flags to flapping and
beating on the aircraft. It blows fire bottles over, stirs
all the trash around, and blows every grain of sand
on the ramp into your eyes. Those flying or falling
objects hurt people and damage aircraft. Keep
everything secured and wear your goggles.
10. LIGHT. Night, even in the best of weather, is
particularly hazardous. Most of the long range visual
cues you depend on during the day are gone.
Hazards you routinely see in daylight become sudden
dangers or emergencies at night. The dark adaptation
routines you were taught in boot camp or elsewhere
are good, but exposure to white light (and loss of
adaptation) is just about impossible to avoid either
ashore or aboard ship. Be aware you cant see as
well at night. Slow down and stay alert.
11. Daylight has hazards too. Glare from bright
sunlight can momentarily blind you. Glare of sunlight
reflected off the water or concrete fatigues your
eyes in a few hours. Be aware of what glare can
do to your sight. Wear tinted goggles or sunglasses
in areas where they are permitted.
12. Artificial light presents some of the same
hazards as natural light. Poorly lighted areas are
similar to nighttime and having to look toward a
bright light is similar to looking at the sun. The
glare of artificial light off dark, wet decks and ramps
tires the eyes and masks hazards. Stay alert and
take your time.
13. NOISE. Noise is a constant hazard in aircraft
handling areas. Not only can it temporarily or perma-
nently damage your hearing, but the equipment used
to protect your ears also cuts down your ability to
hear signals. This is why most signals used in aircraft
movement are visual or visual and aural (verbal or
whistle). Even visual signals are easily missed due
to darkness or glare.
14. Noise can sneak up on you in lots of ways
you dont always recognize, It can give you a
headache or make you i rri tabl e. When you re
irritable youre more prone to sudden outbursts or
reckless action. All these factors can lead you into
an accident.
15. The noise can come from just the tractor
youre driving or from a whole lot of things put
together. The tractor alone can put you above the
maximum exposure level of 85 dBA that BUMED
has established. Add any other noise (and theres
almost always other noise, especially aboard ship)
and youre in trouble without ear protection. SE
which exceeds the BUMED limit should have a
warning sticker on it. Heed the warning and wear
protective gear.
16. WORK AREA. Ramp areas and flight/hangar
decks are full of hazards even before you add
airplanes, SE, and people.
17. Elevators, stanchions, deck access covers,
hatches, tiedown rings, arresting cables, catapult
tracks, and shuttles are some of the fixed hazards.
Add to those the movable hazards such as tie-
downs, chocks, towbars, tractors, and assorted
other SE. These are typical of the shipboard work
environment.
18. Many of these same hazards exist ashore.
In addition you must watch out for fire bottles,
concrete seams, and curbs. Manhole covers and
sewer gratings are usually strong enough for heavy
trucks but not strong enough to support an aircraft
wheel. Unsafe covers or gratings should be painted
yellow, but dont rely on it. Avoid them all. Construc-
tion areas are a real hazard. They can change
size and location every day. Many times they are
not properly barricaded or lighted and the people
working there are not familiar with working around
airplanes. Be aware, look ahead, and scout ahead
if poor light or weather require it.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 004 00
Page 3
19. AIRCRAFT HAZARDS.
Aircraft hazards are not the same for all
aircraft. Only general hazards and exam-
ples typical in naval aviation are dis-
cussed in this manual. See the aircraft
technical manuals for exact information
on each type aircraft.
20. In the ai r an ai rpl ane i s sl eek, beauti ful ,
maneuverable, strong, and definitely in its element.
On the ground its a heavy, awkward hulk that is
all odd angles and things that stick out; it can
change shape and size; its full of explosives and
other hazardous material (Figure 1); it moves when
you dont want it to and wont move when you do
want it to; its fragile enough to be damaged by
almost anything that hits it; its definitely out of
its element
21. PROTUBERANCES. Protuberances is a long
name for things that stick out. As sleek as most navy
aircraft look, they are actually full of these things
that stick out and can severely injure you. Some are
pretty fragile themselves and can be damaged if
bumped. A typical list might include:
S Missile and bomb racks
S Missile and ordnance fins
S Landing gear doors and catapult tow links
S Antennas, radomes, and lights
S Fuel dump tubes, pitot tubes, sensor probes
S Drop tanks
S Cockpit boarding steps
S Various air scoops, ducts, and access covers.
S Helicopter sponsons and skids
Remember aircraft configurations change often.
What isnt there today may bite you tomorrow. Stay
alert to changes.
22. MOVABLE SURFACES. As mentioned earlier
our aircraft change shape and size. This is due mostly
to folding wings or rotors and canopies going up or
down. All these things are hinged and power oper-
ated. They also have safety locks to protect you.
If you ignore the safety lock and get a hand in one
of those joints youre going to get hurt - bad!
23. There are other movable surfaces that spring
out, drop down, or move in other ways. They can
hurt you or be damaged if youre not careful. Figure
2 illustrates movable surfaces of the F/A-18; Figure
3 illustrates external danger areas of the AV-8B.
These are typical for many aircraft. Watch out for:
S Wing flaps, ailerons, and spoilers
S Wing panels, slats, and leading edges
S Horizontal tail surfaces or elevators
S Vertical tail surfaces or rudders
S Tail hooks
S Speed brakes
S Ram air turbine (RAT) generators
S Fuel probes
S Auxiliary air doors
S Bomb bay doors
S Landing gear doors
S Drag chute doors
24. ENGINES, PROPELLERS, AND ROTORS. Air-
craft engines are constantly being run up and you
cant always tell just by looking. The noise may be
masked by other noise and you may not see the
exhaust heat waves or whirling prop. Jet blast, prop
and rotor wash are dangerous - to you, to the SE,
and to other aircraft. Stay clear! In front of the aircraft
is no bargain either. Jet engines have a huge appetite
for air. That rush of air into the engine picks up
anything nearby - including you. Figure 4 illustrates
these hazard areas for an F-14, Figure 5, those for
the AV-8B. They are similar for other fixed wing
aircraft.
25. Engine blast from helicopters, particularly the
large ones cannot be ignored. Figure 6 shows the
blast area for the H-53.
26. Exhaust, commonl y cal l ed j et bl ast, i s a
possible killer. If you give it a chance, jet blast
can:
S Blow you over the side of the ship.
S Blow you into a rotating prop or someplace
else you dont want to be.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 004 00
Page 4
Figure 1. F/A-18 Flammable Fluids, Compressed Gasses, and Explosive Devices
004001
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 004 00
Page 5
Figure 2. F/A-18 Movable Surfaces, Stores, and Hot Brake Danger Areas
004002
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 004 00
Page 6
004003
Figure 3. AV-8B External; Danger Areas
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 004 00
Page 7
Figure 4. F-14 Danger Areas
004004
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 004 00
Page 8
Figure 5. AV-8B Blast Danger Areas
004005
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 004 00
Page 9
Figure 6. H-53 Blast Areas
004006
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 004 00
Page 10
S Knock you down and roll you across a steel
deck or concrete ramp and into something else hard.
S Hurl any loose objects at you with enough
force to kill you.
S Burn you.
S Asphyxiate you.
27. Although exhaust gas is hot enough to burn
you, the blast will usually blow you away before
you get burned. That is if youre not pinned against
some obstruction and cant get away. Jet exhaust,
just like automobile exhaust, can asphyxiate you
if you stay in it long enough. At idle, jet exhaust
may seem tame. Thats particularly true of turbo-
prop exhaust, but at high power theyre all danger-
ous. Standing in jet exhaust to keep warm in winter
can be deadly.
28. Jet intakes are huge vacuum cleaners. At high
power they can suck a man off the deck. An inlet
screen used during maintenance turn ups may save
you from going down the intake, but you can still
be injured when the suction slams you against the
screen. Even at low power intakes can suck up
rags, caps, helmets, goggles, or most any other
loose gear. Beware of jet intakes!
29. A rotating propeller or tail rotor in one of the
most deadly hazards to you in handling aircraft.
Props are killers! Never, ever walk through the arc
of a propeller or tail rotor, even when its not turning.
If you walk through the prop arc when its stopped
you wont stay aware of the hazard. Some day
youll walk through a turning one. Spinning props
and tail rotors are next to impossible to see. If
you always respect them and fear them as the
killers they are, youll form a habit pattern which
could save your life during that one moment when
you have a lapse of memory. Figure 7 shows the
ground clearance of the UH-1 tail rotor. The AH-1
is even lower at 4 feet 8 inches.
30. Helicopter main rotor blades are most hazard-
ous during engagement and shutdown when theyre
not up to speed. High or gusty winds or a failed
droop stop can cause a blade to suddenly swoop
down and decapitate you. Stay clear!
31. Figure 7 illustrates the ground clearance of
a UH-1 main rotor blade when it flaps down at
its maximum angle.
32. While youre watching out for exhaust blast,
intakes, props, and rotors dont trip over the tiedown
rings or arresting cables.
33. WEIGHT. Weight is a hidden hazard in most
modern Navy aircraft. They are much heavier than
they look. Remember too, the weight can change
a lot. The empty F/A-18 you tow to the fuel pits might
weigh as little as 23,500 pounds; coming back it might
weigh around 40,000. Add an ordnance load to that
and it could be more than 50,000 pounds. An AV-8
could be 31,000 pounds; an H-60, over 21,000; and
a P-3 as much as 127,000 pounds. Think about what
it takes to hold or stop that much weight.
34. NOISE. Noise from aircraft engines is hazardous
to your hearing. The worst danger is that it usually
doesnt hurt and you dont realize what noise is really
doing to you. Check the MIM for your specific type
aircraft danger areas, Youll find that at the rear of
jet fighter type aircraft the 120 dBA area is about
50 feet at idle, 600 feet at military power, and over
1000 feet at full afterburner. Figure 4 shows the noise
danger areas for the F-14 and is representative of
most fighter and attack aircraft. The same hazard
applies to prop aircraft and helos but to a lesser
degree. Just because prop types and helos are a
little quieter dont get complacent, you still need
hearing protection.
35. WORK HABITS.
36. Your work habits include your use of protective
equipment and clothing, your attitude about the job,
your safety awareness, the way you dress for work
In other words, the way you do the job. Its a little
harder to form good work habits because you
usually have to do a little extra but the dividend
i t pays i s a l ong heal thy l i fe. Some thi ngs to
remember:
S Wear the protective gear provided to keep you
safe.
S Dont wear rings, bracelets, watches, necklaces,
or other jewelry on the job.
S Dress for the job and the weather.
S Report unsafe conditions, equipment, or actions
to your supervisor or safety petty officer immediately.
S Warn others of hazards they might not be aware
of.
S Never walk through a prop or rotor arc.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 004 00
Page 11/(12 blank)
004007
Figure 7. UH-1 Blade and Rotor Clearance
S Form safe work habits. Do the little extra.
S Dont walk through hangar or elevator doors
while theyre closing.
S Wipeoff slippery shoesoles, SEfoot pedals, and
areas you need to stand on.
S Never plug in or unplug a hot power cable.
Check that the switch is off first.
S Dont stand in the rotation plane of turbine com-
pressors (marked with red stripes).
S Stand clear of intakes.
S Stand clear of exhausts.
S Dont cross over or under elevator stanchions af-
ter theyre raised.
S Dont take shortcuts.
S Dont operate equipment youre not fully quali-
fied and/or licensed for.
S Use the maintenance manual to be sure how to
do the job.
S Conscientiously read the minutes of unit safety
meetings.
S Dont jury rig or bypass safety devices.
S Dont use fuel to wash your hands, clean parts,
spills, etc.
S Remove clothing or shoes which have become
fuel soaked.
S Dont use compressed air or other compressed
gas to clean off your clothing.
S Dont breathe hazardous vapors of any kind.
S Obey smoking regulations.
37. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS.
38. Maintenance of modern aircraft requires use
of many types of hazardous materi al s. These
include solvents, adhesives, lubricants, fuels, and
the materials used to build the aircraft itself. You
wi l l be exposed these al most dai l y. I n newer
mai ntenance manual s you wi l l see some l i ttl e
pictures called icons, the name of the hazardous
material, and a number. These are used instead
of the familiar WARNING caption for hazardous
materials. The icons depict the hazard such as fire,
explosion, etc. and the number refers you to the
complete warning in the front of the manual. Read
these warnings and any labels on the material. Be
sure to wear the protective clothing required. Many
of these materials seem harmless when youre
using them but they may have long term health
effects. If you have any doubts or questions contact
your local Occupational Safety and Health staff.
Note that the WARNING caption is still used for
hazardous actions.
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 005 00
Change 1 - 1 July 2001 Page 1
HANDLING AND SECURING EQUIPMENT
U.S. NAVY SUPPORT EQUIPMENT
COMMON
BASIC HANDLING & SAFETY MANUAL
Reference Material
Aircraft Securing and Handling Procedures NAVAIR 17-1-537 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CV NATOPS Manual NAVAIR 00-80T-105 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
History and Prevention WP 003 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LHA/LPH/LHD NATOPS Manual NAVAIR 00-80T-106 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Towbar, Aircraft, Model ALBAR and Model NT-4/NT-4A NAVAIR 19-1-137 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alphabetical Index
Subject Page No.
Aircraft Handling Hazards 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chocks 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Restraints 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spotting Dolly 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tiedowns 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Towbars 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tractors 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aircraft Movement Safety Precautions and Procedures 23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dos and Donts 27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Movement Team 23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Towing With Engines Running 26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chocks 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Polyurethane 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rubber 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wooden 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Introduction 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lessons Learned/Accident Reports 28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Restraints 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aero Full Power 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MXU-657/W Aircraft Restraint 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Safety Precautions and Procedures 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chocks 19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dos and Donts 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spotting Dolly 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tiedowns 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Towbars 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tractors 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tiedowns 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TD-1A/B 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tow Bars 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Peculiar 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Universal 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tow Tractors 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A/S32A-30A 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A/S32A-31A 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A/S32A-32 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A/S32A-37 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A/S32A-42 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Record of Applicable Technical Directives
None
SEE IRAC # 6
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 005 00
Change 1 Page 2
1. INTRODUCTION.
2. The common SE used most frequently in aircraft
handling and covered in this manual are:
a. Tow tractors
b. Spotting dollies
c. Towbars
d. Tiedowns
e. Chocks
f. Restraints
3. There is also a long list of equipment which
applies only to each different type aircraft. This
equi pment, such as l andi ng gear down l ocks,
various safety pins, intake screens, covers, special
hoists, and special tow bars is called Peculiar
Support Equipment (PSE). It is listed and described
in the Maintenance Instruction Manuals (MIMs) for
each type aircraft. The proper procedures and
safety precautions for their use are covered in the
MIM and in the applicable technical manuals for
the equipment.
4. TOW TRACTORS.
5. The tow tractor is the only safe means of
moving the majority of todays aircraft when theyre
on the ground and the engines are not running.
You will also use tractors to tow support equipment
specifically equipped to be towed, such as mobile
electric power plants and hydraulic test stands.
Keep in mind that these are the only authorized
uses for tow tractors.
6. Tow tractors are equipped with automatic tow
couplers (Figure 1), both front and rear. Towing
capacity is normally stated in drawbar pull. As a
rule of thumb maximum aircraft weight that the
tractor can handle is 10 times the drawbar pull.
In other words, a tractor wi th an 8000 pound
drawbar pull can tow aircraft weighing up to 80,000
pounds. (This paragraph does not apply to the
A/S32A-32).
7. There are different models and modifications
of most types of tractors. They may look different.
The controls and instruments may be in different
places. Such major parts as engines and transmis-
sions may be manufactured by different companies.
This is an important reason why the SE Operators
License specifies the particular type and model you
are qualified to operate.
005001
Figure 1. Tow Coupler
8. The following is a brief description of the more
common tow tractors you will encounter:
9. A/S32A-37. The Tractor (Figure 2) is a diesel
powered, four wheel drive tractor used for moving
heavy, shore based ai rcraft. It comes i n t wo
configurations, Class I and Class II (ballasted)
which have different drawbar pulls. The Class I
has a maximum drawbar pull of 20,000 pounds,
and is capable of towing aircraft up to 200,000
pounds. The Class II has a maximum drawbar pull
of 35,000 pounds and is capable of towing aircraft
up to 350,000 pounds.
10. The TA-35 is 16 feet 6 inches long, 8 feet
2 inches wide, 8 feet 6 inches tall, and weighs
30,525 pounds (Class I) or 48,600 pounds (Class
II).
11. It is powered by a six cylinder diesel engine
which powers an automatic transmission with six
forward speeds and three reverse speeds, driving
two drive axles for four wheel drive. The tractor
has hydraulic power steering and four wheel power
disc brakes. The electrical system is 24VDC.
12. A/S32A-31A. The tractor (Figure 3) is a single
seat, dual rear wheel drive tractor used exclusively
aboard shi p. It wei ghs 12,400 pounds, has a
drawbar pull of 8,500 pounds and is capable of
towing aircraft up to 85,000 pounds.
13. It is powered by a 3 cylinder, 2 cycle diesel
engine. The engine drives a three speed automatic
transmission providing power to the rear axle.
Service brakes are on the rear wheels only and
are hydraulic wet disc type. It has power assisted
mechanical steering.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 005 00
Page 3
005002
Figure 2. A/S32A-37 Aircraft Towing Tractor (TA-35)
005003
Figure 3. A/S32A-31A Aircraft Towing Tractor (MD-3)
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 005 00
Change 1 Page 4
14. Provision is made for mounting a jet engine
starting unit on the rear. When the starting unit
is not installed a counterweight is used to load
the drive wheels and achieve the rated drawbar
pull.
15. A/S32A-30A. The tractor (Figure 4) is used
for towing nonself-propelled support equipment
such as starting units, MEPPs, and workstands.
It is also used for towing armament trailers, light
aircraft, and helicopters 50,000 pounds or less.
16. It i s rear wheel dri ve powered by a four
cylinder diesel engine. It has hydraulic brakes on
all four wheel. It has a removable cab.
17. A/S32A-32. The SD-2 Spotting Dolly (Figure
5) is used to tow, turn, and position aircraft within
the confines of an aircraft carrier hangar deck. It
has a dr awbar pul l of 14, 000 pounds and a
maximum lifting capacity of 16,000 pounds. It has
a maximum loaded speed of 2 mph and a maximum
unloaded speed of 3 mph.
18. It is powered by a three cylinder diesel engine
which drives two main hydraulic pumps. Although
controlled by a single joy stick, each driven wheel
can rotate independently, at different speeds, and
i n the opposi te di recti on from the other. Thi s
enables the SD-2 to pivot about the nosegear of
the aircraft it is towing.
19. It is equipped with two hydraulic lifting arms
(Figure 6) located between the main wheels. Axle
pins that fit into the aircraft nose wheel axles are
inserted in the lifting arms. They are locked in place
with quick release pins. The lifting arms clamp the
nose wheel of the aircraft. They are then raised,
actually lifting the aircraft nose wheels off the deck.
The SD-2 can then tow, pull, push, turn, or spin
the aircraft in any direction required.
005004
Figure 4. A/S32A-30A Support Equipment Towing Tractor
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 005 00
Change 1 Page 4A/(4B blank)
005005
Figure 5. A/S32A-32 Aircraft Tow Tractor (SD-2)
005006
Figure 6. SD-2 Hydraulic Lifting Arms
19A. A/S32A-42. This two seat, rear wheel drive,
diesel tow tractor (figure 6A) is designed for shore
based operations. It has a gross weight of 13,000
pounds and is capable of towing aircraft up to
100,000 pounds. It is powered by a four cylinder
diesel engine and has a maximum speed of 13
mph.
20. TOWBARS.
21. There are two classes of towbars, the univer-
sal and the peculiar. The universal towbars were
designed to tow multiple type aircraft while the
peculiar towbars were designed for specific aircraft.
They are described in the Aircraft Securing and
Handling Procedures manual NAVAIR 17-1-537.
22. UNIVERSAL. The universal aircraft towbars
Model ALBAR (Adjustable Length Towbar) (Figure
7) are designed to tow and position aircraft weighing
up to 90,000 pounds. Three standard models of
different length are available. The 8 ALBAR, 15
ALBAR, and 20 ALBAR models are provided with
attachment hooks and towing pins with two different
engagement diameters. A fourth model, the 24
ALBAR is designed for towing SH-60B helicopters
with attachment hooks and a live axle with rotating
axle pins. ALBAR usage to aircraft series is listed
in NAVAIR 19-1-137.
23. The towbars can be attached to the aircraft
nose/tailwheel axle holes, or fuselage/landing gear
tow rings. Attachment is by hooks which fit towing
rings on the aircraft or by pins which fit in landing
gear axle holes (Figure 8). The hooks are held
in the aircraft towing rings by spring-loaded locking
pins. Axle pins are held in wheel axle holes by
a tensioning chain adjusted by the tensioning knob.
Excess chain is held clear by inserting the fid
located on the end of the chain in one of the holes
in the movable tube.
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 005 00
Change 1 Page 5
005006a
Figure 6A. A/S32A-42 Aircraft Tow Tractor
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 005 00
Page 6
005007
Figure 7. ALBAR, Adjustable Length Towbar
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 005 00
Page 7
005008
Figure 8. Towbar Attachment
24. PECULIAR. Peculiar towbars are required for
some aircraft, particularly large aircraft, because their
weight exceeds the capacity of the ALBAR, because
there is not sufficient clearance, or because the
ALBAR does not fit the aircraft tow points. In these
cases a peculiar towbar, usually made by the aircraft
manufacturer is required. Most of these peculiar
towbars fit only one type aircraft and cannot be safely
used on other types. Refer to the MIM for proper
use.
25. TIEDOWNS.
26. TD-1A/TD-1B. The TD-1A and TD-1B quick-re-
lease tiedown assemblies (Figure 9) are now used
almost exclusively both aboard ship and ashore.
They consist of a lock mechanism and a chain.
The lock mechanism and chain each have one
hook. Both assemblies are available in two different
lengths, 9 foot and 14 foot. They are fully adjustable
from a foot and a half to full extension.
27. RESTRAINTS.
28. AERO FULL POWER TIEDOWN ASSEMBLY
(Figure 10). Commonly called the A/B tiedown (for
After-Burner). It consists of a deck attachment fitting,
a safety lock retainer, a chain, and a coupler which
fits the aircraft catapult holdback fitting. The tiedown
assembly has a working load of 22,500 pounds. It
weighs about 102 pounds and has no adjustments
to lengthen or shorten it. It can be modified by joining
two together with a dummy link for aircraft requiring
a longer chain.
005009
Figure 9. TD-1A/TD-1B Tiedown Assemblies
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 005 00
Page 8
005010
Figure 10. AERO Full Power Tiedown
29. MXU-657/W AIRCRAFT RESTRAINT (Figure
11). A newer version with a different deck attachment
fitting and a working load of 45,000 pounds. It is
otherwise identical to the AERO Full Power Tiedown.
30. Special high-strength deck fittings are installed
aboard ships and at shore stations in designated
engine run-up areas. Specific A/B tiedown instruc-
tions for each type aircraft are contained in the
MIMs.
005011
Figure 11. MXU-657/W Aircraft Restraint
31. CHOCKS.
32. Chocks are used to prevent the unintentional
movement of wheeled SE or aircraft. Chocks shall
be in place except during movement and may even
be required during movement for emergency stop-
ping.
33. POLYURETHANE.
a. Landbased (Figure 12). Two polyurethane
bl ocks j oi ned by a l i ne. There are four types;
1509AS300-1 for wheels up to 33 inches in diame-
ter, 1509AS300-2 for wheels over 33 inches in
di ameter, 1509AS300-3 f or dual wheel s, and
1509AS300-5 for H2 helicopters and A4 aircraft.
005012
Figure 12. Polyurethane Chocks (Landbased)
b. Shipboard (Figure 13). The NWC-4 and
NWC-5 Universal Chocks consist of two polyure-
thane blocks, one fixed and one adjustable on a
polyurethane bar. NWC-4 is approved for use for
all shipboard aircraft except H-2 helicopters. NWC-5
is to be used on H-2 helicopters. The older NWC-3
metal chock is authorized for use on H-2 helicopters
until receipt of NWC-5.
005013
Figure 13. NWC-4/NWC-5 Polyurethane Chocks
(Shipboard)
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 005 00
Page 9
34. WOODEN. (Figure 14). Authorized landbased
alternative for T-2 and A-4 series aircraft. May also
be used on all other series aircraft when polyurethane
chocks are not available. Wooden chocks may be
manufactured in accordance with NAVAIR 17-1-537.
35. RUBBER. Authorized for landbased use but
shall be removed from service as polyurethane
chocks are received.
36. AIRCRAFT HANDLING HAZARDS.
37. The support equipment you use in aircraft
handling is hazardous - especially if it is misused,
abused, or proper procedures arent followed.
38. The equipment is designed and built to keep
the operator as safe as possible. Material failures
are i nvol ved i n l ess than 4 percent of ground
accidents involving SE and aircraft. Looked at
another way, operators are the cause of about 96
percent of those accidents. Tractors are involved
in more accidents with aircraft than any other piece
of support equipment. Remember, accidents dont
just happen. People cause them.
39. TRACTORS. Tractors with power steering and
automatic transmission may handle easily, but re-
member they can weigh up to 25 tons and will not
stop like a car. Speed is a hazard totally controllable
by the operator and yet i s the cause of many
accidents each year. Speed is always a hazard -
whether towing aircraft, support equipment, or just
a tow bar. Speed is still a hazard when youre not
towing anything at all.
40. This hazard is even more dangerous when
you are towing a load. Heavy SE, such as a 3-1/2
ton NC-10C MEPP and others without surge brakes,
will add considerable momentum to the tractor when
youre trying to stop it. The greater the speed, the
greater the momentum. If youre in a turn while
coming to a stop, the SE towbar can easily push
the tractor into a jackknife position. Towing light
aircraft or helos with the
005014
Figure 14. Wooden Chocks
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 005 00
Page 10
SE tractor should be considered hazardous in any
case, and very hazardous at any speed above
walking speed. The combination of power steering,
light front end, and too much power on the SE
tractor, also results in steering hazards. Since the
SE tractors are also more top heavy than aircraft
tow tractors, the possibility of turning over is greater.
The extra height of SE tractors is an extra hazard
to you and the aircraft. The tendency for any tractor
to plow ahead, instead of turning, is much greater
on a slick, wet, or painted surface.
Coupling and disconnecting a tractor tow
bar is extremely hazardous to thumbs
and fingers. Exercise extreme care when
performing these tasks.
41. Tractor coupling failure or disconnect from the
tow bar eye (lunette) is one of the most serious
hazards present whether towing aircraft or support
equipment. Additionally the act of coupling and
disconnecting is extremely hazardous to thumbs
and fingers. The automatic type coupling is not
foolproof. They can, and do, open while towing.
Be sure they are properly secured. Jackknifing,
bumps, and sudden stops are the main causes
of failure or disconnect. Proper procedures are the
cure.
42. The noise generated by tractors is a hazard.
Typical tractor noise levels are close to or above
BUMED limit of exposure. Be aware that total time
exposed is important and wear protective ear muffs
or ear plugs accordingly.
43. Extra passengers or any loose gear on your
tractor are hazards and are prohibited. They can
fall off and be injured or damaged. They can distract
you from what you should be doing, hearing or
seeing.
44. Misuse of tractors (anything besides towing)
exposes you and the tractor to needless hazards.
Using it as a workstand, as night lighting for aircraft
work, or to push vehicles or hangar doors have
all resulted in lessons learned type accidents. Thats
exactly why such uses are considered extra hazard-
ous and are prohibited.
45. Other general hazards associated with all
tractors are common to most auto type vehicles.
a. Engine overheat because of low coolant
level.
b. Engine seizure because of low oil pressure.
c. Transmission fluid overheat when towing
heavy loads, up inclines, or off-road.
d. Lethal fumes from the engine exhaust in
enclosed spaces.
e. Battery explosion from jump start proce-
dures.
f. Fire from fuel leaks.
g. Transmission damage from shifting to re-
verse while moving forward or vice versa.
h. Transmission shift lever vibrating or slipping
from neutral into gear.
i. Starter motor damage or fire from continuous
cranking over 30 seconds.
j. Brake fading or failure from riding brakes.
k. Parking brake or transmission damage, or
fire, from driving with parking brake on or applying
while moving. Applying the parking brake in an
emergency is permissible.
46. SPOTTING DOLLY. The SD-2 spotting dolly is
hazardous in most of the same ways that tow tractors
are. An additional hazard is that it is highly maneuver-
able and can turn faster than the operator can keep
up with it. Another difference is that the spotting dolly
is used on normally crowded hangar deck. This
leaves less room for error. Operating the dolly in
a standing or walking position is especially hazardous.
You can easily pin yourself between the dolly and
another aircraft, equipment, firefighting station, or
bulkhead. Of course you can do this while in the
operators seat also but its less likely.
47. With your eyes on the Plane Director for
direction and stop signals, you are often unable
to check clearances for yourself. Remember the
director may be concentrating on aircraft clear-
ances, not your clearance.
48. A rolling or pitching deck, or a turn by the
ship, while moving an aircraft with the dolly is
extremely hazardous. It is not uncommon for a dolly
and aircraft, both with brakes locked, to slide across
a slippery, tilting hangar deck. The same thing can
happen while moving aircraft on or off the elevators.
49. The tires on the SD-2 dolly are HIGH pressure
tires and should be considered hazardous. The
inflation pressure is 260 psi for
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 005 00
Page 11
the two main tires and 205 psi for the caster tire.
The tires must be treated with the same respect
as aircraft tires. Checking tire pressure, inflation
of tires, and wheel/tire changes by other than
qualified AIMD SE personnel could result in severe
injury. Dont mess with SD-2 tires and wheels.
50. A loss of hydraulic pressure could prevent
lowering the nose gear or disconnecting the lifting
arms. The SD-2 has manual backup systems for
lowering and spreading the arms.
51. Unplanned separation of the dolly and aircraft
while towing is a hazard thats always present. Be
alert for this hazard when crossing over uneven
surfaces such as hangar door tracks. Tight turns
put a strain on the lifting arms and may spread
them enough to cause axle pin separation. Wrong
size axle pins can come out of the axle hole or
axle pins can break.
52. TOWBARS. Towbars, chocks, and tiedowns are
pretty much dead objects but can still be hazardous.
Their hazards originate from their condition, misuse,
and the hazardous surroundings you use them in.
a. Towbar tubes bend and crack.
b. Bolts come loose.
c. Welds crack.
d. Lock pins and springs bend or break.
e. Tensioning chains break or come loose.
f. Wheel bearings can fail.
53. Corrosion can contribute to all of these and
is always present. The usual result of such condi-
tions is disconnection of the tow tractor from the
towbar or the towbar from the aircraft under the
stress of towi ng tons of ai rcraft. That can be
disastrous. The failure and loss of parts during use,
such as pins, springs, chain, or bearings creates
a FOD hazard.
54. Although all new towbars are a preset length,
you may find some which have been repaired by
shortening and splicing the tubes. Be aware that
using a shorter towbar may reduce the tractor-to-air-
craft nose clearance to a dangerous distance.
Remember, the highest thing on the tractor is you,
the driver.
55. CHOCKS. Metal chocks can deteriorate the
same way as towbars. Wooden landbased and
polyurethane chocks tend to wear down and become
rounded. A cracked, bent, flat, or rounded chock may
fail to do its job of keeping an aircraft from rolling
just when its critical to do so. Remember, if you
dont adjust the chock or use the proper fitting chock,
the chocks cant do their job properly. Again, the
results can be disastrous.
56. In an emergency (brake failure) you may have
to install chocks to stop a moving aircraft. A rolling
wheel can squirt or spit a chock out with great
force. If the wheel jumps a shipboard metal or
shipboard polyurethane chock it can flip up the other
end. Keep in mind chocking a rolling wheel is a
very hazardous operation.
57. TIEDOWN. Tiedown chain assemblies are sub-
ject to: cracked or bent hooks, chain links, or locking
assembly; bent or stripped threads on the tensioning
bar or nut which prevents proper preloading; and
corrosion. A tied down aircraft working against
tiedowns on a pitching or rolling deck can loosen
or actually snap tiedown chains. This is a particular
hazard on partially fueled aircraft where an aft center
of gravity helps to rock the plane as the deck rolls.
58. Another hazard of the TD-1A tiedown is a
design hazard. The chain can be put into the lock
mechanism off center (Figure 15). In this position
the working load is reduced from 10,000 pounds
to 6,000 pounds. The latest version of the TD-1A
has arrows on the si de pl ates of t he l ocki ng
assembly to show proper installation. The TD-1B
has a oneway chain installation feature. A third
hazard is a kinked chain. A kinked chain may break
with explosive force.
59. Accidents have been reported where attempts
to tow/taxi aircraft, or drive away support equip-
ment, with one forgotten tiedown still attached, have
actually exploded the locking mechanism, firing
chunks of metal in all directions. Severe injury or
damage was the result. Dont ever forget that the
momentum of a 29 ton aircraft or even a 6 ton
tractor moving slowly is horrendously powerful.
60. Releasing a TD-1A/B tiedown chain under
abnormally high tension can turn the chain into
a supersonic whip. Overtension can happen if
someone else has been careless by lightening the
aircraft without loosening the tiedowns. Defueling
the aircraft or downloading heavy stores such as
drop tanks, ordnance racks, or pylons will let the
landing gear struts extend and over-tension the
tiedowns. There have also been cases where the
high-pressure landing gear struts where serviced
wi th the ai rcraft sti l l ti ed down. That wi l l al so
overtension the tiedowns. Be careful. Use proper
procedures.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 005 00
Page 12
005015
Figure 15. TD-1A Tiedown Chain Assembly Hazard
61. RESTRAINTS.
62. The A/B tiedowns are also subject to corro-
sion, cracks, and bent chain links. Since they are
not adjustable, the hazards come when youre
attaching them to the aircraft and taking up tension.
If the aircraft is not towed forward very carefully
and gently, you can damage the aircraft holdback
fitting or snap the A/B tiedown. Here again, the
aircraft momentum can be hazardous.
63. The lock retainer on the AERO Full Power
Tiedown is a very important safety feature and has
a habit of disappearing into tool boxes. Without
the lock retainer properly installed, the deck fitting
attachment can vibrate loose. This happens as
engine power is run up and back, especially into
and out of after-burner. The lock retainer was added
to the tiedown after several cases of A/B tiedown
separations happened. Never use the A/B tiedown
without the lock retainer.
64. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND PROCEDURES.
65. Now that weve covered some of the hazards
associated with aircraft handling, lets take a look
at how to avoid those hazards. First, and most
important, is to follow the proper procedures and
observe the safety precautions that apply. Remem-
ber, the right way to do a job is also a safe way.
If you dont know the right procedures, dont do
the job. Tell your supervisor. Hed rather praise
you now for letting him know, rather than have you
hurt.
66. In order to be safe and avoid the hazards
you must know and do certain things:
a. You shall have a valid SE operators license
when required.
b. Know your equipment.
c. Know your aircraft.
d. Study the MIMs and technical manuals.
e. Know the hazards.
f. Know the safety precautions.
g. Wear personal protective equipment.
h. Do the job under direct supervision until
youre qualified.
67. Then, when youre on your own, do it exactly
the same way - every time! Dont get careless,
dont get overconfident, and always stay alert for
hidden hazards.
68. TRACTORS.
69. You shall be fully qualified and licensed in
accordance with WP 003 00.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 005 00
Change 1 Page 13
70. Preoperational Check. The first safety precau-
tion to take before operating a tractor is to perform
the preoperational inspection. Many hazards can be
reduced or avoided altogether by doing this.
71. You will perform the preoperational inspection
along with SE Division personnel when you check
out the tractor. In some cases your squadron or
unit will have sub-custody of the tractor for longer
t han a day at a t i me. You, t he oper at or, ar e
responsible for servicing and doing the preopera-
tional inspection prior to each use.
72. No matter what the local procedure is, you,
as the dri ver, shal l compl ete a preoperati onal
inspection on a tractor prior to each use. Thats
the only insurance you can buy against driving a
tractor thats defective in some way which could
resul t i n an acci dent. As a SE operator, your
relationship with your support equipment should
be the same as a plane captains relationship with
his aircraft. Both of you shall ensure that your
equipment is up and ready to go in all respects.
73. Discrepancies. If you do find something wrong
with the tractor, dont ignore it. Take some action.
If its a matter of servicing - fuel, oil, water, battery,
- take care of it right then before you use the tractor.
Dont take the chance of ruining an expensive piece
of gear, or hurting yourself. Your unit needs you and
the tractor to do its job right. The equipment wont
be available if you damage it. You wont be available
if youre in sickbay.
74. Defects. If you find something wrong requiring
repair - parking brake, wheel brakes, shift lever,
steering - dont ignore it. Dont try to work around
it. It doesnt take a smart person to realize that you
shouldnt use a tow tractor when the accelerator
sticks, or the parking brake doesnt work, or you have
to pump the brakes to stop it. Dont try to repair
it either. Youre not qualified to do maintenance or
repair work on SE. Report it to your supervisor. It
shall be returned to AIMD for repair. Never jury rig
repairs or safety features on any support equipment.
75. Any deficiency that affects normal operation
of the tractor is an unsafe condition. Its a fully
controllable hazard. Using it that way is an unsafe
act - a risk you dont have to take! Remember
85 percent of all accidents are directly caused by
unsafe acts and another 10 percent by unsafe
conditions. Never knowingly commit an unsafe act.
Always report unsafe conditions.
76. Operation. Once youve started the tractor, in
addition to the functional check:
a. Listen for knocks, squeals, rattles, or grind-
ing noise. If major, stop. If minor, investigate and
report.
b. Come to a complete stop before shifting
from DRIVE to REVERSE.
c. Drive slowly - stay aware of the hazards.
77. Speed. The speed at which you drive a tractor
is a matter of using your head - not speed limits.
Conditions vary so much that its impossible to cover
all situations with speed limits. Yet, most technical
manuals and local directives do mention speed limits.
The problem is that the driver who isnt using his
head figures that as long as he isnt exceeding the
speed limit for a particular area, hes safe. Thats
not true! You must consider all the conditions at the
time, especially while towing an aircraft or SE. Adjust
your speed accordingly. Use your head. Never tow
an aircraft faster than a mans normal walking pace.
77A. To best meet operational requirements, tow
tractors are not equipped with seat belts. This
presents a unique problem for those tractors without
cabs or doors since drivers and passengers are
not restrained within the vehicle. The combination
of hi gh speeds and sharp t urns can resul t i n
significant force that both drivers and passengers
must resist in order to remain safely seated in the
tractor. Operators should drive slowly and responsi-
bly. Passengers should always sit with feet on the
floorboards and a hand on the grab handles, if
provided.
78. Slippery Surfaces. To start smoothly on a
slippery surface or a grade, depress the brake pedal
firmly with your left foot. Use enough pressure so
that the brakes lock the wheels. Keeping the wheels
locked, depress the accelerator pedal slightly. Start
the tractor into motion by releasing the brake pedal
rather than depressing the accelerator pedal. This
should result in a smooth application of torque to
the driving wheels, which takes advantage of all
available traction. When stopping on slippery sur-
faces, especially while turning, beware of the aircraft
or SE pushing the tractor into a jackknife position.
79. Separation. The best way to prevent separation
of the tractor/towbar/aircraft is to make sure they are
properly connected in the first place. Next, be aware
of when separation is most likely to happen and be
extra alert at those times. Heres a list:
a. Initial movement forward or backward.
b. Passing over bumps or uneven surfaces
which twist or rock tractor/towbar/aircraft.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 005 00
Change 1 Page 14
c. Sudden stops.
d. Tight turn.
e. Jackknifing.
80. If separation does happen, immediately signal
STOP to the director and brake rider visually,
verbally, or with your whistle. Your next action
should be to keep the tractor clear of the aircraft
in case it doesnt stop and tries to overrun you.
Once youre disconnected you cant do anything
to control the aircraft, so try to avoid a collision.
81. Jackknifing. Jackknifing normally occurs when
attempting to stop a tractor towing a vehicle/aircraft
while turning. Slippery surfaces and higher speeds
significantly increase the chances of a jackknife.
Another situation leading to a jackknife is turning too
sharply while backing a tractor with towbar attached.
The best way to prevent a jackknife is to drive slowly,
plan stops well in advance, adjust speed according
to weather conditions, and avoid sharp turns while
backing. Remember its much easier to prevent a
jackknife than to get out of one.
82. Towing Aircraft. Refer to the aircraft Mainte-
nance Instruction Manual (MIM) for the specific
aircraft to be towed for information on tractor hookup,
towing, warnings and cautions, and securing. Also,
refer to the General Aircraft Information.
83. Towing SE. The procedures and safety precau-
tion necessary for towing SE such as mobile electric
power plants, hydraulic test stands, oxygen/LOX/nitro-
gen carts, and others are about the same as those
for towing aircraft. The biggest difference is that a
team of six people is not required for towing SE.
It can be accomplished safely by a tractor driver and
one hook-up man. If the tractor has two seats, the
hook-up man may ride as a safety observer. When
it is necessary, the driver alone may perform the
hook-up and tow but it is more hazardous. A two
man operation is strongly recommended.
84. Whenever it is necessary to tow SE inside
a hangar, a walking safety observer shall be used
to check and ensure clearances for aircraft and
other obstructions. This is especially important
when towing large SE such as workstands, and
when the hangar is crowded with aircraft.
85. Parking and Securing. When youve finished
your job with the tractor, return it to the designated
parking area and:
a. Use shutdown procedure you learned in
SE school.
b. Chock/tiedown tractor per your unit direc-
tives.
c. Report any discrepancies to your supervi-
sor.
d. Take a little satisfaction in having done
the job safely, correctly, professionally.
86. Precautions. Use tractors only for the jobs they
were designed for. A tractor is not a wrecker. Using
it to push-start other vehicles or open hangar doors
is prohibited.
87. Tractors werent designed as trucks to carry
parts, chocks, tiedowns, or other equipment. You
wouldnt throw such gear on the hood or roof of
your car. For the very same reason, dont do it
to a tractor and dont let others do it to your tractor.
88. Carry a passenger only on those tractors
equipped with a passenger seat. People riding
elsewhere can easily slip or fall off. Dont use the
tractor for personal convenience transportation -
on the line or anywhere else.
89. Driving a tractor up close to an aircraft, or
under any part of it is tricky and dangerous. Thats
what drivers have to do to use the tractor as a
workstand, ladder, or as a light source for night
maintenance work. Dont do it! Experience has
shown us, time and time again, that such use leads
to accidents - accidents which many times involve
bodily injury. Stay rid of the attitude It wont happen
to me.
90. The non-skid you see on top of some tractors
does not mean the tractor should be used as a
workstand. Its there as added protection because
of abuse by carel ess or i gnorant users. Be a
professional and treat your gear as if you had to
pay for the repairs.
91. Precautions needed to avoid tractor hazards:
a. Drive only under direct supervision until
youre qualified.
b. Do a preoperational check before every
use.
c. Take action on minor deficiencies.
d. Report major defects.
e. Never drive a defective tractor.
f. Make sure the tractor isnt attached to
something you dont intend to tow.
g. Never crank the starter continuously over
30 seconds.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 005 00
Page 15
h. Never forget to release the parking brake
and dont set it ON while in motion, except in
emergency.
i. Be aware of slippery brake pedal, steering
wheel, hands, and shoes. Wipe them dry.
j. Dont exceed the towing capacity of the
tractor.
k. Drive slowly. Dont tow an aircraft faster
than a person can walk.
l. Do operational checks during use and
towing.
m. Test the brakes before approaching air-
craft or obstacles.
n. Never shift into reverse while moving
forward or vice-versa.
o. Never use glow plugs during engine opera-
tion.
p. Always set parking brake, shift to neutral,
and shut down the engine before leaving the drivers
seat.
q. Park in designated support equipment
area.
r. Never park in fire lanes.
s. Never misuse or abuse the tractor.
t. If you need to tow the tractor for any
reason, do it slowly. Excessive tow speed can
damage the transmission.
92. SPOTTING DOLLY.
93. You shall be fully qualified and licensed in
accordance with WP 003 00.
94. Preoperational Checklist. The first safety pre-
caution to take before operating the spotting dolly
is to perform the preoperational inspection, in accor-
dance with the checklist, prior to each use. The
importance of this check cant be overemphasized.
The critical distances involved in maneuvering aircraft
on the crowded hangar deck leaves little room for
error or emergency situations. Therefore, the dolly
must be in good operating condition.
95. Defects. If you find something wrong with the
dolly, take some action. Dont operate a defective
dolly. Service it or report it to your supervisor so
it can be turned in to AIMD for repair. Remember,
the tires and wheels of the dolly shall be treated
the same as aircraft tires. Dont try to check them
with automotive type gauges. If a tire looks soft or
flat, down the dolly and report it to your supervisor.
96. Operation. After using the normal starting proce-
dures, check all the gauges for normal readings.
During operation listen for knocks, squeaks, hydraulic
system chatter, and other signs of trouble. Be sure
to report any signs of malfunction. If the problem
seems major, report it immediately to the director
and down the dolly. Dont take the chance that it
will last during a spotting operation. Many times
respots are vital to meeting launch schedules. A
break-down of the dolly with an aircraft half-way onto
an elevator can create an emergency situation.
97. When moving an aircraft with the dolly, take
the following precautions:
a. Operate dolly from operators seat when-
ever possible.
b. Keep foot on foot rest.
c. Always set parking brake ON if transmis-
sion lever is DISENGAGED and engine is running.
d. Ful l y rel ese the parki ng brake before
moving the dolly.
e. Always lower and spread lifting arms to
maximum position before centering dolly on aircraft
nose wheel.
f. Always reduce throttle to idle when ap-
proaching an aircraft to engage lift arms.
g. Do install proper size axle pins and hook
them in place with quick-release pins.
h. Be sure you make a proper and secure
connection between dolly and aircraft nose wheel.
Hold the ARMS IN button until the proper pressure
is reached in the spread cylinder to hydraulically
lock the arms on the nose gear.
i. Do watch out for aircraft protuberances and
other obstacles while maneuvering. Stay alert.
j. Be alert for slick spots on the deck.
k. Always set parking brake ON, leave trans-
mission control lever DISENGAGED, and shut-down
engine if you leave the controls of the dolly.
98. Separation. Be alert for the unplanned separa-
tion of the dolly from the aircraft while maneuvering.
The usual causes for this are:
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 005 00
Page 16
a. Axle pins not locked in lifting arms with
quick-release pins.
b. Wrong size axle pins.
c. Tight/rapid turns or crossing uneven deck
surface may cause disengagement.
99. If separation occurs, the plane director or you
(if he doesnt see it) shall give the emergency stop
signal to the aircraft brake rider. Your action should
be to keep the dolly clear of the aircraft in case
it doesnt stop and tries to overrun you. Once youre
disconnected you cant do anything to control the
aircraft, so try to avoid a collision.
100. Power Failure. If an emergency such as
complete power failure occurs and an emergency
aircraft unloading is required, use the following
procedure:
a. Set parking brake ON.
b. Open emergency arm down control valve
to lower lifting arms.
c. Open emergency arm spread control valve
to energize spread control.
d. Push both emergency arm spread control
buttons at the same time to spread lifting arms
apart, thus disconnecting dolly from aircraft.
e. Disengage both drive wheel tow clutches.
f. Release parking brake and push dolly
clear.
101. Towing Dolly. If youre required to tow the dolly
for any reason, do it slowly.
a. Attach tow vehicle.
b. Disengage tow clutches.
c. Release parking brake.
102. Parking and Securing. When youve finished
your job with the dolly, return it to the designated
parking area and:
a. Set parking brake to ON.
b. Leave transmission control lever DISEN-
GAGED.
c. Use normal shutdown procedure.
d. Chock and tie-down dolly.
e. Report any discrepancies to supervisor.
103. TOWBAR. The towbar is the link between the
aircraft and tractor. That makes performance of the
preoperational inspection a must to assure the towbar
is in a fully operational condition. Normally towbars
are not checked in and out from SE division on a
daily basis. Therefore, your unit will have a system
set up to make sure a preoperational check is done
on the towbars it has custody of. Regardless of the
system, you, as the user, shall complete the preopera-
tional inspection prior to each use.
104. Discrepancies. If you find something wrong
with the towbar, dont ignore it. Take some action.
Dont take the chance of ruining the towbar, damaging
the aircraft being towed, or injury to yourself. If you
find defects that could affect safe operation with the
towbar, remove it from service, tag the defect, and
report it to your supervisor. Dont use it and make
sure nobody else does until its been repaired by
SE division. A defective towbar usually results in an
unplanned disconnect from the aircraft.
105. Towing the Towbar. Ensure the preoperational
inspection is completed prior to each use. If youre
going to tow it to the aircraft empty, use the following
procedure to avoid damage:
a. Pull tubes snugly together.
b. Install chain through sleeve, pull tight and
hook a link in the slot of the sleeve.
c. Tighten chain with knob.
d. Stow fid in hole in tube so chain wont
drag on ground.
e. Check t hat axl e pi ns ar e secur ed i n
position so they wont fall out.
f. Attach towbar securely to tractor coupling.
Be careful not to pinch your hands or fingers.
g. Tow at slow speed. Be particularly careful
towing over ramp seams, arresting cables, and
other bumps to prevent damage to towbar wheels
and aircraft attaching assembly.
106. Attachment.
107. Axle Pins. When attaching the towbar to the
aircraft, using axle pins (Figure 16), take the following
precautions.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 005 00
Page 17
005016
Figure 16. Towbar Axle Pins
a. Be sure axle pins are locked in towbar.
b. Be sure axle pins are fully inserted into
aircraft wheel axle holes.
c. Be sure tensioning chain is secured in
slot and tight.
d. Be sure chain end fid is secured proper-
ly. If it drags, it can snag and release the chain
link from the slot. That will let the bar spread and
disconnect the aircraft.
108. Hooks. When attaching the towbar to the
aircraft using towbar hooks take the following precau-
tions:
a. Be sure hooks are fi rml y hooked i n
aircraft tow fittings.
b. Make sure spring-loaded locking pins are
in place and blocking hook openings.
c. Make sure chain is stowed so it doesnt
drag on ground.
109. Peculiar Towbars. Specific information on ap-
plication and procedures for peculiar towbars are
described in the MIM for each type aircraft.
110. TIEDOWNS. The safety precautions and pro-
cedures for the use of tiedowns concern two aspects
of safety - you and the aircraft. Tiedowns themselves
are a safety precaution we take to protect the aircraft
and support equipment from the hazards of un-
planned movement caused by rolling decks, pave-
ment inclines, and high winds (natural or man-made).
On the other hand, using tiedowns exposes you to
all the environmental, aircraft, and equipment hazards
involved in their use. So you must use the proper
procedures and safety precautions to protect yourself
from injury and protect the aircraft from damage or
loss.
111. Preoperational Inspection. A preoperational
inspection is just as important for tiedown chains as
it is for other support equipment. If the chain is
defective it cant hold an aircraft from moving. Chains
should be fully inspected for:
a. Bent or cracked hook.
b. Worn, bent, or cracked links.
c. Cracked, bent, or corroded lock assem-
bly.
d. Stripped threads on tensioning bar or nut.
e. Loose or missing fasteners.
f. Corrosion.
112. Discrepancies. If you find something wrong
with the tiedown, dont ignore it. Dont take the chance
of ruining the tiedown, damage to the aircraft/support
equipment being tied, or injury to yourself. Since
youre handling the tiedowns on a daily basis when
securing aircraft, take a good look for defects as
you assemble and use the tiedowns. Dont use
defective tiedowns and dont deep-six them! They
are expensive and repair kits are available. Help cut
the current yearly losses of 12,000 tiedowns costing
half-a-million dollars. Be safe and turn in defective
tiedowns.
113. Requirements.
114. Aircraft. Ashore, local regulations or squadron
directives will specify tiedown requirements according
to local conditions. Aboard ship, aircraft are tied down
as directed by the Aircraft Handling Officer. Shipboard
requirements are specified by NATOPS for the ships
class. They generally fall into three categories with
the following minimums:
a. Initial (Four Point) tiedown. This is re-
quired immediately after an aircraft is parked or
just before moving it.
b. Intermediate (Six to Nine Point) tiedown.
This is required during flight quarters
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 005 00
Page 18
when aircraft may be expected to be moved for
respot.
c. Permanent (Twelve Point) tiedown. This
is required at all other times.
d. All categories include chocks.
115. The Aircraft Handling Officer will order an
increase in the number of tiedowns in each category
when aircraft, wind, sea, or ship maneuver condi-
tions indicate the necessity.
116. Support Equipment. Tiedowns are also used
to properly secure SE, especially aboard ship. Aboard
ship tie it down. Ashore they are not usually required
unless youre parking it in an area where jet or prop
blast may move it.
117. Fittings. The MIM gives you specific information
on location of proper tiedown fittings and installation
procedures for each type aircraft. Helicopters and
large aircraft have special tiedown requirements.
Helicopters are very top heavy and have high point
tiedown fittings. Bulkhead securing aboard ship is
sometimes required. Large aircraft such as the P-3
sometimes require joining tiedowns to reach high
fittings.
118. Installation. To use the TD-1A/B tiedown, first
rotate the tensioning nut on the locking assembly
in the direction opposite to the arrows on it (counter-
clockwise). That lengthens the locking assembly so
you can tighten (preload) the tiedown later. Then
follow these steps:
a. Insert the hook, on the chain end, point
up in the ground or deck fitting (padeye).
b. Open release lever by pulling down and
away from the tensioning nut.
c. Close link retainer.
d. Close release lever being certain it locks.
e. Pull the chain snug and snap a link into
the lock assembly while holding open the serrated
locking arm.
f. On TD-1As be sure to install the chain
so the load passes through the center line of the
lock mechanism as shown in (Figure 17). Newer
TD-1As have side plates on the locking assembly
with arrows to show proper installation. Follow the
arrows.
g. Ensure the chain is not kinked.
h. Rotate the tensioning nut in the direction
of the arrows (clockwise) and tighten as much as
you can with your hands.
119. If the tensioning nut bottoms out and there
is still slack in the chain, release the chain and
start over with another link so you can preload
properly. The locking assembly is susceptible to
accidental release, so its important to have that
end of the tiedown up at the aircraft end and away
from the deck or ground.
120. Remember, a 28 ton fighter or 67 ton patrol
plane working against tiedown chains can exert
tremendous pressure. To prevent damage to aircraft
or the ship take the following precautions:
a. Always run a tiedown from a proper fitting
on the aircraft to a padeye on the deck, bulkhead,
or ramp.
005017
Figure 17. TD-1A Tiedown Chain Installation
b. Never l et a t i edown t ouch or press
against oleo struts, hydraulic lines, tires, or any
part of the aircraft.
c. Never hook a tiedown to any part of the
aircraft except a designated tiedown point.
d. Never hook a tiedown to a catapult track
or hold back fitting cleats aboard ship.
e. Never hook a tiedown to the elevator
from an aircraft parked off the elevator.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 005 00
Page 19
f. Never hook a tiedown from an aircraft
parked on the elevator to a deck fitting off the
elevator.
g. Always arrange the tiedowns so they
oppose each other to prevent movement of aircraft
in any direction.
h. Always distribute the tiedowns around
the aircraft as equally as possible.
121. Release.
Releasing the TD-1A/B tiedown chains
under high abnormal tension has resulted
in injury and aircraft damage by chain
whip.
122. To release the TD-1A/B tiedown simply pull
the quick release lever up and back. Be careful!
Before releasing a tiedown, make sure it has been
loosened. If the release lever is hard to pull or
you cant back off the tensioning nut on the tiedown
to get slack, dont fool with it! Notify your supervisor
and let him investigate and correct the cause before
releasing the tiedown.
123. Stowage. When you remove tiedowns from an
aircraft, stow them properly in a designated area.
Dont hang or drop the tiedowns on any part of the
aircraft, tow tractor, or spotting dolly. Dont leave them
lying around. Aboard ship canvas bags for carrying
and stowing are normally provided. Practice good
housekeeping at all times.
124. Safety Precautions. Other precautions to take
when using tiedowns concern your safety from the
hazards of the aircraft and work area. When tying
down aircraft take the following precautions:
a. Beware of propellers and prop wash.
b. Dont walk through the arc of a stopped
propeller - form a good habit pattern.
c. Beware of rotor blades and tail rotors.
d. Beware of jet intakes and blast.
e. Beware of engine/prop noise.
f. Beware of headknockers.
g. Beware of movable aircraft surfaces.
h. Beware of hot brakes/wheels/tires.
i. Beware of releasing tight tiedowns.
j. Beware of slippery decks and trip haz-
ards.
125. CHOCKS. As with other support equipment,
chocks cant do their job properly if they arent in
reasonable condition. When you see a chock that
has deteriorated, dont use it. Take it out of service
for repair.
126. When to Chock.
a. The main landing gear of aircraft shall
be chocked anytime the aircraft is parked. During
the handling and movement of aircraft you shall
remove chocks only after the towbar and tractor
have been hooked to the aircraft and the tractor
is manned. Dont remove chocks from support
equipment either, until the tractor is attached.
b. Always install chocks before unhooking
the towbar and tractor. If the towbar has to be
disconnected from the tractor for repositioning
during final stages of aircraft movement, you shall
install chocks (and initial tiedown aboard ship)
before unhooking towbar.
127. Installation. Chocks should be installed on
aircraft and mobile support equipment as follows:
a. Adjust to fit snugly against front and rear
of tire.
b. On both main landing gear of aircraft.
c. On all support equipment with wheel
diameter of 9 inches or greater.
d. From outboard side.
e. With adjustable block at rear for easier
removal.
128. Lashing. At times, weather or deck conditions
will require that chocks be lashed to aircraft or mobile
support equipment wheels to prevent being blown
or washed away. Manila line is normally used for
this purpose aboard ship. The lines already on the
land based wooden chocks will hold them in place
if properly attached.
129. Precautions. The precautions to take when
using chocks are mainly concerned with avoiding the
hazards surrounding the aircraft they are used on.
Its a matter of being aware of those hazards and
either consciously (alertness) or (habit) avoiding them.
Take the following precautions when handling chocks:
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 005 00
Page 20
a. Beware of head-knockers.
b. Beware of movable aircraft surfaces.
c. Beware of hot brakes/wheels/tires.
d. Beware of rolling or sliding aircraft.
e. Dont get in line with the path of the
wheel. Stay to the side of it.
f. Beware of propellers and prop wash.
g. Beware of APU exhaust/intake on aircraft
so equipped.
h. Dont walk through the arc of a stopped
propeller. Form a good habit pattern!
i. Beware of rotor blades and tail rotors.
j. Beware of jet intakes and blast.
k. Beware of engine/prop noise.
130. DOS AND DONTS.
131. Tractors.
S Dont operate a tow tractor unless you
are fully qualified and have a valid SE Operators
License for the specific model tractor youre driving.
S Dont operate a tow tractor unless youre
specifically authorized to.
S Do complete the preoperational inspection
prior to each use.
S Dont operate a tractor thats defective.
S Do down a defective tractor and make
sure no one else uses it.
S Dont jury--rig safety devices or repairs.
S Do report unsafe or defective tractors
immediately.
S Do wear hearing protection while operat-
ing tow tractors.
S Do check brake pedal action before you
drive off.
S Do check the brakes within your first 10
feet of travel.
S Do check the brakes before approaching
an aircraft.
S Dont drive with the parking brake ON.
S Dont exceed the towing capacity of your
tractor.
S Do drive slowly and cautiously.
S Dont exceed walking speed in the hangar.
S Dont exceed 5 mph on the line or near
any aircraft.
S Do install chocks when the tow tractor
is left unattended near aircraft.
S Do use a safety pin if your tractor has
a pintle type coupler.
S Do use safety chains when towing SE
if they are so equipped.
S Don t use a t ow tractor f or personal
convenience transportation.
S Dont use a tractor to carry equipment
or people.
S Don t use tractor headl i ghts for work
lights.
S Dont use a tractor as a workstand or
workbench.
S Dont approach or park a tractor on a
collision course with aircraft.
S Dont drive under, or tow SE under, any
part of an aircraft without a safety observer.
S Dont leave the seat of a tractor without
applying the parking brake, and shutting off the
engine.
S Do shut off the engine and set the parking
brake ON, before leaving a tractor.
S Dont stand on a tractor while it is in
motion.
S Do avoid sharp turns that jackknife tow-
bars or exceed the turn capability of what youre
towing.
S Do tow with gradual turns and stops.
SEE IRAC # 6
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 005 00
Page 21
S Dont drive over hoses and electrical
cables.
S Do drive at walking speed over Wells
system and FLEDS protective ramps.
S Dont tow another vehicle without brake-
rider in the towed vehicle.
S Dont park or leave tractors in fire lanes.
S Do park tractors in designated areas.
S Dont leave a running tractor unattended,
even for a second.
S Do take good care of your tractor.
S Dont scratch your favorite graffiti on
tractors, weve all seen it before.
S Dont use the instrument panel as a foot
rest.
S Dont dent up or punch holes in the top
of externally mounted air cleaners.
S Dont carve on the steering wheels of
tractors.
S Don t at t empt t o shi f t t o P on any
tractors.
S Dont hang tiedowns from any part of the
tractor or throw them under your feet in front of
the drivers seat.
S Dont try to spin the rear wheels or do
wheelies with tow tractors.
S Dont use the glow plugs on diesels when
the engine is running.
S Dont use tow tractors to push hangar bay
doors.
S Dont try to push--start tow tractors.
S Dont use tractors to push other vehicles.
Exercise extreme caution, misuse of trac-
tor can cause transmission failure.
S Do know which type of fuel your tractor
uses before you fuel it.
S Dont tamper with the governors on gaso-
line engines or the throttle levers on diesel engine
injector pumps.
S Dont idle your tractor engine for pro-
longed periods of time. Save fuel and engines.
S Ensure both feet stay inside tractor opera-
tors compartment.
132. Spotting Dolly.
S Dont operate a spotting dolly unless
youre fully qualified and have a valid SE Operators
License.
S Dont operate a spotting dolly unless
youre specifically authorized to.
S Do a complete preoperational inspection
prior to each use, using the preoperational checklist.
S Dont operate a dolly thats defective.
S Do down a defective dolly and make sure
no one else uses it.
S Dont try to repair a defective spotting
dolly.
S Do report an unsafe or defective dolly
immediately.
S Do operate the dolly from the seat when-
ever possible.
S Do set the parking brake ON and disen-
gage transmission when in neutral and the engine
is running.
S Do fully release the parking brake before
moving dolly.
S Do completely lower and spread lifting
arms before centering dolly around aircraft nose-
wheel.
S Do install proper size axle pins.
S Do be alert for slick spots and acceleration
side slip.
S Do set parking brake to ON, place trans-
mission in neutral, and shut down the engine if
you leave the controls of the dolly.
S Dont use the top of the dolly to carry
equipment or people.
S Dont use the dolly as a workstand or
workbench.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 005 00
Page 22
S Do raise the hood if you leave a unit
unsafe for use.
S Dont drive over hoses and electrical
cables.
S Dont tow the spotting dolly at more than
3 mph.
133. Towbars.
S Do a complete preoperational inspection
prior to each use, using the preoperational checklist.
S Dont use a towbar thats defective.
S Do down a defective towbar and make
sure no one else uses it.
S Do report an unsafe or defective towbar
immediately.
S Dont carry towbars on top of tractors.
S Dont tow a towbar unless the tubes are
locked together and the chain is stowed properly.
S Dont tow a towbar above 5 mph.
S Dont jackknife towbars and bend or break
the tubes.
S Do be sure the axle pins are the right
size for the aircraft youre towing.
S Do take extreme care to hook the towbar
properly to the tractor.
S Dont hold towbar by the lunette eye when
connecting or disconnecting tractor.
134. Tiedowns.
S Do inspect tiedowns before you use them.
S Dont kink chain links when installing.
S Dont use defective tiedowns. Turn them
in for repair.
S Dont deep--six defective tiedowns, theyre
expensive and can be repaired.
S Dont stamp or engrave names or num-
bers into the forged sideplates of the lock mecha-
nism because it weakens it.
S Dont hang tiedowns from any part of the
aircraft or SE.
S Dont borrow tiedowns from other aircraft
or SE division for your own use.
S Dont let a tiedown contact struts, hydrau-
lic lines, tires, or any other part of an aircraft.
S Do only hook tiedowns to designated
tiedown fittings on the aircraft.
S Do install tiedown with the chain passing
through the center line of the lock mechanism.
S Do tension tiedowns properly.
S Dont remove tiedowns unless the aircraft
is chocked.
S Do remove tiedowns before servicing oleo
struts, defueling, or downloading stores.
S Dont try to release an over--tensioned
tiedown.
S Do beware of props, headknockers, move-
able surfaces, intakes, blast, APU exhaust, rotor
blades, and tail rotors.
S Do i nspect ful l power (A/B) ti edowns
before you use them.
S Do tension the A/B tiedowns very slowly
and carefully.
S Dont use an A/B tiedown without lock
retainer.
135. Chocks.
S Dont use a defective chock.
S Dont carry chocks on top of tow tractors.
S Do install chocks from the outboard side.
S Do put chocks under wheels with the
adjustable block at the rear of the wheel.
S Do adjust chocks to fit snugly against front
and rear of tire.
S Dont remove chocks until after the tractor
and towbar are attached.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 005 00
Page 23
S Do install chocks before unhooking the
towbar or tractor.
S Do i nstal l chocks under both ai rcraft
wheels.
S Do chock all support equipment with wheel
diameter of 9 inches or greater.
S Dont get in line with the path of the wheel.
S Do walk on the outside of the aircraft
wheel and not in front or on the inside.
S Do beware of props, headknockers, move-
able surfaces, intakes, blast, APU exhaust, hot
brakes, rotor blades, tail rotors, arresting gear cable
slip, and chocking moving wheel.
1 3 6 . A I RCRA F T MOV E ME NT S A F E T Y
PRECAUTIONS AND PROCEDURES.
137. Safe, professional aircraft movement is the
result of teamwork between fully qualified personnel
under close supervision. Aboard ship, the NATOPS
Manual s ( NAVAI R 00- 80T- 105) and ( NAVAI R
00-80T-106) spell out the procedures and personnel
requirements for aircraft movement. Ashore, local
station and individual unit directives state the
requirements. In both cases some latitude is al-
lowed for the actual conditions that exist during
the movement or for cases of operational necessity.
138. MOVEMENT TEAM. Experience has shown
that most mishaps can be avoided if a team of six
qualified people is used for every aircraft movement,
no matter what the conditions. The director of the
team shall take full charge and assume direct
responsibility for the aircraft movement. The six
positions on an aircraft movement team are:
Verify only mission essential personnel
remain in aircraft, embarked persons
shall be seated with seatbelts fastened.
Prior to aircraft movement verify that
arms and legs are clear of open areas.
Personnel shall not enter/exit aircraft
during movement.
a. Director.
b. Brake rider.
c. Tractor or spotting dolly driver.
d. Port side chock walker, wing walker, or
safety observer.
e. Starboard side chock walker, wing walk-
er, or safety observer.
f. Tail safety observer.
139. Duties. Prime responsibility for the movement
is the directors but he cant do it alone. Lets take
a look at the duties and responsibilities of each team
member. Youll see some overlap and thats a big
part of the teamwork. No matter which position you
fill, you should know the duties of all.
During towbar attachment personnel han-
dling the towbar are placed in an inher-
ently hazardous area. To assure person-
nel safety, tow tractor operator should
be alert, follow directors instructions, and
make slow approaches to aircraft and/or
towbar. Whenever possible, personnel
should not be positioned in the direct path
of movement of tow vehicles or aircraft.
140. Director.
a. Assemble and brief the team on the
movement as required.
b. Be sure the team is properly suited-up
with:
1. Cranial helmets.
2. Goggles.
3. Safety shoes.
4. Whistles.
5. Jersey (shipboard).
6. Life vest (shipboard).
7. Survival Light (shipboard).
c. Be sure the cockpi t i s manned by a
qualified brake rider (except if aircraft has inopera-
tive brakes).
d. Be sure youre using the correct towbar
and axle pins for the aircraft.
e. Be sure the towbar is securely attached
to the aircraft and to the tractor.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 005 00
Page 24
f. If youre moving the aircraft by hand,
make sure the towbar is tended by another director
or qualified towbar man and chock walkers are in
position to instantly chock wheels.
g. Be sure al l power cabl es, ti edowns,
chocks, ladders, and other devices are removed.
Dont remove tiedowns and chocks until
after tractor and towbar or dol l y are
attached to aircraft, tractor is manned,
and the brake rider is in the cockpit.
h. Get assurance from Maintenance Control
that aircraft is safe to move (structural panels,
ordnance, etc).
i. Be sure theres enough clearance for safe
movement.
j . Be sure safety observers and chock
walkers are in proper position.
k. Get assurance from the brake rider that:
1. Brake pressure is up and enough for
the move.
2. The brakes have been checked and
they are working.
l. Be sure all people not required for the
move are clear.
m. Call for brakes and get visual or verbal
confirmation from the brake rider before removing
tiedowns and chocks.
n. Keep your whistle in your mouth ready
to signal brakes and chocks.
o. Make sure the tractor or dolly driver goes
no faster than the chock walkers can walk and
slow enough to stop in the clear space available.
p. Make sure you (or another director) are
plainly visible to the brake rider at all times.
q. Make sure that in close quarters you and
the safety observers can see each other at all times.
If absolutely necessary use an observer to relay
signals but this is more hazardous.
r. Make sure you maintain safe clearance
for the driver in close quarters since hes watching
you and may not be able to clear himself.
s. Make sure the tractor dri ver doesn t
jackknife the tractor and towbar.
t. Make sure that in close quarters, or when
backing into deck edge spots, your chock walkers
are in position to chock wheels instantly.
u. Never tow an aircraft with the canopy
open or wings folded behind an aircraft turning up
or behind the JBD aboard ship.
v. Always chock (and tiedown aboard ship)
the aircraft before disconnecting the tow bar from
the tractor for repositioning or any other reason.
Never depend on aircraft brakes alone.
w. Make sure, in the final spot, that chocks/
tiedowns are in place and aircraft is secure before:
(1) Disconnecting tractor, dolly or tow-
bar.
(2) Releasing brake rider from cockpit.
(3) Dismissing the team.
141. Brake Rider.
a. Conduct a premovement inspection of
the aircraft and be sure that:
(1) All external power cables, ground
wires, and servicing equipment are removed and
clear.
(2) External ground safety locks and
pins are installed (landing gear, hook, wing, racks,
RAT).
(3) Ejection seat and canopy jettison
pins installed.
(4) Windshield and panels are clean.
b. Adjust seat and rudder pedals so you
can fully apply brakes and see director at the same
time.
c. Keep canopy wi ndows or over head
hatches open if wind conditions permit, so you can
hear signals.
d. Make sure the brake system is up and
will last for the movement.
e. Test the brakes.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 005 00
Page 25
f. Let the director know of any unusual
condition of the aircraft that might hazard the
movement.
g. Aboard shi p appl y parti al brakes as
necessary to prevent building up excess speed on
a slanting deck. The same applies ashore when
going downhill.
h. Apply full brakes when the signal is given.
Use care to apply both brakes simultaneously and
equally.
i. Be alert. Dont gawk around.
j. Set parking brakes in final spot if aircraft
has them.
k. Never leave the cockpit until the aircraft
is chocked (and tied down aboard ship) and the
director says its permissible.
l. Inspect tiedowns and chocks for proper
number and installation.
142. Tractor Driver.
a. Preoperationally check the tractor prior
to each use.
b. Make a slow, safe approach to aircraft.
c. Set parking brake ON, shift to NEUTRAL,
and shut down engine if leaving tractor to hook
up towbar.
d. Stop and await further instructions if you
dont completely understand directors signals.
e. Avoid sudden stops except in emergency.
f. Tow at a speed no faster than the director
or chockmen can walk.
g. Slow to a speed which will permit an
immediate stop when youre in close quarters or
approaching final spot.
h. Never jackknife the tractor into the towbar
when maneuvering.
i. Keep clear of the aircraft in event of
inadvertent towbar disconnect.
j. Watch out for ground obstructions or slick
spots.
k. Immediately signal the director visually,
verbally, or by whistle in event of brake or steering
failure on your tractor.
l. Carry no passengers except in the pas-
senger seat if your tractor has one.
m. Keep feet and legs in operators compart-
ment.
143. Spotting Dolly Driver.
a. Preoperationally check the dolly prior to
each use.
b. Make a slow, safe approach to aircraft.
c. Set parking brake ON, shift to NEUTRAL,
and shut down engine if leaving tractor.
d. Stop and await further instructions if you
dont completely understand directors signals.
e. Avoid sudden stops except in emergency.
f. Tow at a speed no faster than the director
or chockmen can walk.
g. Slow to a speed which will permit an
immediate stop when youre in close quarters or
approaching final spot.
h. Keep clear of the aircraft in event of
inadvertent dolly disconnect.
i. Watch out for ground obstructions, slick
spots, and other aircraft.
j. Immediately signal the director visually,
verbally, or by whistle in event of dolly failure or
disconnect.
m. Keep feet and legs in operator compart-
ment.
144. Chock Walkers.
a. Per f or m a pr eoper at i onal check on
chocks and tiedowns prior to each use.
Dont remove tiedowns and chocks until
tractor and towbar are attached to air-
craft, tractor is manned, and the brake
rider is in the cockpit.
SEE IRAC # 6
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 005 00
Page 26
b. Pull, install, and carry chocks and tie-
downs as instructed by the director.
c. Check and be sure all power cables,
tiedowns, chocks, ladders, and other devices are
removed from the aircraft prior to movement.
d. Escort aircraft from a safe position with
respect to wheels, head-knockers, and other aircraft
hazards.
e. Be alert to the directors signals and in
position to install chocks immediately in the follow-
ing cases:
(1) Maneuvering aircraft in close
quarters.
(2) Approaching final parking spot.
(3) High winds or unsteady deck.
(4) Slippery towing surface.
(5) Aircraft with no brakes.
(6) Moving aircraft by hand.
(7) Aircraft carrying passengers.
f. Watch out for ground obstructions and
warn the director accordingly.
g. Beware of cable whip as the aircraft or
tractor wheels pass over arresting cables and warn
by-standers.
h. Be extra cautious when installing chocks
under moving wheels.
i. Never get in a position in line with the
wheels. Stay out to the side at all times.
145. Safety Observers (wing and tail walkers).
a. Conduct a pre-tow i nspecti on of the
aircraft to make sure:
(1) Ground safety locks and pins are
installed.
(2) Panels, doors, and accesses are se-
cured.
(3) Struts and tires are not flat.
(4) Al l power cabl es, hoses, support
equipment, ladders, and other equipment are re-
moved and clear of the aircraft.
(5) Tiedowns and chocks are not re-
moved until tractor and towbar are attached to
aircraft, the tractor is manned, and the brake rider
is in the cockpit.
b. Check clearances for initial movement
considering configuration of aircraft (wings/tail/rotor
blades folded or spread).
c. Inform the director of unusual conditions
or hazards.
d. Keep your whistle in your mouth, ready
to signal STOP.
e. Be sure the aircraft will clear all obstruc-
tions during movement. Be alert. Dont be dis-
tracted.
f. Position yourself so that you have the
director in sight at all times. If necessary have a
second safety observer in position to relay signals,
but realize this is more hazardous.
g. Never take a position which places your
personal safety in danger to comply with (e) and
(f) above, particularly aboard ship, at night, or in
heavy weather.
h. Be sure you maintain safe clearance for
the tractor or dolly driver since he must watch the
director and is often unable to check clearance
for himself.
i. Signal STOP if any clearance appears
doubtful. Dont risk it.
j. Check the aircraft initial security in final
spot.
146. TOWING WITH ENGINES RUNNING.
Towing turboprop aircraft with engines
running or helicopters with rotors turning
is prohibited. The towing of other aircraft
with engines running is hazardous. Avoid
this practice whenever possible.
147. If operational necessity requires moving an
aircraft with engines running, the movement team
has got to take extra precautions to avoid the added
hazards of:
a. Jet intake and exhaust blast.
b. Movable aircraft surfaces.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 005 00
Page 27
c. Inadvertent nose wheel steering actua-
tion.
d. The director shall:
(1) Make sure all team members are
aware engines are running.
(2) Provide for the extra clearance
required behind the aircraft for jet blast.
(3) Stay aware of tractor drivers posi-
tion in relation to intake ducts.
(4) Be ready to give engine shutdown
signal in emergency.
(5) Be sure visual signals are given
and can be seen, since noise may prevent hearing
whistle.
e. The tractor driver shall:
(1) Be extra alert of the intake ducts.
(2) Be alert for FOD hazards.
(3) Be alert for towbar disconnect or
damage due to inadvertent nose gear steering
actuation.
(4) Be extra al ert for vi sual si gnal s
because of engine noise.
f. The chock walkers shall:
(1) Stay clear of all movable aircraft
surfaces.
(2) Be extra alert of the intake ducts
and propellers.
(3) Be extra al ert for vi sual si gnal s
because of engine noise.
g. The safety observer shall:
(1) Be alert to the clearance required
behind the aircraft for jet blast or prop wash.
(2) Make sure director is in sight for
visual signals since noise may prevent hearing
whistles.
h. The brake rider (pilot) shall:
(1) Be extra alert for visual signals since
noise may prevent hearing whistle.
(2) Make sure no movable aircraft sur-
faces are actuated during movement.
(3) Make sure nose wheel steering is
not actuated.
(4) Be ready for instant shutdown on
signal.
148. DOS AND DONTS.
S Do use a qualified team of six people to
move an aircraft including: a director in charge;
a brake rider; a tractor or spotting dolly driver; port
and starboard chock walkers, wing walkers, or
safety observers; a tail safety observer.
S Do conduct a movement briefing before
moving the aircraft.
S Do suit-up with the proper protective and
safety equipment.
S Never remove tiedowns or chocks until
after the tractor and towbar (or dolly) are attached
to the aircraft, the tractor is manned, and a brake
rider is in the cockpit.
S Do make sure all power cables, tiedowns,
chocks, ladders, and other equipment are clear
before moving.
S Do get assurance from Maintenance Con-
trol that the aircraft is safe to move.
S Do make sure all required external ground
safety locks and cockpit safety pins are installed.
S Do know all the aircraft movement signals.
S Do pay attention to the plane director.
S Dont gawk around.
S Dont exceed aircraft nose wheel turning
limits or jackknife the towbar.
S Dont move the aircraft faster than you
can walk.
S Dont tow aircraft over manhole covers
or drain grates.
S Do watch for taxing aircraft, emergency
vehicles, other traffic, and obstructions.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 005 00
Page 28
S Do move more slowly on wet or slippery
surfaces and in congested areas and hangars.
S Do double check overhead clearances.
S Do signal stop if there is any doubt about
clearances.
S Do install chocks (and tiedowns aboard
ship) before disconnecting tractor or towbar or
dismissing brake rider.
S Dont use unqualified people to move
aircraft.
S Do follow all proper procedures.
S Do think about the hazards involved.
S Do take the required safety precautions.
S Dont take shortcuts.
S Do avoid that piece-of-cake attitude.
1 4 9 . L E S S ONS L E A RNE D/ A CCI DE N T
REPORTS.
150. Over the years safety precautions and proce-
dures for operating SE, and for handling aircraft
in particular, have developed mainly from direct
experience. Unfortunately much of that experience
was gained as a result of ground accidents. It is
safe to say that for every safety precaution or
procedure set forth, you can find an accident report
on file involving the disregard of that precaution,
or the failure to use that procedure.
151. The following paragraphs describe some
actual accidents and the errors which caused them.
152. UNQUALIFIED AND UNAUTHORIZED. Two
helicopter mechs were on a B-1 workstand servicing
the tail rotor of an H-53. Another mech (under
training) walked over to use the TA-75 tow tractor
which was still attached to the workstand. The mech
under training did not see that the tractor was coupled
to the workstand; he did not have a SE license; nor
did he have permission to use the tractor in the first
place.
153. As the driver started the tractor, the two
mechs on the workstand tried to shout warnings
to him. The shouts were unheeded. The noise of
adjacent turnups, plus the sound attenuators worn
by the driver, blocked out all attempts to stop what
was going to happen.
154. The tractor was pulled ahead and the work-
stand crunched the tail rotor hub and two tail rotor
blades of the Sea Stallion.
155. Fortunately the two mechs on the workstand
were not i nj ured, but the damage was nearl y
$30,000 and took 48 man-hours to repai r. Al l
because a non-qualified and unauthorized person
used unfamiliar SE without making the necessary
checks.
156. Another similar case involved a tractor still
attached to an aircraft in a hangar. A trainee saw
the unattended tractor and decided to return it to
the line shack. He did not conduct a walk around
inspection but started up the tractor and pulled the
aircraft into another one parked along side of it.
No injuries, but damage to both aircraft. You can
bet it was clearly a case of operator error. He didnt
make sure the tractor was safe to move; he didnt
pay attention to what he was doing; he was in
a hurry (for no reason); he wasnt authorized to
move the tractor; and he didnt have a SE license.
157. LOOSE GEAR AND DEFECTIVE SEAT. A
distraction, which resulted from carrying unauthorized
gear on a tow tractor, caused a mishap that could
easily have been a disaster. The tractor seatback
and siderails were missing. A qualified tractor driver
commenced a right turn which caused two cranial
helmets being carried on the front of the tow tractor
to begin to slide. In the process of attempting to
catch the helmets the driver slid sideways off the
seat to the pavement. He received bruises and
abrasions. Fortunately the driverless tow tractor was
stopped after 20 feet by some equipment stowed
in the area.
158. PROP ARC. An E-2 aircraft with crew aboard
was spotted just aft of the No. 1 catapult, turned
up and waiting the signal to taxi. The director gave
the signal to remove chocks and tiedowns, and a
chockman moved in quickly. He had been waiting
on the starboard side, forward of the prop. On signal,
he walked aft to remove chocks and walked into the
arc of the no. 2 prop.
159. The prop zapped him a glancing blow to the
head and right shoulder. He received a skull fracture
and contusi on of t he ri ght shoul der and was
evacuated to a medical facility ashore. Investigation
disclosed the chockman had no particular problems
except that he had only 6 days flight deck experi-
ence. Just prior to the accident he was observed
walking toward the prop with his head down.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 005 00
Page 29
160. DEFECTIVE EQUIPMENT. A tractor driver
parked in front of an aircraft, set the parking brake,
left the engine running and the transmission in drive.
He got off the tractor to pick up loose gear in the
line area. The parking brake did not hold and the
tractor rolled into the leading edge of the port wing
before the driver had a chance to stop it.
161. Faulty brake? True but: the driver had no
SE license; he did not do a preoperational check
on the tractor or check the parking brake; he did
not put the transmission in neutral; he did not shut
down the engi ne when he parked; he di d not
position the tractor so it would not strike the aircraft
if it moved inadvertently; and he was using the
tractor for a job other than towing. Six violations
of safety precautions and procedures equaled one
accident.
162. Another case involved a tractor which was
downed for brake failure, reported, secured behind
the island, and tagged Do Not Operate. Somehow
it appeared, three days later, parked on the flight
deck with no tag and next to up tractors. A licensed
dri ver, assi gned to pul l the cabl es on ti l l y for
maintenance purposes, assumed the tractor was
okay and drove it away. As he turned toward the
starboard side of the flight deck, he tried to stop.
No brakes! When the front wheels went over the
deck edge he jumped to the deck. He was not
injured. The tractor however, had to be retrieved
from the bottom of the bay. Damage to the tractor
was $600. Overhaul of the GTC package on the
rear was $5,700.
163. HUMAN CHOCKMAN. An S-3 was being
spotted in hangar bay No.3 for maintenance work.
There were two chockmen, a safety observer, tractor
driver, and a director. The tractor was backing the
S-3 toward its final spot when the tractor driver felt
some resistance. The director, noticing the frantic arm
waving of the starboard chockman blew his whistle
to stop the tractor. The starboard chockman had his
left foot caught under the starboard main landing gear.
The director had the tractor driver pull the plane
forward to release the chockmans foot.
164. Instead of being next to the wheel ready to
chock the tire, he was directly in line with the wheel,
walking backwards with the main gear coming
directly at him. Ignoring one safety precaution
almost cost the chockman his foot. Fortunately
another safety precaution - steel toe safety boots
- let him get away with a bruised foot and loss
of toenails.
165. JET BLAST. An aircraft was tensioned at full
power on the no. 3 catapult ready for launch when
the jet blast deflector (JBD) was inadvertently low-
ered. Two overeager squadron maintenance inspec-
tors had moved into an area directly behind the JBD
while performing final launch inspection of their
aircraft. The jet blast hurled them down the flight
deck, bruising one man slightly and fracturing the
other mans collar bone.
166. Another accident involved a chockman who
stood up in the jet blast of one aircraft and was
blown under the wheel of another. The tire passed
over the mans arm and severed it.
167. INTAKE. During a carrier qualification launch,
an aircraft was being positioned on the starboard
catapult when the cranial helmet of one of the catapult
crewmen was sucked off his head and into the port
engine. His helmets chinstrap was not secured. His
yielding to comfort - his it wont make much difference
attitude - cost the Navy the use of an aircraft during
engine change, plus the expense of engine overhaul
which could have been as much as $400,000.
168. TIEDOWNS. An aircraft was parked on the
flight deck with the tail projecting over the deck edge.
Six TD-1A tiedown chain assemblies held the aircraft,
three against forward movement and three against
aft movement. The ship experienced two heavy rolls
and the three TD-1As holding aft movement failed
at the locking assembly and the aircraft rolled
backward into the catwalk. During the investigation
it was determined that the chains had been installed
incorrectly, with the load of the chain not passing
through the centerline of the locking mechanism. Only
one man was injured, but damage to the aircraft and
flight deck cost us, the taxpayers, a bundle to repair.
169. In two cases involving P-3 aircraft, linemen
were injured while releasing overtensioned TD-1A
tiedowns. One was the result of defueling 9,500
pounds of fuel from the aircraft without releasing
tiedowns. The other was the result of servicing the
nose gear oleo strut without releasing one tiedown.
170. FATALITIES. A tow tractor was driven under
the port drop tank mounted on the wing of an aircraft.
The bottom fin of the tank scraped along the top
of the tractor for about six feet. As the belly of the
tank rode over the tractor, the driver was pinned back
and pulled out of the seat. He received fatal injuries
when his chest was
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 005 00
Page 30
crushed between the tank and rear deck of the
tractor. Investigation revealed no material failure
or malfunction of the tractor.
171. During a respot, an F-14 was being towed
aft on the flight deck. A blue shirt who was assisting
the port landing gear chockman tripped and fell
in front of the wheel. The chockman shouted to
the director to stop the aircraft, but before the
director and tractor driver could react, the wheel
rolled onto the victims body. When the director
saw the wheel on the victim he ordered the tractor
driver to back the aircraft. The victim was pro-
nounced dead by a medical officer at the scene.
172. NO BRAKE RIDER. The following story was
related to the Safety Center in a Safetygram.
173. In hangar bay two at approximately 1410
while I was performing a forty-day corrosion inspec-
tion on an aircraft, I heard yelling behind me. I
turned to see an F-14 aircraft rolling toward elevator
number three, which was up, and the doors were
open. A tow tractor was hooked to the aircraft and
both tow tractor and aircraft were broken down of
chains and chocks. There was no plane captain
in the cockpit. The tow tractor and aircraft continued
to slide while blue shirts attempted to hold the
aircraft and tractor by getting behind the tractor
and pushing. The plane captain finally managed
to get up the ladder and in the cockpit to apply
the brakes, but not before the port side of the
horizontal tail hit a jack, crunching the leading
edge.
174. The yellow shirts should have ensured that
a plane captain was in the cockpit prior to removing
the chains and chocks. I served aboard another
carrier as a plane captain and yellow shirt, where
we consistently had a bad habit of not checking
for a plane captain prior to breaking down an
aircraft. When plane captains bring this to the
attention of the yellow shirts, they are usually yelled
at or called names.
175. THE LAST WORD. The ground accidents
described above are just a few of thousands that
have happened in the past. In fact for the period
of 1992-1994 there were some 211 ground mishaps
we could have described. 239 aircraft were damaged.
More than 78 men and women were injured and six
were killed. Unless you do something about it, this
trend will continue. This is true because accidents
do not just happen. They are caused by people.
176. You must think safety at all times. Its not
just the inexperienced or unqualified man or woman
who gets into trouble. The aviation environment
is dangerous and mercilessly unforgiving of care-
l essness. Read the words of an experi enced
or dnanceman who l ost hi s l ef t l eg under t he
starboard main landing gear of an aircraft.
177. Those who accompanied me to sick bay
said that I kept talking about what a dumb mistake
it was, for someone who constantly preached flight
deck safety, to get run over by an airplane. Yet
I had put myself in a vulnerable position. I realized
that even though the taxi director might possibly
have averted the accident, I should have prevented
it myself.
178. I was really teed off at myself! Why did I
do this? How many times have I heard and read:
Preoccupation with task at hand blocked out the
awareness of the safety hazards involved! My
preoccupation, coupled with that of those around
me cost me my leg.
179. The saddest part of the whole experience
is that I had to learn a painful lesson that I thought
I already knew. And I guess thats the reason for
writing this. Hopefully, one of you will really learn
from what has happened to me. However, being
aware of what has happened to others i s not
enough! You must constantly look around, recog-
nize, and then avoid the hazards. Believe me, they
are there, and they will grab you when you least
expect it. You can learn now, or you can learn later
- the price you pay is up to you.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 006 00
Change 1 - 1 July 2001 Page 1
HOISTING EQUIPMENT
U.S. NAVY SUPPORT EQUIPMENT
COMMON
BASIC HANDLING & SAFETY MANUAL
Reference Material
Inspection and Proofload Testing of Lifting Slings for Aircraft
and Related Components NAVAIR 17-1-114 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Launching and Recovering Ships Boats NAVSEA S9LHD-AA-OSB-010/LHD-1 CL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Management and Procedures Manual NAVAIR Weight Handling Support Equipment NAVAIR 00-80T-119 . . . .
NATOPS Crash and Salvage Operations Manual (Afloat) NAVAIR 00-80R-19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NATOPS U. S. Navy Aircraft Crash & Salvage Operations Manual (Ashore) NAVAIR 00-80R-20 . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, AACC NAVAIR AG-310D0-MRC-010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, CVCC NAVAIR 19-600-277-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Hangar Deck Crane NAVAIR 17-600-96-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Maintenance Crane A/S32M-14 NAVAIR 19-600-196-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Maintenance Crane A/S32M-17 NAVAIR 19-600-266-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Straddle Type Portable Engine Hoist NAVAIR 19-600-270-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2,000 Pound Straddle Type Portable Engine Hoist NAVAIR 19-15B-20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7,000 Pound Straddle Type Portable Engine Hoist NAVAIR 19-15B-504 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alphabetical Index
Subject Page No.
Crash/Salvage Cranes 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AACC 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CVCC 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hazards 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AACC and CVCC Hazards 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hangar Deck Crane Hazards 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-1/2 Ton A/C Maintenance Crane Hazards 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Straddle Type Engine Hoist Hazards 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hoists 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2,000 Pound Straddle Type Portable Engine Hoist 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7,000 Pound Capacity Portable Straddle Type Engine Hoist 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lessons Learned/Accident Reports 23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chain Of Events 24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hangar Deck Crane 23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Last Word 24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maintenance Cranes 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Motorized 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Non-motorized 4A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Safety Precautions And Procedures 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AACC and CVCC Safety Precautions and Procedures 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dos and Donts 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hangar Deck Crane Safety Precautions and Procedures 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Slings and Adapters 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Straddle Type Engine Hoist Safety Precautions and Procedures 19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-1/2 Ton A/C Maintenance Crane Safety Precautions and Procedures 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Record of Applicable Technical Directives
None
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 006 00
Page 2
1. CRASH/SALVAGE CRANES.
2. Time and safety are the major elements when
clearing a flight deck of a damaged aircraft or after
a crash in the middle of a launch or recovery cycle.
There are many different types of crash/salvage
cranes with the purpose of providing large capacity
load lift and mobility. For the changing environment
of at sea operations, two types of cranes have been
developed for use aboard aircraft carrier flight
decks, and amphibious assault ship flight decks.
3. These cranes are designated the Amphibious
Assault Crash Crane (AACC) and the Carrier Vessel
Crash Crane (CVCC). Both cranes are self-pro-
pelled, four-wheel drive, diesel/electric powered
vehicles mounted on pneumatic rubber tires.
4. These cranes are designed to operate aboard
ship in all weather conditions. They will lift crashed/
damaged aircraft from various locations and atti-
tudes moving the damaged aircraft on a rolling and
pitching ship to a designated safe parking area
on the flight deck.
5. AACC. The Amphibious Assault Crash Crane
(Figure 1) is 30 feet long (less boom), 15 feet wide
and wei ghs 90,500 pounds. The boom has an
outreach of 20 feet to 33 feet and has a rated lift
capacity of 50,000 pounds to 70,000 pounds.
6. Additionally, this crane with trained personnel
and under the direct supervision of Deck Depart-
ment, can be used to handle boats aboard LHD-1
Class Ships.
006001
Figure 1. Amphibious Assault Crash Crane (AACC)
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 006 00
Page 3
7. CVCC. The Carrier Vessel Crash Crane (Figure
2) is 34 feet long (less boom), 15 feet wide and
has a boom outreach of 17.5 feet reaching to 33.5
feet. The unit weighs 132,500 pounds with a rated
lift capability of 65,000 to 75,000 pounds. There
is also an auxiliary hoist with a lifting capacity of
10,000 pounds.
Figure 2. Carrier Vessel Crash Crane (CVCC)
006002
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 006 00
Page 4
8. MAINTENANCE CRANES.
9. MOTORIZED. These cranes primary use is re-
moval and replacement of aircraft components during
scheduled and unscheduled maintenance. These
components include engines, propellers, transmis-
sions, engine modules, and rotor blades on rotary
and fixed wing aircraft.
10. 8-1/2 Ton Aircraft Maintenance Crane. There
are two types of this crane (Figure 3) used in the
Navy. Both are similar in design and operation and
are frequently referred to as Pettibone cranes. They
are the A/S32M-14 and A/S32M-17. These aircraft
maintenance cranes are 8-1/2 ton, diesel powered,
hydraulically operated aircraft maintenance ve-
hicles. They have four wheel drive, four wheel steer
capability and a crane superstructure that revolves
360 degrees. Craning operations can be controlled
from three possible stations. They are the main
cabin controls, control from an aerial bucket (when
installed), or from the end of a 50 foot pendant
cable.
11. As mentioned, the cranes are equipped with a
detachable fiberglass personnel aerial bucket for
performing maintenance on the upper levels of aircraft.
The cranes weigh 29,000 pounds and are 26 feet
8 inches long with the boom retracted and 48 feet
8 inches long with it extended. They are 8 feet wide
and have a minimum height of 9 feet 3 inches
Figure 3. 8-1/2 Ton Maintenance Crane
006003
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 006 00
Change 1 Page 4A/(4B blank)
12. NON-MOTORIZED.
13. A/S32A-44 Aircraft Utility Crane. The crane is
a portable unit designed to lift aircraft wings, cano-
pies, and ejection seats without the need for spotting
the aircraft beneath an overhead hoist.
14. The crane is capable of lifting up to 1,500
pounds. Two qualified people can set-up, fold, roll,
position, and operate the crane.
15. Once set-up, the boom height can be adjusted
to permit clearance between the top of the boom
and the hangar bay overhead.
16. The various type slings which must be used
with the hangar deck crane are items of peculiar
ground support equipment and are listed and shown
in the aircraft MIMs.
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 006 00
Change 1 Page 5
006004
Figure 4. Aircraft Utility Crane A/S32A-44
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 006 00
Page 6
17. HOISTS.
18. 2,000 POUND STRADDLE TYPE PORTABLE
ENGINE HOIST. The straddle hoist (Figure 5) is a
portable hoist for lifting and transporting engines and
other items within the size and scope of 2,000 pound
limitations of the hoisting capacity.
19. Two one ton, hand operated chain hoists are
mounted on an I beam which is supported by two
tubular steel yokes. The unit is mounted on casters
to provide portability. Six roller assemblies are
provided to attach to either I type rails or A type
rails. Cam followers, which are part of the roller
assemblies, roll in two extruded aluminum alloy
guides to prevent the load from swinging as it is
being transported. The roller guides are adjustable
for height.
Figure 5. 2,000 Pound Straddle Type Portable Engine Hoist
006005
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 006 00
Page 7
20. 7, 000 POUND CAPACI TY PORTABLE
STRADDLE TYPE ENGINE HOIST.
This hoist was previously rated at 10,000
pounds. It has been derated to 7,000
pound maxi mum capaci ty. Exceedi ng
7,000 pounds may cause hoist failure and
injury to personnel.
21. The hoist consists of two frame assemblies
on which is bolted a beam supporting a trolley
assembl y (Fi gure 6). The f rames are wel ded
construction and form the ends of the hoist. They
are braced apart at the bottom to form the sides.
Each corner is supported on a shock absorbing,
full castering wheel. Each wheel has an integral
eight position swivel lock and foot operated brake.
22. The trolley hoist assembly rides the beam on
four flanged wheels. Positive stops at each end
of the beam limit travel of the trolley hoist. A track
clamp on the trolley hoist prevents inadvertent
movement al ong the beam. On ol der model s,
manufactured before 1987, the track cl amp i s
self-locking. The hand chain is pulled to release
the clamp and reposition the trolley hoist. When
the hand chain is released, the track clamp locks
the trolley hoist to the beam. The track clamp on
newer models, manufactured since 1987, is not
self-locking. One side of the hand chain loop is
pulled to release the clamp and the other side is
pulled to set the clamp. Newer models also have
a chain container which stores the load chain.
Figure 6. 7,000 Pound Capacity Straddle Type Engine Hoist
006006
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 006 00
Page 8
23. HAZARDS.
24. AACC AND CVCC HAZARDS. The crash cranes
are used in the dangerous environment of both the
carrier and amphibious flight decks. Besides these
hazards, the crash cranes present their own hazards
and dangers that you must be aware of. High tension
cables, high voltage, noise, exhaust fumes, position-
ing, and movement of lifted loads, fluid spills, and
fires face the unprepared.
25. The operators view from the cab is partially
obstructed by the boom, crane structure, and
machinery. Great care should be taken by personnel
on the ground when the crane is in operation. There
shall always be a ground based director and safety
observers as required.
26. The entire rear axle moves when the crane
is steered. Personnel should make sure that the
operator is aware of their presence and does not
steer the crane while personnel are either on the
ladder, approaching, or leaving the ladder area of
the crane.
27. When the crane is hoisting, there is a lot of
rotating machinery as well as moving wire ropes
that must be avoided.
28. When operating the emergency load lowering
system, the potential exists to accidentally lower
the boom instead of the hook. Great care should
be taken to ensure that the hoist line and not the
luff (boom lowering) line, is being released.
29. The CVCC has a counterwei ght (35,000
pounds) that when deployed extends 15 feet behind
the crane and swings a wide arc. Great care should
be taken when traveling and operating with the
counterweight deployed. Make sure the area behind
the crane is clear of personnel and equipment when
operating. Serious personnel injury or equipment
damage can result from contact with a swinging
counterweight.
30. 8-1/2 TON A/C MAINTENANCE CRANE HAZ-
ARDS. The maintenance cranes are used only ashore
in support of aircraft in numerous maintenance
functions. Preplanning for each evolution needs to
be part of the maintenance action to preclude the
many hazards you can face.
31. The maintenance crane has front and rear
steering for close maneuvering where minimum
clearance is allowed. The close in maneuvering
provides the operator with a better view from the
cab which can be partially obstructed by the aircraft,
boom structure, or machinery. There shall be a
ground based director and safety observers so that
the aircraft wont suffer damage during maneuver-
ing.
32. Four independently controlled hydraulically
operated outriggers controlled from the cab provide
stabilization when the crane is in operation. Clear-
ance for the placement of these outriggers needs
to be taken into account when the maintenance
crane is positioned. The hazard of damage to the
skin or landing gear of the aircraft or injury to
personnel can happen when the outriggers are set.
Coordination with the cab operator and the ground
director is important.
To avoid electrocution hazard, keep all
parts of the maintenance crane and load
at least 15 feet away from all electrical
lines or such a distance as specified by
applicable instruction/code.
33. Contact between cranes and power lines is
a deadly hazard which has caused serious injury
and numerous deaths to workers on or near cranes
every year. It is the responsibility of the supervisor
to set up the work zone and the crane operator
to ensure t hat the crane can operate wi thout
possibly coming in contact with power lines. As
a crane operator, stop if the operation places you
or others in jeopardy. The first careless moment
which allows the crane to come in contact with
live wires can kill you or fellow workers.
34. When the crane is in operation, all participants
need to be aware of rotating machinery, hoisting
cable, and boom action which must be avoided.
There needs to be constant communication between
personnel on the aircraft, on the ground, and the
crane operator. Poor coordination can lead to a
cracked skull or worse yet, a fall from the top of
an aircraft from a moving boom or swinging hook.
Electronic devices on these cranes are
intended to assist the operator. Under
NO conditions are they intended to re-
place the use of proper load capacity
charts, operating instructions, procedures
and practices. Sole reliance on these
electronic devices and failure to heed this
warning can cause an accident.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 006 00
Change 1 Page 9
35. Like all weight lifting equipment, movement
of heavy equipment is very hazardous. There is
an overload warning system that provides visual
and audible warning to the operator if there is an
overweight situation. But this should not lull you
into a sense of total security. The equipment you
will be lifting requires slings and adapters. These
pieces of peculiar support equipment (PSE) need
to be i nspected pri or to use or the hazard of
snapping cables, falling equipment, and personnel
injury becomes a very real possibility.
Objects shall not be lifted with the aerial
bucket attached.
36. The maintenance crane has an aerial bucket
that can be deployed. When operating the boom
section from the aerial bucket, care should be taken.
Ground observers need to be in position to warn
the bucket operator of hazards out of their line
of vi si on bel ow or t o t he si de of t he bucket .
Personnel in the bucket need to be wearing safety
equipment at all times in case of a failure of the
bucket. Serious personnel injury or equipment
damage can result from improper usage or contact
with a swinging bucket.
37. HANGAR DECK CRANE HAZARDS. The han-
gar deck crane is not one of the pieces of SE we
singled out back in WP 003 00, as the ones involved
in a large number of SE/aircraft accidents. Those
were tow tractors, forklifts, maintenance vehicles,
electric power plants, workstands, and jacks. The
crane falls into the others category. Dont let this
put your mind at ease. Using the hangar deck crane
to lift heavy components from an aircraft is a very
hazardous operation.
38. Many of the hazards youll face while using
the crane are similar to those of other hangar
mai ntenance SE (ai rframe j acks, mai ntenance
stands and platforms, engine stands, and trailers.)
All are big, heavy, and awkward to move. All have
to be used under, around, over, or very close to
aircraft. All have to lift or hold heavy loads. All
can be extremely hazardous if theyre not in good
condi ti on. Al l of them can ki l l , mai m, cri ppl e,
mutilate, mangle, or disable people and damage
aircraft or equipment, when used carelessly or by
someone who doesnt know what theyre doing.
39. The crane has several built-in hazards. First
of all it is foldable for transportation and stowage.
Thi s means i t must be erected correct l y and
completely or it is unsafe to use. The crane is held
in the erect position mainly by cables and struts,
all held together by quick-release pins. These
quick-release pins are absolutely necessary to
safely hold the crane stable and upright during use.
40. The crane is mounted on four single caster
wheels with swivel locks and brakes. The wheels
can drop into pad eyes, drain grates, and hangar
door tracks and they have a high failure rate. We
said before moving SE with free swivel casters can
be very dangerous. It can be even worse for the
crane with a canopy or ejection-seat swinging at
the end of the hoist cable. The swivel locks on
the casters can look locked, but still be unlocked,
j ust l i ke those on mai ntenance pl atforms and
workstands.
41. The crane was originally designed for use on
hangar decks aboard shi p, where i t i s moved
manually and for short distances. This presents
certain hazards when it is used ashore and must
be towed long distances from SE division to various
squadron maintenance hangars. The solid wheels
and no-spring caster assemblies cant take the
pounding of ramp seams, pad eyes, and soforth
at any speed above walking without being damaged.
Vibration alone will damage the casters in most
cases.
At no time will the hangar deck crane
be towed in the erect position due to
possi bl e stress damage to the crane
structure.
42. Towing the folded crane with a 15 foot towbar
presents turn radius clearance hazards. Dont try
to judge clearance of the hangar corner from 34
feet away. For this reason, do not tow the crane
any faster than a walking pace.
43. DELETED.
44. DELETED.
45. The hoisting cable has a tendency to bunch
up on the winch drum. This usually happens when
the hoisting cable is wound while its slack, with
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 006 00
Change 1 Page 10
no load, or the hoist cable weight is missing. If
you hook a load to the crane with the cable bunched
to one side of the drum, the cable can slip off
the bunch and drop the load 3 to 6 inches suddenly
and very alarmingly! This is not good for the winch
or your blood pressure. You can avoid this by
looking into the cable slot and visually checking
the cable on the drum before you hook up a load.
If the cable is bunched, wind it out, and then back
in, guiding the unloaded cable with a gloved hand.
Bunching normally doesnt happen when the cable
is wound in while its loaded, but it can.
46. Cables can break and the hoisting and posi-
tioning cables on the crane are no exception. A
kink in the cable which has been pulled through
to straighten is dangerous and should be replaced.
A cable with any broken wires should be replaced.
Perform proofload test in accordance with NAVAIR
19-25G-20 and NAVAIR 19-600-302-6-2. Since the
crane must be used with the right sling for whatever
aircraft component you are lifting, you have to worry
about the sling breaking too. Inspection and Pro-
ofload Testing of Lifting Slings for Aircraft and
Related Components, NAVAIR 17-1-114 contains
all the information on care and testing of hoist slings
used with the hangar deck crane.
47. Sand, grit, or dirt on the hoisting cable can
result in malfunction of the winch assembly or
corrosion of the cable. Knots, kinks, frays, stretch,
abrasions, or corrosion of the hoisting or main
positioning cable can result in a disaster. Dropping
a load usually means hitting the aircraft too, causing
extensive damage to it, besides the canopy, seat,
radome, fi n, wi ng panel , or whatever you are
handling.
48. In short, the condition of the crane is critical;
proper erecti on i s cri ti cal ; proper operati on i s
critical; and above all, knowledge and common
sense are critical for the safe use of the hangar
deck crane.
49. Erecting And Folding Hazards. Youll run into
the hazards of erecting and folding the stand more
aboard ship than ashore. The crowded hangar deck
aboard ship requires that the crane be folded for
movement and stowage. Ashore, the crane is usually
left in the erected state except when it is taken to
and from the SE division for scheduled maintenance
or repair. However, you must still know the correct
erecting procedure in order to be able to properly
conduct a preoperational inspection of the crane
before using it.
Do not remove lockpins prior to lifting,
lowering, or when ever tension is placed
on the cable or hook.
50. DELETED.
51. DELETED.
52. A minimum of two persons are required to
erect or fold the stand. It is far less hazardous
if you use at least three, provided each person
is qualified and knows what hes doing. Trying to
put up or take down the crane with unqualified
people is hazardous.
53. Follow set-up procedures outlined in NAVAIR
19-25G-20.
54. DELETED.
55. DELETED.
56. DELETED.
57. DELETED.
58. DELETED.
59. Movement and Positioning Hazards. Movement
of the crane over distances in the erect position will
damage the crane. Movement in the folded position,
manually or by towing, at any speed over walking
speed will usually damage the crane. Even at this
speed, hangar door tracks, ramp seams, pad eyes,
deck plates, drain grates, and other obstructions can
catch a wheel and break it or swing the crane around
uncontrollably. This is especially true if all four casters
are in the unlocked or free-swivel position.
60. DELETED.
61. Positioning the crane around the aircraft to
remove or install a component is hazardous to the
aircraft. Doing it safely takes great care, patience,
and enough people to do it right. It is particularly
hazardous when the crane is loaded and youre
moving it over and under the aircraft, or when youre
moving it away from the aircraft. Because of the
casters, the crane doesnt always move in the
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 006 00
Change 1 Page 11
direction you push it. This is particularly true aboard
ship if there is a list to the hangar deck or if the
ship turns. Aircraft tiedown chains, chocks, etc.
always seem to be in the way and can swing the
crane as you move it.
62. Getting under the crane while its loaded is
dangerous. Its always a great temptation to shortcut
under the load as you jockey the crane around
or are positioning the PSE youre transferring the
l oad to. Leavi ng the crane unattended wi th a
suspended load is another very hazardous practice
and should never be done.
63. A swinging load is a hazard to both the aircraft
and the component. If the crane isnt moved slowly
and smoothly or if the wheels hit an obstruction
while the crane is moving, the load will swing and
could hit the crane or the aircraft. Handlines, tied
to the component and tended from opposite sides
of the load can reduce this hazard.
64. Operating Hazards. Actually lifting a component
out of or off of an aircraft, or lowering it into or onto
an aircraft, is a tricky procedure. It takes lots of
communication and coordination between the winch
operator and the people handling the load. Unless
you get a good briefing from the supervisor on the
exact procedures and signals the crew will use before
you start, trouble can develop in a hurry. If noise
is a factor refer to NAVAIR 00-80T-119 so you know
all the standard hand signals that all participants shall
use to preclude any confusion.
65. DELETED.
66. Dont forget the swivel locks and brakes on
the casters. Having the crane move just as youre
lifting a load can be a disaster.
67. We al ready tal ked about the hoi st cabl e
bunching up on the drum, so the operator must
be aware of this hazard and watch for it. Above
all, the operator must be alert and pay attention
to what he is doing. The instructions for operating
the winch and changing speeds are on decals right
on the winch. Operating the crane will be less
hazardous if you read them to refresh your memory
before you start.
68. Lets summarize all the main hazards of the
hangar deck crane:
S Unqualified operator or helpers.
S Damage to crane by moving or towing
long distances.
S Damage to crane by moving or towing
at greater than walking speed.
S Small, solid wheel, no-spring, free swivel-
ing casters.
S Pad eyes, drai n grates, hangar door
tracks, deck plates, tiedowns, chocks, and other
deck obstructions.
S Improper or incomplete erection.
S Using the crane with any of the lockpins
missing, or using wrong size pins or bolts.
S Using a crane with corroded or defective
cables.
S Lack of scheduled maintenance and proof-
load testing of crane.
S Removing pins with a load on the cable
or hook.
S Exceeding the weight limits.
S Aircraft protuberances and head-knock-
ers.
S Carelessness or using too few people to
control and handle crane safely.
S Walking or standing under hoisted load.
S Hoist cable bunching on winch drum.
S Lack of crew coordination or voice and
hand signal problems.
69. STRADDLE TYPE PORTABLE ENGINE HOIST
HAZARDS. Straddle engine hoists are used at the
AIMD shore and remote facilities for maneuvering
engines and heavy equipment from and to stands,
engine trailers, containers, and SE vehicles. They
are big, and awkward items of SE to move. They
lift and hold heavy loads and can be extremely
hazardous if they are not in good condition. They
are simple pieces of SE equipment but if they are
not properly maintained or improperly used they can
maim, cripple, mutilate, mangle, disable, or kill people,
along with damaging valuable equipment.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 006 00
Change 1 Page 12
70. Chains can break and the hoisting and posi-
tioning chains on the straddle hoists are no excep-
tion. A kink in the chain not straightened out prior
to the lifting operation is dangerous. A chain with
elongation of a link or a crack due to overload
stress should be examined and possibly replaced.
The hooks used for lifting need to be inspected
for not only cracks but to see if they are deformed
and weakened from previous loading.
71. Coarse particles such as sand, grit, or dirt
on the hoist can result in malfunction of the winch
assembly or corrosion of the chain. Knots, cracks,
or stretch corrosion of the hoist can result in a
disaster.
72. In short, the condition of the hoist is critical;
proper positioning is critical; proper operation is
critical; and above all, knowledge and common
sense are critical for the safe use of the straddle
engine hoists.
73. Moving and Positioning Hazards. Movement of
the straddle hoists, if not done with patience, can
damage the equipment being
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 006 00
Page 13
moved. Care and safety need to be practiced when
moving over hangar door tracks, ramp seams, pad
eyes, deck plates, drain grates, and other obstruc-
tions that can catch a wheel and swing the load
around uncontrollably. This is especially true if all
four casters are in the unlocked or free-swivel
position. Never use a tow tractor to push a load,
these hoists are designed to be moved manually
only.
74. Positioning the hoists over engine stands and
containers to lift aircraft components can be danger-
ous. Doing it safely takes great care to line up
and center the engines or equipment for lifting.
Enough people to do it right cuts down dramatically
on the hazards. The loads need to be centered
between the yokes when youre moving them.
Because of the casters, the hoists dont always
move in the direction you push it. Other SE, chocks,
loaded trailers, etc., always seem to be in the way
as you maneuver around and can cause the hoist
to swing unintentionally.
75. Getting under an engine while its loaded on
a hoist is dangerous. Its always a great temptation
to shortcut or do a quick piece of maintenance
under the l oad as you j ockey a hoi st around.
Leaving a hoist unattended with a suspended load
is another very hazardous practice and should
never be done.
76. A swi ngi ng l oad i s a hazard t o both t he
component and personnel. If the hoist isnt moved
sl owl y and smoot hl y or i f t he wheel s hi t an
obstruction while the hoist is moving, the load will
swing.
77. Operating Hazards. Dont be deluded into think-
ing that lifting a component out of a container or
off or onto an engine stand or into or out of a NC-8A
or tow tractor is a simple procedure. It takes lots
of communication and coordination between the hoist
operators and the people handling the load. Unless
you get a good briefing from the supervisor on the
exact procedures and signals the crew will use before
you start, trouble can develop in a hurry.
78. Remember, while hoisting, that the load needs
to be centered. With the 2,000 pound straddle hoist,
both hoists need to be operated in unison to keep
the load uniform and balanced. With both type
straddle hoists make sure the track clamps are
set to keep the load from moving along the beam.
An unbalanced load moving on the beam can be
di sast rous. A st raddl e hoi st can t i p from the
movement, the momentum will send the equipment
smashing onto the deck and someone could be
pinned under or crushed to death.
79. Remember too, that the former 10,000 pound
hoist has been derated to 7,000 pounds.
80. Make sure that the lifting points are solid and
that all adapters and locking pins are positioned
properly. Center the lifting hooks and ensure they
fit correctly into place. Do not hammer a hook into
place. It deforms the lifting hook and at the same
time it should be telling you, something is wrong.
81. Dont forget the swivel locks and brakes on
the casters. Having a straddle hoist move just as
youre lifting a load can be a disaster.
82. The hoist operator, using gloves, should check
the chain for kinking or bunching on the hoist prior
to operation and stop the operation prior to this
becoming a hazard. Once you have any load on
a hoist, pay constant attention to the operation at
hand. Chain slippage, unbalancing or the straddle
unit tilting require immediate action and if youre
just going through the motions, youre inviting
disaster. Safety of the operation is not just the
supervisors job, it is an all hands task.
8 3 . S A F E T Y P R E C A U T I O N S A N D
PROCEDURES.
84. Accidents are avoided through knowledge of
ones profession. When you learn tasks that are
a part of your profession, you should be asking
and learning how to perform each task safely. A
true professional is thinking all the time and not
just a dumb cow following the herd. So think, be
aware of the tasking at hand, be aware of the MIMs
and instructions, be aware of the environment
around you, be aware of the tools needed, be aware
of the procedures, and youll not only be safe, but
a true professional.
85. SLINGS AND ADAPTERS. We havent stressed
the slings or hoisting adapters because they arent
part of the cranes and hoisting devices covered.
However, you cant use these cranes or hoisting
devices without them, so keep in mind that:
S You must use the proper, designated
sl i ngs and adapters for the component you re
handling.
S Slings and adapters must be in good
condition and have been qualification tested. For
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 006 00
Page 14
slings, not more than 365 days for wire rope, chain
and structural steel, or aluminum slings; 180 days
for nylon or fabric slings (NAVAIR 17-1-114).
S The sling and adapter should be tagged
with the qualification test information. Also check
fabric slings for PIS date. Do not exceed 24 months.
S The sling must be given a preoperational
inspection before use.
S The sling or adapter hook, eye, attach-
ment bolts, etc. must be properly attached to the
crane or hoist hook, with the hook safety latch
closed.
S The sling or adapter must be properly
attached to the aircraft component (seat, canopy,
etc.).
86. AACC AND CVCC SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
AND PROCEDURES.
87. You shall be fully qualified and licensed in
accordance with WP 003 00.
88. The reason for full qualification on aircraft
crash cranes is to ensure all proper procedures,
requirements, and safety precautions are followed.
Failure to do so can result in equipment damage,
serious injury, or death. This is a real possibility,
so do not operate any aircraft crash crane unless
you are fully qualified under direct control of a
qualified supervisor.
89. The NATOPS Crash and Salvage Operations
Manual (AFLOAT), aircraft MIMs and activity in-
structions contain procedures for using the AACC
and CVCC to hook up to di fferent type/model
aircraft. They also contain the information you need
about the proper slings/adapters youll be using
on the type/model aircraft. You need to know all
of it to safely do the job.
90. Preoperational Inspection. A good, thorough
preoperational inspection, using the preoperational
checklist, on the aircraft crash crane is the way to
avoid equipment hazards. The preoperational check-
list for the CVCC is NAVAIR 19-600-277-6-1 and the
AACC is NAVAIR AG-310D0-MRC-010. Use them.
91. These preoperational inspections are on going
and include both static inspections and functional
or operating inspections. Remember the reason for
the preoperational checks are to discover defects
and any required servicing. These preoperational
checks will vary depending on the type/model.
92. If you find any items defective or missing
during your preoperational inspection, notify your
supervi sor so the ai rcraft crash crane can be
repaired. Do not attempt to repair any equipment
yourself or jury rig safety devices. Properly per-
formed preoperational inspections ensure that when
the crane is called for, it is operational.
93. Operation and Use. Take the following precau-
tions while operating and using the crane:
S Ensure that there is a ground director and
safety observers/walkers.
S Make sure no personnel are standing on
the ladder or around the crane when in motion.
S Always check equipment clearance be-
fore, and while maneuvering the crane into position.
S Make sure you use the proper slings/
adapters and that they are properly attached to
the hook and to the aircraft.
S Make sure, as you hoist the aircraft, that
it is centered and moves uniformly.
S Never stand under or on an aircraft while
loaded on a crane.
S Maintain eye contact at all times with the
ground director and be sure you know and under-
stand the signals to be used (NAVAIR 00-80T-119).
S Watch the hoisting cables for bunching
during operations to avoid sudden drops while
raising or lowering loads.
S Use handlines to control the load when
conditions require.
94. The CVCC is not intended for and shall not
be used for over-the-side handling operations of
any kind.
95. The AACC also is not intended for and shall
not be used for over-t he-si de cargo or other
handling operations with the exception of raising
and lowering boats. This operation will be done
only with trained personnel, under direction of Deck
Department. During boat operations, strict
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 006 00
Page 15
adherence will be maintained with NAVSEA S9LHD-
AA-OSB-010/LHD-1 CL, Launching and Recovering
Ships Boats.
96. Parking and Securing. The aircraft crash crane
is very large and bulky and so it is parked on the
flight deck. When you park and secure the crane
look at it thoroughly for any servicing requirements
or damage. Make sure that when you have secured
the unit, it is up and ready to go on a moments
notice.
97. 8-1/ 2 TON A/ C MAI NTENANCE CRANE
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND PROCEDURES.
98. You shall be fully qualified and licensed in
accordance with WP 003 00.
99. The requirement for full qualification on the
maintenance crane is to ensure the operator is
aware of the responsibilities for proper procedures
and safety precautions. Failure to do so can result
in equipment damage, personnel injury, or death.
Under no circumstances will anyone operate a
maintenance crane unless fully qualified and under
direct control of a qualified supervisor.
100. Preoperational Inspection. One of the most
important functions that you can perform prior to any
maintenance action is a preoperational inspection.
By performing a step by step preoperational inspec-
tion utilizing the preoperational checklist for the
maintenance crane, you help avoid equipment haz-
ards. The preoperational checklist for the A/S32M-14
is NAVAIR 19-600-196-6-1 and the A/S32M-17 is
NAVAIR 19-600-266-6-1.
101. Craning Operations. Follow this list of general
precautions during set-up and craning operations:
S As previously discussed through this WP,
read applicable MIMs and activity instructions and
understand them thoroughly prior to operating any
SE.
S Supervisors shall ensure that all craning
operations are performed by qualified operators.
S Never tamper with safety devices. Keep
them in good repair and properly adjusted.
S All personnel involved with craning opera-
tions should be familiar with crane operating signals
as outlined in NAVAIR 00-80T-119.
S Craning operations is a full time job. The
operators will not eat, read, or otherwise divert their
attention from the tasking at hand.
S Both the supervisor and crane operator
check the area for obstructions and clearances.
If power lines are in the work zone, follow local
safety regulations prior to commencing any craning
operations.
S Barricade the area prior to performing
operations with the crane.
S Al l personnel not i nvol ved i n crani ng
operations should leave the barricaded area.
S When outriggers are used, the outriggers
shall be fully extended and set before swinging
the boom to the right or left.
S The maintenance crane must be level
before making a lift. Use inclinometers in cab to
bring the crane level. Outriggers level the crane
on uneven ground. Remember, a 3 degree side
tilt can reduce lifting capacities by 50% or more.
S Avoid working with only front outriggers
extended. Swinging over the side, the maintenance
crane may tip over or the boom may be damaged
from side loading because the maintenance crane
is not level.
S Make sure the hoisting cable is properly
attached to the load. Use only authorized slings
or adapters. Used, worn, or damaged slings may
break and drop the load.
S Make sur e chai ns and sl i ngs ar e of
adequate size, in good condition, and not twisted
around each other.
S Make sure that the safety latch on the
hook works properly. Without the safety latch, it
is possible for slings or chains to come off the
hook and fall.
S Be sure that the rigging cannot slip off,
pull away from the load, or get out of position on
the load. Be sure the load is rigged so it will not
shift or fall over.
S When picking a load, ensure that the area
is clear. Ground director and safety personnel
should be posted to guide the operator. Sounding
the horn provides an audible warning before hook-
ing up.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 006 00
Page 16
S Ensure personnel dont get on or off a
crane in motion.
S Do not permit anyone to ride the hook.
When picking a load, the cranes load
radius increases. Due to the design of
the boom, this increase is more pro-
nounced and can result in overloading,
boom failure, and tipping. Ensure that
the load is within weight capacity of the
crane as it is lifted and the boom deflects.
S Avoid sudden starts and stops. Lift careful-
ly, swing gently, brake smoothly, lower, and set
loads carefully. Jerking the load, swinging roughly,
lowering the load rapidly, and slamming on brakes,
will put shock loading and possible side loading
on the boom.
S Extending the boom without paying out
hoist cable will result in two-blocking. This hap-
pens when the boom point sheave contacts the
hook point causing damage to the boom point, hook
block, and cable hoist.
S When lowering or retracting the boom,
the load will lower. To compensate for this, the
operator must take up hoist cable.
S When lifting a load ensure it does not
catch on an obstruction. Be vigilant to fall lines
or any part of the maintenance crane snagging
or striking any obstruction.
S Be careful when swinging a long load so
that neither end of the load catches on an obstruc-
tion or slams into the maintenance crane.
S Do not pass loads over personnel or
endanger their safety.
S Remove loose or unsecured objects which
may snag or fall from loads.
S Overloads can damage the maintenance
crane and such damage can cause failure and
accidents. So be aware of rated capacities of the
maintenance crane under all circumstances.
S Load capacities are based on the crane
being fully supported on the outriggers. Working
with the crane partially supported on the outriggers
wi l l reduce capaci ti es and mai ntenance crane
stability considerably. If it is necessary to operate
the crane partially supported on outriggers, then
reduce load capacities.
S When leaving the maintenance crane
controls, always lower the load to the ground.
102. Aerial Bucket. The aerial bucket provides a
means for personnel to safely reach those areas on
an aircraft unattainable through regular means. Using
the aerial bucket is similar to craning operations
except in the respect of lifting loads. The operation
has some unique qualities so follow these simple
but safe guidelines.
S Inspect and ensure that the bucket is in
good condition.
S Make sure that all attaching devices are
available. Do not substitute latching devices.
S There will be a need for two qualified
operators. One in the bucket with the remote control
and one in cab with the main controls.
S Ground spotters are required to guide
those personnel in the bucket through the blind
spots created by the bucket.
S The bucket is designed for two personnel
and has a total rated weight capacity of 500 pounds.
S When personnel are in the bucket, person-
al safety equipment shall be worn at all times.
Safety harnesses are attached to the bucket to
prevent accidental falls.
103. Parking and Securing. When you park and
secure the crane look at it thoroughly for any servicing
requirements, leakage, or damage. Close and secure
all doors and panels to weather. Make sure that when
you are done, the maintenance crane is up and ready
to go.
104. HANGAR DECK CRANE SAFETY PRECAU-
TIONS AND PROCEDURES. If you want to avoid
an accident while using the hangar deck crane, then
you must know what you are doing; you must know
that the crane is in good condition; you must know
that it is properly erected; you must follow all proper
procedures; you must THINK about and avoid the
hazards; and you must be careful, patient, and use
common sense.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 006 00
Page 17
105. Qualifications.
106. You shall be fully qualified and licensed in
accordance with WP 003 00.
107. Qualifications will be accomplished in accor-
dance with Management & Procedures Manual for
NAVAIR Weight Handling Support Equipment, NAV-
AIR 00-80T-119.
108. Aircraft MIMs contain procedures for using
the crane to remove or install different components.
They also contain the information you need about
the proper PSE hoisting sling and component dolly,
stand, or trailer youll be using with the crane. You
need to know all of it to safely do the job.
109. Preoperational Inspection. We addressed the
hazards of a defective crane or one which was
improperly erected. A good, thorough preoperational
inspection, using the preoperational checklist, before
each time you use the crane will help avoid those
hazards. The preoperational inspection for the hangar
deck crane is NAVAIR 17-600-96-6-1. Use it.
110. During the preoperational inspection pay
particular attention to the following items:
S Check each caster assembly for flat wheel
spots, brake operation, swivel lock operation, and
free 360 degree swivel.
S Check all the exposed hoist cable and
the positioning cable for knots, pulled through kinks,
corrosion, and broken wires in accordance with
NAVAIR 00-80T-119.
S Check the hoist cable hook and safety
latch.
S Check all the quick-release lockpins (11)
and especially the Critical 8.
S Make sure the safety cables from the
column to the boom are secure.
S Check the column support strut rod end
bearings for security.
S Check the main frame, legs, column, and
boom structure for condition and missing bolts or
nuts.
S Make sure youve got the winch crank
handle.
111. If the crane is folded, it is safer to move
it to the aircraft that way. Winch and speed shift
lever operation can be checked during the erecting
procedure. If you find any of the following items
defective or missing, down the crane. Notify your
supervisor so the crane can be returned to the
SE division for repair. Dont use the crane if:
S Caster wheels have deep flat spots.
S Caster locks or brakes inoperative.
S Caster wheels bind or wont swivel 360
degrees.
S Defective hoist cable, hook, safety latch
or positioning cable.
S Missing column support strut rod end
bearings.
S Missing column-to-boom safety cables
(unless crane is already erect).
S Missing (or wrong size) any of the follow-
ing Critical 8 lockpins:
Column lockpin (1)
Positioning cable lockpin (1)
Leg hinge lockpins (12)
Column support strut lockpins (4)
S Winch or speed shift lever malfunctioning.
112. Erecting and Folding. Take the following pre-
cautions when erecting the crane:
S Position the crane where the boom will
clear the overhead and you have room to spread
the legs.
S Lock the two rear caster swivel locks and
set the wheel brakes ON.
S Pull the lockpins holding the spreader bar
to the legs. Stow the pins in the brackets.
S Lift up and hold the folded boom and
column manually while the crew spreads the legs
and inserts the hinge joint lockpins.
S Lock the leg caster swivel locks and set
wheel brakes ON.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 006 00
Page 18
S Check that the hoist cable and positioning
cable pass over the roller bracket where the aft
boom joins the column.
S Make sure the winch is set to the low
speed position.
S Manually lift the folded boom and column,
while taking up the slack in the hoisting cable with
the winch, until column is upright. The winch can
be used to assist in lifting the column in the final
stage.
S Insert the column lockpin at the base of
the column.
S Slack off the hoisting cable and release
the hook from the stowage ring stud on the column.
S Remove the lockpin that holds the boom
to the column and release the positioning cable
from the stowed position on the column.
S Lift the boom manually while taking up
slack in the hoisting cable with the winch. Continue,
with manual assistance, cranking the low-speed
winch until the boom is at the desired height.
S When the boom reaches a height where
the lifting crew can no longer reach it, make sure
they get out from under the boom.
S Attach the positioning cable to one of the
two fittings, or to the short positioning cable, on
the frame and insert the lockpin attached to the
cable.
S Remove the column support struts from
stowed position and install, with lockpins, to the
column and leg fittings.
Do not remove lockpins prior to lifting,
lowering, or when ever tension is placed
on the cable or hook.
When folding, do not remove any of the
Critical 8 lockpins until there is tension
on the lifting cable.
113. The folding procedure is just the reverse of
the erecting procedure. When the folded boom and
column is lowered, hold it waist high until the legs
are folded and you can set the spreader bar on
the legs. If you drop the folded boom and column
on the deck, youll damage the pulley and cover,
and the hoisting cable will drag in the dirt of the
deck.
114. Never try to lower (or raise) the folded column
and boom, or the boom alone, with just the winch.
Youll overstress the winch and the crane structure.
During the erection and folding operation be sure
to stow all unused lockpins in the proper stowage
bracket so they wont get torn from their wire straps
and lost. That will also tend to discourage others
from borrowing them.
NOTE
At no time will the hangar deck crane
be towed in the erect position due to
possi bl e stress damage to the crane
structure.
115. Operation and Use. Take the following precau-
tions while operating and using the crane:
S Dont erect, fold, or operate the crane
unless youre qualified.
S Always fold the crane properly for long
distance movement or towing.
S Never move or tow the crane faster than
you can walk or youll ruin the casters.
S For t owi ng, hook the t ow bar to the
tiedown handles under the winch.
S When towing the crane make sure the
winch-end casters are unlocked, and the leg end
casters are locked, so the crane will track safely.
Check that the wheels are really locked by trying
to swivel the caster. Dont just turn the ring pin
and assume it will snap into a notch.
S Make sure the brakes are OFF when
towing or moving the crane.
S Make proper allowances for turn radius
when towing the crane with a towbar.
S Make sure the hoist cable is not slack
and the positioning cable is stowed, so they wont
drag when the crane is moved.
S Make sure the spreader bar lockpins are
installed for towing or moving.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 006 00
Page 19
S Always double check that the Critical 8
lockpins are in place before using the erected crane.
S Always check overhead clearance, boom
to aircraft clearance, and crane leg under aircraft
clearance before and while, maneuvering crane into
position. Watch out for headknockers.
S Make sure all caster swivel locks and
brakes are ON before hoisting. Install tiedowns if
conditions require it.
S Make sure you use the proper aircraft
component hoi st sl i ng and that i t i s properl y
attached to the hook and to the component.
S Make sure you select winch speed before
loading the hoist cable. Remember, low speed is
safer than high speed.
S Dont exceed the crane or winch speed
weight capacity.
S Never stand under a loaded crane.
S Be sure you know and understand the
signals to be used.
S When maneuvering a loaded crane in tight
quarters and you want it to go only in one specific
direction, take time to use the caster swivel locks.
Physically check that the wheels are locked in the
right direction.
S Always use enough people to safely move
and control a loaded crane. Dont release the brakes
until everyone is ready to go.
S Watch the hoisting cable drum for bunch-
ing during raising operations to avoid sudden drops
while raising or lowering load.
S Use handlines to control the load when
conditions require.
S Never leave a loaded crane unattended.
S When securing the crane aboard ship, fold
the crane properly, stow all lockpins, lock the swivel
casters, set the caster brakes ON, and tie down
the crane. Ashore the crane is usually secured in
the erect position in a designated area.
S Keep the crane clean so that dirt and
grease won t hi de cracks, corrosi on, or other
defects.
116. STRADDLE TYPE ENGINE HOIST SAFETY
PRECAUTIONS AND PROCEDURES.
117. Qualifications. You shall be fully qualified and
licensed in accordance with WP 003 00.
118. The MIMs or instructions of the equipment
being repaired contain procedures for using the
straddle hoist to remove or install different compo-
nents. They also contain the information you need
about the proper adapters youll be using on the
equipment with the straddle hoists. You need to
know all of it to safely do the job.
119. Preoperational Inspection. We addressed the
hazards of a defective straddle hoist. A good,
thorough preoperational inspection before each time
you use the straddle hoist is the way to avoid those
hazards. The preoperational inspection for the 2,000
pound and 7,000 pound straddle type engine hoists
is NAVAIR 19-600-270-6-1.
120. During the preoperational inspection pay
particular attention to the following items:
S Check each caster assembly for flat wheel
spots, brake operation, swivel lock operation, and
free 360 degree swivel.
S Check all chain links for twists, distortion,
corrosion, and cracks.
S Check the hook for free swivel, distortion,
or elongation. Check operation of the hook safety
device.
S Check the track clamp for proper opera-
tion and alignment.
S Make sure the t rol l ey hoi st has free
movement along the beam and doesnt hang up.
S Check the frame for bends, cracks, securi-
ty, or other damage that can cause hazard to the
operation at hand.
121. If you find any items defective or missing
during your preoperational inspection, down the
straddle hoist. Notify your supervisor so the straddle
hoist can be repaired. Dont use a defective straddle
hoist.
122. Operation and Use. Take the following precau-
tions while operating and using the crane:
S Use the straddle hoist only if you and
the crew youre with are qualified.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 006 00
Page 20
S Make sure the brakes are OFF when
moving the straddle hoist.
S Always check overhead clearance, and
equipment clearance before, and while, maneuver-
ing the straddle hoist into position. Watch your
fingers.
S Make sure all caster swivel locks and
brakes are ON before hoisting. Install tiedowns if
conditions require it.
S Make sure you use the proper component
adapters and that they are properly attached to
the hook and to the component.
S Make sure as you hoist the equipment,
that it is centered and moves uniformly,
S Dont exceed the straddle hoist weight
capacity. The former 10,000 pound hoist is renamed
and limited to 7,000 pounds. Dont be fooled by
its name.
S Never work under or on equipment while
loaded on a straddle hoist.
S Be sure you know and understand the
signals to be used.
S Then maneuvering a loaded straddle hoist
in tight quarters and you want it to go only in one
specific direction, take time to use the caster swivel
locks. Physically check that the wheels are locked
in the right direction.
S Always use enough people to safely move
and control a loaded straddle hoist. Dont release
the brakes until everyone is ready to go.
S These straddle hoists are designed for
manual maneuvering only, do not use a tow tractor
to move them.
S Watch the hoisting cable for bunching
during raising operations to avoid sudden drops
while raising or lowering loads.
S Use handlines to control the load when
conditions require.
S Never leave a loaded straddle hoist unat-
tended.
S Keep the straddle hoist clean so that dirt
and grease wont hide cracks, corrosion, or other
defects.
123. Stowage. Like every other piece of SE, the
straddle hoist needs to be maintained for later use.
That means you need t o pl ace i t back i n i t s
designated area for when you need it. When you
put it back, do a post check of the straddle hoist.
Look at it thoroughly for any damage or overstress.
Make sure that when you need to utilize the straddle
hoist later, it is up and ready to go.
124. DOS AND DONTS.
125. Here is a summary of the safety precautions
covered in a short, clear DO and DONT form. Read
them. If you do not understand one of them, look
back in the manual and read the what, where, and
why of it. If you can not find it in the manual, ask
your supervisor and find out. It could save your
life.
126. Aircraft Crash Cranes.
S Do have a valid SE Operators License,
stating specific type/model aircraft crash cranes
before operating any aircraft crash crane regardless
of rate or rating.
S Do make sure all proper procedures,
requirements, and safety precautions are followed.
S Do ensure that there is a ground director
and safety observers/walkers.
S Dont drive if there are personnel standing
on the ladder or around the crane.
S Do maintain eye contact at all times with
the ground director and have an understanding of
all signals to be used.
S Do check equipment clearance before,
and while, maneuvering the crane into position.
S Do install tiedowns if conditions require it.
S Do make sure the proper slings/adapters
are used and that they are properly attached to
the hook and to the aircraft.
S Do watch the hoisting cables for bunching
during operations to avoid sudden drops while
raising or lowering loads.
S Do hoist the aircraft so that it is centered
and moves uniformly.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 006 00
Page 21
S Dont stand under or on an aircraft while
loaded on a crane.
S Do use handlines to control the load when
conditions require.
S Do a final walk around check when you
have parked and secured the unit.
127. 8-1/2 Ton Aircraft Maintenance Crane.
S Do have a valid SE Operators License,
stating specific type/model maintenance cranes
before operating any maintenance crane regardless
of rate or rating.
S Do read applicable MIMs and activity
instructions and understand them thoroughly prior
to operation.
S Do review the tasking with supervisor,
ground director, and safety observers involved.
Make sure all follow proper procedures, require-
ments, and safety precautions.
S Dont tamper with safety devices. Ensure
they are in good repair and properly adjusted.
S Dont eat, read, or otherwise divert atten-
tion from the tasking at hand.
S Do check the area for obstructions and
clearances. If power lines are in the work zone,
follow local safety regulations prior to commencing
any craning operations.
S Do barricade area prior to performing
operations with the crane.
S Do make sure outriggers are fully ex-
tended and set before swinging the boom to the
right or left.
S Do make sure the maintenance crane is
level before making a lift.
S Do avoid working with only front outriggers
extended.
S Do make sure the hoist cable is properly
attached to the load.
S Dont use unauthorized chains or slings.
S Do ensure that the safety latch on the
hook block works properly and the hook is properly
secured to the load.
S Do sound the horn to provide an audible
warning before hooking up.
S Dont get on or off a crane in motion.
S Do not permit anyone to ride the hook.
S Do be aware that when picking a load,
the cranes load radius increases.
S Dont start or stop suddenly. Lift carefully,
swing gently, brake smoothly, lower and set loads
carefully.
S Dont extend the boom without paying out
hoist cable. This will result in two-blocking.
S Do be sure load, fall lines, or any part
of maintenance crane does not snag or strike any
obstruction.
S Do be careful when swinging a long load.
S Dont pass loads over personnel or endan-
ger their safety.
S Dont overload the maintenance crane
load capacity.
S Do be aware of rated capacities of the
maintenance crane under all circumstances.
S Dont ever leave the maintenance crane
controls with a suspended load. Always lower the
load to the ground.
S Do inspect and ensure that the aerial
bucket is in good condition.
S Do make sure that all attaching devices
are available for the aerial bucket.
S Dont substitute latching devices on the
aerial bucket.
S Do have two qualified operators, when
using the aerial bucket.
S Dont raise objects using the aerial bucket.
S Do wear personal safety equipment at all
times when in the aerial bucket.
S Do a once look over after parking and
securing the maintenance crane.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 006 00
Page 22
128. Hangar Deck Crane.
S Dont move, inspect, erect, fold, position,
operate, or attempt to remove an aircraft component
with the hangar deck crane unless you are under
the direct supervision of a qualified supervisor or
have been fully qualified to do so on your type
aircraft.
S Do a complete preoperational inspection,
using the preoperational checklist, before each use
of the hangar deck crane.
S Dont use a defective crane.
S Do down a defective crane, report it, and
make sure no one else uses it.
S Do use the proper hoisting sling, inspect
it, and make sure it has been qualification tested
as required.
S Dont tow the crane in erected position.
S Dont tow or move the crane faster than
walking speed.
S Dont move or tow a folded crane with
the spreader bar unlocked.
S Do physically check the winch-end casters
unlocked, the leg end casters locked, and all caster
brakes OFF, before towing the crane.
S Dont drag the hoist or positioning cables
when towing or moving the crane.
S Do make allowances for length and turn
radius when towing the crane with a towbar.
S Do beware of pad eyes, drain grates,
hangar door tracks, tiedowns, chocks, and other
obstructions when towing, moving, or positioning
the crane.
S Do use at least two people to erect or
fold the crane.
S Do brief and understand all hand signals
to be used.
S Dont use the crane if any of the Critical
8 lockpins are missing or not properly in place.
S Dont substitute bolts or wrong size lock-
pins for the Critical 8.
S Do remove the spreader bar lockpins
before trying to lift and winch up the boom.
S Dont try to raise or lower the column and
boom using just the winch.
S Do manually lift and lower the column and
boom during the erecting and folding operation.
S Do use the low speed winch position when
erecting and folding the crane.
S Do manually hold the column and boom
off the deck while spreading or folding the legs.
S Dont drop or lay the column and boom
on the deck.
S Do check overhead clearance, boom to
aircraft clearance, and crane leg clearance under
the aircraft before, and while, maneuvering crane
into position.
S Do make sure all brakes are ON before
hoisting load.
S Dont exceed 400 pounds at high speed
winch position.
S Dont exceed 2000 pounds at low-speed
winch position.
S Dont stand under a loaded crane.
S Do use enough people to control and
safely move a loaded crane away from or up to
the aircraft.
S Do beware of cable bunching on the winch
drum.
S Do use handlines to control load swing
when necessary.
S Dont leave a loaded crane unattended.
129. Straddle Type Engine Hoists.
S Dont use the straddle hoist unless you
and your crew are qualified.
S Do a preoperational inspection using the
preoperational checklist prior to each use of the
straddle engine hoist.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 006 00
Page 23
S Dont use a defective straddle hoist. Down
it, let your supervisor know, and get it repaired.
S Dont maneuver the straddle hoist without
first checking overhead clearance, and equipment
cl earance before, and whi l e, maneuveri ng the
straddle hoist into position.
S Dont use a hammer to fit the hook into
a component adapter.
S Do make sure you use the proper compo-
nent adapters and that they are properly attached
to the hook and to the component.
S Do know and understand the signals to
be used during hoisting operations.
S Dont exceed the straddle hoist weight
capacity. Remember its only 7,000 pounds for the
former 10,000 pound straddle hoist.
S Dont hoist any equipment with the caster
swivel locks and brakes OFF. Install tiedowns if
conditions require it.
S Do use handlines to control the load when
conditions require.
S Dont allow the chain to bunch or kink
during raising operations to avoid sudden drops
while raising or lowering a load.
S Do make sure, as you hoist the equip-
ment, that it is centered and moves uniformly.
S Dont work on or under equipment loaded
on a straddle hoist.
S Do use enough people to safely move
and control a loaded straddle hoist.
S Dont use a tow tractor to push or move
a loaded straddle hoist.
S Dont release the brakes until everyone
is ready to go.
S Do make sure the brakes are OFF when
moving the straddle hoist.
S Do physically check that the wheels are
locked in the right direction when maneuvering a
loaded straddle hoist in tight quarters.
S Dont leave a loaded straddle hoist unat-
tended.
S Dont allow a straddle hoist to collect dirt
and grease that will hide cracks, corrosion, or other
defects.
130. LESSONS LEARNED/ACCIDENT REPORTS.
131. HANGAR DECK CRANE. This accident took
place aboard an aircraft carrier in the Mediterranean
Sea. It was 0400 in hangar bay one. The ship was
at anchor, the sea calm, and the deck had a moderate
port list but was steady. The hangar bay was well
lighted.
132. Two non-rated AMEs, under the supervision
of a third class petty officer, were in the process
of removing the bombardier/navigators ejection
seat from an aircraft. The crane was on the port
side of the aircraft along with the two airmen. The
AME3 was standing in the cockpit. The pilots seat
had already been removed. The B/N seat was
hoisted up and the AME3 directed the airmen to
move the crane away from the aircraft while he
checked clearances.
133. As the two airmen began moving the crane
and seat away from the cockpit, the right leg of
the crane caught on a tiedown chain. A plane
captain, wiping down the centerline drop tank,
pushed on the right leg of the crane and pulled
on the chain to free the leg. As the crane continued
to move, the right leg folded in. The crane rotated
to the right and then abruptly tipped over.
134. The ejection seat fell about 12 feet, striking
the aircraft on the way down. As the crane continued
to topple, it struck one airman in the back and
knocked him to the deck. He had been pushing
the crane from inside the legs. Medical assistance
was called and arrived promptly. The injured man
walked to sickbay for further observation and was
later released to light duty with minor blunt trauma
to the lower back.
135. The AME3 and the other airman dearmed
the guillotine and retract mechanism and called
the ships EOD team to remove the damaged seat
rocket motor. Cost of replacement seat and parts,
not including the damaged crane or manhours, was
over $32,000.00. We can also be pretty sure that
this aircraft didnt make it out of the phase check
on time either. The immediate cause of the accident
was a missing hinge lockpin in the right leg of the
crane. Supervisory error for sure, but one airman
knew the pin was missing and didnt think it was
important. The crane was erected without using
either the procedures in the
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 006 00
Page 24
MIMs or the placard instructions on the crane itself.
136. The supervisor was held accountable for
falsely signing the OPNAV 4790/52 and for using
defective equipment. No preoperational checklist
was available for use. No SE Operators License
was required to operate the crane and no workcent-
er training had been given the crew on inspection
or operation of the crane. Questioning of recent
trainees indicated that no formal training on how
to erect the crane was given, since shore based
hangar deck cranes were normally left erected.
137. CHAIN OF EVENTS. Youve probably heard
the expression accident chain before. The accident
chain is a series of events which lead up to an
accident. Usually they involve actions taken by people
involved in the accident. Many times they involve
people who were nowhere near the scene and yet,
their actions play an important part, they are a link
in the chain. Each link is a, If only he had done
this, or If only they had done that, or If only she
hadnt done it that way and so-forth.
138. The purpose of training, qualifications, pro-
fessional maintenance procedures, and safety pre-
cautions are to break the accident chain. Each one
gives us another chance to break the chain. And
so too, every time one is ignored, forgotten, or
not done, we add a link to the accident chain.
139. The hangar deck crane accident is a good
example. Lets list the accident chain that led up
to this accident and talk about some of the things
that could have been done to prevent it.
S None of the crew were qualified to inspect,
erect or operate the crane, yet they were doing
it and had done it before.
S No quality class or squadron training was
given.
S Apparently no one asked to receive a
checkout on the crane, although they had to use
it to do their job.
S The workcenter supervisor didnt know,
or didnt care, that his crew was not qualified.
S The AME3 and airmen, didnt tell their
supervisor that they werent qualified when he
assigned them the job.
S Someone borrowed or l ost the hi nge
lockpin.
S The airman didnt tell the AME3 that the
pin was missing, although he noticed it.
S The preoperational checklist (NAVAIR
17-600-96-6-1) was not available for the crew to
use.
S The AME3 di dn t perform a compl ete
preoperational inspection.
S The AME3 didnt use the procedures in
the aircraft MIM to erect the crane.
S The AME didnt use the instruction placard
mounted right on the crane.
140. If any one of the eleven actions above had
been taken, chances are the accident chain would
have been br oken. Not al l el even, onl y one.
Chances are that a year before the accident the
AME3 who was supervising this job, was probably
an airman striker doing the pushing on the crane
and learning. When he made third-class and found
himself as a supervisor, he probably assumed he
was qualified to erect and operate the crane since
he had helped many times before. But, he obviously
didnt learn enough and he wasnt really qualified.
If the accident hadnt happened, the two airmen
involved would probably assume they were qualified
too and eventually the accident would happen to
one, or both, of them.
141. You can bet that when any of these three
maintenancemen use the crane in the future, theyll
make double sure the hinge pins are in. They wont
have another accident like that. They learned the
hard way. But its also a very expensive way, in
dollars, in time, in work, in aircraft availability, in
embarrassment, in pain, and sometimes in lives.
We just cant afford to go that route and neither
can you if you want to stay safe and stay alive.
142. THE LAST WORD. Just as good, sound,
professional maintenance procedures and qualifica-
tions get passed along from the supervisors, so do
poor maintenance procedures, qualifications, and
safety attitudes get passed along from supervisors.
Remember, its your neck thats on the line now, and
your professional reputation later when youre the
supervisor.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 006 00
Page 25/(26 blank)
Learn the right way now. If youre using SE on
which you havent had a good check-out, then say
so and do something about it. You cant always
depend upon parental guidance from your supervi-
sor, and they (whoever they are) wont always see
that you do get checked out. If you dont get it,
ask for it. Dont forget your Safety Petty Officer,
he can help.
143. We hope you have noticed that there is a
lot of individual responsibility involved in breaking
an accident chain. In fact, when you get right down
to it, its all individual responsibility. They, is really
some individual, the supervisor is an individual, and
most important, you are an individual.
144. If they do the j ob ri ght, we l l have l ess
accidents. If the supervisors do their job right well
have less accidents. Unfortunately that doesnt
always happen. That means that when you use
SE, some of the links in the accident chain are
already there. You are the last chance to break
the chain. Even if they and the supervisor do the
job right, its still up to you not to add your own
links. So, the only one who can really stop accidents
is you, the individual. Be responsible. Be profession-
al. Be safe.
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 007 00
Change 1 - 1 July 2001 Page 1
CRYOGENIC EQUIPMENT
U.S. NAVY SUPPORT EQUIPMENT
COMMON
BASIC HANDLING & SAFETY MANUAL
Reference Material
History and Prevention WP 003 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Handling and Securing Equipment WP 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oxygen Equipment Aviation Crew Systems NAVAIR 13-1-6.4 Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oxygen/Nitrogen Systems NAVAIR 06-30-501 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, 2 Ton Generating Plant, LOX/LN2 NAVAIR 19-600-309-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, 50 Gal. LOX Trailer, TMU-27/M NAVAIR 19-600-282-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, 50 Gal. LOX Trailer, TMU-70/M NAVAIR 19-600-138-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Aircraft LOX Converter Purge Unit, A/M26M-3 NAVAIR 19-600-177-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Aviation Breathing Oxygen Analyzer Set, A/E24T/226 NAVAIR 17-600-190-6-1 . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Cryo Service System, 1000/2000 Gal. NAVAIR 19-600-262-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Cryo Service Systems, TMU-79F NAVAIR 19-600-206-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, LOX Converter Test Set NAVAIR 17-600-152-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Nitrogen Servicing Cart, NAN-3 NAVAIR 19-600-163-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Nitrogen Servicing Hand Truck, A/M34M--2 NAVAIR 19-600-193-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Oxygen/Nitrogen Generator, GGU-9/M NAVAIR 19-600-274-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Oxygen-Nitrogen Monitor, X540A NAVAIR 17-600-X540-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Portable Nitrogen Cylinder, 3000 PSI. NAVAIR 19-600-213-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Trailer Mounted Recharge Unit, LOX/LN2 NAVAIR 19-600-314-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Ultra Sonic Cleaning System NAVAIR 17-600-UCS-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Nitrogen Servicing Unit, A/M26U-4 AG-750AO-OMN-000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Oxygen/Nitrogen Trailer, 400 Gal. AG-310AO-OMN-000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Recharging Unit, LOX/LN2 AG-110CO-OMN-000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alphabetical Index
Subject Page No.
Hazards 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nitrogen Cart Hazards 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oxygen Cart Hazards 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LOX Cart Hazards 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nitrogen Servicing 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A/M26U-4 (NAN-4) 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A/M34M-2 (NAN-Jr) 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nitrogen Cylinder, Portable, 3000 PSI 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TMU-84/E 400 Gallon Mobile Storage Tanks 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oxygen Servicing 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GASEOUS 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A/U26U-1A Oxygen Servicing Unit 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Liquid Oxygen (LOX) 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TMU-70/M LOX Storage Tank 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TMU-27/M Essex 50 Gallon LOX Tanks Mobile 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TMU-83/E 400 Gallon Mobile Storage Tanks 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Parking and Securing 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Safety Precautions and Procedures - Nitrogen SE 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dos and Donts 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lessons Learned/Accident Reports - Nitrogen SE 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Portable High Pressure Gas Cylinder 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SEE IRAC # 6
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 007 00
Change 1 Page 2
Safety Precautions and Procedures - LOX 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cart Movement Precautions 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dos and Donts - LOX 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Handling Precautions 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lessons Learned/Accident Reports - LOX 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Protective Precautions 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Safety Precautions and Procedures - Oxygen Carts 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dos and Donts - Gaseous Oxygen Carts 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gaseous Oxygen 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lessons Learned /Accident Reports - Oxygen Carts 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Record of Applicable Technical Directives
None
1. NITROGEN SERVICING.
2. A/M26U-4 (NAN-4).
3. The NAN-4 Nitrogen Servicing Unit (Figure 1)
provides a mobile source of compressed nitrogen
to recharge aircraft nitrogen systems. It consists of
a welded steel frame assembly mounted on a two
wheel axle equipped with a retractable front landing
wheel. This wheel is to be in the retracted position
while the unit is being towed. Compressed gas
cylinders are mounted on the frame in two groups
of three cylinders each. Tool and storage boxes are
attached to the frame assembly between the two
groups of cylinders. A drawbar coupler ring on the
front of the frame assembly allows the equipment
to be towed. A hand operated brake system secures
the unit during operation and storage.
4. Nitrogen under pressure is transferred from the
servicing unit to the aircraft through a series of
gauges, valves, filters, and hoses located on the
control panel of the unit. The desired output pressure
is controlled by a pressure regulator and is indicated
on the high or low pressure gauge, depending on
supply pressure. It is equipped with a boost pump
that is capable of boosting nitrogen supply pressure
to a maximum of 3,500 psi. This pump is driven by
a gaseous motor that is actuated by an external air
source or by nitrogen contained in the cylinders
mounted on the unit.
5. A/M34M-2 (NAN-Jr) NITROGEN SERVICING
HANDTRUCK.
6. The NAN-Jr (Figure 2) is a mobile source of
compressed nitrogen for servicing aircraft nitrogen
systems. The unit is designed for helicopter servic-
ing aboard Air Capable Ships. It is comprised of
four major units; control panel assembly, service
hose assembly, cylinder truck assembly, and boost-
er pump assembly. It is a four wheeled unit which
holds two cylinders. It has a hand brake system
to hold it in position. It is equipped with low and
high pressure nitrogen gas servicing systems. The
nitrogen servicing systems are housed in the control
panel assembly which in conjunction with the gas
booster pump will supply nitrogen gas in pressure
ranges of 0-600 and 0-3500 psi. The low pressure
system is used for tire and accumulator service.
The hi gh pressure syst em i s used on st rut s,
accumulators, and other components.
7. TMU-83/E/TMU-84/E.
8. The TMU-83/E/TMU-84/E liquid oxygen/nitro-
gen storage tank (Figure 3) is trailer mounted and
has a 400 gallon capacity. There are lifting eyes
on the tank to provide for handling and transporting.
The trailer is a steel framework with spring mounted
solid axle running gear. The four wheels have
hydraulic brakes activated by a surge brake system.
The rear wheels are equipped with cable actuated
parking brakes.
9. NITROGEN CYLINDER, PORTABLE, 3000 PSI.
10. The Nitrogen Cylinder (Figure 4) is a portable
3000 psi nitrogen bottle encased in a steel tubular
frame. Controls include a shut-off valve, a pressure
regulator valve, and a bleed valve. It is used primarily
to service tires and various pneumatic systems on
aircraft.
11. OXYGEN SERVICING.
12. GASEOUS. Gaseous oxygen systems are nor-
mally serviced from servicing trailers (commonly
called oxygen carts) such as the A/U26U-1A.
13. A/ U26U- 1A Oxygen Ser vi ci ng Uni t . The
A/U26U-1A (Figure 5) is to replenish oxygen storage
cylinders and emergency bailout oxygen systems
which are installed in aircraft. The trailer has two
fixed wheels and a retractable, rotatable caster wheel
for movement by hand. It may also be towed by
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 007 00
Change 1 Page 3
a tow tractor. The unit contains a nitrogen module,
oxygen module, and three cylinders of gas. Two
cylinders of nitrogen are used to drive the boost pump
and one cylinder of oxygen for servicing. The modules
contain the gas pressure and flow controls, boost
pump, connectors, and safety devices within a
protective case.
14. LIQUID OXYGEN (LOX). Liquid oxygen sys-
tems both ashore and afloat are serviced using
the liquid oxygen servicing trailers described herein.
15. TMU-70/M LOX Storage Tank. The primary
purpose of the TMU-70/M (Figure 6) is to service
aircraft LOX converters. The cart consists of three
major components:
a. 50 gallon storage tank.
b. 15 liter transfer tank.
c. System of transfer lines and control valves.
16. Both tanks are equipped with liquid level
gauges, pressure gauges, and pressure rel i ef
devices. The components are permanently
007001
Figure 1. A/M26U-4 (NAN-4) Nitrogen Servicing Unit.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 007 00
Change 1 Page 4
007002
Figure 2. A/M34M-2 (NAN Jr.) Nitrogen Servicing Handtruck.
007003
Figure 3. TMU-83/E Oxygen/TMU-84/E Nitrogen
400 Gallon Mobile Storage Tank
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 007 00
Change 1 Page 5
007004
Figure 4. Nitrogen Cylinder, Portable, 3000 PSI
007005
Figure 5. A/U26U-1A Oxygen Servicing Unit.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 007 00
Change 1 Page 6
mounted on a portable 3-wheel trailer. The complete
unit, filled with LOX, weighs 1175 pounds. The front
wheel i s a f r ee swi vel i ng cast er t ype and i s
retractable. A lunette eye is attached to the front
of the frame for towing. A tubular bar, attached
to the frame and running up over the top, is provided
for manual handling. The parking brake handle is
located in front next to the handling bar. Parking
brakes are mechanical drum/shoe type. All three
tires are pneumatic. Four tiedown and hoisting rings
are provided on the frame. The rings permit hoisting
of the unit fully loaded with LOX.
17. The TMU-70/M closed loop transfer system
is designed to reduce oxygen loss during transfer
to the aircraft converter. The LOX overflow and
gaseous oxygen vapors vented from the converter,
and vapors from the cart transfer tank are returned
to the storage tank for cooldown and retention.
18. TMU-27/M/Essex 50 Gallon LOX Tanks Moble.
19. The TMU-27/M/Essex 50 Gallon (Figure 7)
are liquid oxygen storage tanks with a 50 gallon
capacity. The tanks are comprised of a chassis
with running gear, storage tank, and control hous-
ing. The control housing contains the operating
controls and indicators. The running gear consists
of two side wheels and a retractable front wheel.
The side wheels are equipped with parking brakes
operated by a hand lever on the side of the tank.The
TMU-27/M/Essex 50 Gallon LOX trailers are utilized
to service aircraft with built-in LOX converters as
typically seen in transient aircraft.
20. HAZARDS.
21. NITROGEN CART HAZARDS. Nitrogen carts
are high pressure systems. The six cylinders are
normally charged to 3500 psi. Therefore, the cylin-
ders, valves, pressure lines, hoses, and fittings are
all subject to bursting and causing serious injury. The
cylinders are always exposed to being hit and
cracked, dented, or scratched. Any of these can lead
to explosive rupture. The cylinders are only retested
for pressure integrity every 5 years, so damage may
go undetected for a long period of time, unless you
find it.
22. If a valve controlling the flow of high pressure
gas is opened rapidly, the surge of pressure could
cause rupture of lines or fittings. Pressure gauges
can be damaged or put out of calibration. Correct
readings when operating with high pressure sys-
tems are vital to safe operation.
23. Loose connections on hoses, valves, and
fittings can be hazardous. They start as a leak
but can rapidly become explosive. If you hear a
007006
Figure 6. TMU-70M LOX Storage Tank.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 007 00
Change 1 Page 6A/(6B blank)
007007
Figure 7. TMU-27/M/Essex 50 Gallon LOX Tanks Mobile.
leak anywhere on the cart, immediately close all
the cylinder valves and stand clear. Investigating
or trying repairs on your own is dangerous.
24. Although the lines, hoses, fittings, and connec-
tors are specially designed for high pressure, their
size often makes them interchangeable with low
pressure systems. Such a mistaken or jury-rigged
swap of parts could be disastrous. Since the carts
are used by different activities, with different types
of aircraft systems, unauthorized and dangerous
exchange of hoses and connectors can easily take
place.
25. The hazard of exchanging components be-
tween nitrogen and oxygen carts exists. There is
also the hazard of trying to fill a nitrogen cart with
oxygen. Although Class I water pumped (oil free)
nitrogen is used throughout naval aviation, the
possibility of Class II oil tolerant nitrogen inadver-
tently being used still exists. Nitrogen carts, since
they are used to service many hydraulic and other
aircraft systems, are also more likely to be contami-
nated with small quantities of combustible materials.
Therefore, exchanging components or accidentally
charging a nitrogen cart with oxygen could result
i n an expl osi on when t he oxygen and oi l or
combustibles meet.
26. For the same reasons, using a NAN series
nitrogen cart normally used to service struts, etc.,
to purge any oxygen or LOX system or cart is
dangerous. An Aircraft LOX System Gas Purging
Set, specifically designed to purge on-board LOX
systems or converters, is available and should be
used.
27. Ni trogen gas wi l l not support l i fe, and i f
released in a confined space will cause loss of
consciousness and possibly death as a result of
too little oxygen and too much carbon dioxide in
the blood.
28. The tires on nitrogen carts are considered
hazardous and must be treated the same as aircraft
wheels and tires. Removal, without first deflating
the tire, is dangerous. Servicing without the use
of remote inflators and gauges is extremely hazard-
ous.
29. The servi ce hoses on ni trogen carts are
subject to wear, cracks, or general deterioration.
A burst hose under several thousand pounds of
pressure can whip and severely injure you. Tightly
stretching a service hose, or kinking it, increases
the possibility of a rupture.
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 007 00
Change 1 Page 7
30. The servicing valve is attached to the servicing
hose and should remain with the cart at all times.
The valve must be attached to the servicing hose
prior to pressurization to prevent hose whipping.
31. Contamination of the nitrogen cart and/or the
systems being serviced is always a hazard. Dirt
and dust can easily enter valves, service connec-
tors, and chucks. The results of contaminating a
high pressure pneumatic system in an aircraft can
be disastrous to both aircraft and flight crews.
32. Towing, positioning, and movement of the
carts close to aircraft is hazardous. Unless you
take extreme care and use the proper procedures,
accidents between the cart and aircraft will happen.
Because of its weight, lack of steering capability,
and inconveni ent hand brake posi tion, manual
movement of the cart is difficult and not recom-
mended. The caster wheel is not designed for
towing and must be in the retracted position for
towing. Severe vibration, tire wear or blowout can
result if the cart is towed with the caster wheel
on the ground.
33. Probably the most serious hazard concerning
nitrogen carts is operation by unqualified personnel.
High pressure nitrogen carts are mercilessly unfor-
giving of the mistakes of unqualified operators or
those who are careless or complacent. Remember,
you must not only be qualified on the cart but must
also know the pressure of the system you are
servicing. Applying 3000 psi to a 1000 psi system
or a 350 psi tire can have catastrophic results.
34. Mating the nitrogen servicing units to various
aircraft systems and tires requires knowledge and
extreme care in the use of proper fittings, connec-
tors, tire valve adapters, and so forth. Using the
wrong ones or using worn, damaged, or jury rigged
fittings is extremely dangerous.
35. A special hazard of the nitrogen cylinder can
be its condition. Since the nitrogen cylinder is so
portable and is subject to rough treatment, its
condition can deteriorate in short time. The gauges
may be out of calibration. There is a tendency to
pull the cylinder along the ground by the service
hose and to throw the cylinder around. Careful
inspection before use is a real necessity for safety.
This piece of equipment is prepositioned squadron
gear and is not checked out from the SE division
every day. Therefore, turn in for periodic inspection,
maintenance, and repair is a squadron responsibility.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 007 00
Page 8
36. OXYGEN CART HAZARDS. Although you will
probably read more and hear more about the dangers
of LOX, accident report data show that gaseous
oxygen handling is involved in more accidents than
LOX handling. The most probable reason for this
is that people generally consider LOX handling more
dangerous and are therefore more careful. Remem-
ber, servicing with gaseous oxygen can be just as
dangerous, if not more so, than servicing with LOX.
Give them both the respect they deserve.
37. All of the hazards described for nitrogen carts
also apply for oxygen carts. In addition of course,
is the primary hazard of the oxygen. Although not
flammable in itself, oxygen is the chief supporter
of combustion. It accelerates the burning of almost
any substance it comes in contact with, so the
danger of fire or even explosion is very great
whenever handling oxygen.
38. Your work environment is generally saturated
with fuels, oils, greases, and other materials which
absorb oxygen like a sponge and create serious
fire hazards. The oxygen carts contain safety plugs
and discs to protect both the equipment and the
aircraft systems. Keep in mind that if these safety
features blow, they create a secondary hazard of
a large flow of gaseous oxygen into the surrounding
area. If these safety features are faulty, jury-rigged,
or by-passed, overpressure will cause some part
of the aircraft system or oxygen cart system to
blow.
39. Any source of ignition is extremely hazardous
in oxygen handling areas. That includes not only
open flame and smoking materials but also electric
arcs from handtools, motors, lights and switches;
electrostatic sparks from various sources due to
improper or lack of grounding; or impact sparks
from contact of tools and metal. Rapid opening
or closing of valves in an oxygen system not only
results in pressure surges but can increase the
temperature of the oxygen through compression
waves. This temperature can cause ignition of the
oxygen equipment itself and cause fire or explosion.
This is particularly true if the system is dirty or
contaminated.
40. Contamination in oxygen or the equipment is
dangerous, not onl y to fl i ght crews who must
breathe it, but because of the fire or explosion
potential mentioned above. Accident reports prove
that if the cart hose connector or the aircraft filler
connector (or bailout bottle) is dirty, the chance
is great that youll get an explosion. Good house-
keeping and absolute cleanliness is necessary
during the servicing of the oxygen cart or while
servicing an aircraft system from the cart.
41. Hoses, valves, fittings, and jam nuts can come
loose and cause explosive failures. If you can hear
a leak anywhere on the cart, immediately close
all cylinder valves. Trying to investigate or repair
leaks on your own could result in serious injury.
42. As with nitrogen carts, complete familiarity with
gaseous oxygen carts is basic to safe operating
techniques. Operation by unqualified people is a
hazard not only to them but to the aircraft, equip-
ment, and others in the area.
43. LOX CART HAZARDS. You should think of LOX
as one of the most dangerous materials you may
handle when servicing aircraft. LOX carts and aircraft
LOX converters can be considered as potential
bombs. You should treat them that way. Aircraft
LOX converts are similar in most respects to LOX
carts. Therefore, all the hazards associated with
handling and servicing LOX carts also apply to LOX
converters. Since LOX turns to gaseous oxygen when
its released from containers, all the hazards of
gaseous oxygen we discussed before also apply to
LOX.
44. The hazards you face in handling LOX carts
and converters are due to three properties of LOX:
extreme cold temperatures; tremendous expansion
in volume when it reverts to gas; great ability to
support intense burning of almost any material
known to man. The temperature of LOX, about
minus 297_F, can instantaneously freeze and seri-
ously damage human tissue on contact. One splash
in your eye, and that eye has had it. You can
assume that the uninsulated or frosted parts of LOX
equipment are at the same temperature and will
freeze to your skin on contact. A neat way to lose
your finger prints or a strip of skin.
45. PARKING AND SECURING.
46. When youve finished using the cart, make
sure the hose is properly stowed and the box is
latched closed. Then tow the cart back and park
it in an authorized space. Apply the parking brake
and install chocks or tiedowns. Disconnect it from
the tow vehicle and dont forget to remove the safety
chains.
47. Dont abuse the cart. Dont tow it with the
front caster wheel down. Dont tow it with a flat
ti re. Remember that there are no suspensi on
springs on the carts, so they must be towed slowly,
especially over bumpy or rough surfaces.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 007 00
Page 9
If you tow the cart with the hose on top, it will
invariably fall off and be dragged or run over. Dont
use the hose boxes to store dirty rags, tools, or
garbage. Dont remove parts from the service hose.
This only downs an otherwise good cart for the
next user. Dont abuse the pressure regulator valve
by forcing it open or closed too tightly and never
use a strap wrench on it. If you cant operate the
regulator with one hand, turn the cart in for repair.
Broken regulators are the single biggest cause for
inoperative nitrogen carts.
48. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND PROCEDURES
- NITROGEN SE.
49. You shall be fully qualified and licensed in
accordance with WP 003 00.
50. As with all other SE, the first safety procedure
to follow before operating a nitrogen cart is to
perform a preoperational check prior to each.
51. If you find something wrong with the cart
requiring repair-parking brake, flat tire, pressure
regulator valve broken or inoperative-dont ignore
it. Dont try to work around it. Dont try to repair
it either. Youre not qualified to do maintenance
repair work on SE. Report it to your supervisor.
It shall be returned to SE division for repair. Never
jury-rig repairs or safety devices on any support
equipment, especially where high pressure gases
are involved. Each time the nitrogen cart is used
the following checks are recommended:
a. Do a walkaround and check for low or flat
tires or other obvious defects.
b. Check the security of all cylinders on the
trailer.
c. Open storage box and check to see that
service hose and valve are still there.
d. Check service hose for secure attachment,
cuts, kinks, or deterioration.
e. Check parking brake ON and push cart to
see that brake holds.
f. Check cylinder pressure gages to ensure
you have enough nitrogen for the job. Cylinder
pressure must be greater than desired delivery
pressure.
g. Check valves and regulator for proper open
or closed positions.
h. Check for broken gauges.
i. Raise the front caster wheel and lock it up
if youre attaching part to tow vehicle.
j. Connect the safety chain to tow vehicle.
k. After cart is safely connected to tow vehicle,
remove chocks and release parking brake.
52. If you are doing the towing, follow the safety
precautions for towing SE in WP 005 00. if you
havent read them before, read them now.
53. Servicing an aircraft with a nitrogen cart is
always a two person job. You need one on the
hose and one at the control panel to be safe.
The following precautions must be ob-
served at all times when operating the
nitrogen cart:
a. Nitrogen gas will not support life and if
released in a confined space will cause loss of
consciousness and possibly death as a result of
too little oxygen in the blood.
b. Because of high pressures used in this
system, do not, under any circumstances, inter-
change any components on this system.
c. Dont charge a nitrogen cart with oxygen
or interchange components with oxygen compo-
nents. Do not use this system to purge oxygen
components or systems. To do so may cause an
explosion.
d. When servicing, do not have more than one
control lever valve of the motor system (green
valves) or one control lever valve of the pump
system (red valves) open at one time to prevent
equalizing pressure between cylinders.
e. If you hear a leak anywhere on the cart,
immediately close all cylinder valves. Dont try to
investigate or repair on your own.
f. Do not open manifold bypass valve at any
time unless recharging cylinders.
g. All valves that control the flow of high
pressure nitrogen must be opened slowly to prevent
surges of pressure that could cause rupture of
components.
h. Servicing and recharging connections must
be free of dirt or contamination.
SEE IRAC # 6
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 007 00
Change 1 Page 10
i. Servicing hose should be slack when under
pressure and should never be stretched to make
a connection. A stretched hose may cause rupture
of the hose or connection.
j. Never use a nitrogen cart as a source of
air to run low pressure pneumatic tools. The tools
can explode.
54. In addi ti on to the above, use the proper
operating procedures that you learned at SE school
for servicing, shutdown, and recharging. Remem-
ber, any time you dont follow the right procedures,
you open the door to an accident and possible
injury.
55. PORTABLE HIGH PRESSURE GAS CYL-
INDER. The nitrogen cylinder requires a SE license
to operate, it is a high pressure system and therefore
dangerous. Use by an unqualified operator is foolhar-
dy and dangerous.
56. The nitrogen cylinder is normally prepositioned
squadron equipment and is checked out on subcus-
tody from AIMD. Although preoperational checks
are the responsibility of the unit having custody
of it, the equipment shall be turned in to the SE
division for repairs and periodic maintenance by
qualified AS ratings.
57. Since youre the one wholl be using the
nitrogen cylinder, and since youll be the one who
might get hurt if it breaks, check with your supervi-
sor and maintenance control to make sure the
equipment gets turned in for periodic maintenance
required.
58. Due to the above situation and the rough
treatment the nitrogen cylinder can be subjected
to, the first safety precaution to take before using
it each time is to perform a preoperational check
to include the following:
a. Check the tubul ar frame for breaks or
obvious cracks.
b. Check the cylinder for obvious dents, big
scratches, or deformed spots which may cause it
to explode when you charge the bottle to 3000
psi.
c. Check the cylinder for security in the frame
to make sure it wont fall out while youre handling
it.
d. Check the regulator, cylinder, and hose
fittings and lines for obvious damage and security.
e. Check the gauges to see they arent broken
and check the calibration date. Gauges that dont
read correctly are dangerous.
f. Check the hose for cuts, wear, or deteriora-
tion.
g. Check the hose to be sure its attached
securely and is clean.
h. Read the instruction plate on the control
panel to refresh your memory on correct operating
procedure.
59. Dont abuse the nitrogen cylinder. Dont drop
it or throw it around. Dont drag the unit across
the deck by the service hose. Dont expose it to
heat from jet or GTC exhaust. A 3000 psi gas bottle
is a potential bomb. Treat it with respect.
Never use the nitrogen cylinder as a
source of air for low pressure pneumatic
tools. The tools can explode.
Under no circumstances will an aircraft
tire be pressurized directly from a nitro-
gen cylinder, nitrogen cart, or other pres-
sure source without the use of a remote
tire inflator.
60. DOS AND DONTS.
61. Nitrogen Carts.
S Dont operate a nitrogen cart unless you
are fully qualified and licensed in accordance with
WP 003 00.
S Do complete preoperational checklist prior
to each use.
S Dont operate a nitrogen cart thats defec-
tive.
S Do down a defective nitrogen cart and
make sure no one else uses it.
S Do report unsafe or defective nitrogen
carts.
S Dont jury-rig safety devices or repairs.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 007 00
Change 1 Page 11
S Dont attempt to repair this unit, only
authorized personnel are to repair.
S Do lock the caster wheel up before towing.
S Dont tow with caster wheel dragging on
unit, the ramp.
S Do close the cylinder valves when towing
or stowing the cart.
S Do determine pressure of system to be
charged before using cart.
S Do bleed the servicing hose before con-
necting to system.
S Dont stretch the service hose tightly to
reach a connection.
S Do stow the service hose in the box after
use.
S Do ensure servicing valve is installed prior
to pressurizing service hose.
S Dont use tools or both hands to open
or close the regulator.
S Do use t wo peopl e t o oper at e t he
cart. Dont do it alone.
S Don t use thi s cart to purge oxygen
components or systems.
S Dont use this cart to run pneumatic tools.
S Dont store or put grease, rags, or FOD
in hose boxes.
S Dont stand on top of cart.
S Do use the remote ti re i nfl ator when
inflating tires with this cart.
S Do remember the hazards of high pres-
sure gases.
S Dont charge a nitrogen cart with oxygen
or interchange components with oxygen carts.
S Do open all valves slowly.
S Dont abuse the cart.
62. Nitrogen Cylinder.
S Do make sure your ni trogen cyl i nder
receives periodic maintenance at AIMD.
S Dont use a nitrogen cylinder unless you
are qualified to use it.
S Do complete preoperational checklist on
nitrogen cylinder prior to each use.
S Dont use a defective nitrogen cylinder.
S Do down a defective nitrogen cylinder,
report it, and make sure no one else uses it.
S Dont shortcut procedures for filling the
unit.
S Do use the remote tire inflator with the
walkaround bottle when inflating tires.
S Dont drop or throw the nitrogen cylinder
on the deck.
S Dont drag it around by the service hose.
S Dont use the walkaround bottle as a
source of air for pneumatic tools.
63. LESSONS LEARNED/ACCIDENT REPORTS
- NITROGEN SE.
64. Nitrogen Cart. We said in WP 003 00 that 95
out of 100 SE accidents involved personnel error
of one kind or another. Some of the other 5 accidents
involve material failure. Here is one of those material
failures.
65. An AMSAN was directed to service an aircraft
with nitrogen. He attached the servicing hose to
the aircraft, positioned himself to the left of the
nitrogen cart, and charged the manifold. He then
leaned forward over the control panel to adjust the
manifold pressure regulator valve. As soon as he
turned the valve, the valve head, stem, jam nut,
and spring exploded out of the valve seat, striking
him in the forehead.
66. After being discovered by his supervisor,
semiconscious and bleeding, he was taken to the
hospital, held overnight, and discharged the next
day in a full-duty status.
67. Investigation revealed that at the time of the
incident, only one thread was holding the valve
stem. It was concluded that the jam nut probably
loosened during normal use, permitting the valve
stem to be gradually unscrewed. Although frequent
close inspections of the valve would most probably
find such a malfunction, it shouldnt happen in the
first place. As a result of this accident, the Navy
is in the process of developing a fail-safe fix to
prevent the valve stems from unseating during
normal use.
68. This accident brings up a couple of important
points. The first point is that reports of malfunctions
and accidents like this, usually result in some
action to make SE safer for you to use. The second
point is that these types of malfunctions must be
reported before any action can be taken. Have
these valves come loose
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 007 00
Change 1 Page 12
before? The nitrogen carts have been around since
before you were born. Is this the first time this ever
happened? Chances are its not. If normal use had
only caused a leak, instead of an explosion, would
it have been reported as an incident? Probably not,
but it should have. The final point is, if you report
incidents like leaks, which could cause accidents
later, chances are better that it will be fixed before
we have an accident.
69. Nitrogen Cylinder Misuse. Two inexperienced
metalsmiths were performing a repair on an aircraft
which required the use of a rivet gun and pneumatic
drill. The fitting required to connect to the hangar
low pressure air was locked away in another tool
box. In order to accomplish the task, the rivet gun
was connected to a 3000 psi nitrogen cylinder,
charged to a reported 700 psi. While adjusting the
pull on the rivet gun, it exploded in the mans lap
resulting in major injuries.
70. Squadron fittings to adapt these tools to the
nitrogen cylinder were available and their use to
operate low pressure equipment was apparently
standard operating procedure (SOP) when low
pressure air was not available. Learn a lesson from
this. The misuse of high pressure air is a potential
killer in all applications. Just because everybody
does it doesnt mean its safe. Stick to the basic
safety precautions for compressed air or nitrogen.
71. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND PROCEDURES
- OXYGEN CARTS.
72. You shall be fully qualified and licensed in
accordance with WP 003 00.
73. GASEOUS OXYGEN. Since the oxygen carts
are very similar to the nitrogen carts, all of the safety
precautions and procedures are the same and wont
be repeated. The primary difference from nitrogen
carts is, of course, the contents - oxygen and the
fire or explosion hazards it creates.
Oil, grease, or other readily oxidizable
(combustible) material in the presence
of oxygen is dangerous. When handling
any parts of the oxygen equipment, your
hands or gloves must be clean and free
of these substances. This also applies
to any adaptors, fittings, and tools used.
If you neglect these precautions a fire
or explosion may result.
74. The above warning is the basic and primary
precaution you must remember when handling
gaseous oxygen. Here are other safety precautions
to follow for safe operation of the oxygen carts:
a. Observe and enforce the precaution of no
smoking within 50 feet of oxygen equipment.
b. Always perform a preoperational inspection
and have a fire extinguisher immediately at hand
when operating an oxygen cart.
c. If you hear a leak anywhere on the cart,
immediately close all cylinder valves. Dont try to
investigate or repair on your own.
d. In case of fire, shut off the source of oxygen
if possible.
e. Inspect the servicing hose and aircraft or
emergency bottle connection fittings and carefully
remove any trace of dirt, oil, or grease with an
approved lint-free clean cloth.
f. Bleed the servicing hose to make sure any
loose foreign material is blown out of the hose
before connecting to the system youre charging.
g. Always open and close all valves slowly
to avoid the hazard of adiabatic compression which
can cause internal ignition and equipment explosion
followed by a violent oxygen fed fire.
h. Always know the pressure existing in the
aircraft oxygen system to be filled and the pressure
in all cylinders to be used up in the cascading
process before commencing recharge operation.
i. Make sure the line valve on the discharge
end of the service hose is always closed when
not actually servicing a system.
j. Never have more than one cylinder control
valve open during cascade transfer operation to
prevent equalizing the pressure in the cylinders.
k. Never stretch the service hose tightly to
reach a connection.
l. When you disconnect the service hose from
the system youve charged, loosen the connection
slowly to prevent rapid bleeding of the trapped
oxygen.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 007 00
Change 1 Page 13
m. Make sure all oxygen cylinder valves are
closed when the cart is stowed and especially while
moving or towing the cart.
n. Never use an oxygen cart for any purpose
other than to charge an oxygen system. Dont use
it as a substitute for nitrogen or compressed air.
Dont use it to dust off your clothing or work area
or to blow-dry parts.
75. Since aircraft oxygen systems vary in design,
you must be completely familiar with the particular
system you are servicing. Check the MIMs. Few
gaseous oxygen systems exist in Navy aircraft today
except for emergency or bailout bottles which are
serviced out of, and away from, aircraft. If you are
servicing a system in an aircraft take the following
precautions:
a. The aircraft electrical system must be off.
No external power, other servicing, or maintenance
work or any kind should be conducted on the aircraft
while servicing the oxygen system. Remember, any
possible source of ignition is extremely dangerous.
b. Dont service an oxygen system within 50
feet of any fuel truck or refueling/defueling opera-
tion.
c. Make sure the aircraft is properly grounded
and that you ground the oxygen cart to prevent
the possibility of static spark. Static grounding cables
are to resistance checked in accordance with MIL-
HDBK-274(AS).
d. Make sure a fire extinguisher is immediately
at hand.
e. Use two people - one on the hose and one
at the cart control panels - for servicing onboard
aircraft oxygen systems. Although it can be done
al one, i t i s much more hazardous to you, the
equipment, and the aircraft.
76. In addition to all the above, use the exact
operating procedures for servicing, recharging, and
shutdown that you learned at SE school. The right
way is always a safe way. Dont abuse the oxygen
cart. Keep a positive safety attitude and treat the
cart with reasonable care and respect. In turn, it
will he up and ready to go when you need it.
77. DOS AND DONTS - GASEOUS OXYGEN
CARTS.
S Dont operate an oxygen cart unless you
are fully qualified and licensed in accordance with
WP 003 00.
S Do complete preoperational checklist on
oxygen cart prior to each use.
S Dont operate a defective oxygen cart.
S Do down a defective oxygen cart, report
it, and make sure no one else uses it.
S Do keep the cart clean and free of grease
and oil at all times.
S Do close the cylinder valves when towing
or stowing the cart.
S Do lock the caster wheel up before towing.
S Dont tow with the caster wheel dragging
on the deck.
S Do use the safety tow chains when so
equipped.
S Dont use tools or both hands to close
or open the pressure regulator.
S Do know the pressure limits of the system
to be charged.
S Do properly ground the aircraft/SE and
the cart before servicing.
S Do bleed the service hose before connect-
ing to the system.
S Do open and close all valves slowly.
S Dont open more than one oxygen cylinder
valve at a time.
S Dont charge emergency bail-out bottles
while in the cockpit.
S Dont charge emergency bail-out bottles
too rapidly.
S Dont stretch the service hose tightly to
reach a connection.
S Do park the cart as far from the aircraft
as you can without stretching the service hose.
S Dont use oxygen instead of compressed
air for any purpose.
S Dont strike or hammer the valves or
cylinders to open or close valves.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 007 00
Page 14
S Do stow the service hose properly after
use.
S Do stow the cart in a designated area
and out of the weather when possible.
S Do observe and enforce no smoking within
50 feet of the cart.
S Dont service an oxygen system within
50 feet of any fuel truck or fueling operation.
S Do make sure the aircraft electrical system
is OFF and no maintenance work is being performed
on the aircraft during servicing.
S Do use only clean tools.
S Do use two people for servicing on-board
oxygen systems.
S Do remember that more accidents happen
with gaseous oxygen than with LOX.
78. LESSONS LEARNED/ACCIDENT REPORTS
- OXYGEN CARTS.
79. GASEOUS OXYGEN CART. An AME3 was
assigned to service a portable oxygen cylinder in
an aircraft. During the servicing, he heard a leak
in the oxygen cart. As he was investigating the source
of the leak, the hose assembly between the manifold
and the dryer assembly ruptured. Two pieces of the
hose separated and struck the operator on the lower
forearm causing a puncture wound. At the same time
the explosive pressure from the escaping oxygen
struck him in the calf, resulting in a severe bruise.
He was taken to sickbay, treated, and placed on light
duty for 24 hours.
80. Heres a case where the hose had deteriorated
and nobody caught it before the accident. When
youre working with any system at 3000 psi this
type of thing can happen, so youve got to be aware
of the hazards all the time. If you hear a leak in
a gaseous oxygen cart, dont mess with it. First,
and immediately turn off the cylinder valves. Then,
down the cart, report it, make sure no one else
uses it. Let the experts at AIMD investigate the
problem. They work on the gear and know it a
whole lot better than you do.
81. In another case, someone goofed and got
away with it. The results could have been disastrous
for whoever it was, and for some pilot who depends
on people knowing what theyre doing.
82. Someone serviced an RSSK-8D Seat Pan with
an oxygen cart and he did it too rapidly. The too
rapid servicing of the oxygen cylinder resulted in
the pai nt bei ng mel ted from the cyl i nder, and
dripping on the raft cover and drop line, and partially
mel ti ng al l the cyl i nder hol d down cl amps. A
functional check of the bailout bottle pressure
reducer produced no flow because the pressure
reducer seat was melted to the reducer assembly.
83. Someone narrowly escaped causing an explo-
sion or fire. They also fixed it so the bailout bottle
wouldnt work after an ejection or in an emergency.
No one knows how l ong the RSSK had been
installed in the aircraft in this condition.
84. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND PROCEDURES
- LOX.
85. Perform a preoperational check prior to each
use of the LOX cart. Remember, youre working
with a potential bomb. Dont let familiarity make
you complacent.
86. PROTECTIVE PRECAUTIONS. To avoid the
hazards of LOX and to protect yourself, you shall
wear the minimum protective clothing required for
all LOX handlers. Heres what you must wear:
a. Face shield
b. LOX handlers coveralls
c. Rubber apron
d. Welders gloves
e. LOX boots
87. Keep the face shield in the down position.
You onl y have one pai r of eyes and they are
important! The shield is to protect your eyes not
the top of your head. Wear the coveralls outside
the boots so that LOX cant get into the boot top
and destroy your foot. Never roll up the legs or
sleeves. Make sure the gloves are loose fitting so
you can get them off in a hurry before LOX destroys
a hand. Wear the apron so the LOX rolls away
harmlessly instead of saturating your coveralls
which could make you a human torch with one
spark. If any apart of your body should come in
contact with LOX or you even suspect that some
part of you has been frozen or frostbitten, thaw
the area with clean water and report immediately
to sickbay. If LOX gets into your gloves or boots
and you remove them and flush them out with water,
dont put them back on!
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 007 00
Page 15
88. HANDLING PRECAUTIONS. Take the following
general safety precautions when handling LOX. Some
are the same as for gaseous oxygen but they bear
repeating:
a. Do not permit smoking, open flames, or
sparks in LOX handling areas. There should not
be any source of ignition within 50 feet.
b. Dont carry matches or lighters in LOX
handling areas.
c. Beware of handling LOX in areas containing
oil, grease, asphalt, tar, fuel, hydraulic fluid, or other
combustible materials.
d. Use clean drip pans or overflow containers
to contain LOX overflow or spillage from aircraft
and the LOX cart. This is especially important where
you have fuel or oil soaked deck areas.
e. Dont skylark with LOX spillage or allow
horseplay near LOX equipment.
f. Handle LOX converters, carts, and hoses
with care to avoid damaging the insulating space.
They are fragile.
g. Open and close all valves slowly to avoid
thermal shock and dangerous compression surges.
h. When transferring LOX, dont leave valves
open all the way. Open wide and then close about
one-fourth turn to prevent them from freezing open.
i. Dont leave LOX in a closed container or
trapped in a line between two valves. This avoids
dangerous pressure buildup and rupture or explo-
sion.
j. Always disconnect lines as soon as transfer
is complete, drain service hose and install protective
caps.
k. Make sure a CO
2
fire extinguisher is always
available around LOX equipment in case fire erupts.
In case of fire, shut off the source of LOX if possible.
89. CART MOVEMENT PRECAUTIONS. Generally
LOX carts remain stationary in the LOX handling area,
but they must be moved to plant for filling, to AIMD
SE division for repair, and occasionally to an aircraft
to service the LOX system on board. Whether youre
moving it manually or with a tow vehicle, there are
certain precautions you should take.
Close the vent valve before towing liquid
oxygen storage vessels to prevent injury.
90. Before towing or moving the LOX cart, perform
a preoperational inspection on the cart to include
the following:
a. Check the handbrake. Set it ON and try
to move the cart to make sure it holds. This is
especially important aboard ship.
b. Check for flat or excessively low tires.
c. On the TMU-70/M check the caster wheel
for proper operation. This must be up and locked
for towing and securely locked down for manual
movement.
d. Make sure the transfer hose is securely
strapped in the stowage troughs so it wont fall
off and be damaged.
e. Ensure that the ground wire is properly
stowed.
f. For manual moving, use a minimum of two
men. Remember youre pushing around an 1100
pound bomb.
g. Aboard ship make sure that chocks and
tiedowns are available. Ashore the cart shall be
chocked when servicing an aircraft.
h. Keep the cabi net assembl y and doors
around the control section closed to prevent inad-
vertent damage while moving.
i. Connect the safety chains to the tow vehicle
and insure proper connection of the cart to the
coupler or pintle hook to avoid inadvertent discon-
nect.
j . Set the handbrake to OFF and remove
chocks or tiedowns.
k. Tow the LOX cart slowly and use a route
to the LOX farm away from areas crowded with
people, buildings, traffic, and away from fueling
facilities if possible.
l. Never tow more than two carts in tandem.
Tracking of equipment towed in tandem is poor,
turn clearances are too great, and sudden stops
make the possibility of jackknifing or inadvertent
disconnect too hazardous.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 007 00
Page 16
m. Read and comply with precautions for
towing SE contained in WP 005 00.
n. During movement by hand never leave the
cart without setting the handbrake. Aboard ship,
set the handbrake, chock it, and tie it down.
91. Even though it is possible for one person to
servi ce an onboard ai rcraf t LOX syst em, t wo
qualified people should be present during a servic-
ing operation. The second person is the safety and
backup person. The backup should observe the
first operators every move to insure that safety
precautions are complied with and, in the event
of an accident, to secure the equipment, render
first aid, or man the fire extinguisher as necessary.
92. Both the aircraft and the LOX cart should be
separately grounded during LOX servicing to pre-
vent static spark during connection. Aircraft electri-
cal power must be off and no external power should
be connected. No maintenance or fueling operation
should be in progress on the aircraft during LOX
servicing or while a converter is being removed
or installed. Stay clear of, and keep other personnel
clear of the aircraft overboard vents to prevent injury
when LOX drains out during servicing. Be sure you
use a clean overflow container or drip pan under
both the aircraft and under the LOX cart.
93. SECURING PRECAUTIONS. When youve com-
pleted a LOX servicing operation conduct an inspec-
tion of the cart and use procedures as follows:
a. Check capacity and if less than 20 gallons,
refill cart.
b. Ensure all valves are in proper position,
especially that the vent valve is open.
c. Ensure all pressure is purged from the
transfer hose.
d. Stow the transfer hose and ensure dust
cover is on nozzle.
e. Check all plumbing for leaks.
f. Cl ose cabi net assembl y and doors. On
TMU-70/M take care in positioning filler nozzle to
prevent damage to the braided metallic hose.
g. Ensure that ground wire is properly stowed.
h. Park the cart in the designated parking
area. Do not position on asphalt (blacktop) surface.
i. Check handbrake ON and chock. Aboard
ship tie down the cart.
j. For TMU-70/M raise and lock caster wheel
and allow cart to rest on the lunette eye. This
elevates the piping end and reduces boil off during
stowage.
94. DOS AND DONTS - LOX.
S Dont operate a LOX cart unless you are
fully qualified and licensed in accordance with WP
003 00.
S Do complete preoperational checklist on
LOX cart prior to each use.
S Dont operate a defective LOX cart.
S Do down a defective LOX cart, report it,
and make sure no one else uses it.
S Dont tow the cart with the caster wheel
dragging on the deck.
S Do wear all the protective clothing re-
quired for LOX handlers.
S Do keep the f ace shi el d down whi l e
servicing.
S Do wear coveralls and sleeves outside
boots and gloves.
S Dont permit any source of ignition within
50 feet of LOX handling areas.
S Dont carry matches or lighters in LOX
handling areas.
S Do keep the LOX cart free of al l oi l ,
grease, fuel, and other combustible materials.
S Do everything you can to prevent moisture
from entering LOX systems.
S Do use clean drip pans and overflow
bottles.
S Dont jury-rig safety devices or repairs.
S Don t attempt to repai r thi s uni t, use
authorized personnel.
S Dont play with LOX spills.
S Do properly ground the LOX cart and the
aircraft during servicing.
SEE IRAC # 6
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 007 00
Change 1 Page 17/(18 blank)
S Do use two qualified people to service
on-board systems.
S Dont handle any LOX components with
your bare hands.
S Do open and close all valves slowly.
S Do keep the transfer hose pointed away
from yourself and others when disconnecting.
S Do avoid damaging LOX cart or converter
exterior shell and insulation.
S Do use only clean tools.
S Dont leave a LOX cart anywhere except
in the designated stowage area and especially not
in unventilated spaces.
S Do set the parking brake ON whenever
youre not moving the cart.
S Dont tow or move the cart with the parking
brake ON.
S Do beware of oxygen/LOX enriched cloth-
ing and spaces.
S Do report all LOX incidents or equipment
malfunctions.
95. LESSONS LEARNED/ACCIDENT REPORTS
- LOX.
96. LOX CART. Fortunately, most of the LOX
accidents reported have concerned the LOX converter
and not LOX carts. The system and the hazards are
very similar however, so what we learn from converter
incidents can also apply to carts.
97. At about 0200 one morning a line watch was
making his rounds, one portion of which took him
past a LOX converter sitting on the ramp where
it had been venting for a couple of hours. From
about 50 yards away, something caught his eye.
Frost had started to form around the bottom of
the sphere. As he watched, the frosting action
swiftly moved to the top. Suddenly the converter
exploded, sending shrapnel everywhere. Although
the ramp was littered with torn, twisted pieces of
metal, the line watch was lucky and was not hit.
98. Earlier in the evening, the converter had been
f i l l ed and i nst al l ed i n an ai r cr af t . Due t o an
excessi ve venti ng condi ti on, i t was removed,
drained, refilled, and left to stabilize on the concrete
ramp area of the LOX servicing area.
99. There have been several other cases of LOX
converter explosions. Some were caused by mainte-
nance error. In some cases the cause was undeter-
mined. The important point to remember is that
in each case, there were initial malfunctions or
abnormalities in the behavior of the converters
which indicated a problem. The only action to take
in such cases is to drain the converter (or LOX
cart) and turn it in to AIMD. Remember, youre
working with a potential bomb and if it doesnt
behave the way it should, dont mess with it.
100. The latest regulations (NAVAIR 13-1-6.4)
requires that all LOX converters and oxygen equip-
ment left outdoors be sheltered. Other maintenance
procedures and design changes to converters
forthcoming should help solve this problem.
SEE IRAC # 6
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 008 00
Change 1 - 1 July 2001 Page 1
HYDRAULIC/LUBE OIL HANDLING EQUIPMENT
U.S. NAVY SUPPORT EQUIPMENT
COMMON
BASIC HANDLING & SAFETY MANUAL
Reference Material
History and Prevention WP 003 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Towing Precautions WP 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aviation Hose and Tube Manual NAVAIR 01-1A-20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aviation Hydraulics Manual NAVAIR 01-1A-17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, A/M27M-10 NAVAIR 17-600-107-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, A/M27T-5 NAVAIR 17-600-127-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, A/M27T-7 NAVAIR 17-600-150-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, H-250-1 NAVAIR 17-600-40-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, HSU-1 NAVAIR 17-600-65-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alphabetical Index
Subject Page No.
Hazards 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hydraulic SE Hazards 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lube Oil SE Hazards 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hydraulic Power Supply 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Portable Hydraulic Power Supply, A/M27T-5 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Portable Hydraulic Power Supply, A/M27T-7 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hydraulic Servicing Units 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hydraulic Fluid Dispensing Unit, A/M27M-10 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hydraulic Fill Unit, H-250-1 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hydraulic Fluid Servicing Unit, HSU-1 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hydraulic SE Safety Precautions And Procedures 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dos and Donts of Hydraulics 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hydraulic Servicing Units Safety Precautions and Procedures 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hydraulic Power Supply Safety Precautions and Procedures 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spillage Precautions 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lube Oil SE Safety Precautions And Procedures 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dos and Donts of Lube Oil Servicing 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Protective Precautions 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Servicing Precautions for Pre-Oiler Units 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lessons Learned/Accident Report 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hydraulic Power Supply 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pre-Oiler 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oil Servicing Units 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Large Volume Pre-Oiler, A/M32M-32 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pre-Oiler, PON-6 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Record of Applicable Technical Directives
None
SEE IRAC # 6
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 008 00
Page 2
1. HYDRAULIC SERVICING UNITS.
2. You shall be fully qualified and licensed in
accordance with WP 003 00.
3. Servicing of aircraft hydraulic systems is done
primarily with portable hydraulic check and fill units.
The Hydraulic Fill Units, H-250-1 and HSU-1, and
the Hydraulic Dispensing Unit A/M27M-10, are the
most common units authorized for use.
4. HYDRAULIC FILL UNIT, H-250-1. This unit is
a portable, hand carried, hand pump operated unit
which can be used for servicing main hydraulic
systems, subsystems, bleeding brakes, flushing, and
priming system components such as accumulators,
dampers, and dashpots.
5. The H-250-1 is designed to use the standard
one gallon can of hydraulic fluid and to dispense
it, contamination free, to the aircraft system. This
is done by pumping the fluid from the original can,
whi ch i s seal ed i nto the uni t and acts as the
reservoir, directly to the aircraft without exposing
the fluid to open air or contaminants. Two five
micron filters and a three micron filter also insure
contamination free delivery.
6. Use of the original fluid container reduces
waste, since a partially used can does not have
to be thrown away. It stays sealed in the unit until
it is needed and used on another job.
7. The unit is 15 inches high, has a 14 inch
diameter base, and weighs 25 pounds full. It is
made of cast aluminum with all exposed surfaces
hard anodized. It is unpainted to eliminate paint
chip contamination. Figure 1 shows the major
components. Delivery pressure is from 0 to 250
pounds. An 8 foot hydraulic hose is attached to
the unit.
Figure 1. Hydraulic Fill Unit, H-250-1
008001
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 008 00
Page 3
8. HYDRAULIC FLUID SERVICING UNIT, HSU-1.
The HSU-1 Hydraulic Fluid Servicing Unit (Figure 2)
is similar in operation to the Model H250-1, except
that it has a fluid holding capacity of three gallons.
Like the H-250-1 servicing unit, this unit also accepts
a standard one-gallon container and uses it as the
fluid reservoir. In addition, it contains an integral
two-gallon reservoir. On the units side is a sight
gauge to view the total contents within the holding
reservoir. Three-micron filtration is incorporated to
ensure delivery of contamination free fluid.
9. The unit is 22 inches high, has a 22 inch
diameter base, and weighs 35.3 pounds full. It is
made of cast aluminum with all exposed surfaces
hard anodized. It is unpainted to eliminate paint
chip contamination.
008002
Figure 2. Hydraulic Fluid Servicing Unit, HSU-1
10. HYDRAULIC FLUI D DISPENSING UNI T,
A/M27M-10. The A/M27M-10 Hydraulic Fluid Dispens-
ing Unit (Figure 3) provides a means of dispensing
hydraulic fluid from a 55 gallon drum to any other
container designed for use as a storage source,
reservoir, or portable dispensing unit for hydraulic
fluid. It has four wheels with manual brakes on the
rear wheels and is equipped with means of lifting,
inverting, and dispensing the contents of a 55 gallon
drum of hydraulic fluid through the use of a hand
or air-motor driven pump.
008003
Figure 3. Hydraulic Fluid Dispensing Unit,
A/M27M-10
11. HYDRAULIC POWER SUPPLY.
12. You shall be fully qualified and licensed in
accordance with WP 003 00.
13. Portable hydraulic power supplies (commonly
called jennys) give us the means to operate or
pressure check aircraft hydraulic systems without
running the aircraft engines or an on board auxiliary
power unit. Most can also drain, flush, and refill
aircraft hydraulic systems. Jennys are important
tools in hydraulic contamination control, providing
the primary means of decontaminating aircraft
hydraulic systems.
14. Two common types in use are the A/M27T-5
and A/M27T-7. The major difference is the source
of power t o dr i ve t he hydr aul i c pumps. The
A/M27T-5 is diesel engine powered. The A/M27T-7
is electrically powered from an external electrical
power source. There are several different models,
manufactured by different companies; however, all
are very similar to the T-5 and T-7 models we will
cover.
15. Other than the major difference of electric
versus diesel power the A/M27T-5 and A/M27T-7
are almost identical. Both units are mounted on
four wheel trailers with solid tires. A towbar on
the front provides steering during towing or manual
movement. A handbrake lever, located on the front
of the unit, mechanically actuates
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 008 00
Change 1 Page 4
drum/shoe type parking brakes on the rear wheels.
Tiedown rings and forklift channels are provided
on both units.
16. The hydraulic systems are protected by relief
valves, temperature switches, filters, and a fluid
cooler. Three 15 foot hoses are provided for outlet,
return, and aircraft fill. Both units are equipped with
rear bulkhead recirculation/hose stowage manifolds.
With the hose ends attached to the manifold, you
can recirculate all the fluid in the jenny to provide
self-decontamination of the stand and hoses by
internal filtration. Normal operating hydraulic pres-
sure is 3000 pounds with a maximum pressure of
4000 pounds. The stands vary slightly in size but
are both about four feet in height and width and
seven feet in length. The units dry, weigh about
2600 pounds for the T-5 and 2100 pounds for the
T-7.
17. PORTABLE HYDRAULIC POWER SUPPLY,
A/M27T-5. The A/M27T-5 (Figure 4) is a single system
hydraulic pumping unit with a rated capacity of 20
gpm at 3000 psi and 10 gpm at 5000 psi. The
A/M27T-5 is a self contained unit powered by a three
cylinder, two cycle diesel engine. During normal
operation the diesel engine runs at speeds up to
2500 rpm. The A/M27T-5 engine operates on JP-5
or diesel fuel. The hydraulic reservoir holds 20
gallons.
Figure 4. Hydraulic Portable Power Supply, A/M27T-5
008004
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 008 00
Change 1 Page 5
18. PORTABLE HYDRAULIC POWER SUPPLY,
A/M27T-7. The A/M27T-7 (Figure 5) is similar in
operation to the A/M27T-5 except for its source of
power. The A/M27T-7 is powered by a 50 hp electric
motor. A 50 foot power cable is provided for connec-
tion to an external 440 volt, 3 phase, 60 Hertz power
source. The unit can be set up to operate on a 220
volt source. The hydraulic reservoir holds 20 gallons
and is equipped with a fluid level sight gauge.
19. OIL SERVICING UNITS.
20. You shall be fully qualified and licensed in
accordance with WP 003 00.
21. Servicing of most jet and turboprop aircraft
oil systems requires a pressure oil servicing unit
of some type. The PON-6 Jet Oil Servicing PreOiler
and Large Volume Pre-Oiler, A/M32M-32, are the
primary units in use today.
22. PRE-OILER, PON-6. This is a portable, hand
carried, hand pump operated unit with a 3 gallon
capacity. Figure 6 shows the major components of
the PON-6. The hand pump will deliver oil at a
pressure of up to 100 psi. A sight glass on the
reservoir shows the level of oil. An oil pressure gauge
indicates oil line pressure. An oil meter records the
amount of oil delivered and is calibrated in ounces
(outer scale) and quarts (inner scale).
Figure 5. Hydraulic Portable Power Supply, A/M27T-7
008005
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 008 00
Page 6
Figure 6. Pre-Oiler, PON-6
008006
23. A push button bleed valve relieves pressure
on the meter and discharge hose and bleeds oil
back to the reservoir. The fill hose is 6 feet long.
A complete drain bottle assembly is provided for
overflow oil from the aircraft system. All components
are rigidly mounted in a tubular steel framework.
24. LARGE VOLUME PRE-OILER, A/M32M-32. Fig-
ure 7 shows all major components of the A/M32M-32
pre-oiler. This unit is designed to hand pump/filter
engine lubricating oil to service various aircraft. The
unit holds a 55 gallon drum, filtering oil through a
3 micron filter with a delivery of 1.5 gpm.
25. The A/M32M-32 pre-oiler is mounted on one
front, swivel, dual wheel caster and two rear, rigid,
single wheel casters for mobility. The unit has an
8 inch ground clearance, is capable of being towed
and is equipped with a lever activated parking
brake.
26. HAZARDS.
27. HYDRAULIC SE HAZARDS. The H-250-1,
HSU-1, and other portable fill units are straightfor-
ward, uncomplicated pieces of equipment. You wont
find using them particularly hazardous but their
misuse presents great hazards to aircraft hydraulic
systems and therefore to flight crews.
28. Setting up the A/M27M-10 dispensing unit with
55 gallon drums of hydraulic fluid requires care.
You need to be familiar with the procedure to ensure
that all participants in the operation are not injured
and the container is not contaminated. A 55 gallon
drum of hydraulic fluid weighs about 455 pounds.
29. The A/M27T-5, A/M27T-7, and other hydraulic
jennys are mostly big, heavy, clumsy, noisy, and
dangerous. You must always be alert for what they
can do to you or an aircraft and for what you can
do to them if youre not careful. Be aware of:
S High voltage that can zap you without
warning.
S High voltage that can zap an aircraft
electrical system.
Figure 7. Large Volume Pre-Oiler, A/M32M-32
008007
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 008 00
Page 7
S Contamination which can ruin an aircraft
and maybe a pilot too.
S High pressure that can blow up hoses,
equipment, aircraft systems, or you.
S Cables and hoses hooked up to aircraft
when they shouldnt be.
S Noxious gases that can sicken or kill you.
S Defective, non-standard, or jury-rigged
hoses, cables, plugs, and devices that can kill you
or an aircraft.
S Noise thats just as real and harmful as
aircraft noise.
S Crankcases and radiators that ruin an
engine when they run dry.
30. Besides the general line maintenance hazards
of ai rcraft and the l i ne work area, the use of
hydraulic jennys present their own particular haz-
ards. High pressure fluid, high temperature fluid,
high voltage, noise, exhaust fumes, fluid spills, and
fire are examples of the hazards you face when
operating jennys.
31. Hydraulic jennys can be very hazardous to
aircraft systems. Wrong valve settings on the jenny
can result in over-pressure and burst aircraft lines
or reservoirs. Improper procedures can drain the
aircraft system and overfill the jenny or rupture its
reservoir. On the other hand, running the jenny
empty could result in cavitation or failure of the
test stand pump.
32. Positioning a jenny close enough to the aircraft
to reach hydraulic fittings can be hazardous. De-
pending on how close aircraft are parked together,
it often requires maneuvering in space limited by
other SE required for maintenance at the same
time.
33. Noise from both the A/M27T-5 and A/M27T-7
is hazardous to your hearing. Even the electric T-7
models run at about 96 dBA. The diesel powered
T-5 models run at about 103 dBA.
34. The noxious fumes from the diesel exhaust
system of the A/M27T-5 can asphyxiate you if the
unit is run in a confined space, such as the hangar
or shop. Heat f r om t he exhaust can damage
equipment or burn cables or hoses lying near it.
After periods at idle, the engine can emit sparks
or hot carbon chips from the exhaust when you
run it up to high power.
35. Keep in mind that the hydraulic fluid in the
jennys hoses and lines can operate up to and
over 4,000 psi and can reach temperatures of over
200_ F. A burst hose can result in serious injury
or burns. Pi n hol e l eaks at that pressure are
capable of cutting off fingers, injecting fluid under
the skin, and creating a fine mist that can be
accidentally inhaled. These are very serious and
painful injuries and if not properly treated can lead
to death. Such leaks can also splash off surround-
ings into eyes or on skin or clothing. Although
hydraulic fluid is not highly toxic it can still cause
irritation.
36. Leaks and spills seem to be an accepted fact
of life when operating hydraulic SE. The tendency
seems to be to accept the idea that all hydraulic
SE leaks. Spills are left on the deck to be cleaned
up after the job; but many times arent cleaned
up. Both these practices create a fire and a slip
hazard. You may know the fluid is there and step
carefully but how about the new airman who is
not as cautious? Or how about the extra foot an
aircraft slides during an emergency stop to avoid
the passing tractor driver who isnt looking?
37. It usually takes several links in the chain
leading to an accident. Dont cause an accident
by providing one or more of those links because
they dont seem important by themselves. One of
these days youll provide the last missing link, and
youre the one wholl be hurting.
38. LUBE OIL SE HAZARDS. The PON-6 Pre-Oiler
and Large Volume Pre-oiler, A/M32M-32 are relatively
simple pieces of equipment. As with hydraulic fill
units, improper SE or aircraft servicing procedures
and contamination of the service unit and/or aircraft
system present great hazards to flight crews.
39. Overfilling aircraft tube systems can damage
the system and lead to engine failure. Overpressur-
izing the oil systems on some aircraft can and has,
contributed to blown seals and subsequent oil
system failure.
40. Contamination of an aircraft engine oil system
can be j ust as seri ous as contami nati on of a
hydraulic or fuel system. The second most terrifying
situation to a pilot is to have the engine quit!
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 008 00
Page 8
41. Lubricating oil is both toxic and flammable.
It is harmful to skin, eyes, and the respiratory tract.
Therefore, spillage and overflow during servicing
creates both a personal and fire hazard. Since most
engine oil systems require pressure filling, the
hazard of a burst hose or fitting exists.
42. HYDRAULIC SE SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
AND PROCEDURES.
43. Since hydraulic SE is a prime factor in the
Hydraulic Contamination-Control Program, you
must have a complete working knowledge of the
characteristics, handling procedures, sampling, and
contamination limits of hydraulic fluids.
44. You will also need a complete knowledge of
every hydraulic system on the aircraft youre going
to service or perform maintenance on. It is mandato-
ry to insure proper servicing and prevent malfunc-
tion or damage. The maintenance instruction manu-
als (MIMs) for your particular type/model aircraft
contain the procedures and safety precautions for
each system. Know them.
45. SPILLAGE PRECAUTIONS. Spillage and a
certain amount of slop or overflow are a fact of
life when filling service units, operating power
supplies, servicing and performing maintenance on
aircraft hydraulic systems. Always wipe them up.
Spilled fluid creates a fire and a slip hazard. Fluid
accumulations on SE and around aircraft service
points and access compartments, collect dust, and
dirt and are a prime source of contamination. Do
the j ob ri ght and make cl eanl i ness and good
housekeeping a habit.
Some sol vents are fl ammabl e and/or
t oxi c. Keep away f r om f l ame. Avoi d
inhaling vapors. Wear required personal
protective equipment.
46. Hydraulic fluid can have an adverse effect
on other aircraft parts and equipment. If you spill
or splash fluid, remove it as soon as possible using
approved wiping materials and solvent.
47. HYDRAULIC SERVICING UNITS SAFETY
PRECAUTIONS AND PROCEDURES.
48. The procedures and precautions for hydraulic
SE involve mainly the condition of the equipment
and the prevention of contamination. Anyone in-
volved with hydraulic servicing must be familiar with
the Aviation Hydraulic Manual, NAVAIR 01-1A-17.
It is applicable to all hydraulic systems and related
servicing and test SE. The manual is required
reading for all personnel, at all levels of mainte-
nance, involved in any hydraulic maintenance or
servicing on aircraft or hydraulic SE.
49. A preoperational check must be performed,
before hydraulic SE is used each time. The preop-
erati onal checkl i st for the H-250-1 i s NAVAIR
17- 600- 40- 6- 1. For t he HSU- 1, i t i s NAVAI R
17-600-65-6-1, and for the A/M27M-10, it is NAVAIR
17-600-107-6-1.
50. Operation and Contamination Precautions. To
ensure that the hydraulic servicing units remain in
good condition and that you do your utmost to prevent
contamination of aircraft hydraulic systems, take the
following precautions and use these proper mainte-
nance procedures:
S Keep the equipment as clean as possible.
Use the cleaning materials and wiping materials
authorized in the Aviation Hydraulics Manual, NAV-
AIR 01-1A-17.
S For the H-250-1, HSU-1, and similar units
always keep a can installed to keep contaminants
out of the system.
S Always fill the units from newly opened
cans. With the exception of cans installed in units
like the H-250-1 and HSU-1, open cans of hydraulic
fluid are prohibited.
S Always dispose of any remaining fluid and
empty cans in an approved method.
S Always return empty fluid containers.
S Never run servicing SE completely empty
of contents. Always refill the SE before it reaches
the prescribed minimum level. If it does run empty,
return it to SE division for the required purging,
flushing, or cleaning. Dont just refill it and use
it.
S Always crack cylinder valves and bleed
lines or hoses to purge them of contamination
before servicing.
S Never reuse any hydraulic fluid drained
from SE or aircraft systems. Dispose of it immedi-
ately to prevent accidental reuse.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 008 00
Page 9
S Always determine and be sure of the
contents of t he SE before refi l l i ng t he SE or
servicing an aircraft.
S Refill the servicing units in a protected
area like the line shack, hangar, or shop to avoid
contamination from wind blown dust and rain.
S Never subject the contents of servicing
SE to abnormal external temperatures or expose
them to weather elements unnecessarily.
S Always inspect connections and filler fit-
tings for dirt or contaminants and carefully wipe
clean with authorized wiping cloths prior to making
connections.
S Make sure that the hoses are in good
condition and properly stowed. Attach the hose
fitting to the stowage fitting on the equipment or
use clean metal dust plugs or caps. Clean polyethyl-
ene bags are OK in an emergency if tightly taped.
S Never use plastic caps or plugs. Minute
pieces or shavings of plastic will contaminate the
systems.
S Never interchange parts, adapters, or
fittings on SE containing different materials.
S Never leave SE or aircraft systems or
servicing valves open unless actually in use.
S Use approved cloths to wipe clean both
the hose fittings and aircraft fitting before connect-
ing.
S Never dip rags into equipment reservoirs
to wipe struts and cylinders. Use authorized hydrau-
lic fluid squeeze bottles for that job.
S Make sure that equipment is being main-
tained on a periodic basis and not just used month
after month until it breaks.
51. Accidental use of the wrong type hydraulic
fluid or lubricating oil in aircraft hydraulic servicing
has happened many times in the past. It is usually
due to carelessness. Know what type of fluid youre
adding to your service unit, and be sure its the
same kind thats already in the service unit.
52. Know the pressure requirements of the system
youre servicing and do not overpressurize it. Use
the proper procedures and set relief valves or
regulators accordingly.
53. Inspection and Maintenance. A final word on
inspection and maintenance of hydraulic service units.
You, as the user, should take the responsibility to
see that the equipment you use is properly main-
tained. You do not have to do it, just ensure that
it is done. Youre the one who is going to contaminate
aircraft systems if the filters are bad. Youre the one
whos going to have an accident because of defective
gear. Do not use it! Down it, deadline it, redline it,
whatever, but notify your supervisor and get it
checked and repaired. Thats a professional mainte-
nance action and that is whats expected of you.
54. HYDRAULI C POWER SUPPLY SAFETY
PRECAUTIONS AND PROCEDURES.
55. Proper procedures for power supply inspec-
tion, turnup, aircraft connection, and operation are
absolutely vital to avoid the hazard of contamination
and t o avoi d damage t o ai r cr af t or i nj ur y t o
personnel.
56. The information on hydraulics is contained in
the Aviation Hydraulics Manual, NAVAIR 01-1A-17
and the Aviation Hose and Tube Manual, NAVAIR
01-1A-20. Hydraulic SE operators must be com-
pletely familiar with everything in those manuals.
In fact, NAVAIR 01-1A-17 is required reading for
all maintenance personnel performing any hydraulic
maintenance function on naval aircraft systems and
related SE. You cant perform your job properly
without knowing whats in this manual, so read and
heed.
57. The preoperational checklist for the A/M27T-5
is NAVAIR 17-600-127-6-1 and for the A/M27T-7
it is NAVAIR 17-600-150-6-1. You must perform this
check before you use the unit each time.
58. Prior to use, Aviation Hydraulics Manual re-
quires all hydraulic SE must be certified for fluid
cl eanl i ness, Navy Standard Cl ass 3 or better.
Review applicable MIM, MRC, and activity mainte-
nance instructions for taking a fluid sample for
contamination analysis prior to hooking up the jenny
to an aircraft and another sample after the operation
is complete to maintain the standard.
59. Towing Precautions. In addition to following all
the safety precautions for tow tractors in WP 005
00, take the following precautions when towing
hydraulic jennys:
S Make sure the towbar lunette is properly
attached to the tractor coupler.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 008 00
Page 10
S Make sure the safety chain(s) is properly
secured if the unit has one.
S Make sure chocks or tiedowns are re-
moved and the handbrake is OFF.
S Check for clearance and obstructions in
your departure path.
S Drive slowly and avoid sudden stops.
S Never jackknife the towbar or exceed the
turn capability of the unit.
S Do not drive or tow over power cables,
hoses, or grounding wires.
S Be alert for bumps, curbs, ramp seams,
manholes, and other obstacles which can damage
the j enny or cause the coupl er to di sconnect.
Remember jennys have solid tires.
S Approach the aircraft or final spot slowly
and safely. Never head directly at any part of the
aircraft.
S Disconnect from tow tractor and manually
position the jenny when near aircraft.
S Back units by hand only.
S Never tow the jenny under any part of
an aircraft.
S Make sure the exhaust wont hit any part
of the aircraft.
S Make sure the jenny is chocked and the
handbrake is set ON before disconnecting it from
the tractor.
S Never tow the A/M27T-5 with its diesel
engine running.
S Make sure that all hoses or cables are
unplugged from the aircraft or hangar power con-
nector and stowed before moving or towing away
the unit.
60. Operating Precautions. Before you hook up a
jenny to an aircraft, double check the MIM for
whatever operation youre going to do. Most of the
MIMs even prescribe where to position the jenny for
the operation. Know exactly the aircraft system
parameters youll be working with such as gpm flow
rate, pressures and whether electrical power is also
required. Make sure your jenny is set up properly
for operation.
61. Conducting operational checks, troubleshoot-
ing, and line maintenance of aircraft hydraulic
systems is never a one-person job. Youll usually
be part of a crew of at least two or more so someone
has got to be in charge and take primary responsibil-
ity for the job. That means the job should be briefed
and things like signals, coordination, and individual
tasks shoul d be known and understood by al l
concerned.
62. Be sure to conduct t he requi red ai rcraft
external and cockpit safety checks before applying
hydraulic power to the aircraft. Remember, all
cockpit hydraulic actuating controls and switches
must match the position of the actuated units,
especially the wing fold. Be prepared for inadvertent
movement of moveable surfaces. Make sure that
people, workstands, SE, or other equipment are
cl ear of al l moveabl e control surfaces. Some
actuated units, such as speed brakes droop under
static conditions and then close when hydraulic
power is applied.
63. The operator of a jenny shall be at the controls
at all times the unit is turned up. Be alert throughout
the operation and make sure you can see both
the supervisor and the man in the cockpit. Be ready
for signals and emergency shut down if required.
If a 3/4 inch outlet hose at 3000 pounds bursts
or disconnects, serious injury could result, not to
mention about 15 gallons of hot hydraulic fluid
sprayed all over the aircraft, equipment, and deck.
64. During set-up, operation, and securing of the
jenny take the following precautions:
S Set the handbrake ON and chock the
jenny.
S Wear proper personal protective equip-
ment.
S Inspect a CO
2
fire extinguisher and have
it nearby.
S Have cleanup materials handy such as
wiping cloths and solvent.
Speedy dry must not be used. It can
contaminate aircraft or jenny hydraulic
systems.
S Recirculate, clean, and de-aerate (bleed
air off) the power supply before connecting to the
aircraft.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 008 00
Page 11
S Wipe all quick-disconnects clean with
lint-free cloth moistened with hydraulic fluid before
connecting and after disconnecting external hydrau-
lic power.
S Monitor filter differential pressure indica-
tors. If a filter indicates a loaded condition, shut
down and return the jenny to SE division.
S If an emergency arises, open the bypass
valve to relieve pressure and stop the flow of fluid.
S Use proper shut down procedures to avoid
reverse flow through aircraft system filters.
S Make sure pressure and flow are zero
before disconnecting hoses.
S Do not drag hose fittings on deck.
S Reconnect hose ends to recirculation/
stowage manifold.
S Clean up all spills properly.
65. Parking and Securing. When youve finished
using the jenny, its time to secure the unit. Follow
these general precautions in securing the jennys:
S Park the jenny in an authorized place,
set the handbrake ON and chock it.
S Stow all hoses away properly, close all
doors and panels and secure the unit to weather
and wind.
S Do a quick walkaround inspection for
evidence of fuel, oil, coolant, or hydraulic fluid leaks.
S If the jenny requires servicing, do it before
you secure the unit.
S Ensure all caps are on to prevent contami-
nation.
66. DOs AND DONTs OF HYDRAULICS.
67. What follows here is a summary of those
safety precautions in a short, clear DO and DONT
form. Read them. If you do not understand one
of them, look back in the manual and read the
what, where, and why of it. If you can not find
it in the manual, ask your supervisor and find out.
It could save your life.
S Don t operate a hydraul i c fi l l uni t or
hydraulic jenny unless you are fully qualified. A
valid SE Operators License is required for the
specific model jenny youre using.
S Do read and be familiar with Aviation
Hydraulics Manual, NAVAIR 01-1A-17 and Aviation
Hose and Tube Manual, NAVAIR 01-1A-20.
S Do a complete preoperational inspection,
using the preoperational checklist, prior to each
use.
S Dont use a defective hydraulic fill unit
or hydr aul i c j enny or one you suspect t o be
contaminated. Down it, report it, and make sure
no one else uses it.
S Do make sure your unit is being main-
tained on a periodic basis.
S Do keep your equipment clean.
S Do use fluid from a freshly opened can
to service SE.
S Do properly dispose of unused fluid and
cans in accordance with local regulations.
S Dont reuse any hydraulic fluid drained
from SE or aircraft.
S Do double check the type fluid in your
SE and the type fluid youre adding to your SE.
S Do know whats in your SE before servic-
ing an aircraft.
S Do conduct a patch test on all hydraulic
units.
S Dont dip rags into SE reservoirs for wipe
downs.
S Do know the pressure requirements of
the system youre servicing.
S Do replace all caps on service fittings.
S Do wipe up spills.
S Do know whats in the MIM but check
to make sure.
S Do worry about contaminating a hydraulic
system.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 008 00
Page 12
S Dont interchange hoses on servicing
units/test stands.
68. Hydraulic Servicing Units.
S Dont drop or throw the H-250-1 or HSU-1
on the deck and drag it by the service hose.
S Do get hel p when s et t i ng up t he
A/M27M-10 dispensing unit.
S Do keep a hydraulic fluid can installed
in the H-250-1 and HSU-1 at all times.
S Do keep the hydraulic reservoir on the
HSU-1 at least three-quarters full to avoid moisture
contamination.
69. Hydraulic Power Supplies.
S Dont operate a jenny thats defective.
S Dont jury-rig safety devices or repairs.
S Dont let unauthorized personnel do any
repairs. Return to SE division for repair.
S Do wear proper personal protective equip-
ment while operating hydraulic jennys.
S Do set the parking brake ON and chock
the jenny.
S Dont work alone.
S Do have a qual i f i ed oper at or at t he
controls of the jenny whenever it is running.
S Do recirculate, clean, and deaerate the
test stand before connecting to the aircraft.
S Do wipe all quick-disconnects before con-
necting.
S Do mate all attached dust caps and plugs.
S Do alert all other maintenance crews or
personnel working on the aircraft that hydraulic
pressure is being applied.
S Dont apply hydraulic pressure to aircraft
until all personnel and equipment are clear of
control surfaces, actuators, and moveable doors.
S Do monitor filter pressure indicators and
shut down if filters become loaded.
S Dont leave the jenny running unattended.
S Do open the bypass val ve to rel i eve
pressure and stop flow in an emergency.
S Dont run servicing SE completely empty
of contents, refill the SE before it reaches the
prescribed minimum level.
S Do make sure pressure and flow are zero
before disconnecting hoses.
S Dont drag hose fittings on the deck or
drop in speedy dry.
S Dont leave the jenny hooked up to the
aircraft when not in use.
S Do reconnect hose ends to st owage
manifold.
S Don t tow the di esel hydraul i c power
supply with the engine running.
S Dont operate the diesel hydraulic power
supply in the hangar with out proper ventilation.
S Do a final walk around and check after
securing and parking.
70. LUBE OIL SE SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND
PROCEDURES.
71. Proper servicing, with clean, uncontaminated
tube oil is critical to reliable operation of aircraft
engines and other systems using tube oil. Low oil
pressure, loss of oil, excessive engine oil consump-
tion, and engine or system failures can all be
caused by improper servicing procedures or con-
taminated oil. Therefore complete knowledge of the
procedures in the MIM for your aircraft is mandatory.
72. A defective pre-oiler can result in both improp-
er servicing and contamination. A bad pressure
gauge, blown seals in the engine system. Bad flow
meter, over or under servicing. Wrong fluid in
reservoir, contamination. No filter or dirty equip-
ment, contamination. Bad relief valve, burst filter,
burst gauge, or burst reservoir.
73. As the user, take responsibility to see that
cleaning, upkeep, and preoperational inspection are
your responsibility. Periodic maintenance is per-
formed by the SE division and only gets done if
the pre-oiler is scheduled and delivered. If either
the PON-6 or A/M32M-32 are found to be
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 008 00
Page 13
defective, they should be turned into the SE division
for repair.
74. The preoperational inspection before each use
is very important. Many aircraft MIMs require that
engi ne oi l be checked and servi ced wi thi n 15
minutes of shutdown. If your pre-oiler is not ready
to go, the aircraft may have to be turned up again
because of the delay. Thats more work, effort, and
fuel that doesnt have to be wasted.
75. PROTECTIVE PRECAUTIONS.
Lubricating oil is flammable and mildly
toxic and may irritate sensitive skin. It
has a deteri orati ng effect on rubber,
pai nt ed sur f aces and el ect r i cal har-
nesses.
76. To protect yourself from the hazards while
handling tube oil and servicing aircraft:
S Keep oil off skin, eyes, and clothes.
S Wear personal protective equipment.
S Make sure you have enough ventilation
when handling tube oil.
S Keep containers closed.
S Keep sparks, flames, and heat away.
S Do not breathe tube oil vapors.
S Wipe up oil spills immediately. Remove
oil from rubber, painted surfaces, and wiring har-
nesses with solvent on a rag.
S Di spose of oi l y rags i n an approved
manner.
77. SERVICING PRECAUTIONS FOR PRE-OILER
UNITS. In addition to the preoperational inspection,
check the preoiler servicing units each time you use
it as follows:
S Check the pre-oiler for cleanliness and
broken or loose parts.
S Make sure the PON-6 drain bottle, hose,
and quick-disconnect adapter are there and the
bottle is empty.
S Check the PON-6 transfer hose for condi-
tion and see that its stowed properly with the
discharge fitting connected to the reservoir adapter
fitting. This enables you to fill the hose before
servicing to eliminate air, keep contamination out,
and keep the hose from falling off and dragging
on the deck while youre carrying the unit.
S Check the level of oil in the reservoir and
make sure it is oil and not hydraulic or other fluid.
S Check the flow meter position.
DONT turn the pointer clockwise, as this
will damage the meter.
S Set the PON-6 flow meter to zero by
turning the pointer counterclockwise only.
S Make sure the PON-6 pressure gauge is
on zero and glass is not broken.
78. Handling Precautions. Handle the pre-oilers with
some care, they are not indestructible. Do not jury-rig
the pre-oilers to bypass a malfunctioning part. Down
defective equipment, report it to your supervisor and
take it to SE division for repairs.
79. Do not drop or throw the PON-6. Do not drag
it by the transfer hose. Carry and handle it by the
chassis and not the pump handle, hose, or reservoir
fittings.
80. When moving the A/M32M-32 ensure the
wheels have free movement. Check the brake for
proper operation. If you tow the unit, follow the
towing procedures outlined in WP 005 00.
81. When youve finished your servicing job, use
the exact procedures in the aircraft MIM, check
the following:
Press the bleed valve to relieve pressure
and drain transfer hose before discon-
necting hose from engine oil system.
S Secure the transfer hose to the reservoir
adapter fitting.
S On the PON-6, empty the drain bottle into
an authorized disposal container.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 008 00
Page 14
S For the PON-6, return the drain bottle and
hose to the pre-oiler and secure the hose with the
strap provided.
S Refill the pre-oiler reservoir.
S Report or log the engine oil consumption
quantity.
S Stow the pre-oiler in its proper space.
82. DOs AND DONTs OF LUBE OIL SERVICING
83. What follows here is a summary of those
safety precautions in a short, clear DO and DONT
form. Read them. If you do not understand one
of them, look back in the manual and read the
what, where, and why of it. It you can not find
it in the manual, ask your supervisor and find out.
S Do a complete preoperational inspection,
using the preoperational checklist, prior to each
use.
S Do know the procedures in the MIM but
check to make sure.
S Dont use a defective pre-oiler. Down it,
report it, and dont let anyone else use it.
S Do make sure your pre-oiler is being
maintained on a periodic basis.
S Do worry about contaminating the engine
oil system.
S Do use personal protective equipment.
S Do wash tube oil off your skin and eyes
and dont breathe the vapors.
S Dont drop the PON-6 or drag it by the
service hose.
S Do wipe up spills and remove oil from
rubber, paint, and wiring harnesses immediately.
S Dont turn the PON-6 or A/M32M-32 flow
meter pointer clockwise to reset it.
S Do turn the PON-6 or A/M32M-32 pointer
counterclockwise only.
S Dont over pressurize or overfill the aircraft
system.
S Do empty the PON-6 drain bottle.
S Dont empty the PON-6 drain bottle back
into the reservoir.
S Do dispose of oily rags in an authorized
manner.
S Do record the oil consumption.
84. LESSONS LEARNED/ACCIDENT REPORT
85. Information provided by accident reports helps
to tell us not only why they happened, but lots
of things about the people who caused them. Their
experience level is one of those things. The records
prove that the more experience you have, the less
likely you are to have an accident. Thats not to
say experienced people dont have accidents, they
do. However, they have fewer accidents than new,
inexperienced people do.
86. Experience takes time to get and right now
you dont have that time. You can make up for
lack of experience by reading, listening, and learn-
ing from others, especially others who have had
accidents. The following paragraphs describe some
accidents. See if you can pick out the mistakes
that caused them and, in some cases, the things
they did right to prevent them from being more
serious than they were.
87. PRE-OILER. A plane captain under instruction
was assisting a qualified plane captain in servicing
an AV-8 Harrier and preparing it for a ferry flight.
The plane captain instructed the trainee to service
the engine oil system with a PON-6 pre-oiler and
to make sure you get it full up. The trainee hooked
up the servi ce hose and 580LMT adapter and
commenced to pump oil. When he got the two green
lights for normal flight, he pumped an additional
sixteen times, then a few more for good measure.
During turnup for the ferry flight, a large engine oil
leak was discovered and attributed to a blown oil
seal caused by over-servicing.
88. Needless to say, this aircraft did not make
its scheduled flight. Later investigation into the
condition of squadron pre-oilers revealed that they
delivered significantly different quantities of oil for
a given number of strokes and that one pressure
gauge was out of calibration. The use of a nonstan-
dard servicing procedure passed down the line by
supervisors caused this incident. Remember that
the procedures in the MIM are the right way and
only way, to professionally use the SE in servicing
an aircraft. Non-standard rules-of-thumb or play-it-
by-ear procedures are dangerous.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 008 00
Page 15/(16 blank)
89. In another case two night check maintenance
men discovered that a PON-6 they were about to
use was filled with hydraulic fluid. Investigation
revealed that one engine and one engine driven
compressor, had been serviced with the contami-
nated PON-6. The engine oil system, EDC oil
system, and the PON-6 were drained, flushed, and
reserviced with proper lubricant. It could not be
discovered how the PON-6 became filled with
hydraulic fluid.
90. Remember, check whats in the SE before
you use it, know whats in it before you refill it
and know exactly what youre refilling it with.
91. HYDRAULIC POWER SUPPLY. Heres a typical
example of complacency. It involves two fairly experi-
enced maintenance men who each completely disre-
garded a basic safety precaution, unfortunately at
the same time. They were both working with their
heads up and locked mentally and one wound up
with his up and locked physically.
92. Airframes had just completed two periods of
running a hydraulic jenny on an aircraft to fix and
check a wing fold gripe. Power plants was working
at the same time along with airframes, closing up
doors from previous maintenance performed during
the above evolutions.
93. While one man was signing off the wing fold
gripe, a hydraulicsman restarted the jenny to service
the utility system. Before applying pressure to the
aircraft, he left to get a flashlight which he needed
to see the utility reservoir. While he was gone, a
mech from power plants shop got up into the left
auxiliary air door to safety wire two bolts.
94. You guessed it. The hydraulicsman returned
to the jenny and applied 500 psi to the aircraft.
The jenny was positioned on the left side, forward
of the wing. A second power plants mech finally
saw the man pi nched i n the aux ai r door and
shouted to shut off the jenny. When pressure was
removed, the first mech fell out of the door. He
had been unable to speak or move due to the
pressure across his chest, shoulder, and arm.
95. The mech suffered a compression injury to
a brachial nerve which produced swelling and a
reduction of mobility to his right arm and hand.
He spent 5 days away from duty and three months
of restricted duty. Only he knows why he didnt
install an aux air door safety strut. These doors
have been crushing maintenance men for over 20
years! Everybody knows that. The hydraulicman
should have too, but he didnt check to see if
everyone was clear before applying pressure.
96. Working around aircraft and SE requires more
sense than just touch, taste, smell, sight, and
hearing. If you want to be around when youre old
and still have those five senses intact, you need
two more now, horse and common.
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 009 00
Change 1 - 1 July 2001 Page 1
AIRCRAFT/SE JACKS
U.S. NAVY SUPPORT EQUIPMENT
COMMON
BASIC HANDLING & SAFETY MANUAL
Reference Material
Index and Application Tables for Aircraft Jacks NAVAIR 19-70-46 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Aircraft Hydraulic Jacks NAVAIR 19-600-135-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alphabetical Index
Subject Page No.
Automotive Jacks 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dolly Jacks 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scissors Jacks 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hazards 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aircraft Jacking Restrictions 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automotive Jack Hazards 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Axle Jack Hazards 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Aircraft Jack Hazards 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tripod Jack Hazards 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hydraulic Axle Jacks 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hand Carried Jacks 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Outrigger Axle Jacks 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lessons Learned/Accident Reports 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dont Go It Alone - Youll Lose 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Load Test Failure 19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Locknuts Save the Day 19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Unmanned Jack 19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Safety Precautions And Procedures 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automotive Jacks 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Axle Jacks 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dos and Donts 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Periodic Maintenance 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Qualifications 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tripod Jacks 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tripod Jacks 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Designations 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fixed Height Jack 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Safety Features 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Variable Height Jack 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Record of Applicable Technical Directives
None
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 009 00
Page 2
1. HYDRAULIC AXLE JACKS.
2. All Navy aircraft jacks are designated as either
axle jacks or tripod jacks. Axle jacks are used
primarily for raising one main landing gear or the
nose gear of aircraft for maintenance of tires,
wheels, brakes, and struts. In the case of some
helicopters, axle jacks are also used for tailwheel
and fuselage jacking. All other Navy aircraft require
tripod jacks for fuselage jacking.
3. There are two different types of axle jacks and
several different sizes (lifting capacity in tons) of
most types. The two types of Navy axle jacks and
their common type names, are as follows:
S Hand Carried - hand carried
S Outrigger - Rhino
4. All model designations for axle jacks begin with
the l etter A, f or axl e, such as A10-1HC. The
numbers following the A indicate the jack capacity
in tons, such as 10 for a 10 ton jack. This is followed
by a dash (-) and the specific jack identification
number. Then come two l etters i ndi cati ng the
configuration or type of jack; HC = Hand Carried,
OR = Outrigger.
5. As a safety measure, all jacks are equipped
with a safety by-pass valve. It serves as a safety
factor when a load in excess of 10 percent over
the rated capacity is applied to the ram or jack
cylinder. For example, the safety valve on a 10
ton jack should bypass fluid at 11 tons of pressure.
In pounds, a 20,000 pound jack will bypass at
22,000 pounds.
6. When excessive pressure is built up, the bypass
valve ball will be unseated and the hydraulic fluid
will by-pass into the reservoir until the pressure
is relieved. The ball will automatically reseat itself.
7. HAND CARRIED JACKS. Figure 1 shows the
A3-1HC axle jack. This 3 ton capacity jack is typical
of the many different models of hand carried axle
jacks in use today.
8. Other models vary in size from just under 12
inches up to 20 inches long, from 3 inches to 9-1/4
inches wide, and from 4-3/4 inches to 9 inches
high (closed). Weights vary from 26 to 120 pounds.
Lift heights vary up to 29 inches and lift capacities
are 3, 5, 10, 15, 17, 20, and 35 tons. The A35-3HC,
used on the C-130 Hercules, is a special case.
It comes in two parts with the reservoir and pump
section joined to a separate lift section by a 10
foot hose. It weighs 280 pounds and a transport
dolly is provided for handling.
9. All hand carried axle jacks are portable, self-
contained units, with either single or double manual-
ly operated pumps. The lifts consist of three or
f our r am st ages and an ext ensi on scr ew, al l
encased in an outer cylinder which is part of the
base. A tank, circular, square, or rectangular is
welded to the base, forming a fluid reservoir All
the hand carried jacks are equipped with carrying
handles, pump handles, reservoir vent valves,
release valves, and safety by-pass valves.
009001
Figure 1. Axle Jack, A3-1HC
10. OUTRIGGER AXLE JACKS. The outrigger axle
jack (Figure 2) is a very large and heavy jack. Even
though it weighs 3,536 pounds it is considered a
portable jack. Three solid wheel casters support the
jack to permit mobility when not under load. When
the jack is under load, the casters retract and the
jack is supported on chassis legs.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 009 00
Page 3
009002
Figure 2. Axle Jack, A45-20R
11. TRIPOD JACKS.
12. Tripod (airframe) jacks are used primarily for
lifting the entire aircraft off the ground or deck.
You may hear them referred to as wing, tail, nose,
or fuselage jacks. Those names come from the
jack point positions where the jacks are used on
the aircraft, such as forward or aft fuselage, wing
root, wing glove, nose, or tail. The jacking points
vary for different type aircraft and can be found
in the MIM for your particular type aircraft.
13. There are two different types of tripod jacks,
fixed height and variable height. Both types are
mobile, self-contained, and hydraulically operated.
They consist of three principle assemblies:
S A hydraulic lift assembly, incorporating
one or more rams and an extension screw, all
encased within a cylinder mounted between a jack
head and jack base.
S A tubular steel wheeled tripod leg struc-
ture.
S A hydraulic pump unit mounted either on
the jack base or on a leg of the tripod.
14. The main difference between the two types
is that the tripod structure on a variable height jack
can be adjusted to different heights by adding
extension legs.
15. DESIGNATIONS. All model designations for
tripod jacks begin with the letter T for tripod, such
as T10-2FH or T20-1VH5. The number following the
T indicates the jack capacity in tons, such as 20
for a 20 ton jack. Following the dash (-) is the specific
jack identification number. Then come two letters
indicating the configuration or type of tripod jack -FH
= Fixed Height, VH = Variable Height. The number
following the VH for variable height jacks indicates
the number of leg extension kits available for that
jack.
16. SAFETY FEATURES. Several safety features
have been incorporated into the design of airframe
jacks. A lock nut (also called a ring or collar) is
provided on the rams to mechanically lock the rams
in position and prevent the rams from settling in the
event of hydraulic failure or inadvertent lowering. A
safety bypass valve is incorporated in the system
to bypass fluid from the pump or ram when excessive
pressure is built up by overloading the jack.
17. A rise indicator attached to the lift assembly
of most, but not all, jacks indicates the distance
the load has been lifted. This is helpful in keeping
the aircraft balanced when three or more jacks are
used at once.
18. The maximum screw extension distance shall
be stenciled in some easy to see place on all jacks.
The date tested and next inspection date shall also
be stenciled on all jacks near the pump.
19. FIXED HEIGHT JACK. Figure 3 shows the
T3-1FH tripod jack. This 3 ton (6,000 pounds)
capacity jack is typical of the several different models
of fixed height tripod jacks in current use. The T3-1FH
jack is a portable unit with a single speed manually
operated pump. It is 2 feet high, fully collapsed.
Extension range of the jack fully extended is 39
inches. It weighs 120 pounds with fluid.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 009 00
Page 4
20. Other models of the fixed height tripod jack
var y i n si ze f r om 14 t o 62 i nches hi gh, f ul l y
collapsed. Weights vary from 110 to 900 pounds.
Lift heights vary up to 130 inches and lift capacities
are 3, 12, 17, 20, 25, and 50 tons.
21. The tripod legs are equipped with swivel
castered wheel assemblies to provide a means for
moving and positioning the jack. A spring loaded
yoke and spindle keeps the base of the jack foot
assembly about 2 inches from the ground, until
a load is applied to the jack.
009003
Figure 3. Fixed Height Jack, T3-1FH
22. VARIABLE HEIGHT JACK. Figure 4 shows the
T30-1VH5 tripod jack. This 30 ton jack is typical of
the several different models of variable height jacks
in current use. From the designation number, you
can see this jack has five leg extension kits. Each
extension set will increase the effective height of this
jack from a lift of 4 feet 7 inches to a maximum
of 16 feet 8 inches. Weight of the jack is 1,090 pounds
with extensions.
23. Other models of variable height jacks vary
in size, weight, and dimension. Lift heights depend
on the extension kit used. Lift capacities are 5,
10, 12, 20, and 30 tons.
24. All of the variable height jacks are equipped
with a rise or height indicator attached to the top
of the ram. The indicator shows the distance the
load has been raised on a scale, in inches, along
the jack cylinder. Since the rise indicators are easily
bent or damaged, you may find that they have been
removed from many jacks.
009004
Figure 4. Variable Height Jack, T30-1VH5
25. AUTOMOTIVE JACKS.
26. Automoti ve j acks are used for l i fti ng SE
vehicles to perform maintenance. There are several
different types of automotive jacks and several
different lifting capacities in tons. There are hydrau-
lic, pneumatic, mechanical, or a combination of both
hydraulic and pneumatic. Two types of automotive
jacks most common are:
S Dolly Jack
S Scissors Jack
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 009 00
Page 5
27. DOLLY JACKS. Figure 5 shows a 4 ton (8,000
pound) capacity, dolly jack and is typical of the several
different models of automotive jacks. The jack is
capable of lifting a 4-ton load to a height of 25 inches.
Models of the dolly jack are distinguishable by their
long, low chassis and long handle. They vary in size
and weights. Lift capacities range from 3 to 10 tons.
28. The chassis are equipped with swivel castered
wheels to provide a means for moving and position-
ing the jack. They are not spring loaded, so unlike
aircraft jacks, when a load is applied the jack will
not settle on the chassis but will remain mobile.
009005
Figure 5. 4 Ton-Hydraulic Dolly Jack
29. SCISSORS JACKS. Figure 6 shows a 4 ton
scissors jack and is typical of the different models
available. These jacks have low starting heights which
allow easy access to the low frame of some tractors
and forklifts. There is a two position lift pad which
tends to follow the load as the jack is raised or
lowered. The pump handle, hydraulic unit, and ram
stand in a vertical position allowing for the scissors
action during the jacking operation.
30. Models may vary slightly but are designed
for easy portability. They fold into a unit that can
be easily hand carried to and from the maintenance
site.
009006
Figure 6. 4 Ton-Hydraulic Scissors Jack
31. HAZARDS.
32. Jacks rank number five on our list of support
equipment involved in ground accidents. The lead-
ing cause for accidents involving jacks, aircraft and
SE vehicles is jack failure. However, most jacks
fail due to lack of care or because of improper
maintenance procedures.
33. GENERAL AIRCRAFT JACK HAZARDS. Mov-
ing jacks to where maintenance is to be performed
or keeping them stored have their own unique
problems. Just handling axle jacks can be hazardous.
The hand carried axle jack is not a real problem
unless you drop it on your foot or set it down on
your fingers. But handling and moving of the larger
and heavier axle and tripod jacks can be hazardous.
These jacks weigh from 100 to 3,500 pounds and
the wheels that move them are free swiveling and
small. Directional stability is poor and pushing one
into position around an aircraft is no simple chore.
Trying to move or position outrigger or tripod jacks
by yourself is hazardous. Manhandling one into
position around aircraft landing gear can be danger-
ous to hands and feet. The jack foot plates and
wheels at the base of tripods stick out and are
notorious foot-crunchers and shin-knockers. Its not
hard to damage an aircraft by banging the jack into
it.
34. Movement of jacks aboard ship when there
i s any pi t ch or r ol l of t he deck i s ext r emel y
hazardous. There is no really safe way to do it.
Even with calm seas, a smart turn into the wind
by the ship while youre moving a jack, can be
disastrous.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 009 00
Page 6
35. Transportation of jacks over longer distances
ashore, say from the SE pool to a hangar on the
other side of the field, can be a real challenge.
The outrigger which you can tow can be ruined
i n short order i f the vehi cl e i s goi ng too fast,
especially over hangar door tracks, ramp seams,
and other obstructions. The small wheels and spring
loaded suspensions cant take much abuse.
36. A tripod wheel base is not designed for towing
the jack. They are small, allow only a couple of
inches clearance, and are spring loaded. Bouncing
over uneven surfaces will usually cause the jack
foot plates to hit the ground and that can spin the
jack around, tip it over and damage the tripod.
These jacks dont have towbars, the wheels cant
be locked in position so they track, and there are
no brakes. For these reasons, you shall not tow
these jacks.
37. Free wheeling casters and no brakes also
mean that jacks can move by themselves if not
properly secured. A loose, heavy jack on a pitching
deck could be disastrous. Jacks can also be moved
by jet blast and prop wash. Therefore, any jack
that isnt tied down can be a hazard. Since there
are no tiedown rings on the jacks, you must take
some care as to how you attach the tiedown chains
or ropes to prevent damage to the jack. This is
particularly true aboard ship where the jacks are
likely to be working against the tiedowns in rough
seas.
38. Dirt, sand grit, and other contaminants can
damage a jack and make it hazardous for you to
use. It can clog the reservoir vent valve; freeze
open or close the safety by-pass or release valves;
score the ram cyl i nders teari ng up seal s and
packing, causing leaks. Water causes internal
corrosion and eventual failure. Mixed with chlori-
nated cleaning solvents, water can form a highly
corrosive acid and ruin the jack.
39. The extension screws on the jacks have a
maximum extension range. An internal stop pre-
vents over-extending the screw. If you forcibly
over-extend the screw you not only damage the
internal stop mechanism, but also make the jack
unsafe and hazardous to use. An over-extended
screw is very likely to bend or break off from any
side motion.
40. Other leading causes of jacking accidents are
improper jacking procedures, use of the wrong type
jack, operation by unqualified personnel, and lack
of proper supervision. There seem to be too many
cases of people trying to do something they really
dont know how to do. Complacency probably plays
a bi g par t . Af t er al l wi t h an axl e j ack, how
complicated is a jack, or jacking up a wheel? That
kind of attitude is a big part of our problem. Jacking
an entire aircraft with airframe jacks is an extremely
hazardous operation and, as with aircraft moves,
requires team operation and coordination between
qualified team members. The number of accidents
should alert you to the fact that jacking an aircraft
is not a routine job, but a dangerous one for the
people and the aircraft if proper procedures are
not followed.
41. AXLE JACK HAZARDS. Hydraulic axle jacks
are normally squadron or unit permanent custody
equipment. That means your outfit is responsible for
making sure the jacks are load tested at SE division
before being put into service and every three months
thereafter. Using a jack that has not been load tested
can be hazardous. Safety surveys have shown that
this requirement is often unknown or disregarded by
many activities. For your own safety, take the initiative
and check to see that your outfit is complying with
the requirements.
42. Axl e j acks are mechani cal l y si mpl e and
rugged, but just like most other SE, if they arent
used properly and arent taken care of, they will
fail. That failure can be slow and soft, or sudden
and explosive. The performance of a jack depends
on the parts which control the flow of hydraulic
fluid and the seals which hold the pressure. Misuse,
abuse, contamination, corrosion, and neglect can
all effect the performance of the jack and produce
failure.
43. Axle jacks do not have safety lock nuts or
collars on the rams, so if the hydraulic system fails,
the jack will collapse all the way to the extension
screw. The distance the load drops is fairly short,
however the sheer weight of the aircraft the jack
is holding makes it a heart stopping and hazardous
drop. The weight on one main landing gear (MLG)
of an F-14 at max catapult weight is about 31,000
pounds. The weight, dropping suddenly from 11
inches, generates a tremendous force. It could strip
and splinter the extension screw, or body of the
jack, topple the jack, or with the force of a cannon
shot, shoot the jack into your lap.
44. During controlled lowering, the descent speed
of the jack ram is controlled by the release valve.
If you open it too quickly, that 15 tons of aircraft
is going to come down right smartly, and you could
get the same results you get from jack
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 009 00
Page 7
failure. If you unscrew the release valve all the
way, the force will shoot out a high pressure stream
of hydraulic fluid and the valves steel ball. That
could rearrange your face!
45. If there is grease or oil on the pump handle,
or your hand, theres a good chance your hand,
or the handle, will slip. Result, rapped knuckles
if your lucky, a broken hand, or fingers if youre
not.
46. If a jack isnt positioned properly, the jack pad
can easily slip out of the extension screw cup or
lifting arm socket. This can happen if the jack base
or foot is on slippery or uneven surface where it
can slide or rock during jacking. If the fixed jack
pad, a removable pad, or an adapter is not seated
exactly and firmly during lifting, it will slip. If the
jack isnt positioned in the proper direction, it can
damage the tire, wheel, brake assembly, or lower
strut during the raising or lowering operation. Trying
to j ack an ai rcraft by any part other than the
designated jacking points, wilt cause extensive
damage.
47. Any aircraft movement (other than up or down)
during the jacking operation can be disastrous. High
winds, jet blast, prop wash, or a pitching, rolling
deck are all hazardous. Proper chocking and/or
tiedowns are required. Tiedowns are always re-
quired aboard ship. Forgetting to loosen a tiedown
during jacking can result in damage to aircraft
fittings or even severe structural damage in some
cases. It could also snap the tiedown chain which
could whip into the aircraft or you.
48. Dont forget the hazards of overheated wheels
and hot brakes when using axle jacks. Remember,
it can take 20 to 30 minutes for heat to transfer
and build up dangerous conditions in the tire/wheel.
That may be just about the time, after a flight, that
you start to change a wheel or work on a bad
brake. Any position inboard or outboard of a hot
wheel is extremely dangerous. And also remember
that you NEVER remove a wheel from an aircraft
without first completely deflating the tire. If its going
to explode, a cracked wheel will normally do it when
the axle nut is loosened.
49. TRIPOD JACK HAZARDS. Tripod jacks are
normally checked out from the AIMD SE Division
when needed. However, since transporting these
heavy and cumbersome jacks is a problem, they often
remain in the custody of squadrons for prolonged
periods of time. That means the squadron must be
responsible for their care and cleanliness during
periods when they are not in use. Misuse, abuse,
contamination, and corrosion can, and often do, occur
during these periods. As a result, the jacks deteriorate
to a hazardous condition.
50. Remember, if something goes wrong with a
jack while you have a 30 ton aircraft in the air,
youve got real problems. It takes at least three
jacks and they have to work together. If one fails
and goes down, the aircraft could slip off the jacks
and the jack screws or rams will punch through
the fuselage or wings and cause severe damage.
If it happens during a landing gear drop check and
the gear is up, you could well strike a whole aircraft.
51. The extension screw on a jack is equipped
with a jack pad socket. The aircraft jack pad fits
into the socket and into a fitting or socket in the
aircraft. The sockets and pads are designed to take
vertical loads but not much horizontal pressure.
The pads can shear or slip from either the jack
or aircraft socket if enough side load is applied.
52. Side loads normally result when the jacks are
not raised at the same rate. This causes the aircraft
to tilt or pitch. When that happens, the distance
between the jacking points becomes closer in the
ground plane, like the ends of a ruler cover less
distance across a desk top as you raise one end.
With the weight of the aircraft holding the jacks
in one place, that shrink in distance between the
jackpoints creates a tremendous side load on the
jack pad and eventually they break or slip. The
same thing happens if all the jacks arent lowered
at the same rate to keep the aircraft level or at
the same attitude it was in when jacking started.
53. Lowering can be very hazardous. The rate
of descent of a jack depends on how far the release
valve is opened. This can be very tricky when youre
trying to coordinate three jacks at once. Usually
it takes only a small amount of rotation on the valve
to get a fast rate of descent. If you tightened the
valve hard before jacking, it will take force to open
it. That extra force can cause you to open the valve
more than you want, so be very careful. The valves
may vary in different jacks, so get an idea of how
yours reacts duri ng preoperati onal check. But
remember, it comes down a lot quicker with a 30
ton load!
54. There is a safeguard to prevent you from
lowering the jack too fast, the safety lock nut.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 009 00
Page 8
The safety lock nuts on jacks are very important
safeguards in preventing the aircraft from falling
off the jacks in the event of a jack failure. However,
using them during raising, and particularly during
lowering operations, is hazardous to your hands
and fingers. To be effective, the lock nut shall be
kept about one-half thread above the top surface
of the jack (top of ram cylinder or second ram,
depending on which model jack). It is important
to carefully keep your fingers and hands clear of
the area between the lock nut and cylinder head
so they wont be pinched or crushed. This is easier
to do while raising the jack and rotating the lock
nut down. Variable height jack rams have spiral
grooves which allow the lock nut to rotate down
the ram by its own weight. However, this means
that when youre lowering the jack, the lock nut
must be held up as you rotate it up the ram. This
makes it more dangerous. Depending upon the
height of the jack, it normally takes two people
to operate the jack and the safety nut. Dont try
to do it yourself.
55. Wind, jet blast or prop wash, or a moving
deck can all apply side loads to a jacked-up aircraft
and are hazardous to the operation. Jacking outside
on the line is normally restricted to 15 knots of
wind or less. Tiedowns are used as a safeguard
during aircraft jacking. The maintenance instruc-
tions manuals contain all the required information
on jacking procedures, tiedown requirements, and
jacking restrictions for your specific type aircraft.
56. In general, tiedowns are not required in a
hangar ashore if the hangar doors are closed. They
are required outside, and they are required aboard
ship. In the MIM you will also see that the jacks
are required to be tied down for stowage aboard
ship to prevent them from sliding.
57. AIRCRAFT JACKING RESTRICTIONS. There
are many restrictions to jacking for each type aircraft.
If you violate any of these restrictions, there is a
good chance that youll have an accident, damage
the aircraft, or injure someone. The restrictions
generally concern aircraft gross weight and configura-
tion. Some of the considerations are:
S Maximum gross weight allowable.
S Fuel distribution in the fuselage and wing
tanks.
S Access (stress) panels on or off.
S Engines in or out.
S External stores on or off.
S Symmetrical store loading.
S Refuel probe in or out.
S Wings, tails, rotors, and radomes folded,
spread, swept, up, or down.
S Tail hook up or down.
S Level or pitch angle jacking.
S Overhead clearance.
S Canopy open or closed.
S Landing gear shock strut extension.
S Parking brake on or off.
S External power and hydraulics.
S Circuit breakers in or out.
S Jacking height measurements.
S Personnel on the aircraft.
S Tiedown points.
S Safety jacks or cradles.
S Landing gear down locks.
S Wing fold struts.
S MLG skid plates.
S Chocks.
58. AUTOMOTIVE JACK HAZARDS.
59. The hazards of automotive jacks are similar
to the hazards of aircraft jacks so review those
hazards along with the unique elements of automo-
tive jacks. Causes of automotive jacking accidents
are also the same as encountered with aircraft:
improper jacking procedures, use of the wrong type
jack, operation by unqualified personnel, and lack
of proper supervision. If proper procedures are
used, the dangers to personnel and damage to
SE decreases significantly.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 009 00
Page 9
60. Movement of automotive jacks differs due to
the small, confined work bays these jacks are used
in. If youre not paying attention to the task at hand,
that task can be very hazardous. Aboard ship the
hazards of free movement and stowage are similar
to those discussed with aircraft jacks.
61. Automotive jacks are simple and rugged, but
just like most other equipment, if they arent used
properly and arent taken care of, they will fail.
The performance of a jack depends on the parts
which control the flow of hydraulic fluid and the
seals which hold the pressure. Misuse, abuse,
contamination, corrosion, and neglect can all affect
the performance of the jack and produce failure.
62. Automotive jacks do not have safety lock nuts
or collars on the rams, so if the hydraulic system
fails, the jack will collapse all the way. This is the
reason you never go under a vehicle with only the
jack supporting it. It is a requirement that jack
stands be placed at the supporting points prior to
performing maintenance that requires you to be
under a vehicle. If that jack fails and there are
no jack stands, your rib cage will not withstand
4 tons crashing down on you.
63. Automotive jacks were not designed to move
vehicles or equipment. The jacks are designed
solely for lifting and to use a jack for any other
purpose than its design can result in equipment
damage or injury to personnel. At the same time
ensure that the deck is not covered in grease, oil
or uneven. If the deck is slippery, it is possible
for the jack to slide on its caster wheels or the
jack pad can easily slip off. Proper chocking and/or
tiedowns are required and are always required
aboard ship. Forgetting to loosen a tiedown during
jacking can result in damage to SE fittings or it
could also snap the tiedown chain which could whip
into you.
64. You need to use extreme caution when lifting
narrow SE vehicles like fork lift trucks from the
side. Make sure that the height between the floor
and the raised tires is less than 1/4 of the vehicles
tread width. So if the tread width from the center
point of both tires equals 36 inches, then never
lift the bottom of the vehicle tire more than 9 inches
off the floor. If you exceed this range, the instability
of the fork lift truck could easily tip over or the
angle could cause the jack to kick out and drop
the load.
65. Positioning of the jack pad properly to a true
support point is important. If the jack isnt positioned
properly, it can damage the tires, wheel/brake
assembly, engine, transmission, or lower suspen-
sion during the raising or lowering operation. The
pintle hook of a tow tractor is not a jacking point
and shall not be used. On low frame tow tractors
when jacked at the front or rear of the tractor, it
is important not to lift the unit up too high. The
weight of the tractor may be placed on the opposite
frame end or pintle hook. The results could be a
damaged pintle hook, that could fail during a towing
operation aboard ship. The result could be an
aircraft and crew lost over the side.
66. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND PROCEDURES.
67. As you can see, there are varied similarities
between aircraft and automotive jacking operations
as well as a number of unique elements. Over all,
jacking operations have a large number of factors
which can affect the safety of the aircraft, SE, and
personnel. Details on restrictions and procedures
for aircraft jacking operations are in the MIMs. For
SE vehicle jacking operations there are Navy and
commercial publications. You must know them, and
follow or abide by them exactly. If you dont, youll
be in trouble. Dont forget that many squadrons
and facilities will have their own local standing
instructions for jacking aircraft and SE vehicles
containing additional safety precautions and restric-
tions. You must know them too.
68. If were going to prevent accidents involving
jacks, aircraft, and SE vehicles, youve got to take
the proper precauti ons and fol l ow t he proper
procedures. As weve said before in this manual,
the precautions and procedures are based on
experience, accident and cause factor experience.
If you take these precautions and follow these
procedures; youll prevent jack failures; youll dis-
cover faulty jack maintenance before it causes an
accident; youll be using the right jack; youll be
qual i fi ed and keep unqual i fi ed persons out of
trouble; youll avoid hazardous practices and short-
cuts; youll do a safe, professional job; and you
wont get hurt or hurt anyone else.
69. Since the type jack, jacking procedures, and
safety precautions vary for different types of aircraft
and SE vehicles only general safety precautions
and procedures will be covered in this section. You
must be familiar with the specifics in the MIM for
your type aircraft or SE vehicle.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 009 00
Page 10
70. QUALIFICATIONS. SE Operators Licenses are
not required to operate jacks. Therefore you will
receive all your training and qualification from your
own squadron or unit.
71. In the meantime, dont operate jacks unless
you are under the direction of your supervisor or
someone who is qualified. Dont volunteer to do
something youre not qualified to do. Jacking a
wheel or an entire aircraft is a dangerous operation.
Your supervisor should know if youre qualified. If
he doesnt, dont foolishly tell him you are, and
risk damaging an aircraft, a piece of SE or hurting
someone. False pride has caused too many acci-
dents already.
72. There are 2 publications you should become
familiar with during training. They will tell you most
of what you need to know about aircraft jacks, how
they work, their care, the maintenance and test
requirements, and which specific jacks apply to your
aircraft. They are:
S NAVAIR 19-70-46, Index and Application
Tables for Aircraft Jacks.
S NAVAIR 19-600-135-6-1, Preoperational
Checklist, Aircraft Hydraulic Jacks.
73. PERIODIC MAINTENANCE. The responsibility
for making sure the jacks receive the periodic
maintenance required belongs to your supervisor and
maintenance/production control. The actual mainte-
nance, repair, and testing are the responsibility of
the SE division. However, you should be aware of
not only the procedures for the care of the jacks,
but of the inspection and load test requirements.
74. If there is no date tested on the jack, down
it and return it to the SE division. Youre the one
whos going to use the jack and have an accident
or get hurt if the jack fails. Remember, safety is
a matter of individual responsibility.
75. AXLE JACKS. As was stated before, the primary
causes for jack failures is poor care and lack of
maintenance. Since you are a user of the jacks in
your unit, the individual responsibility for the care
of the jacks falls on you.
76. Preoperational Inspection. The same basic safe-
ty precaution that applies to all support equipment,
also applies to jacks, conduct a good preoperational
inspection before you use it. NAVAIR 19-600-135-6-1
is the general preoperational checklist for all jacks.
77. First of all, if you follow the lead we gave
you earlier on initiative, youll know when the jack
had last been tested and when the next inspection
is due. Thats important. Next, if the jack is filthy,
take the time to wipe it down. You cant see cracks
or broken welds under dirt. If the jack is covered
with hydraulic fluid you can suspect it may be
leaking. Inspect it more closely.
78. Check the reservoir. It should be full with the
jack ram fully collapsed. If the reservoir is low, you
can suspect a leak somewhere. Fill the reservoir
with clean fresh hydraulic fluid and also check the
filler plug vent valve to make sure it isnt clogged.
If this is blocked, you may get an air-lock and the
jack wont work right. You could also get a pressure
build-up in the reservoir and a possible rupture.
Check the pump handle for bends and the pump
rocker arm and link for elongated or out of round
holes. These are signs that the jack may have been
overloaded and that the safety by-pass is malfunc-
tioning.
79. With the filler plug air vent valve open, and
the release valve closed, pump up the rams and
check for leaks and full extension. When the rams
reach full extension youll feel the pumping pressure
i ncrease. Don t conti nue to pump or you may
damage the ram stops inside because theres no
load on the jack.
80. Screw out the extensi on screw but don t
forcibly over-extend it past the external stops.
Check to see that it is clean and oiled. If its full
of grit or dirt, wipe it down and coat it with a light
film of lubricating oil.
81. On the outrigger axle jacks check the wheels
and spring suspension assemblies to make sure
theyre in good condition. Towing or dragging these
jacks around with broken wheels will damage the
frame or reservoir.
82. Since many leaks in jacks will only appear
when the jack is under load, be sure to watch for
leaks when you actually start jacking up the aircraft
landing gear. If you find leaks or other defects
during the preoperational inspection or under load,
dont continue to use the jack. Down it, tag it as
bad, report it, and better yet, turn it into SE division
for repair immediately. Dont leave a defective jack
where someone else can use it.
83. Operation and Care. Take the following general
precautions when using axle jacks:
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 009 00
Page 11
S Use the right size (capacity) jack for the
aircraft. The name plate tells you the rating of the
jack, but you must know the weight of the load
youre lifting. Check the Index and Application
Tabl es for Ai rcraft Jacks and the MIM. Never
overload a jack!
S Inspect the jack before you use it.
S Tow or move the large jacks slowly and
carefully. If youre manually handling one, use at
least two or more people to do it safely.
S Place the jack in the proper position and
direction to clear aircraft components.
S Beware of aircraft headknockers.
S Use only the correct jack pad and/or
adapters.
S Extend the extension screw to the height
directed in the MIM for your aircraft or no more
than half-way if possible. Do not exceed the screw
extension stenciled on the jack.
S Make sure the jack base is level and
stable. Watch out for ramp seams or weld seams
and expansion joints in the deck.
S Make sure the jack screw cup and jack
pad mate perfectly.
S Make sure the other two landing gear
wheels are chocked.
S Ensure tiedowns are installed in the prop-
er places as required by the MIM and not on the
gear strut you are jacking.
S Make sure that all landing gear down locks
are in place.
S Set aircraft parking brakes as required
by the MIM.
S Make sure the jack handle is clean, firmly
in place on the pump rocker arm, and extended
all the way.
S Dont use a makeshift substitute handle
or any ki nd of makeshi f t ext ensi on f or mor e
leverage.
S Make sure the reservoir vent valve is open
and the release valve fully closed.
S Dont jack the wheel any higher than
required--normally 2 inches above the deck.
S Beware of overheated wheel/tire/brake
assemblies.
S During jacking beware of high or gusty
winds, jet or prop blast, and pitching deck or ship
turns.
S Open release valve slowly and not too
far.
S After lowering, remove the jack, push
down the rams, and fully screw in the extension.
S Close the release valve and the reservoir
vent valve.
S Stow the handle properly so it wont get
lost.
S After lowering jack rock the aircraft to
ensure shock strut is not binding after lowering.
84. Care and Stowage. The care and stowage
of jacks when they are not in use has a lot to
do with how long they last in good condition. Take
the following actions in caring for and stowing jacks:
S Always stow jacks with the extension
screw and rams fully collapsed; release valves and
vent valves fully closed.
S Store jacks in designated area. Never
leave them out in the rain or exposed to weather,
dirt, and dust.
S Use a canvas cover, secured over the
lifting cylinder, to prevent moisture and dirt from
seeping into the jack interior.
S Dont remove jack handles and use them
for other purposes.
S Dont attempt to repair jacks. SE division
has the proper parts and load tester to do it right.
S Ensure that your jacks have not exceeded
the next inspection date.
85. TRIPOD JACKS.
86. As discussed with the hand carried jacks, the
final responsibility for the use of any SE is the
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 009 00
Change 1 Page 12
user. So take care of the equipment that youll be
operating, and youll accomplish your assigned
tasking in a timely and professional manner and
without damaging equipment or personnel.
87. Preoperational Inspection. The same safety
precautions that apply to other SE, also apply to
jacks, conduct a good preoperational inspection
before you use it. NAVAIR 19-600-135-6-1 is the
general preoperational check list for all jacks. Use
it!
88. First of all you should know if the jack is within
its inspection cycle. Thats a safety requirement
for all jacks. Whether they are used or not, they
can deteriorate to a hazardous condition over that
period of time. Check the next inspection date
stenciled on the jack. If there is no date on the
jack, or the date is not current, down it and return
it to the SE division.
89. If the jack is filthy, take the time to wipe it
down. Dirt hides cracks, elongated bolt holes, and
leaks. If the jack is covered with hydraulic fluid,
you can suspect it may be leaking. On the other
hand it may just have been laid over on its side
for maintenance or loading with the vent valve open.
Check the reservoir. It should be full, provided the
rams are fully collapsed. If not, fill it. Make sure
the rams are fully collapsed, otherwise the system
will be overfilled and when the rams are collapsed
the excess fluid will be forced out the air vent.
Should the rams be collapsed under a heavy load,
the hydraulic lines or reservoir could burst.
90. Since air vent/filler plugs are fairly small, youll
probably need a funnel. Make sure that its clean
and that you use fresh hydraulic fluid. Check the
air vent plug while youve got it out to make sure
it isnt clogged up. If this is blocked, the pump
wont work or will be very hard to operate because
of the vacuum.
91. Check the pump handle for bends and the
pump rocker arm and link for elongated or out of
round holes. These are signs that the jack may
have been over loaded and that the safety bypass
valve is malfunctioning. Check the hose between
the pump and cylinder for deterioration and make
sure its connected.
92. Check the leg extensions, cross braces, and
basic tripod legs for bends, large dents, or distor-
t i ons. Smal l dent s ar e OK. Check t he whol e
structure for loose, missing, or wrong type bolts,
nuts, or braces.
93. Check the jack foot casters and wheels for
condition and freedom of movement. If the assem-
blies dont turn freely youll have trouble maneuver-
ing and controlling the jack during positioning.
Watch out for your feet.
94. Check the rise indicator and set the pointer
at the 0 inches position by loosening the wing set
screw in the tube and moving the indicator rod.
Be sure the ram is fully collapsed.
95. Check the maximum extension screw distance.
It should be stenciled on the jack. If not return
it to SE division.
95A. Check the ram(s) for staking of the top two
threads. If threads are not staked, return jack to
the SE division.
96. With the air vent open, and the release valve
cl osed, pump up the ram, or rams, unti l ful l y
extended. When they reach full extension youll
feel the pumping pressure increase. Dont continue
to pump or you may damage the interior stops on
the ram because theres no load on the jack. Check
for normal operation of the pump and for leaks
around the rams, the cylinder and pump hose
connections, and the pump base.
97. On a variable height jack, the safety lock nut
(ring or collar) should revolve, of its own weight,
down the ram as the ram extends. If the ram groove
is dirty and not oiled (or if the lock nut screw is
tightened) it may not. If the rams are dirty, clean
them and add oil lightly.
98. On the fixed height tripod jacks, the safety
lock nut (ring or collar) must be turned down the
ram by hand. If there are two rams, each one will
have a safety lock nut.
99. After checking the rams and safety lock nuts,
position the nuts at the very top of the ram (by
hand or set screw). Then open the release valve
slowly and no more than one full turn. On the jacks
the ram should collapse all the way down of its
own weight. If the ram does not come down of
its own weight, turn it into SE division.
100. If everything checks out good, you can be
reasonably sure that the jack will perform safely.
Since some leaks in jacks may not show up until
the jack is under load, be sure to watch for leaks
when you actually start jacking up the aircraft. If
you find a leak during the preoperational check
or under load, dont continue to use the jack. Report
it, down it, tag it as bad, and return it to the SE
division for repair. Dont leave a defective jack
where someone else may use it and hazard an
aircraft or waste a lot of time finding out its bad.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 009 00
Change 1 Page 13
101. Operation and Care. Take the following general
precautions when you are using a tripod jack:
S Make sure you are using the right size
(capacity) jack for the aircraft. The name plate tells
you the rating of the jack, but you must also know
the weight of the load youre lifting. Check the Index
and Application Tables for Aircraft Jacks, NAVAIR
19-70-46, and the MIM, and never overload a jack.
S Do a preoperational inspection of the jack
before you use it.
S Use at least two people to move and
position the jack. Move it slowly and carefully.
S Place the jack so that it will clear all parts
of the aircraft and tiedowns during the jacking
operation. When possible, place the jack so that
a line drawn through the center of two of the feet
will be parallel to the fuselage of the aircraft.
S Beware of ai rcraft headknockers and
watch your feet while positioning the jack.
S Make sure the jack foot plates are level
and on a firm, stable surface. Watch out for ramp
seams, and expansion joints in the deck.
S Dont hammer on jacks to try to seat the
foot plates.
S Never use any type of blocks or wedges
under the foot plates.
S Make sure you use only the proper jack
pad and/or adapters and that they are properly
attached to the aircraft.
S Make sure the extension screw is set at
the proper length and not over-extended.
S Make sure the jack screw cup or socket
mates perfectly with the jack pad.
S Check that the rise indicator pointer is
on zero.
S If youre handling a jack at a forward or
aft fuselage jack point, and the pitch of the aircraft
must be changed prior to full jacking, make sure
you reposition your jack, as the pitch changes, to
keep it exactly vertical with the moving jack point.
S Make sure the pump and your hand or
glove is not greasy.
S Check that the air vent valve is open two
turns and that the release valve is fully closed.
Never remove the safety lock nut from
the ram. A jack failure without the safety
lock installed could result in serious injury
or death to personnel and/or damage to
the aircraft.
S Operate t he j ack as si gnal ed by the
jacking crew leader or supervisor.
S Be alert and pay strict attention to the
crew leader. Remember, this is a team effort so
be aware of whats going on at the other jacking
points and around you. The jacks must be raised
together so the aircraft stays in the proper attitude.
If the attitude changes in pitch or roll, side stresses
are being applied to the jacks and pads.
S As the jack ram extends, make sure the
safety nut moves, or is moved, down the ram. Keep
the lock nut no more than one-half thread above
the top surface of the jack. This will prevent the
jack from collapsing in the event of sudden loss
of fluid.
S When the aircraft is jacked to the proper
height, seat the lock nuts snugly against the top
surface of the jack.
S Make sure wheel skid plates are used
as required.
S Prior to lowering, the aircraft must be
raised slightly, on signal, to free up the ram lock
nuts.
Keep hands and fingers clear of area
between ram safety lock nut and top of
cylinder while lowering jack.
S Turn the ram lock nut progressively up-
ward, maintaining one-half thread clearance from
the top of the cylinder, as the ram is lowered.
S When lowering, on signal, open the re-
lease valve slowly and maintain the same lowering
rate as the other jacks. Again this is to maintain
the proper attitude on the aircraft. Dont open the
release valve more than two complete turns.
S After lowering, push down the rams com-
pletely, fully screw in the extension screw, and
remove the jack.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 009 00
Page 14
S Fully close the release valve and the air
vent valve.
102. Care and Stowage. Take the following general
precautions when handling and storing tripod jacks:
S Stow jacks, properly secured, in desig-
nated, sheltered area to prolong their efficiency and
useful life.
S Dont leave jacks unprotected against the
elements. Always stow with the extension screw
and rams fully collapsed and release valves and
air vent valves closed. Put a canvas cover over
the top of the jack to prevent water and moisture
from seeping into the internal working parts of the
lifting assembly.
S Jacks used in or around sand or grit laden
air should be cleaned at least once a week. The
threads of the extension screw and rams should
be coated with a light protective film of tube oil
to prevent rust and corrosion.
S For short distances, jacks can be pushed
on the jack wheels. Handle it carefully and never
tow jacks with any vehicle.
S Dont attempt to repair jacks. The SE
division has the proper parts and jack tester to
do it right.
S Make sure the jack has not exceeded the
next inspection due date.
S Dont borrow jacks. A borrowed jack is
a down jack.
103. General Airframe Jacking Safety Precautions
and Procedures. Safe, professional aircraft jacking,
much like an aircraft movement, is the result of
teamwork between fully qualified personnel under
close supervision. Thirty tons of fighter or 67 tons
of patrol plane sitting in the air on three or four spindly
jackscrews is dangerous, and so is getting it up there
and back down.
104. A supervisor or crew leader shall take full
charge and assume direct responsibility for the
aircraft jacking. The number of personnel required
will vary with the type aircraft, number of jacks,
shipboard or ashore, line or hangar, and local
squadron or unit standard operating procedures.
The basic minimum for jacking in a closed hangar
should be the supervisor, one man on each jack
required, and an overall safety observer. Aboard
ship or on the line, tiedowns are required and
addi ti onal personnel to handl e them woul d be
needed.
105. Most of the MIMs require that tiedown tension
be adjusted, as the aircraft is jacked and lowered,
to prevent the aircraft from slipping off the jacks
and damaging the airframe. Since the TD-1A is
only adjustable for 3 inches on the threaded shaft
of the lock mechanism, it slows the operation down
considerably.
106. Only half of the required number of tiedowns
should be broken down and reassembled at one
time. That means that no less than half of the
tiedowns will be holding the aircraft at all times
during the raising and lowering operations. Extreme
care shall be taken to make sure none of the
tiedowns are over tensioned or forgotten during
the raising operation. Note that this procedure
requires a person to handle each tiedown.
107. There are several general overall procedures
and restrictions to jacking which apply in all cases.
S Aboard ship the jacking operation must
be coordinated, through the Hangar Deck Officer
and Aircraft Handling Officer, with the bridge to
minimize possibility of anticipated or unanticipated
ships turns.
S Ashore, jacking should not be attempted
outside or in open hangars if the wind or gusts
exceed 15 knots. Aircraft should be positioned to
face into the wind.
S Aboard shi p, and outsi de or i n open
hangars ashore, tiedowns are required at the points
and in numbers designated in the MIM.
S Wheel chocks should be in place immedi-
ately before and after jacking.
S Aircraft should never be jacked at any
point except at the jack points designated in the
MIM.
S Aircraft shall be roped off and appropriate
warning signs should be used to keep personnel
clear.
S Climbing on the aircraft should be held
to an absolute minimum.
S Safety jacks or cradles designed to sup-
port the aircraft while on jacks shall be used in
accordance with the MIM.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 009 00
Page 15
108. The following is a list of general precautions
to be taken by the supervi sor or crew l eader.
However, this is a team effort and every member
of the jacking crew should know these precautions
to ensure that they are followed. Dont be shy about
reminding the crew leader if he is about to forget
something or make a mistake.
S Brief all the crew on the jacking operation,
particularly control procedures and signals which
are not covered in the MIM.
S Make sure the people operating the jacks
are qualified to do so.
S Ensure that all of the jacking restrictions
in the MIM are complied with and all factors in
paragraph 57 are considered.
S Make sure enough personnel are used
to safely move and position the jacks under the
aircraft and that a preoperational inspection has
been conducted on all jacks.
S Make sure an external aircraft safety
check and cockpit safety check are conducted
before jacking.
S Rope off t he j acki ng area and erect
warning signs or flags.
S Personally check each jack for positioning,
alignment, and jack pad mating before lifting the
aircraft.
S During lifting and lowering, direct and
supervise from in front of the aircraft where you
can see the entire operation. Dont try to operate
a jack and supervise at the same time.
S Use a qualified safety observer at the rear
of the aircraft. Aboard ship have him pay attention
to overhead clearance.
S After the aircraft is lifted, make sure safety
lock nuts are in place and tiedowns are tensioned.
S Keep unnecessary personnel clear of the
aircraft at all times.
S Never leave an aircraft on jacks unat-
tended.
S Before lowering, personally check that the
area under the aircraft is clear of equipment, safety
jacks or cradles, etc., and personnel are out of/off
aircraft.
S Before lowering, make sure all landing
gear safety locks are installed and skid plates are
in position if required.
S Before lowering, have tension on all tie-
downs relieved so jacks can be raised slightly to
free the lock nuts.
S Make sure the lock nuts are kept within
one-half thread above the top of the ram cylinder
as the rams are lowered.
S Af t er l ower i ng, have wheel chocks
installed and tiedowns tensioned.
S Be alert and aware at all times.
109. AUTOMOTIVE JACKS. The primary causes
for jack failures is poor care and lack of maintenance.
Since you will be using jacks at your unit, the
individual responsibility for the care of the jacks falls
on you.
110. Preoperational Inspection. The same basic
safety precaution which applies to all support equip-
ment, also applies to automotive jacks. Conduct a
good preoperational inspection before you use it. Use
a local preoperational checklist.
111. Automotive jacks are functionally tested and
stamped with the test date and next inspection due
date. The date it was last load tested should be
clearly marked. Thats important. Also inspect for
the physical integrity of the jack. If the jack is filthy,
take the time to wipe it down. You cant see cracks
or broken welds under dirt. If the jack is covered
with hydraulic fluid you can suspect it may be
leaking. Inspect it more closely. Some leaks dont
appear until under a load, so during the jacking
operation, pay close attention for leaking hydraulic
fluid.
112. Check the whole structure for loose, missing,
or wrong type bolts, nuts, or braces. Check the
jack casters and wheels for condition and freedom
of movement. If the assemblies dont turn freely
youll have trouble maneuvering and controlling the
jack during positioning.
113. If you find leaks or other defects during
preoperational inspection or under load, dont con-
tinue to use the jack. Down it, tag it as bad, report
it, and turn it in for repair. Dont leave a defective
jack where someone else can use it.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 009 00
Page 16
114. Operati on and Care. Take the fol l owi ng
general precautions when using automotive jacks:
S Use the right size (capacity) jack for the
SE vehicle being lifted. The name plate tells you
the rating of the jack, but you must know the weight
of the load youre lifting. Never overload a jack!
S Perform the preoperational inspection be-
fore you use the jack.
S Move the large dolly jacks slowly and
carefully within the confined spaces of shop bays.
S Place the jack at the proper lift position
and ensure clearance of other vehicle parts.
S Use only the correct jack pad and adapt-
ers.
S Make sure the jack base is level and
stable. Watch out for ramp seams or weld seams
and expansion joints in the deck.
S Make sure the other wheels of the vehicle
are chocked.
S Ensure SE tiedowns are installed in the
proper places as required by the MIM.
S Set vehicle parking brakes as required
by the MIM.
S Make sure the jack handle is clean and
securely in place.
S Dont use a makeshift substitute handle
or any ki nd of makeshi f t ext ensi on f or mor e
leverage.
S Make sure the reservoir vent valve is open
and the release valve fully closed.
S Dont jack the vehicle any higher above
the deck than required.
S Ensure jack stands are in place prior to
any maintenance or repair actions.
S The engine should be turned off while
jacking.
S Never drive or attempt to move a vehicle
while on a jack.
S Watch out for hot assemblies.
S During jacking aboard ship beware of
pitching deck or ship turns.
S Open release valve slowly to regulate
lowering speed.
S After lowering, collapse the jack fully.
115. Care and Stowage. The care and stowage of
jacks when they are not in use has a lot to do with
how long they last, and the condition they are in.
Take the following actions in caring for and stowing
automotive jacks:
S Always stow jacks fully collapsed; release
valves and vent valves fully closed.
S Store jacks, properly secured, in a desig-
nated area. Never leave them out in the rain or
exposed to weather, dirt, and dust.
S Dont attempt to repair jacks, leave that
to only authorized personnel.
S Dont borrow jacks.
S Ensure that your jacks have not exceeded
the next inspection due date.
116. DOS AND DONTS. The following listing of
DOS and DONTS dealing with aircraft and automo-
tive jacks in general.
S Dont move, inspect, position, operate, or
help jack an aircraft or SE vehicle unless you are
under the direct and immediate supervision of a
qualified supervisor, or have been fully qualified
to do so on type aircraft or SE vehicle.
S Dont volunteer to move, inspect, position,
operate or help jack an aircraft or a SE vehicle
if youre not fully qualified to do so, unless under
direct supervision.
S Do volunteer to become fully qualified for
all of the above.
S Do check the Index and Application Tables
for Aircraft Jacks (NAVAIR 19-70-46) to make sure
youre using the right jack for your type aircraft.
S Do know the jacking restrictions in the
MIM and dont violate them.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 009 00
Page 17
S Do make sure the jack has been stamped
with date tested and has not exceeded the next
inspection date.
S Do use the right size (capacity) jack for
your aircraft or SE vehicle.
S Do a complete preoperational inspection
prior to each use.
S Dont use a defective jack.
S Do down a defective jack, report it, and
make sure no one else uses it.
S Dont try to repair a jack.
S Do keep jacks clean and free of contami-
nation and corrosion.
S Dont tow jacks unless they have a towbar.
S Dont try to manhandle the large axle or
tripod jacks into position by yourself.
S Do move the large axle, tripod and auto-
motive jacks slowly and carefully.
S Dont exceed the extension stenciled on
the jack.
S Do wipe your hand and the pump handle
before jacking.
S Do make sure the axle jack base, and
the tripod jack foot pads are level and firmly seated
on the deck.
S Do watch out for weld seams, expansion
joints, and ramp seams and make sure the jack
base is level and stable.
S Dont hammer on jack to seat it.
S Do use a designated aircraft and SE
vehicle jacking point specified in the MIM.
S Dont jack an aircraft or SE vehicle at
any point other than a designated jacking point.
S Do use the correct jack pads, adapters,
jack screw socket, or cup mates and never substi-
tute.
S Do make sure when jacking, the jack
screw socket or cup mates perfectly with the jack
pad.
S Do know whats in the MIM.
S Do verify with Maintenance Control that
the gross weight and configuration of an aircraft
does not violate jacking restrictions.
S Dont exceed the lift weight capacity of
a jack.
S Do a thorough aircraft and SE vehicle
exterior safety check before jacking.
S Do a thorough aircraft cockpit safety check
before jacking.
S Do make sure the aircraft and SE vehicle
is chocked and tied down at the fittings designated
in the MIM.
S Do use more people if safety requires it.
S Do keep all unnecessary personnel clear
of the aircraft and SE vehicle at all times.
S Do place the jack to clear aircraft and
SE vehicle components.
S Do OPEN the reservoir vent valve two
turns and CLOSE the release valve fully before
jacking.
S Do use the slotted jack handle to open
or close the release valve, or a screwdriver if the
valve is slotted for one.
S Dont use other tools to operate the valve.
If you need pliers or a wrench the valve is defective.
S Dont jack the wheel, airframe, or SE
vehicle any higher than required.
S Dont leave any aircraft or SE vehicle on
jacks unattended.
S Do make sure all landing gear safety
ground locks are installed before lowering aircraft
and skid plates are in position if required.
S Do open the release valve slowly and
carefully, and not too far.
S Do chock wheels after lowering.
S Do adjust aircraft tiedown upon comple-
tion of jacking operation.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 009 00
Page 18
S Do fully collapse the jack after use, install
a jack cover, and tie down or stow in a designated
area after using.
S Dont add hydraulic fluid to a jack reservoir
while the rams are up.
S Dont remove jack handles and use for
other purposes.
Do store jacks with relief and vent valves
closed.
S Dont borrow jacks.
117. Axle Jacking Dos and Donts.
S Dont forget to remove the tiedowns from
the fittings designated in the aircraft MIM for the
landing gear your jacking.
S Do make sure all landing gear ground
locks are in place when changing tires.
S Do chock the other two wheels and set
the aircraft parking brake when changing wheels
according to the MIM.
S Do beware of hot wheels or brake assem-
blies before jacking.
118. Airframe Jacking Dos and Donts.
S Dont try to jack an aircraft with a single
tripod jack.
S Do know exactly who is in charge and
has direct responsibility for the jacking operation.
S Do make sure you get a briefing from
the supervisor on control procedures and signals
to be used during the operation.
S Do rope off the jacking area and erect
warning signs or flags.
S Do check overhead clearances prior to
and during the jacking operation.
S Do have a safety observer at the rear
of the aircraft during the operation.
S Dont use fewer people than the MIM
requires for the jacking operation.
S Do be alert during the jacking operation
and pay strict attention to the supervisor.
S Do make sure the safety lockout moves,
or is moved, down the ram as the ram moves up.
Remember, some jacks have more than one.
S Do keep the safety lockout no more than
one-half thread above the top surface of the jack
or the next ram while raising the aircraft.
S Do adjust the tension on all tiedowns while
jacking, after jacking, or if you stop the operation
for any reason.
S Do personally check that the area under
the aircraft is clear before lowering.
S Do carefully keep the safety locknut no
more than one-half thread above the top surface
of the jack while lowering the aircraft.
S Do WATCH YOUR FINGERS while lower-
ing aircraft.
S Do open the release valve on signal,
slowly and not too far.
S Dont interchange pump assemblies or
extension leg kits on tripod jacks.
119. Automotive Jacking Dos and Donts.
S Dont lift SE vehicles simultaneously from
both sides or ends completely off the ground with
jacks.
S Dont raise SE vehicles beyond the units
angle of stability.
S Dont use an automotive jack for lifting
and moving units beyond its designed intention
of lifting only.
S Do be careful of the scissors action of
automotive jacks.
S Go place jack stands under the SE vehicle
after lifting and prior to any maintenance.
S Dont lift a tow tractor by the pintle hook
or other nonstructural point.
120. LESSONS LEARNED/ACCIDENT REPORTS.
121. From accident reports we identify some
maintenance practices that can be more hazardous
than other maintenance practices. From this infor-
mation we develop training to prevent such acci-
dents from occurring again.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 009 00
Page 19
122. The key to training is you. You can read
and hear but if youre not paying attention, then
you are going to go out and become an accident
waiting to happen. In the processes you may very
wel l damage equi pment or i nj ure one of your
shi pmates. Here are some l essons that were
learned the hard way. See if you can learn from
these and always keep your mind open and never
stop learning from experience.
123. LOAD TEST FAILURE. During a turnaround
inspection, the port main mount tire was determined
to be worn beyond limits and required replacing. The
aircraft was raised with a 15 ton axle jack. The old
tire/wheel assembly was removed and while the new
assembly was being installed the axle jack collapsed
damaging both the brake and the tire/wheel assem-
blies.
124. Investigation revealed that the axle jack had
been received from another command and stored,
without being used or load tested, for a little over
2 years. The training records revealed that the
maintenance man involved had not completed his
tire and wheel qualifications.
125. Load testing a new jack, or one received
from another command, by jacking up an aircraft
is not the way to go. We mentioned earlier that
current directives require a load test on all jacks
put into service in your unit and every 91 days
thereafter. Directives also require that the load test
date and next due date be stenciled on the jack.
126. Look for a load test date and if there isnt
one there, or if its not current, check with your
supervisor before assuming its OK to use the jack.
Doing that takes a lot less time than having to
go through the process of getting the aircraft back
up off the deck and replacing the brake assembly,
and maybe a strut assembly. Had the maintenance
man been properly trained and qualified, or taken
the initiative and asked his supervisor if the jack
had been load tested, this accident might not have
happened. He learned the hard way. If you heed
what you read here, youre learning the easy way.
127. THE UNMANNED JACK. An aircraft was being
dropchecked during calendar inspection. The proper
pads, nose jack, wing jacks, and an aft fuselage jack
were being used. Upon completion of the dropcheck,
the crew of three was positioned to lower the jacks.
One man was assigned to each wing jack and the
supervisor manned the nose jack. As the jacks were
lowered and the nose gear approached the deck,
the supervisor noticed that the aft fuselage jack had
not been removed. This placed the aircraft in a
nose-low attitude. Before the aft jack could be lowered
to correct the situation, the wing jack pads sheared
and slipped out of the holes. Fortunately the pads
only slipped an inch or so and no damage was
sustained by the aircraft, but the possibility of serious
damage came too close to reality for comfort.
128. The MIM called for a minimum crew of four.
The extra rear fuselage jack (for safety) should
have required a fifth person. Remember, at least
one man per jack, plus a supervisor, plus a safety
observer is the rule. None of the crew checked
around under the aircraft to see if it was clear.
None of the crew noticed the aircraft nose-low
attitude until too late. This is a good example of
a crew either not knowing the procedure, being
very careless or complacent, or just plain disregard-
ing standard procedures and safety precautions.
129. LOCKNUTS SAVE THE DAY. Upon completion
of required maintenance on an aircraft, which was
raised on airframe tripod jacks, a snag was encoun-
tered. While attempting to lower the aircraft, mainte-
nancemen found that the starboard wing jack exten-
sion was resting on the locknut due to a hydraulic
fluid leak. This condition prevented any movement
of the locknut. The aircraft was defueled in the hangar
under the supervision of the base fire department,
and a cherry picker hoisted the aircraft off the jacks.
130. In another incident an aircraft was being
jacked up on the tripod jacks. Suddenly, the pump
on one of the jacks unseated and came loose from
the jack base. The seal between the base of the
pump housing and the mounting base began to
leak and the jack failed. Fortunately, the aircraft
dropped less than an inch because the safety
locknut was in place. Improper bolts had been used
to secure the pump to the jack and they were not
discovered during the preoperational check. Heres
a good example of where one safety precaution
(proper use of the safety locknut) made up for two
other goofs and saved an aircraft from serious
damage.
131. Both of these incidents illustrate why safety
precautions are necessary to give us the extra
insurance against accidents. If the precaution of
keeping the locknuts in the right place had been
ignored, there is a strong probability that two aircraft
would have fallen off the jacks and been seriously
damaged when the
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 009 00
Page 20
jacks failed. And who knows who might have been
under the aircraft when it came down?
132. DONT GO IT ALONE - YOULL LOSE. A petty
officer was performing unscheduled maintenance on
a 10 ton jack. She had tipped the jack up to aid
in the process of removing the hydraulic pump. After
removal of the bolts from the pump, she attempted
to position a drip pan and remove a block of wood
the jack was resting on. As the petty officer was
letting the jack down, a caster wheel rolled, causing
the jack to fall forward. While attempting to stop the
falling jack, her left index finger was crushed by one
of the jack plates. She lost the first section of the
finger.
133. The petty officer stated that she was familiar
wi th the manual on the j ack whi ch contai ns a
warning that the jack weighs about 275 pounds
and should be handled with enough people to
prevent possible injury during lifting and moving.
A false sense of pride, coupled with the fact that
she had done i t bef or e, cr eat ed a sense of
confidence that prevented her from asking for help.
Proper maintenance procedures and safety practic-
es are the only insurance for personal safety.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 010 00
Change 1 - 1 July 2001 Page 1
ELECTRICAL POWER SOURCES
U.S. NAVY SUPPORT EQUIPMENT
COMMON
BASIC HANDLING & SAFETY MANUAL
Reference Material
History and Prevention WP 003 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Towing Precautions WP 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, A/M42M-2 NAVAIR 19-600-237-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, A/M42M-2A NAVAIR 19-600-301-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, A/S37A-3 NAVAIR 19-600-300-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, DA-675-MSM NAVAIR 17-600-91-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, FLEDS NAVAIR 19-600-164-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, MMG-1A NAVAIR 19-600-144-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, NC-2A NAVAIR 19-600-38-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, NC-8A NAVAIR 19-600-94-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, NC-10A, NC-10B, NC-10C, A/M32A-108 NAVAIR 19-600-42-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alphabetical Index
Subject Page No.
Distribution Sets (FLEDS) 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deck Edge Power Distribution Systems 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power Distribution Set, Flight Line, Model A/E24A-166B 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Floodlights 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Floodlight Set, A/M42M-2 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Floodlight Set, A/M42M-2A 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hazards 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Hazards of Mobile Electric Power Plants 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hazards of Electric Servicing and Starting SE 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Load Bank Hazards 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MMG-1A Hazards 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mobile Floodlight Hazards 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NC-2A Hazards 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NC-8A Hazards 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NC-10C Hazards 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lessons Learned/Accident Reports 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Frustrated MEPP Operator 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Load Banks 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dummy Load Electric, DA-675-MSM 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mobile Electric Power Plants 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Self Propelled 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trailer Mounted 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Safety Precautions And Procedures 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dos and Donts 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Distribution Sets (FLEDS) Safety Precautions and Procedures 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Load Banks Safety Precautions and Procedures 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mobile Electric Power Plant Safety Precautions and Procedures 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mobile Floodlight Safety Precautions and Procedures 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Record of Applicable Technical Directives
None
SEE IRAC # 6
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 010 00
Page 2
1. MOBILE ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS.
2. There are many types and models of mobile
el ectri c power pl ants (MEPP) i n use i n Naval
Aviation today. The purpose of most of them is
the same, to provide AC and DC electrical power
for servicing, starting, and maintenance of aircraft
ashore or aboard ship. Some are diesel engine
powered and some are electrically (external) pow-
ered. Some are vehicles which can be driven, some
are walk behind self-propelled and some must be
towed or moved by hand. We wi l l cover f our
types/models which are most widely used and which
are representative of most types you will encounter.
The hazards and safety precautions and procedures
generally apply to all MEPPs.
3. SELF PROPELLED.
4. NC-2A. The NC-2A MEPP (Figure 1) is a 4
wheel, electrically propelled, single seat, front wheel
drive, rear wheel steer vehicle. The AC and DC
power cables are stored in the compartment at the
right front of the driver. They deliver 115/200 volt,
3 phase, 400 Hertz AC, and 28 VDC power to
aircraft.
5. The NC-2A is 8 feet 6 inches long, 4 feet 10
inches wide, and 3 feet 6 inches high. It weighs
3700 pounds and is equipped with four wheel
hydraulic brakes. A handbrake is mechanically
linked to the front wheel brake assemblies. The
NC-2A is equipped with tiedown rings on the front
and rear bumpers. Forklift
Figure 1. Mobile Electrical Power Plant, NC-2A
010001
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 010 00
Change 1 Page 3
channels are located between the axles to provide
safe lifting points.
6. Safety devices incorporated in the systems will
automatically shut down the diesel engine and
power output in the event of engine overspeed,
high engine temperature, or low oil pressure.
6A. A/S37A-3. The A/S37A-3 shipboard MEPP
(Figure 1A) is the result of a Conversion In Lieu
Of Procurement (CILOP) program to improve and
modernize the NC-2A MEPP. It provides 15 volt,
3 phase, 400 hertz alternating current and 28 volt
direct current electrical power. The A/S37A-3 is a
remanufactured NC-2A which has undergone CILOP
with the incorporation of SEC 5409.
6B. While retaining the NC-2As diesel engine and
frame, the A/S37A-3 differs from the NC-2A in
several significant areas. The NC-2A is a front axle
driven, rear wheel steerable unit. The front axle
i s dri ven by a 28 VDC vari abl e speed motor.
Electrical power is provided by a speed increasing
transmi ssi on dri vi ng ai rcraft t ype AC and DC
generators.
6C. The A/S37A-3 incorporates a variable dis-
placement axial piston hydrostatic pump to power
the rear wheel s vi a hydraul i c motors through
pl anetary geared torque hubs and di sk brake
assemblies. Steering has been changed to the front
wheels. Electrical power is provided by a single
45 KVA generator mated directly to the diesel
engine, with an onboard transformer/rectifier to
convert the 115 VAC to 28 VDC.
010001a
Figure 1A. Shipboard Moblie Electric Power Plant, A/S37A-3
SEE IRAC # 6
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 010 00
Change 1 Page 4
7. NC-8A. The NC-8A MEPP (Figure 2) is a 4
wheel, electrically propelled, single seat, front wheel
steer, rear wheel drive vehicle. It provides 115/200
volt, 3 phase, 400 Hertz AC, and 28 VDC power
for servicing, starting, and maintenance of aircraft.
This unit is used primarily at shore stations.
8. The NC-8A is a little larger than the shipboard
NC-2A. It is 9 feet 4 inches long, 4 feet 10 inches
wide, and 3 feet 9 inches high. It is considerably
heavier at 5880 pounds. The service brakes are
4 wheel hydraulically actuated. The parking brake
is operated with a foot pedal and release lever
which mechanically actuate the rear wheel brake
shoes. The chassis has forklift channels between
the axles and tiedown rings on both bumpers.
9. The AC and DC power cables are stored on
cable reels in a compartment at the rear of the
vehicle. The cable reels are spring loaded and are
held in position to maintain the desired length of
cable by ratchet plates and lever arms. Receptacles
are provided to stow the power cable plugs. The
receptacles are connected to a propulsion power
lock circuit, so that the NC-8A cannot be driven
unless both cable plugs are in the receptacles.
10. Safety devices incorporated in the systems
will automatically shutdown the engine and power
output in the event of engine overspeed, high
engine temperature, low oil pressure, and low fuel
quantity. There is also a manual emergency engine
shutdown knob on the engine control panel. Pulling
this knob shuts off the engine air supply, causing
the engine to stop.
11. TRAILER MOUNTED
12. NC-10C. There are several NC-10C MEPP
(Figure 3) configurations including the NC-10A,
NC-10B, NC-10C and the A/M32A-108. They are 4
wheel, trailer mounted, electrical generating systems
designed for shore based servicing, starting, and
maintenance of aircraft. The AC and DC power cables
are stored on cable reels in compartments to the
right of the control panel. They deliver 115/200 volts,
3 phase, 400 Hertz AC and 28 VDC, electrical power.
The NC-10C is 10 feet long, 5 feet 4 inches wide,
3 feet 7 inches high and weighs 6600 pounds.
13. Emergency conditions which cause automatic
shut down of the engine are: engine overspeed,
engi ne overheat, and l ow oi l pressure. Safety
devices protect the aircraft and unit from over or
under voltages and over or under frequency condi-
tions. These devices automatically stop electrical
power output, and reduce the engine rpm to idle.
14. The control system includes a fault tracer that
i l l umi nates a panel l i ght to i ndi cate a system
malfunction. The NC-10C is equipped with a manual
fuel shutdown lever and an air shutoff solenoid in
the engine compartment. Either valve can be used
for emergency shutdown.
010002
Figure 2. Mobile Electrical Power Plant, NC-8A
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 010 00
Change 1 Page 5
15. MMG-1A. The MMG-1A (Figure 4) is a small,
compact, trailer mounted, electric motor-driven gener-
ator set. It provides 115/200 volt, 3 phase, 400 Hertz
AC power, and 28 VDC power for maintenance,
calibration, and support. Operation of the unit
requires a 3 phase, 60 Hertz, 220 or 440 volt
external power source. It is used both aboard ship
and ashore.
16. The unit is not self-propelled and must be
towed or manually moved. The 4 wheel trailer is
equipped with tiedown rings, pneumatic tires, and
a towbar in front. A mechanical handbrake, located
on the front of the unit, is connected to drum/shoe
type brakes on the rear wheels. Maximum towing
speed is restricted to 5 mph. The MMG-1A weighs
4120 pounds. It is 7 feet 10 inches long, 4 feet
2 inches wide, and 3 feet 6 inches high.
17. Stowage compartments are located at the rear
of the unit for 30 foot AC and DC output cables.
The 30 foot i nput power cabl e i s stowed i n a
compartment at the left front of the unit. Control
panels and a utility power connector panel are
located under the front of the unit.
18. FLOODLIGHTS. Mobile floodlight units are used
to furnish light in areas remote from the hangar or
permanent outside lighting. They can also be used
as a self-contained emergency light source anywhere
you can safely move or tow them.
19. There are several different types or models
of floodlight units. The on board generators are
powered by a gasoline or diesel engine or electrical-
ly, by cable from an external power source. The
general hazards, safety precautions and operating
procedures for different types are about the same.
20. FLOODLIGHT SET, A/M42M-2. The A/M42M-2
(Figure 5) is a 4 wheel, trailer mounted, towed
floodlight system which provides emergency, tempo-
rary, or permanent lighting. The A/M42M-2 is 6 feet,
6 i nches hi gh wi th the mast retracted and the
floodlight not mounted. It is 6 feet 11 inches long
and is 6 feet wide. The total weight is 2027 pounds.
010003
Figure 3. Mobile Electrical Power Plant, NC-10C
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 010 00
Change 1 Page 6
21. The flood light set is powered by a light weight,
air-cooled diesel engine connected to a generator
unit. It produces 60 Hertz, 120 VAC, and 28 VDC
power. A 13.5 gallon fuel tank enables 24 hours
of continuous operation. An external power recep-
tacle allows the floodlight set to be powered by
an external generator. An auxiliary fuel connection
allows operation from an external fuel source.
Due to safety hazards, do not extend or
rotate the mast.
22. The main floodlight is yoke-mounted and fixed
to the top of the mast. The floodlight electrical cord
is inside the mast for reduced electromagnetic
interference (EMI) and susceptibility to wind whip.
An environmentally sealed twist-lock connector at
the mast top provides rapid connection and remov-
al. The floodlight lamp is designed for 1500 watt
bri l l i ant whi te l i ght. There i s al so a 1000-watt
portable crisp white quartz floodlight. The portable
floodlight mounts to an adjustable 6 foot 6 inch
pole and has a 50 foot extension cable.
22A. FLOODLI GHT SET, A/ M42M- 2A. The
A/M42M-2A Portable Floodlight Set is a self-con-
tai ned mobi l e support uni t wi th two fl oodl i ght
assemblies, a main floodlight mounted on a tele-
scopi ng mast whi ch i s rai sed and l owered by
compressed air supplied by an internal air compres-
sor, and a portable light assembly that is mounted
on a portable metal pole when used. This support
uni t has two basi c functi ons, fi rst, to provi de
portable lighting for nighttime operations, and sec-
ond, to provide portable auxiliary power at any time.
22B. Electrical power for the floodlight assemblies
and an auxiliary power outlet is provided by an
integral diesel engine-driven generator set. Both
floodlight assemblies are adjustable on the vertical
axis and can be moved independent of each other
on the horizontal axis. When used together, the
floodlights provide a total of 175,000 lumens of
light.
23. DISTRIBUTION SETS (FLEDS).
24. Some air stations have installed flight line
power distribution systems. These systems use a
single stationary mobile electric power plant or fixed
power source. They distribute power to as many
as twenty four stations. Aboard ship a deck edge
power distribution system, using a ships power
source, is used for servicing and starting aircraft.
25. POWER DISTRIBUTION SET, FLIGHT LINE,
MODEL A/E24A-166B. This power distribution set,
commonly called FLEDS, for Flight Line Electrical
Distribution System, is a multiple point electrical
power distribution system capable of servicing multi-
ple aircraft with 115/200 volts, 3 phase, 400 Hertz
AC power from a single power source. The power
source is usually a MEPP such as the NC-8A.
26. The FLEDS consist of input ramps, junction
boxes, interconnecting ramps, distribution boxes,
and aircraft service cables. Figure 6 shows a typical
FLEDS layout. Power from the MEPP is applied
at the input ramp and branches to the junction boxes
and the distribution boxes. These are intercon-
nected by cables which are installed under ramps
for protection. The ramps can be taxied over by
aircraft or driven over by SE.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 010 00
Change 1 Page 6A
010004
Figure 4. Mobile Electrical Power Plant, MMG-1A
010005
Figure 5. Floodlight Set, A/M42M-2
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 010 00
Change 1 Page 6B
010005a
Figure 5A. Portable Floodlight Set, A/M42M-2A, P/N 3573AS100-1
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 010 00
Page 7
27. The distribution boxes branch internally into
two separate circuits. Each circuit supplies power
to an aircraft service cable. Electrical power for
each cable is controlled and protected by a circuit
breaker. A green light on the distribution box cover
indicates the voltage on condition of the cable. Each
distribution box has two plug housing assemblies
for storing the aircraft service cable plugs when
not in use.
28. DECK EDGE POWER DISTRIBUTION SYS-
TEMS. Aircraft servicing and starting electrical power
aboard ship is similar to the FLEDS except that ships
electrical power is used and both AC and DC power
are provided. Cables are stored in covered compart-
ments in the flight deck. Power on switches and
indicators are located inside the storage compart-
ment. The number and location of distribution stations
varies with different ships.
29. LOAD BANKS
30. Load banks are also referred to as dummy
loads. They are used at intermediate maintenance
to provide a means of troubleshooting, calibrating,
and verifying output voltages, current and phase
on MEPPs and other electrical equipment. This
allows for reliability and accuracy of external power
that is applied to many sensitive weapon systems
ensuring their proper operation.
31. DUMMY LOAD, ELECTRIC, DA-675-MSM. The
DA-675-MSM (Figure 7) is a 4 wheel trailer mounted
electrical dummy load. The unit tests the output power
characteristics of 28 VDC and 115/200 VAC, 3 phase,
four wire, 400 Hertz generating plants. The dummy
load is a means of absorbing the power generated
by an electrical power plant. It then furnishes indica-
tions of the electrical power in terms of voltage,
current, power factor, phase sequence, and frequen-
cy.
32. HAZARDS.
33. GENERAL HAZARDS OF MOBILE ELECTRIC
POWER PLANTS. MEPPs, especially self-propelled
type, are high on the list of SE involved in ground
accidents with aircraft. In addition to the hazards
of driving or towing MEPPs away with the cables
still plugged into the aircraft and crunches resulting
from negligent, inadvertent movement, MEPPs are
complicated pieces of machinery to operate. They
contain lethal voltages and are highly susceptible
to damage as a resul t of i mproper operati on.
Operati on of defecti ve equi pment or i mproper
operating procedures, can also result in very costly
damage to aircraft electrical systems and electronic
equipment.
34. Some general hazards are present in driving,
towing, operating, or servicing all MEPPs. Well
cover these hazards first and then cover those
applicable to specific types/models.
010006
Figure 6. Flightline Electrical Distribution System (FLEDS)
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 010 00
Page 8
35. Hi gh vol tage i s cert ai nl y a hazard of al l
MEPPs. Although protective insulation and covers
are provided wherever possible, the power is always
present waiting for you to make a false move or
carel ess mi stake. Damaged or mi ssi ng swi tch
protective boots can create an electrical shock
hazard. Defects in the equipment or faulty mainte-
nance can put the power where it shouldnt be.
The current from a 200 volt generator can ruin
anyones day.
36. Energized cables are a constant hazard. You
should read paragraphs 59 through 67 further on
in this WP where the hazards of short circuits,
deteriorated plugs and cables, body resistance, wet
environment, and arcing are discussed. These
hazards and the handling factors that create them
are all applicable to MEPP operators.
37. Noise from diesel engine MEPPs is a serious
hazard. Most run at a level of about 100 dBA. That
means heari ng protect i on i s a must to avoi d
permanent damage.
38. Noxious gases, heat, and exhaust sparks from
diesel powered MEPPs are hazardous. In confined
spaces, such as the hangar or shops, a buildup
of carbon monoxide can be lethal. Heat from the
exhausts can set off overhead sprinkler systems.
Even though most model s are equi pped wi th
exhaust spark suppressors, hot or glowing carbon
chips still escape the system. This is especially
true during high power operations after prolonged
periods at idle. Exhaust temperature is also high
enough to melt power cables or in extreme cases,
the asphalt ramp.
39. Operation of the various types/models require
that certain doors or panels be either open or closed
for proper ventilation. Damage to the equipment
can easily result if the proper procedures are not
followed.
40. NC-2A HAZARDS. One of the primary hazards
of this MEPP is the unusual driving characteristics.
The rear wheel steering puts the maneuvering part
of the vehicle behind you where you cant see it.
It takes lots of practice to become familiar with rear
wheel steering and you must be totally familiar with
it before maneuvering close to aircraft on the flight
deck.
41. Although the power cables are in front where
you can see them, the NC-2A can still be driven
away f r om an ai r cr af t wi t h t he power cabl es
attached. This usually results in damage to both
the aircraft and the power cables.
010007
Figure 7. Dummy Load Electric, DA-675-MSM
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 010 00
Page 9
42. NC-8A HAZARDS. The primary historical hazard
of the NC-8A has been the tendency to drive off
with the power cables still attached to the aircraft.
A Support Equipment Change (SEC) installed a
propulsion/aircraft lock circuit. The SEC prevents
propulsion unless the power cable plugs are properly
stowed in their receptacles, which has decreased this
hazard. However, there still seem to be vehicles in
service in which the change has not been incorpo-
rated and al so cases of i mproper or defecti ve
installation. Beware of the hazard.
43. The other hazards peculiar to the NC-8A are
those associated with poor or negligent driving
habits and inadvertent movement while close to
the aircraft. Visibility over the hood, directly in front
of the vehicle is fairly poor. The exhaust, which
exits at the lower, right, rear of the chassis, is not
equipped with a spark arrestor. Operation over a
fuel soaked deck or with the exhaust pointed at
an aircraft could be hazardous.
44. NC-10C HAZARDS. The general hazards of
high voltage, energized cables, noise, noxious
gasses, and exhaust heat are all applicable to the
NC-10C.
45. There is no dead-man switch or inertia brake
on the towbar. Therefore, if the unit is not equipped
with safety chains, there is always the danger of
an inadvertent disconnect while towing. Keep in
mind what a 3.3 ton MEPP rolling loose on the
aircraft line could do!
46. There is no lockout circuit on the NC-10C to
prevent moving it with the power cables still plugged
into the aircraft.
47. MMG-1A HAZARDS. Since this MEPP is pow-
ered by external electrical power instead of by a
diesel engine, the hazards of noise, exhaust gases,
heat, and sparks are eliminated. However, the haz-
ards of high voltage and energized cables are still
there.
48. The uni t has overl oad rel ays and fuses.
Tripped relays and blown fuses indicate a defective
unit and continued operation could be hazardous.
As with most electrical equipment, short circuits
or other equipment defects can change normally
low voltage circuits to high voltage or electrically
charge normally uncharged parts of the equipment.
49. Access panels or doors provide protection
from the high voltages of the motor generator, DC
power supply, and voltage change board. If you
operate the unit with these panels or doors open
you expose yourself and others to dangerous high
voltage.
50. Non-standard plugs on the external source
power cable has been a problem in the past. A
massive standardization program has eliminated
the problem to a great extent, however damaged
plugs due to misuse and abuse are still a hazard.
51. When relocating SE units within the hangar,
among shops, or different hangars, all too often
the available bulkhead receptacle will not match
the units cable plug. Continual plug or receptacle
changing causes the hazard of defective plugs.
52. Inserting the wrong type plug or a defective
one can severely damage the MEPP and/or aircraft
system if the AC or DC power cables are plugged
into the aircraft when hangar power is switched
on. A faulty or misaligned plug could also charge
the unit or aircraft and endanger anyone touching
them.
53. The MMG-1A is not equipped with a deadman
brake on the towbar, so a towing hazard exits as
discussed in paragraph 45.
54. MOBILE FLOODLIGHT HAZARDS. Although
mobile floodlight units are generally uncomplicated
and reasonably easy to operate, there are still some
hazards you should be aware of.
55. A/M42M-2 hazards. The unit is primarily an
electrical generating system and electricity can always
be dangerous. Even though the A/M42M-2 generates
and operates on low voltage, the same as ordinary
house current, there is still enough current to kill you,
if you get careless. If protective caps have been left
off the electrical plug connectors for the lamps, the
connectors may be corroded or full of water. Plugging
the lamps in with the engine running and the lamp
circuit breaker ON is dangerous.
56. If youre using external power, always plug
in the external cable before switching on the cable
power. Before plugging in electrical equipment or
tools to the unit, make sure the power output circuit
breaker is OFF. Take your time when securing the
job site, switch circuit breakers OFF, shutdown the
engine and/or switch OFF the external cable power
before unplugging cables or lamp plugs. Replace
the protective caps on the lamp plug outlets on
tap and the input/output plugs on the rear of the
unit. There is more than one way for a short circuit
to happen or for you to become ground for the
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 010 00
Page 10
short, so use proper procedures and check all
connections thoroughly.
Due to safety hazards, do not extend or
rotate the mast.
57. The mast is restricted from being extended
or rotated. Noise is not a specific hazard of the
A/M42M-2 however it contributes its fair share. If
you are using it along with other SE, the combina-
tion could be hazardous to your hearing.
The l amps provi de a l ot of l i ght and
generate a lot of heat. Prior to stowing
them in the brackets, let the lamps cool
down to preclude any serious burns.
58. The carbon monoxide (CO) exhaust from the
engine can be deadly in enclosed spaces. The
A/M42M-2 should never be used inside a building
while powered by the engine. However, the unit
can be powered indoors using electricity from an
external power source.
59. HAZARDS OF ELECTRIC SERVICING AND
STARTING SE. The hazard of electrical shock is
always present when handling electrical cables for
aircraft servicing and starting. The greatest hazard
comes from inadvertent handling, plugging or un-
plugging a energized cable or energized plug.
Trying to plug or unplug an energized cable will
also result in arcing. That usually startles a man
enough to make him jump into a headknocker, a
tiedown chain, or a prop. An arc can also set fire
to fuel fumes.
60. The cables and plugs are ruggedly constructed
and well insulated, however they also receive rough
treatment. Repeated pushing, pulling, and twisting
during plugging and unplugging wears the female
connectors and can eventually loosen or crack
them. Plugs are often yanked out by the cables
i nstead of pl ug head. They get thrown about,
dragged over concrete ramps or steel decks,
stepped on, and run over by vehicles. They are
generally exposed to the elements of weather and
to the fuels, oils, and hydraulic fluids usually present
in aircraft parking areas.
61. Frayed, cracked, crushed, cut, or deteriorated
cables and plugs are not uncommon. This causes
internal shorting or direct exposure to electric
current. Therefore, handling power cables without
ensuring that the power switch is off can be very
hazardous. The switch or circuit breakers are at
the power source end of the cable. This increases
the possibility of handling the cables without ensur-
ing the power is off.
62. Remember, current is the shock factor rather
than the amount of voltage. Your body resistance
is another factor. Skin breaks, cuts, or burns lower
your body resistance to current flow. If its raining
and youre standing in water with wet clothes and
hands, the danger is even greater.
63. About five times more direct current (DC) than
alternating current (AC) is needed to freeze a
person to a conductor. Therefore low voltage AC
is more dangerous than low voltage DC. Youll be
handling 115/200 VAC power and 28 VDC power.
Remember, under the right circumstances, 28 VDC
can still be fatal.
64. In view of the urgency involved in removing
a shock victim from the contact and then giving
proper first aid treatment, ignorance of the proper
procedures by you or your coworkers is a definite
hazard to long life.
65. In addition to the personal hazard of energized
plugs, arcing while plugging or unplugging creates
a severe fire hazard, especially in the presence
of fuel, oil, or fumes.
66. Aircraft electrical and electronics systems can
be severely damaged by application of the wrong
power source; switches and circuit breakers incor-
rectly set; or, on some aircraft, if ground cooling
air isnt connected. Ignorance of correct procedures
and aircraft requirements is hazardous to aircraft
systems.
67. Movement of the aircraft with the deck edge
or FLEDS power cables still connected can severely
damage the plug or aircraft receptacle. In most
cases the receptacle access door and metal air-
frame structure surrounding the door are damaged.
Such damage is usually enough to ground the
aircraft for extensive repair work.
68. FLEDS and Deck Edge Power Hazards. All the
hazards listed above are applicable to flight line
distribution systems ashore and to deck edge power
systems aboard ship. These hazards are created by:
S Failure to ensure power is off before
handling, plugging, and unplugging cables.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 010 00
Change 1 Page 11
S Failure to inspect cables and plugs for
good condition prior to use.
S Unnecessarily rough or harsh treatment
of cables and plugs causing premature failure.
S Failure to know proper emergency proce-
dures and treatment for electrical shock.
S Failure to know correct aircraft require-
ments and procedures for application of external
power.
S Failure to unplug cables prior to aircraft
or MEPP movement.
69. LOAD BANK HAZARDS. Load Banks are com-
plicated pieces of machinery to operate. They absorb
lethal voltages and are highly susceptible to damage
from improper operation. Operation of defective
equipment or improper operating procedures can
result in improper calibration of SE units under test
and lead to costly damage to electronic equipment
and aircraft weapons systems.
70. DA-675-MSM Hazards. The DA-675-MSM load
bank takes in the output power of other units under
test and dissipates that power through large dummy
loads. Although the unit is dependent on an external
source for power, high voltage is present and a
hazard. Protective insulation and covers are provided
wherever possible but damaged or missing protection
can create an electrical shock hazard.
71. Always ensure that the power plant output
cable is de-energized prior to connection or discon-
nection. If not, there is a real possibility of you
becoming the dummy load.
72. When positioning the load bank and unit under
test, ensure that cable length is within convenient
length for connection. Stretched cables with poor
connections can cause shock hazards, trip hazards,
and damage to power heads from improper connec-
tions.
73. Though the load bank produces none of its
own noxious gases and sparks, the diesel powered
MEPPs under test provide that hazard. In confined
spaces, such as the hangar or shops, a buildup
of carbon monoxide can be lethal.
74. The exhaust heat with the MEPP operating
at full load creates an additional hazard.
75. Air flow is important to the operation of the
DA-675-MSM. The unit dissipates a considerable
amount of heat when loads are applied from the
power plant under test. So it is important that all
doors are opened and that there are no obstructions
to the free movement of air around the unit.
76. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND PROCEDURES.
77. MOBILE ELECTRIC POWER PLANT SAFETY
PRECAUTIONS AND PROCEDURES.
78. You shall be fully qualified and licensed in
accordance with WP 003 00.
79. The reason full qualification is required on
the MEPP and the specific aircraft being main-
tained, started, or serviced, is to ensure that all
the proper procedures, requirements, and safety
precautions are followed. Failure to do so while
operating a MEPP could result in death, serious
injury, or substantial damage to the power unit and
aircraft. The potential for harm is great, so do not
operate a MEPP unless youre fully qualified or
under the visual and direct control of a fully qualified
supervisor.
80. Preoperational Inspection. A major safety pre-
caution which you must take before you operate a
MEPP is to perform a preoperational inspection in
accordance with the step-by-step procedure outlined
on the preoperational checklist. Remember, this is
without a doubt one of the most important precautions
you must follow, before using any SE, if you want
to stay safe and prevent damage to the equipment
or aircraft.
81. The preoperational checklists for the different
MEPPs we are covering here are:
S NC-2A, NAVAIR 19-600-38-6-1
S A/S37A-3 NAVAIR 19-600-300-6-1
S NC-8A, NAVAIR 19-600-94-6-1
S NC-10C, NAVAIR 19-600-42-6-1
S MMG-1A, NAVAIR 19-600-144-6-1
82. In each case the check includes both static
inspection and a functional or operating inspection.
Remember, the reason youre doing the check is
to discover defects and any required servicing. The
preoperational check will vary
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 010 00
Change 1 Page 12
depending on the type unit but heres a list to give
you an idea of what we mean:
S Look the MEPP over as you approach
it and walk around it checking for leaks, under
inflated tires, open or loose doors or panels, or
obvious defects.
S Check for loose gear lying on the unit.
S Make sure your drive away or tow away
path is clear.
S Check the handbrake or parking brake
for proper operation and set it to ON.
S Remove t he chocks or t i edowns i f
installed.
83. Defects or Discrepancies. If and when you
discover defects or discrepancies in the equipment
take some positive action. If servicing is required,
make sure it gets done right then.
84. If you find a defect such as inoperative parking
brakes, weak service brakes, fuel leak, radiator
leak, damaged cable plug, or any other defect
requiring repair, down the equipment. Report the
defect and make sure the unit gets returned to
the SE division for repair. Do not attempt the repairs
yoursel f and do not j ury-ri g repai rs or safety
devices. Never operate defective support equip-
ment!
85. The above applies not only to the defects or
discrepancies you find on the preoperational inspec-
tion, but to all that you become aware of at anytime.
Never put someone elses neck on the line by
leaving a defective MEPP (or any support equip-
ment) in a supposedly up or ready status when
you know its defective.
86. Towing or Driving. If youre going to tow an
NC-10C or MMG-1A, check that the cables are
properly stowed. If they are connected to an aircraft
or load bank, dont tow it.
87. Check the towbar for security and condition.
When you lower the towbar to hook it to the tractor,
swing it back and forth to see that it steers the
wheels and isnt binding or broken. Then attach
the towbar lunette securely to the tractor coupling
and hook up the safety chains if installed.
88. After youre all hooked up and ready to take
off, take one more look. Make sure cables are
properly stowed, chocks and chains are removed,
the way is clear, and the brake is released. Review
WP 005 00 for more information and precautions
for the safe towing of support equipment.
89. DELETED.
90. Electrical Power Operation. Take the following
general precautions when setting-up and while the
MEPP is supplying output power:
S Park the unit so if it moves inadvertently
it wont hit the aircraft.
S Make sure the exhaust is not pointed
towards any part of the aircraft.
S Set the handbrake or parking brake ON.
S Chock the unit.
S Make sure the proper doors or panels are
open or closed as required.
S Monitor the controls and gauges at all
times.
S Make sure the power cables and plugs
are in good shape. Do not drag the plugs on the
deck.
S Make sure the AC and DC cable power
switches and indicator lights are OFF when cables
are plugged into or unplugged from the aircraft.
91. Do not idle the diesel engine MEPPs for long
periods of time. If the power plant isnt being used,
shut the engine down.
92. Stop the engine immediately if it malfunctions.
Practically all failures give some warning before
parts fail and ruin the engine. Heed warning signals
such as a sudden drop in oil pressure or an unusual
engine noise and immediately stop the engine. All
of the diesel engine MEPPs are equipped with
emergency shutdown actuators. Know where they
are and be prepared to use them instantly in case
of emergency.
93. Parking and Securing. When youre finished
supplying electrical power to the aircraft,
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 010 00
Page 13
secure all cable power to the aircraft and then the
unit electrical generating system. Use the exact
procedures for each type/model you learned at SE
school. Then follow these general precautions in
securing the MEPPs:
S Make sure cable power switches and
indicators are OFF, then unplug the AC and DC
cables. On the MMG-1A, secure hangar power and
unplug the external source power cable first.
S Carefully rewind the cables on the reels
and pr oper l y st ow t he pl ugs and secur e t he
compartment doors and panels.
S On the NC-2A, coil the cables carefully
in the stowage compartment and secure the door.
S On the NC-8A, plug the AC and DC cables
into the propulsion lock receptacles or you wont
go anywhere.
S Allow time for the engine to reach normal
temperature after operating at load conditions. On
towed uni ts, secure the di esel engi ne and al l
switches using the proper procedures.
S Never t ow a MEPP wi t h t he engi ne
running.
S Park your MEPP in an authorized space
and never just leave it on the line or ramp.
S Set the handbrake or parking brake ON
and chock it.
S Close all doors and panels and secure
to weather and wind.
S Do a quick walkaround inspection for
evidence of fuel, oil, or coolant leaks.
S If the unit requires servicing, do it before
you secure the unit and after the engine has been
shut off and has cooled.
94. DISTRIBUTION SETS (FLEDS) SAFETY PRE-
CAUTIONS AND PROCEDURES. The prime safety
precaution to follow when working on or handling
electrical equipment is to ensure that the power is
OFF. This applies directly to the handling of aircraft
electrical start cables of the flight line or deck edge
power distribution systems. Make sure the power is
OFF before handling, unplugging, or plugging a power
cable into an aircraft. Think of power cables the same
way you do about firearms, consider them loaded
unless proven otherwise.
95. The only way to prove that a power cable
is not energized is to check the power switch. The
FLEDS has an ON-OFF circuit breaker on the
distribution box, along with a green indicator lamp
which indicates voltage ON.
96. The switches for the deck edge power systems
aboard shi p are l ocated i n t he cabl e storage
compartments. There is no indicator lamp, so you
must push the OFF button to make sure the power
to the cable is off.
97. Aircraft Precautions. Remember that electrical
power can zap an aircrafts electrical system the same
as it can zap you. Never turn on the external power
to an aircraft unless there is a qualified technician
or pilot in the cockpit to insure that electrical switches
and circuit breakers are in the proper position.
98. A faulty power supply will damage electrical
components. Knowledge of the aircraft require-
ments in the MIMs is mandatory to prevent damage
to the aircraft. Before you connect the cable plug,
make sure the receptacles in the plug match the
pins on the aircraft connector panel. If the plug
is mated with the wrong pins, both power source
and the aircraft will be damaged.
99. Inspection and Care. The high rate of deteriora-
tion and repair or replacement of power cables is,
for the most part, due to the carelessness of the
users. In addition to the enormous cost of repair and
replacement, there is a dangerous increase in hazard
to the users. Responsible care and frequent inspec-
tion are the answers to the problems of cost and
hazards.
100. Aircraft starting power cables should be
inspected prior to each use, the same as other
SE. Check the cables and plugs for excessive
fraying, cracks, cuts, and deteriorated or crushed
sections. Check the female connectors in the plug
head for security and alignment. Report any defects
or accidental damage to your supervisor and tag
the cable as out of service to remove the hazard
to you and your buddi es. The preoperati onal
i n s p e c t i o n f o r t h e F L E D S i s N AVA I R
19-600-164-6-1.
101. Take the following precautions in the use
and care of power cables:
S Always remove power cables from the
aircraft unless theyre actually in use.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 010 00
Page 14
S Take the time to coil the cables and stow
them on the racks, or in the compartment provided,
or along side of the equipment.
S If dummy storage receptacles are avail-
able for plugs, use them.
S Take care that the cables dont come into
contact with any fluid or material which can deterio-
rate or damage them.
S Never dri ve or move equi pment over
cables, or let others do so.
S Never lay power cables across hangar
tracks or elevator platforms.
S Dont expose the cables to excessive heat
from jet engines, GTC, or vehicle exhaust.
S Never jerk, snake whip, or stretch the
power cable to make it reach.
S Always disconnect the plug by pulling on
the head-not the cables.
S Al ways make sure the power i s OFF
before connecting or disconnecting power cables.
1 0 2 . M O B I L E F L O O D L I G H T S A F E T Y
PRECAUTIONS AND PROCEDURES.
103. You shall be fully qualified and licensed in
accordance with WP 003 00.
104. Mobile floodlight sets, such as the A/M42M-2,
require a SE Operators License to operate. The
reason full qualification is required for floodlight
sets is to ensure that all the proper procedures,
requirements and safety precautions are followed.
Failure to do so could result in death, serious injury
or substantial equipment damage. So do not oper-
ate a floodlight set unless youre fully qualified or
under the visual and direct control of a fully qualified
supervisor.
105. Preoperational Inspection. The preoperational
c h e c k l i s t f o r t h e A / M4 2 M- 2 i s NAVA I R
19-600-237-6-1. This check is even more important
than usual for the A/M42M-2 because this equipment
isnt used very often. It probably isnt uncommon for
a unit to sit in the SE compound, unused, for the
full period between periodic inspections, so it should
be checked carefully.
106. General Precautions. In addition to conducting
a good preoperational inspection, use the following
procedures and safety precautions when moving and
operating the A/M42M-2:
S Make sure the telescoping mast is down,
the floodlights and equipment stowed, and all doors
are closed before towing.
S Dont tow the unit for long distances with
the lamps clamped to the mast. Use the stowage
brackets inside.
S Do not tow t he uni t wi th t he engi ne
running.
S Park the unit so that if it moves inadver-
tently, it wont hit the aircraft.
S Make sure the exhaust pipe is not directed
at any part of the aircraft or other equipment.
S Set the parking brake ON and try to move
the unit to be sure it holds.
S Chock or tie down the unit during opera-
tion.
S Latch the towbar to prevent a tripping
hazard.
S Do not plug the lamps in with the engine
running or the lamp circuit breaker ON.
S If youre using external power, always plug
in the external cable before switching on the cable
power.
S Make sure the power output circuit break-
er is OFF before plugging in electrical equipment
or tools to the unit.
S Make sure all cable plugs are the proper
three-prong grounded type.
S Switch circuit breakers OFF, shutdown
engine and/or switch OFF external cable power
before unplugging cables or lamp plugs.
S Let the lamps cool down before unclamp-
ing for stowage on inside brackets.
S Properly stow the lamps and close all
doors before towing back to the parking area or
the SE division.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 010 00
Page 15
S Be sure to replace the protective caps
on the lamp plug outlets on top and the input/output
plugs on the rear of the unit to keep out water
and dirt.
S Do not forget to release the parking brake
before towing.
S Never use the unit as a ladder or work-
stand.
S Never use the trailer housing as a trash
can. This creates a FOD and fire hazard.
107. LOAD BANKS SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND
PROCEDURES.
108. You shall be fully qualified and licensed in
accordance with WP 003 00.
109. The reason full qualification is required on
the dummy load and the specific power unit being
maintained is to ensure that all the proper proce-
dures, requirements, and safety precautions are
followed. Failure to do so while operating a dummy
load could result in death, serious injury, or substan-
tial damage to the dummy load and the power unit
under test. The potential for harm is great, so do
not operate a load bank unless youre fully qualified
or under the visual and direct control of a fully
qualified supervisor.
110. Preoperational Inspection. A major safety pre-
caution which you must take before you operate a
dummy load is to perform a preoperational inspection
in accordance with the step-by-step procedure out-
lined on the preoperational checklist. Remember, this
i s wi thout a doubt one of the most i mportant
precautions you must follow, before using any SE,
if you want to stay safe and prevent damage to the
equipment. The preoperational checklist for the
DA-675-MSM is NAVAIR 17-600-91-6-1.
S Look the dummy load over as you ap-
proach it and walk around it checking for under
inflated tires, open or loose doors or panels, or
obvious defects.
S Check for loose gear lying on the unit.
S Make sure your tow away path is clear.
S Check the parking brake for proper opera-
tion.
S Check to see if chocks or tiedowns have
been installed.
111. Defects or Discrepancies. The reason youre
doing the check is to check the material condition
and sound operation of the dummy load. If and when
you discover defects or discrepancies in the equip-
ment take some positive action. If the defect requires
repair then down it, report the defect and dont
operate defective support equipment!
112. The above applies not only to the defects
or discrepancies you find on the preoperational
inspection, but to all that you become aware of
at anytime. Never leave a defective dummy load
(or any support equipment) in a supposedly up or
ready status when you know its defective.
113. Towing. Review WP 005 00 for towing precau-
tions. Keep in mind basic towing procedures as you
check to make sure that all cables are properly
stowed. If cables from a unit are connected to the
load bank, dont tow it.
114. Check the towbar for security and condition.
When you lower the towbar to hook it to the tractor,
swing it back and forth to see that it steers the
wheels and isnt binding or broken. Then attach
the towbar lunette securely to the tractor coupling
and hook up the safety chains if installed.
115. After youre all hooked up and ready to take
off, take one more look. Make sure cables are
properly stowed, chocks and chains are removed,
the way is clear, and the brake is released If they
are not, dont tow it.
116. Electrical Power Operation. Whenever a
dummy load is in operation testing another power
plant, qualified operators shall be in proper atten-
dance at the operators panel of both units at all
times.
117. When setting up and while the dummy load
is in operation, take the following general precau-
tions:
S Park the unit so that there is good air
flow for both the load bank and power plant under
test.
S Set the parking brake ON.
S Chock the unit and chain it if aboard ship.
S Make sure to open the two air exhaust
doors, open the control console, and the DC or
AC panel covers as required.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 010 00
Change 1 Page 16
S Monitor the controls and gauges at all
times.
S Make sure the power cables and plugs
that are to be plugged into the load bank are in
good shape. Do not drag the plugs on the deck.
S Make sure the AC and DC cable power
switches and indicator lights are OFF whenever
cables are plugged into or unplugged from the load
bank.
118. Parking and Securing. Use the exact proce-
dures for each type/model you learned at SE school.
Then follow these general precautions in securing
the dummy loads:
S Make sure cable power switches and
indicators are OFF, then unplug and stow the AC
and DC cables.
S Close all doors and panels and secure
to weather and wind.
S Park your dummy load in an authorized
space and never just leave it on the line or ramp.
S Set the parking brake ON, chock it, and
aboard ship tie it down.
S Do a quick walkaround inspection for a
final check.
119. DOS AND DONTS
120. What follows here is a summary of those
safety precautions in short, clear DO and DONT
form. Read them. If you dont understand one of
them, look back in the manual and read the what,
where, and why of it. If you cant find it in the
manual, ask your supervisor and find out. It could
save your life.
Do remember all these electrical systems
can kill you.
121. Mobile Electrical Power Plants.
S Dont operate a mobile electric power
plant unless you are fully qualified and have a valid
SE Operators License for the specific model MEPP
youre driving or using.
S Do a complete preoperational inspection,
using the preoperational checklist, prior to each
use.
S Dont operate a MEPP thats defective.
S Do down a defective MEPP, report it, and
make sure no one else uses it.
S Dont jury-rig safety devices or repairs.
S Do wear personal protective equipment.
S Do remember that MEPPs generate lethal
voltages.
S Do attach towbar securely to the tractor
coupler and use chains if so equipped.
S Dont start the NC-2A with your foot on
the safety switch.
S Do drive or tow MEPPs carefully and
slowly.
S Do monitor the gauges when driving the
NC-2A or NC-8A.
S Do check service brakes (driving or tow-
ing) before approaching an aircraft.
S Do par k MEPPs so t hat i f i t moves
inadvertently, it wont hit the aircraft.
S Do make sure the exhaust pipe is not
directed at any part of the aircraft or other equip-
ment.
S Do set the parking brake ON and chock
the unit when servicing aircraft.
S Do make sure AC or DC cable power
switches are OFF when handling cables and when
plugging or unplugging.
S Do make sure power cables and plugs
are in good shape.
S Do extend cables fully from unit before
applying load.
S Do make sure a qualified person is in
the cockpit and has conducted a cockpit safety
check before turning on external power to the
aircraft.
S Dont turn AC or DC power switches ON
unless cable power heads are plugged in.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 010 00
Page 17
S Dont idle MEPP engines for long periods
of time.
S Do st op the engi ne i mmedi atel y i f i t
malfunctions.
S Do know where the emergency shut down
actuators are and how to use them.
S Do remember to disconnect the power
cables from the aircraft and stow them properly
before driving or towing the MEPP away.
S Dont throw or leave power cables on top
of the MEPP.
S Dont use self-propelled MEPPs as per-
sonnel convenience transportation.
S Dont use MEPPs as workstands, work-
benches, or to carry parts and equipment.
S Don t use MEPP headl i ghts for ni ght
maintenance work.
S Dont use self-propelled MEPPs for towing
or pushing.
S Do a quick walkaround inspection for a
final check after parking and securing unit.
122. Distribution Sets (FLEDS).
S Dont use the FLEDS or Deck Edge Power
system to provide electrical power to an aircraft
unless you are completely qualified on that aircraft.
S Do inspect a power cable and plug for
condition before you use it.
S Do check and make sure the power is
OFF before handling, plugging, or unplugging any
power cable.
S Dont jerk, snake-whip, or stretch power
cables to make them reach.
S Do make sure a qualified person is in
the cockpit and has conducted a complete cockpit
safety check before turning on external power to
the aircraft.
S Do make sure you are connecting the
proper plug and power source to the aircraft.
S Do remove power cables from aircraft
when they are not in use.
S Do disconnect power cables by pulling
on the plug head, not the cable.
S Do coil and stow cables after use.
S Do stow plugs in dummy receptacles if
available.
S Dont drive or move equipment over power
cables.
S Do ensure power cables are disconnected
from aircraft or equipment prior to moving the
aircraft or equipment.
123. Floodlights.
S Dont operate floodlight sets unless you
are fully qualified and have a valid SE Operators
License for the specific model floodlight set youre
using.
S Do a complete preoperational inspection
prior to each use.
S Do make sure the telescoping mast is
down and all doors closed before towing.
S Dont tow the unit for long distances with
the lamps clamped to the telescoping mast.
S Dont tow the unit with the engine running.
S Do park t he uni t so t hat i f i t moves
inadvertently, it wont hit the aircraft.
S Do make sure the exhaust pipe is not
directed at any part of the aircraft or other equip-
ment.
S Do set the parking brake ON and check
it.
S Do chock or tie down the unit.
S Dont raise or rotate the telescoping mast.
S Do latch the towbar up to prevent a trip
hazard.
S Dont plug in the lamps with the engine
running or the lamp circuit breaker ON.
S Do make sure the power output circuit
breaker is OFF before plugging in external electrical
equipment or tools to the unit.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 010 00
Page 18
S Dont use the unit as a ladder or work-
stand.
S Dont use the trailer housing as a trash
receptacle.
S Do a quick walkaround inspection for a
final check after parking and securing unit.
124. Load Banks.
S Dont operate load banks unless you are
fully qualified and have a valid SE Operator s
License for the specific model dummy load youre
using.
S Do a complete preoperational inspection,
using the preoperational checklist prior to each use.
S Do down a defective dummy load, report
it and make sure no one else uses it.
S Do wear personal protective equipment.
S Do attach the towbar securely.
S Dont park the dummy load in an area
that restricts the air flow.
S Do set the parking brake and chock the
unit.
S Do remember that when a dummy load
is testing a power plant that you are exposed to
lethal voltages.
S Dont connect a power plant output cable
to a dummy load receptacle or terminal block while
the cable is energized.
S Do have qualified operators monitoring
all instruments on both the dummy load and power
plant while under test.
S Dont handle or unplug power heads until
the power units switches have been turned OFF.
S Do a quick walkaround inspection for a
final check after parking and securing unit.
125. LESSONS LEARNED/ACCIDENT REPORTS
126. People cause accidents. Weve said that
before, but nowhere is it more true than in the
area of aircraft line maintenance. It is particularly
true when it comes to driving various types of line
maintenance vehicles on an airfield.
127. Since most of the accidents involve people-
mistakes, it is hard to try to lower the accident
and injury rates by redesigning vehicles or adding
more safety devices or by trying to make all SE
people-proof. Sometimes we can. The propulsion
power lock circuit on the NC-8A is an example.
It has cut down on the number of cases of driving
away with the electric cables still attached to the
aircraft. However, even these safety devices cant
make SE entirely people-proof.
128. One t hi ng that can be done to prevent
accidents, is to make you aware of the hazards
you might not know about or appreciate enough.
We can try to fill in some of the gaps left by your
present training and experience level. The more
experience you have, even from just reading, the
safer you will be. If you read and heed, you can
learn from someone elses mistakes, instead of
having to learn it the hard way yourself.
129. FRUSTRATED MEPP OPERATOR. An NC-8A
was being used to provide stationary power to the
FLEDS. The MEPP was running low on fuel and
was replaced by another NC-8A to allow the MEPP
to be driven to the refueling location. The operator
placed the unit in propulsion mode and selected
forward direction. No response was evident when
the operator depressed the accelerator.
130. After several attempts to move the unit, the
operator concluded that the AC power cable was
not making contact through the power lock circuit,
thus rendering the power drive inoperative. The
operator stated that he then placed the master
switch from PROPULSION to START/IDLE and put
the direction switch to the NEUTRAL position. He
then went to the rear of the unit and shook the
AC cable.
131. At this point the NC-8A went into propulsion
mode and took off. It ran at about 20 mph for 294
feet before hi tti ng an F-14 Tomcat and fi nal l y
stopped 28 feet beyond the plane after contacting
the underside of both intake ducts. The NC-8A was
substantially damaged and the repair estimate for
the F-14 was over 212 hours.
132. During the engineering investigation it was
found that the accelerator pedal would jam in the
full throttle position. The investigation also revealed
that an electrical lead to the power lock
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 010 00
Page 19/(20 blank)
circuit had pulled loose, rendering the propulsion
mode inoperative. When the operator shook the
AC cable, the lead grounded to the unit frame and
activated the propulsion system.
133. The START/IDLE position and FORWARD/
NEUTRAL/REVERSE position switches were found
to be operati ng properl y. The concl usi on was
reached that the operator, in his frustration to get
the unit to move, stomped on the accelerator pedal.
When he got off the unit, he left the master switch
in PROPULSION, the direction switch in FORWARD
and the accelerator pedal stuck full down. The
operator stated he thought he saw 200 rpm on
the tach when he got off. This unit idles at 750
rpm and what he saw was probably 2000 rpm due
to the stuck accelerator.
134. A combination of the high noise level pro-
duced by another NC-8A running at full power next
to him and the operators sound attenuators could
have prevented him from recognizing that his unit
was at full power. He apparently did not apply the
parking brake either, before getting off the unit to
shake the cable.
135. The material failure, allowing the accelerator
peddle to stick, contributed to this accident. The
primary cause of the accident was poor mainte-
nance practices during incorporation of the power
lock circuit support equipment change. A people
mistake. However, the accident would not have
happened if the operator had followed the correct
procedures and placed the master switch in START/
IDLE and the direction switch in NEUTRAL. He
should also have taken the safety precaution of
putting the brake ON before leaving the drivers
seat. It took four people-mistake links in the chain
to this accident. One correct action out of the four
would have broken that chain.
136. Whenever something doesnt work as adver-
tised, watch out! Be alerted, and take extra caution
because thats when other things are likely to go
wrong. Thats when safety precautions become
most important. Think! Dont let frustrations cause
you to stop thinking.
137. The Last Word. This ground accident described
above i s j ust one of the thousands, that have
happened in the past. The numbers show that were
not improving much on the average number of aircraft
damaged and people injured or killed each year.
138. Unless you do something about it, your
accident will add to the numbers. So be familiar
with the tasking youre performing and the surround-
ings in which you are working. After all, the last
word on safety belongs to you, because only you
can prevent accidents. Make safety awareness a
part of your instinct for self-preservation.
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 011 00
1 April 1996 Page 1
AIR CONDITIONER UNITS
U.S. NAVY SUPPORT EQUIPMENT
COMMON
BASIC HANDLING & SAFETY MANUAL
Reference Material
History and Prevention WP 003 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, A/M32C-17 NAVAIR-19-600-167-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, A/M32C-21 AG-180AO-MRC-010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Towing Precautions WP 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alphabetical Index
Subject Page No.
Hazards of Mobile Air Conditioners 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A/M32C-17 Hazards 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A/M32C-21 Hazards 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mobile Air Conditioner Units 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air Conditioner A/M32C-17 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air Conditioner A/M32C-21 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Safety Precautions and Procedures 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dos and Donts 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operating and Shutdown Precautions 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Inspection 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Parking and Securing 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Towing and Positioning 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Record of Applicable Technical Directives
None
1. MOBILE AIR CONDITIONER UNITS.
2. Most modern aircraft are crammed with elec-
t r oni c equi pment t hat gener at es t r emendous
amounts of heat and makes air conditioning a
requirement in the air or on the ground. This is
normally done by an on-board system, but the
aircraft engines must be operating for this system
to work. This is impractical on the ground when
maintenance, testing, or calibration requires the
electronic equipment to be run for long periods of
time. Therefore, some other means of air condition-
ing is needed, and thats the reason we have mobile
air conditioning units.
3. Mobile air conditioning units provide filtered air
for cooling, dehumidifying, or ventilating of aircraft
electronic equipment or cockpit/cabin areas during
ground maintenance. There are several different
types and models in service today. Some are diesel
powered, some are electrically powered, and all
are trailer mounted.
4. Since the design and modes of operation are
very similar for all air conditioners, we will cover
only the two types most currently in use. These
are the diesel powered A/M32C-17 and the electri-
cally powered A/M32C-21.
5. AIR CONDITIONER, A/M32C-17. Figure 1. shows
the mobile, trailer mounted, diesel powered, self-con-
tained A/M32C-17 air conditioner. The prime power
comes from a 6 cylinder, industrial type diesel engine.
SEE IRAC # 6
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 011 00
Page 2
011001
Figure 1. Air Conditioner, A/M32C-17
6. The A/M32C-17 is large, 8 feet high, 6 feet
8 inches wide, and 12 feet 6 inches long. It weighs
12,000 pounds. The unit is mounted on a trailer,
with the operating components contained in a metal
paneled housing. The air conditioning components
are assembled into a refrigeration system, a ventila-
tion system, a hydraulic system, and associated
sensing and control components. The trailer on
which the unit is mounted has its own braking
system and is suitable for towing.
7. AIR CONDITIONER, A/M32C-21. The A/M32C-21
is a mobile, trailer mounted, electrically powered,
self-contained air conditioner unit as illustrated in
Figure 2. The A/M32C-21 is powered by a 30 hp,
440 volt, 3 phase, 60 hertz AC electric motor which
is an integral part of the compressor. A 30 to 50
foot external power cable is provided and stores on
brackets on the rear of the unit.
8. The A/M32C-21 is 3 feet 10 inches high, 8
feet 2 inches long, and weighs 4,500 pounds. The
unit is mounted on a 4 wheel trailer, with the two
front wheels mounted close together on a caster
assembly. A tow bar attached for steering folds
up in half for storage in the vertical position. It
is held rigid in the unfolded position by a latch
and pin assembly .
9. Contained in the housing is the compressor
which is a 6 cylinder reciprocating type and uses
R-22 refri gerant as the heat transfer medi um.
Control s and gages are l ocated on a covered
instrument panel at the top center rear of the unit.
10. To provide air to the aircraft, units provide
a 30 foot collapsible duct hose for connection.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 011 00
Page 3
011002
Figure 2. Air Conditioner, A/M32C-21
11. HAZARDS OF MOBILE AIR CONDITIONERS.
12. In general the hazards associated with the
operation of mobile air conditioners are pretty much
the same as those for other diesel and electrically
operated line maintenance support equipment.
These hazards include noise, high voltage, high
pressure fluid, leaks, and exhaust fumes. In addi-
tion, air conditioners have large whirling fans and
blowers, belt drives, hot refrigerant lines, and
contain refrigerant 22 in both a liquid and gaseous
state.
13. Refrigerant 22 (R22) is nonflammable, nontox-
ic, nonexplosive, and odorless. However, it is still
dangerous. In its liquid state it can cause serious
burns and if the vapors come in contact with open
flame, deadly phosgene gas is formed. Also, though
R22 is odorless as a vapor, it displaces oxygen
in the air and if you inhale enough, it can asphyxiate
you.
14. The whirling fans, blowers, and drive belts
are covered for your protection. The same goes
for the high voltage components. Operation of the
unit with missing doors, screens, or panels or
attempting unauthorized adjustments inside the
unit, can be very dangerous to your life and limbs.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 011 00
Page 4
15. Mobile air conditioners are susceptible to
damage from improper operating procedures. They
can also be a hazard to aircraft electronic gear
if the proper dehumidifying and venting procedures
are disregarded. If you dont bring the cooled
electronic gear back to outside temperature before
shutting down the unit, condensation can form,
creating corrosion and ruining aircraft equipment.
16. The air ducting hose which delivers condi-
tioned air to the aircraft is fairly fragile and can
easily be cut or damaged by rough handling or
running over it. The large propeller type condenser
fan can suck up the hose in the compartment and
chew it up in no time at all.
17. A/M32C-17 HAZARDS. Noise is a definite
hazard when operating this unit. The combination
of diesel engine, compressor, fans, and blowers bring
the unit to 110 dBA at the operators position. At
that level of noise you can begin to receive permanent
damage to your hearing after only 30 minutes without
hearing protection. Even if you wear hearing protec-
tion or ear plugs, you will start to receive permanent
damage after 2 hours.
18. Operation of the A/M32C-17 inside hangars
or shops is hazardous due to deadly poisonous
carbon monoxide exhaust gases. Those gases are
even potentially dangerous outside. If the wind is
right, they can be sucked into the conditioned air
intake of the unit and be injected into the aircraft
creating a hazard to the maintenance or flight crew.
19. Towing the A/M32C-17 can present a hazard
to the unit and to aircraft. Dont forget that this
unit in much larger and heavier than most other
SE that you tow or move around near aircraft. The
surge brake requires a special backup technique.
The surge brake locks momentarily and you have
to wait about 10 seconds and then back carefully
keeping constant pressure on the brake actuator.
Remember, during towing the unit can be damaged
easily by chuckholes or ramp seams.
20. A/M32C-21 HAZARDS. Noise is also a hazard
with this electric powered unit. Even without the diesel
engine, the noise level is 105 dBA at the operators
position with the unit operating under full load.
21. The folding towbar can be hazardous during
towing if it is not latched securely. The unit wont
track behind the tractor during right turns or while
backing up. Also a sudden jerk could break the
towbar in half or cause it to become disconnected.
The solid tires on this unit increase the possibility
of it coming loose when hitting bumbs or chuck-
holes. Remember, this unit is not equipped with
a deadmans brake or surge brake to stop it if it
comes loose.
22. The high voltages and power cable of the
A/M32C-21 unit present the hazard of electrical
shock. If the cable is not stowed properly on the
stowage hooks, its easy to drag it during towing
and damage the cable or plug. The cable is subject
to being run over and damaged while its laid out
across the deck during operation. A damaged plug
or cable can really sock it to you when you plug
in with the hangar power on or the unit circuit
breaker on.
23. There are three plastic reset buttons on a
panel at the rear of the A/M32C-21. These are
to reset the condenser, blower, and compressor
motor starters. Unfortunately the buttons sit ex-
posed, inside the power cable stowage hooks and
are very easy to break off while you wrap the cable
around the hooks. A little care can save you from
having to down the unit and send it back to the
SE division for repair.
24. The parking brake hand lever is located near
the bottom of the unit at the front where it can
be stepped on and easily broken. Actuating it with
your foot can also bend or break the lever. Large
scale abuse resulted in a support equipment change
to strengthen the lever but that hasnt solved the
big foot breakage. Use your hand to set the lever,
not your foot.
25. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND PROCEDURES.
26. You shall be fully qualified and licensed in
accordance with WP 003 00.
27. The starti ng and operati on of mobi l e ai r
conditioners is fairly complicated and should never
be attempted by anyone other than a qualified
operator.
28. PREOPERATIONAL INSPECTION. The preop-
erational checklist for the A/M32C-17 is NAVAIR
19-600-167-6-1 and the A/M32C-21 is AG-180AO-
MRC-010. The checks include a complete static
inspection of the unit, a check of all servicing
quantities or levels, and a turnup for a complete
operational checkout.
SEE IRAC # 6
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 011 00
Page 5
29. As with all other SE, the preoperational check
is mandatory before each time you use it. If you
find defects, down the unit and return it to the SE
division for repair. Dont use defective equipment
and dont leave it around for somebody else to
use. So think and look for the obvious things that
could get you into trouble on the way to, or during,
the job. Things like:
S Is the handbrake ON and does it hold
the unit?
S Is the surge brake working and is the
breakaway cable there?
S Are there any broken wheels or is a tire
coming loose from the wheel?
S Is there enough fuel in it to complete the
job?
S Is the power cable and plug in good shape
and the right size?
S Is the power cable stowed properly so
you wont drag it or back over it?
S Are all the protective screens, panels and
doors on and are they secured so they wont blow
off if you have to tow past a turned up aircraft?
30. Thinking like that will go a long way toward
keeping you safe and doing the job right. Its called
concentration and is the opposite of complacency
or just assuming all these things are O.K. without
really looking or looking without thinking.
31. TOWING AND POSITIONING. WP 005 00
provides safe towing procedures and precautions that
you should review. The following are some basic
precautions to be aware of when towing air condition-
ers:
S Make sure that all hoses or cables are
unplugged from the aircraft or hangar power con-
nector and stowed before moving or towing away
the unit.
S Make sure the towbar lunette is properly
attached to the tractor coupler.
S Make sure on the A/M32C-17, that the
surge brake cable is attached to the tractor cou-
pling.
S Make sure safety chains are properly
secured if the unit has them.
S Make sure chocks and ti edowns are
removed and the handbrake is OFF.
S Check for clearance and obstructions in
your departure path.
S Drive slowly and avoid sudden stops.
S Never jackknife the towbar or exceed the
turn capability of the unit.
S Do not drive or tow over power cables,
hoses, or grounding wires.
S Be alert for bumps, curbs, ramp seams,
manholes, and other obstacles which can damage
the air conditioner or cause the coupler to discon-
nect.
S Approach the aircraft or final spot slowly
and safely. The speed should be no faster than
a person can walk.
S Never head directly at any part of the
aircraft
S Avoid backing when youre near an air-
craft.
S Never tow the air conditioner under any
part of an aircraft.
S Make sure the exhaust wont hit any part
of the aircraft.
S Make sure the air conditioner is chocked
and the handbrake is set ON before disconnecting
it from the tractor.
S Never tow the A/M32C-17 with its diesel
engine running.
32. Keep i n mi nd the si ze and wei ght of the
A/M32C-17 and tow it slowly and with extra caution.
Dont forget the surge brake if you have to back
down while towing. The brakes will lock and then
release in about 10 seconds so you can continue
backing. On the A/M32C-21 be sure the towbar
folding pin is properly installed.
33. Position the air conditioner so that if it moves
inadvertently it wont strike the aircraft. Position
it as far from the aircraft as the air
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 011 00
Page 6
delivery hose will allow so the intake air flow is
not restricted and clear of fumes.
34. Remember, youll probably also have at least
a MEPP positioned at the aircraft for electrical
power, so it may be crowded. Be sure your air
conditioner is not exposed to heat or exhaust fumes
from other operating SE. Make sure you set the
handbrake and chock the unit before you unhitch
the tractor.
3 5 . O P E R AT I N G A N D S H U T D O W N
PRECAUTIONS. During operation of the mobile air
conditioner, you or another qualified operator should
be in attendance at all times to take action in case
of emergency. Monitor the instrument panel gages
to make sure readings continue to be normal.
36. Take the following general precautions during
operation and shutdown of the units:
S Dont use a diesel unit in the hangar or
shop unless you are specifically authorized and
provide proper ventilation.
S Wear proper personal protective equip-
ment and make sure others on the job also wear
it.
S Inspect a CO
2
extinguisher and have it
nearby.
S Before starting the unit, remove the air
duct hose from its stowage compartment.
S Make sure the ci rcui t breaker on the
A/M32C-21 is OFF before plugging in the power
cable.
S If you observe abnormal conditions during
operation, shutdown immediately.
S Idle diesel units for a 5 minute cool down
period after removing the load before shutdown.
Contact with refrigerant, R-22, will cause
freezing of contact area. Wear rubber
gloves and goggles. Contact with flame
or heat causes decomposition into acids
and toxic fumes (phosgene gas), avoid
breathing fumes.
37. In case of a refrigerant (R-22) leak, take the
following precautions:
S If operating in hangar or shop, ventilate
the area immediately.
S Avoid inhaling R-22 gas.
S Avoid any skin, and especially eye, con-
tact with liquid R-22.
38. If liquid refrigerant gets on your skin it will
cause serious burns similar to frostbite or freezing.
Flush the area with clean water and get medical
attention immediately. If liquid refrigerant comes
i n contact wi th your eyes do the same t hi ng.
Flushing with mineral oil or boric acid solution would
be better but they arent usually available in work
areas, where as sterile eyewash is.
39. If an air conditioning unit catches fire treat
it as though the refrigerant system is leaking. Avoid
breathing phosgene gas. Stay clear and warn the
firefighters of the hazard.
40. PARKING AND SECURING. After youve com-
pleted the job of furnishing conditioned air to an
aircraft, take the following precautions when you
secure the unit:
S Use the proper shutdown procedures you
learned at SE school.
S On the A/M32C-21, make sure the unit
circuit breaker is OFF and the external power
source is OFF before unplugging the power cable.
S Stow the A/M32C-21 power cable on the
brackets provided, being careful not to break the
reset buttons on the rear of the unit.
S Disconnect and properly stow the air
delivery duct.
S Close all access panels and doors and
latch securely.
S Tow or move the unit to a designated
parking area.
S Set the handbrakes ON, chock it and tie
it down aboard ship.
S Do a quick walkaround inspection on the
A/M32C-17 to check for fuel, oil, or coolant leaks.
S If the unit requires servicing do it before
you secure the unit and after the engine has been
shut off and has cooled.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 011 00
Page 7/(8 blank)
S Exercise caution when walking around unit
to avoid tripping over towbar.
41. DOS AND DONTS
42. What follows here is a summary of those
safety precautions in short, clear DO and DONT
form. Read them. If you dont understand one of
them, look back in the manual and read the what,
where, and why of it. If you cant find it in the
manual, ask your supervisor and find out. It could
save your life.
S Dont operate a mobile air conditioning
unit unless you are fully qualified and licensed in
accordance with WP 003 00.
S Do a complete preoperational inspection,
using the preoperational checklist prior to each use.
S Do wear personal protective equipment
when operating any mobile air conditioner.
S Dont operate a defective mobile air condi-
tioner.
S Do down a defective unit, report it, and
make sure no one else uses it.
S Dont let anyone except authorized per-
sonnel perform repairs to any air conditioned units.
S Dont attempt unauthorized adjustments
of temperature control or switches inside the unit.
S Dont jury-rig repairs or safety devices.
S Do remember, the A/M32C-17 weighs over
3-1/2 tons, so move and tow carefully.
S Do park t he uni t so t hat i f i t moves
inadvertently, it wont hit the aircraft.
S Don t t r y t o c ont i nue bac k i ng t he
A/M32C-17 with surge brake locked.
S Do park t he A/M32C-17 so t he wi nd
carries the exhaust away from the conditioned air
intake.
S Dont park air conditioner units near drop
tanks, fuel vents, or other sources of fuel fumes
on the aircraft.
S Dont stand on, or use your foot to actuate
the parking brake lever on a air conditioner unit.
S Dont operate the diesel A/M32C-17 inside
the hangar or shop.
S Do check hangar outlet power OFF and
power ci rcui t breaker OFF before pl uggi ng or
unplugging the A/M32C-21 power cable.
S Dont start the A/M32C-21 with the air
duct inside the stowage compartment.
S Do purge the conditioned air duct before
connecting it to the aircraft.
S Do secure the air duct nozzle during
purging to avoid hose whip.
S Dont operate air conditioners with missing
doors, screens, or panels.
S Dont refuel or add coolant to a unit while
its running.
S Do beware of refrigerant (R-22) in both
liquid and vapor form.
S Do beware of toxic phosgene gas in event
the air conditioner catches fire.
S Dont shut down an air conditioning unit
in the cooling mode except in emergency.
S Do make sure to use proper dehumidifying
and venting procedures after cooling operation to
prevent condensation damage to aircraft.
S Do a quick walkaround inspection for a
final check after parking and securing.
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 012 00
Change 1 - 1 July 2001 Page 1
AIR START SYSTEMS
U.S. NAVY SUPPORT EQUIPMENT
COMMON
BASIC HANDLING & SAFETY MANUAL
This WP supersedes WP 012 00 dated, 1 April 1996.
Reference Material
History and Prevention WP 003 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Hazards of Aircraft Maintenance WP 004 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Handling and Securing Equipment WP 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, GTE (GTCP-100)
Tractor Mounted Enclosure, A/S47A--1 NAVAIR 19-600-215-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Jet Aircraft Start Unit, A/M47A-4 NAVAIR 19-600-217-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alphabetical Index
Subject Page No.
Dos and Donts 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hazards 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gas Turbine Engine/Gas Turbine Compressor GTC Hazards 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air Start Hose Hazards 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GTC Noise Hazards 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lessons Learned/Accident Reports 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flailing Air Starter Hoses 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hot Exhaust 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mobile 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tractor Mounted 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trailer Mounted 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Safety Precautions and Procedures 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tractor/GTC Enclosure Precautions 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trailer Mounted Start Unit Precautions 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Record of Applicable Technical Directives
None
1. MOBILE.
2. TRAILER MOUNTED. The A/M47A-4 Jet Aircraft
Start Unit (Figure 1) is a trailer mounted, transportable
turbine air compressor used to provide air and
electrical power for starting aircraft jet engines. The
start unit contains all components and fuel supply
necessary for independent operation. A flyaway
assembly, containing all necessary components for
operation, except the fuel tank, may be removed from
the start unit for airlift to new location or for permanent
installation.
3. Operationally the start unit requires manual
start initiation/stop and manual air selection. Once
start is initiated, an engine control system regulates
start, acceleration, and engine operation. The start
unit provides air at 5:1 or 3.6:1 air pressure ratios
for starti ng j et engi nes and 28 vdc power for
operating aircraft electrical systems.
4. TRACTOR MOUNTED. The A/S47A-1 tractor
mounted enclosure (Figure 2) is a self-contained
mobile aircraft turbine engine air start unit. The air
start unit enclosure consists of a control panel,
enclosure assembly, gas turbine engine, stowage
rack, and turbine support and mounting assembly.
Except for fuel and electrical power (supplied by
the tractor) the enclosure contains all systems
necessary for gas turbine engine operation.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 012 00
Change 1 Page 2
012001
Figure 1. A/M47A-4 Trailer Mounted Jet Aircraft Start Unit.
012002
Figure 2. A/S47A-1 Tractor Mounted enclosure.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 012 00
Change 1 Page 3
5. HAZARDS.
6. Operation of mobile air start systems can be
very hazardous. The equipment is complex and
safe operation takes knowledge and constant alert-
ness. This is why their operation requires a SE
License. Keep in mind that in addition to hazards
associated with mobile start units you face addition-
al hazards of the tractors/trailers used to move them
as well as aircraft and line environment hazards.
7. GAS TURBINE ENGINE/GAS TURBINE COM-
PRESSOR GTC HAZARDS. Gas turbine engines
used in air start systems have unique hazards you
dont have to worry about in reciprocating engines
or electric motors. The engines draw in huge streams
of high velocity air through their intakes. Therefore
foreign objects are a serious hazard. Since the engine
turns at about 40,000 rpm, loose materials (FOD)
sucked into the engine can damage the engine
compressor or turbine and can even cause it to blow
apart like a bomb. The same thing can happen if
a compressor or turbine blade fails internally. Stand-
ing next to an operating GTC, in the rotational plane
of the compressor or turbine section, is dangerous.
8. The exhaust of the GTC is also hazardous.
Hot, high velocity gases can burn you or any part
of the aircraft they hit. If the aircraft is loaded with
external fuel tanks, rockets, bombs, or missiles,
the exhaust is extremely dangerous. Besides the
danger from temperature, the exhaust can blow
dirt, rocks, and bits of pavement for considerable
di stances. Any FOD can be turned i nto fl yi ng
missiles capable of hurting people or damaging
aircraft and equipment. It can also blow you off
your feet or into other things.
9. Excess fuel in the tailpipe of the GTC resulting
from a false or wet start can ignite and shoot flames
for a long distance, creating a serious fire hazard.
Excess fuel in the tailpipe after shutdown, resulting
from malfunction of improper shutdown procedure
can vaporize and explode or burn many minutes
after the engine has been shut down.
10. AIR START HOSE HAZARDS. A severe hazard
of GTC operation comes from the high volume of
air in the air start hoses (bleedair ducts) and their
connections. The hazards exist for both the mobile
air start systems and the installed air start systems,
such as the Wells systems ashore and the flight deck
distribution system aboard ship.
11. Air start hoses, like power cables, are subject
to rough handling and all the elements of weather
and the fuels, oils, and hydraulic fluids on the ramp
or deck. These are dragged across concrete or
non-skid decks causing excessive wear. This wear
and tear can result in failure of the connector and
sudden disconnect or rupture of the hose itself.
12. Disconnects or ruptures most often happen
during the first big surge of air through the hose.
A flailing hose end is capable of severely injuring
personnel or damaging the aircraft or equipment.
If a disconnect occurs before the aircraft has been
started, a false or wet start in the aircraft engine
can result and an aircraft fire erupt. Even the initial
jump of a good hose can knock you off your feet
or break an ankle if youre standing too close.
13. GTC NOISE HAZARD. Noise is a definite
hazard when operating GTCs. As an example, the
GTC-85 noise level is about 120 dBA which signifi-
cantly exceeds the maximum of 90 dBA set by
BUMED for operating without hearing protection.
Remember, the noise hazard exists any time youre
operating the GTC and not just when starting aircraft.
The damage to your hearing can be permanent and
irreversible, so beware of noise.
14. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND PROCEDURES.
15. You shall be fully qualified and licensed in
accordance with WP 003 00.
16. Before we cover precautions for the specific
types of GTCs lets take a look at some general
precautions which apply to all GTC operations.
Never attempt to start or operate a GTC unless
youre qualified and licensed. Their jet engines are
critical when it comes to proper procedures. They
can easi l y catch f i re or be damaged and are
extremely expensive to repair.
17. Always wear protective sound attenuators
when operating or working near GTCs. The noise
level of a GTC-85 is about 120 dBA. That means
your allowable exposure time without ear protection
is zero. With ear plugs it is only 45 minutes per
day. Even with ear plugs and sound attenuators,
safe exposure time per day is only 2 hours. If you
dont wear protection, or you exceed the safe
exposure times with protection, you are going to
suffer some permanent loss of hearing. Remember,
the effect is cumulative, so the more you exceed
the noise level or time limit, the more deaf you
become - permanently!
18. Always have a fire extinguisher nearby when
starting a GTC. Thats normally not a problem if
youre near aircraft on the line or flight deck but
there may not be one nearby if youre doing a
preoperational check start somewhere else.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 012 00
Change 1 Page 4
19. Before starting, and during operation, keep
the area around the compressor air intake clear
of debris, loose gear, and personnel. Although the
engine is small, it still sucks in great quantities
of air and is just as susceptible to FOD as an aircraft
engine. Dont depend on the screens to keep you
or the engine safe. Small debris can ruin the engine
and a steel nut could blow it apart. Never stand
or let other people stand in the plane of rotation
of the compressor or turbine section of the engine
while its in operation. It can come apart due to
FOD or due to an internal failure.
Hot exhaust from an aircraft starting unit
is a serious hazard when operating in
close proximity to aircraft, aircraft compo-
nents, fuel, weapons, equipment, and
personnel.
20. The above warning means that you must take
extra special precautions as to where a GTC is
positioned when the unit is started and operating.
This is particularly true aboard ship where aircraft
are parked closely together. You as the operator
must know where the exhaust is pointed and make
absolutely sure its not directed at something the
heat or velocity can damage, set on fire, or explode.
The danger zone is normally considered to be a
15 foot semi-circle from the exhaust to 90_ on either
side, for a GTC operating under load conditions.
21. Always treat the bleed air duct (hose) and
connecting fittings with respect and some reason-
able care. If you drag the coupling across the deck
or throw it down, youll damage it and the clamps
that hold it to the hose. The damage will eventually
cause either the hose to part from the coupling
or worse yet, the coupling will come loose from
the aircraft fitting. Then you may have about a 25
pound sl edge fl ai l i ng around at the end of a
pressurized hose and if it hits you, youll know it
for sure. Then again, if it hits you in the right place
you may never, ever know it.
22. To avoid injury from bleed air ducts, take the
following precautions:
a. Inspect the hose, clamps, and coupling
before you use the duct.
b. Make sure the duct isnt twisted, looped
or kinked when the air is applied. The first surge
of air has been known to untwist the hose and
disconnect the coupling to the aircraft. A looped
or kinked hose can straighten out with great force
and knock you off your feet.
c. Make sure you connect it securely to the
aircraft and GTC fittings.
d. Stay well clear of the hose and couplings
on either end when the system is pressurized.
e. Always stow the hose properly after use.
Strap it down or put it in the basket or holder
provided. Make sure it doesnt fall off or get dragged
when you move the GTC. For the Wells system
ashore, coil the hose carefully around the control
box so it doesnt get blown around or run over.
f. Make it a general rule not to drive or
tow an air start unit with its engine running. There
are four reasons of this rule:
(1) Youre exposing the GTC to a much
greater FOD hazard-like running a vacuum cleaner
around the ramp or deck instead of keeping it in
one spot.
(2) Theres an exhaust hazard - l i ke
moving a blow torch around the ramp or deck
instead of keeping it one place. The danger zone
under load is a 15 foot semi-circle from the exhaust.
(3) You should be monitoring the GTC
gauges whenever its in operation. If a malfunction
takes place during the move, you probably wouldnt
notice it until it was too late.
(4) The bouncing or jiggling motion of
the engine can ruin the carbide engine bearing
seals.
g. The exception to this rule is when you
have several aircraft to start, one right after the
other, and they are parked reasonable close togeth-
er. Since starts and shutdowns are hard on a GTC,
and normally the battery is only good for about
two starts without some charging time in between,
this exception makes sense. However,even in these
short moves dont forget the hazards of FOD,
exhaust, and engine malfunction.
23. TRACTOR/GTC ENCLOSURE PRECAUTIONS.
Dur i ng pr eoper at i onal i ns pec t i on, NAVAI R
19-600-215-6-1, turnup or when starting aircraft give
special caution to the following procedures:
a. Protect your hearing with sound attenua-
tors and keep track of your noise exposure time.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 012 00
Change 1 Page 5
b. Dont try to start or use a defective unit.
Turn it in to AIMD SE division.
c. Keep people clear of the intakes, ex-
haust, and turbine plane of rotation.
d. Maintain a 15 foot clear area from the
exhaust port.
e. Make sure the air inlet doors are open
prior to start.
f. Use the exact starting procedures you
learned at SE school.
g. Dont exceed the starter duty cycle.
h. Monitor the gauges and shut down for
excessive exhaust gas temperature, excessive
compressor bearing cavity pressure, or low oil
pressure.
i. Be sure to follow proper procedures after
a wet start to prevent fire.
j. If possible run the engine for at least 1
minute prior to starting an aircraft to reduce thermal
stress on the turbine wheel and increase service
life.
k. Run the engine a minimum of 1 minute
in a no-load condition to cool down engine tempera-
ture prior to shutdown.
l. Dont leave the drivers seat or controls
during GTC operation. Shut down entire unit (includ-
ing tractor engine) if you do leave the seat.
m. Keep tractor in neutral and the hand
brake ON during GTC operation.
n. Fol l ow al l the safety precauti ons for
tractors described in (WP 005 00).
o. Be aware of all the aircraft handling
hazards in (WP 004 00).
24. TRAILER MOUNTED START UNIT PRECAU-
TIONS. Perform preoperational inspection, NAVAIR
19-600-217-6-1. Take all of the same precautions
listed in (Paragraph 26) except for those which apply
to the tractor. Give special caution to the following
procedures:
a. Check tires for obvious signs of deteriora-
tion, cracks, or large gouges and flat spots.
b. Check the handbrake for proper opera-
tion.
c. Check the trailer frame for cracks or
breaks. Pay particular attention to the front frame,
steering linkage, and wheel suspension. The trailers
are considered weak in those areas and prone to
failure.
d. Check tow bar attachment for security
and proper steering operation by swinging tow bar
left and right.
e. Check bleed air ducts for secure stowage
in basket.
f. Check power cables for secure stowage
in enclosure.
g. Check fuel and engine oil tanks for proper
quantity.
h. Check intake and exhaust air screens
for obstructions.
25. Since the trailer front frame and wheel suspen-
sion assemblies are prone to damage when the
unit is backed with a tow vehicle, you must take
great care in doing this. Dont jump the tractor into
reverse and allow the tow coupling to rap against
the lunette eye on the trailer tow bar. Try to arrange
your slow and careful approach to the aircraft so
that backing is not necessary. Backing by hand
is much safer. Tow the unit no faster than a man
can walk and avoid tight turns or jackknifing. Youll
find other precautions for towing SE in (WP 005
00). If you havent read them do it now.
26. Use the proper shutdown procedures you
learned in SE school. Dont forget the 1 minute
no-load cooldown engine run. Make sure the bleed
air ducts and power cables are properly stowed
before you move the unit.
27. Parking and Securing. Park it in the designated
area and apply the handbrake and chock it before
disconnecting the tow vehicle. Tie it down aboard
ship.
28. During actual aircraft starting operations follow
the proper procedures and be alert to hand signals
from the pilot or plane captain. If the start (air flow)
is to be controlled from the aircraft, make sure the
cockpit is manned and the remote start switch in
the cockpit is OFF before setting the manual/off/re-
mote switch to the REMOTE position.
29. Make sure you know which pressure setting
(ratio) the aircraft requires and set the 75/PSI/45
switch accordingly to prevent damage to the aircraft.
SEE IRAC # 6
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 012 00
Change 1 Page 6
30. Route the air hose clear of any equipment
and the aircraft landing gear so it cant whip into
something and be damaged.
31. Make sure the air hose connector coupling
is securely attached to the aircraft fitting and stand
well clear of the air hose when its pressurized.
32. After the aircraft is started be aware of the
hazards - jet blast and intakes, headknockers, and
aircraft moveable surfaces - while youre discon-
necting the hose. Dont drop or slam the air hose
and connector fitting on the deck. Lay it down,
secure the aircraft access door as required, and
then stow the air hose around the control console
with care. Dont drag the hose couplings across
the deck.
33. DOS AND DONTS.
S Never operate a GTC unless you are fully
qualified and have a valid SE Operators License
for the specific unit you are using.
S Do complete preoperational checklist on
the GTC especially hose couplings and clamps,
prior to each use.
S Dont operate a GTC unit (or tractor) that
is defective.
S Do down a defective unit, report it, and
make sure no one else uses it.
S Do wear heari ng protecti on any ti me
youre operating GTCs.
S Dont hook up a hose (bleed air duct)
thats twisted.
S Do route the air hose clear of equipment
and aircraft landing gear and be well clear when
hose is pressurized.
S Dont stand in the plane of rotation of the
GTC engine.
S Do maintain a 15 foot clearance area
around the GTC exhaust.
S Do make sure air inlet doors on GTC are
open prior to start.
S Do have a fire extinguisher on hand during
GTC start and shutdown.
S Do monitor gauges during start and opera-
tion.
S Do run GTC engine for 1 minute warmup
prior to starting aircraft and for 1 minute noload
cooldown before securing engine.
S Never pressurize the air delivery hose
unless it is coupled to an aircraft.
S Dont leave drivers seat or controls of
GTC while its running.
S Do beware of all aircraft hazards when
disconnecting the air hose.
S Do stow air hoses properly after use.
S Dont drop, slam, or drag couplings and
hoses on deck.
S Do avoid backing up the GTC with a tow
tractor.
S Dont start or run GTCs inside buildings
or hangars.
S Do be sure to use the correct air pressure
ratio for the aircraft youre starting.
S Do worry about FOD damage to the GTC.
34. LESSONS LEARNED/ACCIDENT REPORTS.
35. FLAILING AIR STARTER HOSES.
36. A pilot was in the process of starting the port
engine when the air start hose parted at the center
coupler device. The hose began to flail around. Upon
hearing the noise the plane captain, who was under
the aircraft, immediately moved in an attempt to reach
safety. Before he could do so, the end of the air
start hose, with the center coupler still attached,
struck his foot breaking two bones. Investigation
showed that although the coupler was properly
installed, wear and tear on the bands and buckles
distorted and loosened them to the point where the
hose separated. A good check of the hose prior to
the start could have prevented this one.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 012 00
Change 1 Page 7/(8 blank)
37. In another case a plane captain was control-
ling a start on an E-2C aircraft with the help of
a trainee at the control console of an air start unit.
The air start hose was routed over the top of the
unit to the aircraft. As soon as the air pressure
was applied to the air start hose, it jumped over
on top of the engine exhaust outlet. The hose
promptly melted and blew up. Improper procedures
and poor headwork on the part of both people
caused this accident. Fortunately there were no
injuries.
38. HOT EXHAUST.
39. Someone aboard a CV undergoing operational
readiness training neglected to pay attention to
where the exhaust heat on the starting unit was
pointed. It was directed and concentrated on a
rocket pod suspended from an aircraft. The war-
heads on the rockets in the pod cooked off. The
resultant explosions and fires that erupted created
a nightmare scene that disabled the aircraft carrier.
It cost 28 lives and estimated material damage of
about 60 million dollars. A high price to pay for
a moments lapse in alertness.
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 013 00
1 April 1996 Page 1
ENGINE HANDLING AND TRANSPORTING EQUIPMENT
U.S. NAVY SUPPORT EQUIPMENT
COMMON
BASIC HANDLING & SAFETY MANUAL
Reference Material
None
Alphabetical Index
Subject Page No.
Engine Installation and Removal Trailers 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Models 4000A and 4000B 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hazards 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Condition Hazards 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Improper Procedures Hazards 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Movement and Positioning Hazards 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lessons Learned/Accident Reports 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Removal Trailer 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Safety Precautions and Procedures 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dos and Donts 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Movement and Positioning 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operation and Use 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Parking and Securing 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Check 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Qualifications 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transportation Trailers 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NET-4 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Small Engine Trailer 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Record of Applicable Technical Directives
None
1. ENGI NE I NSTALLATI ON AND REMOVAL
TRAILERS.
2. Since the days of the early axial flow turbojet
engines, the Navy has moved towards universal
engine installation, removal, and transportation
trailers. These basic trailers are a matched rail
ground handling system which can be modified to
handle different type engines, installations, and
aircraft by the use of various PSE adapters and
in some cases hoisting equipment.
3. The equipments in most common use today
are the Engine Removal and Positioning Trailer,
Models 4000A and 4000B; and the Engine Trans-
portation Trailers NET-4 and Small Engine Trailer.
The removal and positioning (or installation/remov-
al) trailer, as the name shows, is used to remove
and i nst al l engi nes and move them for short
distances. The transportation trailer is used for
transporting engines over longer distances and to
transfer engines from other pieces of the matched
rail ground handling system. Actual work on the
engine is normally performed after it is transferred
to the engine workstand.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 013 00
Page 2
4. MODELS 4000A AND 4000B. These two models
are very similar. Figure 1 shows the Model 4000A.
It is a 4 wheel mobile, hydraulically controlled,
self-supporting unit. The trailer consists of a main
frame supported by four wheels, a lift linkage system,
an upper frame holding two cradle assemblies, and
a tube and rail assembly. A detachable, telescopic
towbar forward provides a means of manually steering
or towing the trailer. Foot-lever actuated drum/shoe
type parking brakes are located on the two rear
wheels. Large foot assemblies, which can be manual-
ly lowered, are provided to give the stand maximum
stability and support when required. Some trailers
may be equipped with a tow coupling on the rear.
5. TRANSPORTATION TRAILERS.
6. NET-4. Figure 2 shows the NET-4 Transportation
Trailer. The unit is a 4 wheel steerable trailer designed
for transporting large jet engines and airframe sec-
tions. The towbar is telescopic in construction and
may be extended for transporting unusually long
loads. Pneumatic tires protect the load from shocks.
A brake and pedal assembly is mounted at each
of the rear wheels.
7. SMALL ENGINE TRAILER. A four wheel steer-
able trailer (Figure 3) which features a low load design
with an 8 inch ground clearance. Both front wheels
can be turned up to 50 degrees from the trailers
longitudinal axis. An adjustable pair of aluminum alloy
rails are used to support the load. A 2-1/2 inch
adjustment of the rails provides vertical adjustment
while maintaining rail alignment. Male and female
connectors are provided for connection to test stand,
trailer, or other loading device. A pintle latch is located
on the rear axle cross support and provides a means
for connecting other equipment to the trailer. An angle
bracket and guide hook are provided (on the side
rail) for towbar storage. Pneumatic tires reduce the
shock to the load and prevent damage to fields and
runways. Rear wheel brakes are employed mainly
for parking and for controlling motion.
8. HAZARDS.
9. Transferring or transporting a 1 to 2 ton aircraft
engine can be a very hazardous operation.
Figure 1. 4000A Engine Removal Trailer
013001
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 013 00
Page 3
Figure 3. Small Engine Trailer
Figure 2. NET-4 Transportation Trailer
013002
013003
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 013 00
Page 4
The hazards come from many places. The condi-
tion of the trailer and safety devices can create
hazards. The size, bulk, and weight of the trailer,
even without the engine, makes movement hazard-
ous. A hangar bay or deck, crowded with aircraft
and equipment makes movement even more haz-
ardous. Maneuvering and positioning the heavy
trailer under the aircraft with very little clearance
is hazardous. A rolling or even slightly inclined deck
makes it more difficult. Improper procedures, failure
to use safety devices, or operation by unqualified
people can make it dangerous. Lets take a look
at the hazards in more detail.
10. CONDITION HAZARDS. The 4000A and B
removal and installation trailer is a fairly complicated
piece of gear. The extensive hydraulic system and
the various mechanical controls and safety devices
must work properly for a safe operation. The hydraulic
system is subject to contamination, corrosion, and
abuse. The NET-4 and small engine transportation
trailers, although very basic, must also work properly
for safe operation. The mechanical controls and
safety devices on all trailers are subject to corrosion
and abuse. Here are some reasons why a trailer
in poor condition is hazardous:
a. If the parking brakes on the rear wheels
dont hold, the trailer can move when you dont
want it to and damage an aircraft.
b. If the pin attaching the towbar to the trailer
or the pin holding the telescopic end is cracked
or missing, the trailer could detach and run wild.
c. If the spring-loaded roll stops are missing
or broken, you could roll an engine onto the deck.
d. If the mal e and femal e rai l connector
fi tti ngs and qui ck rel ease pi ns are broken or
missing, you could dump an engine onto the deck
during transfer operations.
e. If the roller adapter locks are worn or
broken you could inadvertently roll an engine off
the rails.
f. If the tierods are bent, the out-of-alignment
wheels will make moving the trailer more difficult
and wear out tires.
g. If the t i erods are broken, mi ssi ng, or
disconnected, youll have uncontrollable movement
during towing or manhandling.
h. If the manual foot assemblies and pins
are corroded, tight, bent, broken, or missing you
wont be able to use them to support, stabilize,
or brake the trailer in firm position.
i. If the safety pawl knobs and cables on the
lift cylinder rams are broken or missing you wont
be able to release the pawls without reaching inside
the lift links and risking an arm.
j. If the safety pawl handles on the wheel
cylinder rams are broken or missing you wont be
able to release the pawls to lower the main frame
(raise the wheels).
k. If the rails are bent, the roller adapters
will hang up, and so will your job. If they are
cracked, you could drop an engine when they break.
l. If the hydraulic reservoir is filled while either
the lift rams or wheel ram are extended, it will be
overfull. In this case, when either the upper or main
frame is lowered, hydraulic fluid will spurt from the
reservoir vent or rupture the reservoir.
m. If the hydraulic system fails, it could create
all sorts of different hazards, depending upon when
and where it fails and whether or not the safety
pawl locks are working. Could be only a delay,
or could be a disaster.
n. If the pneumatic tires are flat, you probably
wont see it until the engine is put on the trailer,
or until you pump down the wheels to raise the
support feet if you used them.
11. Accepting and trying to use a trailer in defec-
tive condition is asking for an accident to happen.
It takes a lot less time to get another trailer before
you start than it does to regroup after getting hung
up half way through the job.
12. MOVEMENT AND POSITIONING HAZARDS.
The 4000 trailers weigh 2600 pounds empty and up
to about 6600 pounds with an engine on it. The NET-4
and small engine trailers weigh considerably less but
still present a movement hazard. Moving these safely
through hangar bays takes manpower. Short-cutting,
with not enough people to keep it under full control
and check clearances, is unsafe. There are always
cables, hoses, tiedowns, drip pans, or other equip-
ment to be moved out of the way too. Most of it
has to be put back in place once you clear it. Aboard
shi p, you may even have to consi der usi ng a
chock-walker for emergency stops in case of deck
roll. If youre rolling the 4000 or NET-4 stand
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 013 00
Page 5
backwards, you have to step in its path to step
on one of the rear wheel brakes, or stick your leg
in front of the rolling wheel from the side. Stepping
on the brake lever from the side usually bends
it and fouls up the brake pawl release mechanism.
If youre rolling the small engine transportation
trailer backwards, you have to reach in its path
to apply the parking brakes.
13. The engine removal stand is particularly haz-
ardous to arms, legs, feet, hands, and fingers.
Because of the close quarters and visibility prob-
lems under the aircraft and in the engine bay, its
often necessary to crawl around the stand while
getting it lined up. If the person operating the
hydraulic system isnt aware of your clearance at
all times, it can be very dangerous. Dont take
chances. Keep clear of the stand whenever possible
and let the operator know when youve got an arm
or leg in a hazardous position.
14. The position of the center-of-gravity of the
loads on all the rail trailers is important. Normally
the engine adapters are positioned over numbered
stations on the rails. The MIM for your type aircraft
will give you the specific information. If the load
is out of position, trailer stability is poor particularly
during sharp turns. This makes a tip over possible
and can also put severe stress on the trailer frame
and tires/wheels.
15. The lower main frame should be pumped up
to get maximum clearance under the stand while
moving it. Otherwise, you can get hung-up, or
damage the hydraulic reservoir, the frame, or even
the lower links of the lift linkage. The upper frame
should be lowered all the way down, so that the
weight of the engine and whole upper assembly
rests on the main frame while moving. Otherwise,
all this weight rests directly on the four lift cylinder
pawls, and the raised lift linkage is subject to twist
and bend stresses its not designed for.
16. The 4000 trailers are designed specifically for
engine removal and installation. It is not designed
as a transportation trailer or workstand. Using it
to transport an engine between hangars, or across
the station to AIMD, will usually result in damaging
the trailer. Thats why we have the NET-4 and small
engine transportation trailers.
17. When the trailers are used as workstands,
they usually get abused. Various parts, like adjust-
ment knobs, pawl handles, pump handles, selector
valves, winch assembly, hydraulic lines, cover
assemblies, and so forth, get stepped on and
broken. They get in the way of work and, if not
broken, are removed and lost. The trailer really
gets ruined in a hurry when used as an engine
workstand. That either puts it out of commission
or fi nds the next crew usi ng i t i n a defecti ve,
hazardous condition because all the other stands
are in repair at SE division for the same reason.
18. IMPROPER PROCEDURES HAZARDS. Im-
proper procedures is one of the leading causes of
accidents while handling SE. Whether it comes from
ignorance, short-cutting, or operation by unqualified
people, not doing it the right way is also not doing
it the safe way. In the paragraph on condition hazards
we listed some of the what if items which should
be in good working order to permit safe operation.
If all these items are in good shape but you dont
use them, youll face the same hazards you would
if they are broken or missing.
19. You may not feel that all of those what if
items are personally hazardous. You can probably
work around most of these items and get the job
done. Thats true. Why do I need rail stops? They
get in the way and besides, the roller adapter locks
will keep the engine from rolling off the rails. Ill
just safety wire the stops down to expedite things.
Fine, until the time you forget to lock the roller
adapters! It has happened. Thats why the stops
were put on the rails.
20. The best that using improper procedures (or
using a trailer in defective condition) can do for
you is maybe save a little time. The worst they
cap do i s ki l l you or one of your cr ew. The
possi bi l i ti es of i nj uri es, a damaged engi ne or
aircraft, or a serious delay in getting the job done
at all, lie somewhere in between. Taking the risk
of those possibilities just isnt worth it.
21. Removing, installing, and moving engines with
trailers is a team effort. If you are part of the basic
crew, you should know what to do and when. If
you havent done it before, you may not appreciate
the hazards. Many times the movement from aircraft
to shop, or shop to aircraft, of a loaded engine
trailer takes more people than the basic power
plants crew. If you wind up in a pick-up or ad hoc
crew to help out, make sure you get a briefing
from the crew leader on what you are expected
to do. Dont volunteer to operate the stand if youre
not qualified to do it. Thats how accidents happen.
22. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND PROCEDURES.
23. The general secrets to safe and successful
use of engine handling and transportation equip-
ment involve the qualifications of the crew;
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 013 00
Page 6
the condition of the trailer; the care with which the
equipment is moved and positioned; the proper use
of safety devices and procedures; and the proper
securing and care of the equipment.
24. Since detailed procedures for installing or
pulling engines are different for each type aircraft,
only general safety precautions and procedures can
be covered in this work package. Specific informa-
tion for each type aircraft is in the MIM.
25. QUALIFICATIONS. Currently, you are not re-
quired to have a SE Operators License to operate
either the engine removal/installation trailers or trans-
portation trailers. Your training and checkout will
normally come from your own squadron or unit. Since
the ASs at the SE division maintain and repair the
equipment, they are also available to give you a
thorough checkout on the trailers, particularly on the
preoperational check procedures and the care and
abuse dos and donts.
26. PREOPERATIONAL CHECK. Perform a preop-
erational check prior to each use. Keep the following
points in mind while youre doing the checks.
a. Tire pressures for trailers with pneumatic
tires can be found in applicable NAVAIR Mainte-
nance Manuals. Treat them the same way you
would aircraft tires.
b. Make sure all the rams are fully collapsed
and pump handles are down when you check the
hydraulic reservoir level.
c. Dont exceed the limits or force the me-
chanical adjustments for rotation, lateral, or yaw,
past the initial resistance.
d. When you check the tilt adjustment hydrau-
lically, make sure the lift linkage on the lower end
doesnt hit the deck.
e. Make sure the parking brake foot lever
stays down and brakes hold.
f. Dont try a quick load test by pumping up
the stand with tiedowns attached to the rails. This
can spring, bend, or damage the rails.
g. Check each ram cylinder pawl safety lock
to make sure it is seating properly.
h. Make sure all the tierods are connected.
i. Make sure all of the required quick-release
pins are still there and properly installed. Dont
substitute the pins with bolts.
27. MOVEMENT AND POSITIONING. After you
have conducted a good preoperational inspection,
take the following precautions while towing, manhan-
dling, or positioning the trailers.
a. Make sure the towbar is securely hooked
to the tractor coupler before you release the parking
brakes or remove tiedowns, or make sure you have
enough people to safely hold and move the trailer
manually. Use chock walkers aboard ship if neces-
sary.
b. Lower the upper frame until it rests on
the lower main frame. Raise the main frame all
the way up to get maximum ground clearance on
the 4000A. Check that the ram pawl locks on the
wheel cylinders are seated.
c. Make sure the manual foot assemblies are
in the full up position so they wont hit the deck.
d. If the removal trailer has an engine aboard,
make sure the roller adapter fittings are in the
proper center-of-gravity (CG) position and are
locked. Check that all four rail safety stop pins
are up. Center the lateral and rotation adjustments
on the trailer.
e. Tow or move the trailers at a safe speed
depending upon the conditions. Watch out for slick
spots, deck roll, hangar door tracks, hoses, cables,
and other obstructions.
f. As a member of the movement and position-
ing crew, make sure you know what your specific
duties are. If you dont know, ask your supervisor.
g. Check all clearances during final position-
ing and be extra careful of headknockers, slip, and
trip hazards.
h. Make sure that the brakes are ON, or that
the foot assemblies are down, firm, and stable on
the deck in final position. Chock or tiedown the
stand as necessary.
i. Dont forget to reconnect tierods before
moving the stand from under the aircraft, if you
disconnected them for positioning.
28. OPERATION AND USE. Take the following
general precautions and use these procedures when
raising, lowering, adjusting, winching, or transferring
loads on the engine trailers.
Keep arms, legs, hands, and feet clear
of trailer when raising and lowering.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 013 00
Page 7
S To keep the frame level, operate the two
hand pumps together.
S Make sure the ram pawl safety locks are
engaging. Do not hold the pawl handles in the
disengage position.
S Dont continue to pump after main frame
or rails reach maximum height or youll damage
the hydraulic cylinders.
S Lower and pin in place the manual foot
assemblies to prevent movement.
S Check clearances and make sure tools,
equipment, etc. are clear from under the stand.
S Warn crew to keep hands and feet clear.
S Release ram pawl safety locks prior to
lowering to prevent damage to ram pawl safety
locks.
S Very slowly open release valves. Remem-
ber, the more open the valves, the faster the stand
lowers, especially when loaded.
S Dont tilt the rails more than 10 degrees.
S When transferring, adjust the height of
the rails to squarely match the rails of the receiving
trailer or stand.
S Set the parking brakes to prevent move-
ment during the transfer operation.
S Center engine at the proper center of
gravity and lock the roller adapters.
S Wipe your hands and the winch drive
handle so you wont slip when operating it.
29. PARKING AND SECURING. When youve fin-
i shed usi ng an engi ne stand or trai l er, tow or
manhandle it back to a designated parking or stowage
place. Never leave the unit by the aircraft or in the
fire lane outside the shop after a job has been
completed.
30. When you f i nal l y secur e t he uni t i n t he
designated place:
a. Set the parking brakes ON.
b. Lower the main frame to the deck. The
rails should already be all the way down. This
protects the wheel and lift cylinder rams from the
elements and contamination by dust and dirt.
c. Aboard ship, install tiedowns and chocks
as required.
31. We made a big deal out of all the hazards
which can be created by the poor condition of
engine trailers, (paragraph 10). To keep the equip-
ment in good, safe condition, take the following
precautions and use these procedures:
a. Keep the units clean. Accumulated grease
and dirt can contaminate the hydraulic system and
hide cracks and corrosion.
b. Don t al l ow the stands to be used as
stowage bins for parts and trash.
c. Dont use the stands as a ready issue
supply of quick release pins.
d. Dont stomp on the parking brake foot
levers from the side and bend them or ruin the
pawl locks or release mechanism.
e. Dont stand or step on the pump handles,
selector valve, tierods, hydraulic lines, foot brake
levers, or towbar.
f. Keep the hydraulic line support cover as-
semblies on the upper frame closed.
g. Dont use the 4000 trailers as a transporta-
tion trailers for long distance moving or as an engine
workstand.
32. DOS AND DONTS.
S Never attempt to move, tow position,
operate, or remove an engine from an aircraft with,
or t r ansf er an engi ne t o or f r om, an engi ne
removal/installation trailer unless youre fully quali-
fi ed to do so or under di rect supervi si on of a
qualified supervisor.
S Do a complete preoperational inspection
prior to each use.
S Dont use a defective trailer.
S Do down a defective engine stand or
trailer, report it, and make sure no one else uses
it.
S Do know the exact procedures in the MIMs
and follow them.
S Dont tow a trailer with a flat tire.
S Dont add hydraulic fluid to the reservoir
unless all the cylinder rams are fully collapsed and
pump handles are down.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 013 00
Page 8
S Do avoid backing.
S Do move by hand whenever possible.
S Do use enough people to safely control
and move the removal trailer.
S Do beware of aircraft headknockers, trip,
and slip hazards while crawling around under the
aircraft to position the removal trailer.
S Dont forcibly exceed the limits of the
mechanical limits.
S Dont let the lift linkage on the lower end
of the trailer hit the deck when you tilt the rails.
S Do check each ram cylinder pawl safety
lock to make sure its seating properly.
S Do raise the lower main frame to get
maximum ground clearance when towing or moving
the removal trailer.
S Do lower the upper frame all the way down
to rest on the main frame when towing or moving
the removal trailer.
S Do use a chock-walker aboard ship if
conditions indicate it.
S Dont use the 4000A/B removal trailer to
transport engines long distances.
S Do use the NET-4 trailer to transport
engines long distances.
S Dont use the 4000A/B removal trailers
for engine workstands.
S Do make sure the engine adapter fittings
are secured in the proper center of gravity position
on the rails.
S Do check clearances and make sure tools,
equipment, people, hands, and feet are clear from
under the stand before lowering either main frame
or rails.
S Dont get under the trailer or inside of
it during engine removal or installation operations.
S Do open hydraulic pump release valves
slowly.
S Do make sure rail connector fittings are
properly secured with quick-release lock pins before
transferring engine from removal trailer.
S Do lower the rail stop pins when transfer-
ring an engine.
S Dont safety wire the rail stop pins down.
S Do set the parking brakes ON or use the
mechanical feet to keep the stand from moving
during use.
S Dont tow or move the removal trailer with
the parking brakes ON.
S Dont exceed the steering turn radius of
the trailer while towing.
S Dont use the removal trailer as stowage
bins for parts or trash.
S Dont use the removal trailer as a ready
issue supply of quick-release pins.
S Dont stomp on the parking brake foot
levers from the side.
S Dont stand or step on pump handles,
selector valves, tierods, hydraulic lines or towbar.
S Do keep the unit clean.
33. LESSONS LEARNED/ACCIDENT REPORTS.
34. ENGINE REMOVAL TRAILER. Aboard a carrier
at sea, two airmen were standing by a 4000A removal
trailer, loaded with an engine, waiting for the supervi-
sor to return and direct the transfer of the engine
to a workstand. The engine trailer rails had already
been lined up with the workstand rails and were about
level with them. Both units were facing athwartship
and about 3 feet apart. The brakes on the engine
removal trailer were not set, nor was the workstand
tied down or the wheels chocked.
35. As the ship commenced a port turn and the
deck rolled, the 4000A began to roll toward the
workstand. One airman immediately stepped on one
of the foot brake levers to stop the stand. However,
both the deck and the tire were covered with engine
oil and although the wheel stopped, it skidded and
did not stop the movement of the removal trailer
and engine.
36. Meanwhile, the other airman grabbed the unit
to try to hold it with his left hand on the engine
adapter and his right hand around the end of the
rail. the four fingers of his right hand were severed
at the middle joint when the removal
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 013 00
Page 9/(10 blank)
trailer rail contacted the workstand rail. The work-
stand, which was permanently mounted to the deck,
stopped further movement of the engine trailer.
37. Youve got to treat a loaded engine stand
aboard ship just like an aircraft. If you drop your
guard for even a minute, youll be in trouble. Brakes,
chocks, and tiedowns have to be a way of life when
youre working with SE. Never let a calm sea lull
you i nt o secur i t y. Ther e s a r eason f or good
housekeeping and wiping up spills. Its not just
mickey mouse work to keep you busy. Its for safety.
If the deck had been clean, and the non-skid in
good shape, the brakes in the accident above might
have worked in time.
38. In a case ashore, a petty officer first-class
(who should have known better) was transporting
a jet engine on a 4000A trailer down a rough dirt
road at about 15 mph. Thi s model st and had
magnesium wheels and solid tires. As he reached
the point where the road joined the pavement, the
left front wheel of the stand collapsed and the frame
struck and dug into the soft pavement.
39. Both the trailer and tractor came to a sudden
stop Although the engine adapters were locked,
the engine slid forward about 18 inches but fortu-
nately did not leave the rails. The driver suffered
a broken nose and laceration of the left knee during
the sudden stoppage. The 4000A trailer received
major damage.
40. This accident is another case of improper use
of SE. The 4000A is not designed as a transporta-
tion trailer. Not only are the shock loads transmitted
to the trailer, but they are also transmitted directly
to the engine. Weve said it before, but well say
i t agai n. Use SE onl y f or the purpose i t was
designed for, and no other.
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NAVAIR 00-80T-96 014 00
1 April 1996 Page 1
MAINTENANCE PLATFORMS AND DEICING EQUIPMENT
U.S. NAVY SUPPORT EQUIPMENT
COMMON
BASIC HANDLING & SAFETY MANUAL
Reference Material
General Hazards of Aircraft Maintenance WP 004 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
History and Prevention WP 003 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Platform, Adjustable AC Maintenance, Type B-4A NAVAIR 19-15-7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Platform, Adjustable AC Maintenance, Type B-5A NAVAIR 19-15-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Platform, Aircraft Servicing Maintenance, Type B-2 NAVAIR 19-15-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Aircraft Maintenance Platforms
B-1, B-2, B-4A, B-5A NAVAIR 19-600-19-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alphabetical Index
Subject Page No.
Deicers 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hazards 21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Safety Precautions and Procedures 21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dos and Donts 22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trailer Mounted/Tactical Aircraft Deicer, A/M32U-20 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Truck Mounted Deicer, A/S32M-16 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maintenance Platforms 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Motorized Servicing Platforms 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A/S48M-2 Diesel/and A/S48M-3 Electric Servicing Platforms 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dos and Donts 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hazards 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Safety Precautions and Procedures 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Non-Motorized Maintenance Platforms 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B-2 Maintenance Platform 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B-4A Maintenance Platform 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B-5A Maintenance Platform 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dos and Donts 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hazards 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lessons Learned/Accident Reports 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Safety Precautions and Procedures 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Workstand Accident Causes 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Record of Applicable Technical Directives
None
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 014 00
Page 2
1. MAINTENANCE PLATFORMS.
2. Maintenance stands, platforms, or workstands
(the names are commonly interchangeable) give
us a means to reach most parts of an aircraft we
cant safely reach or work on from the ground or
deck. They are important to our maintenance effort
and, even though a l ot of mai ntenance t ypes
foolishly dont believe it, there are no safe substi-
tutes. More on that later.
3. There are a large variety of types and models
of workstands and platforms available. Some of
the stands are common SE, used on most any
type of aircraft. Some are used only ashore on
large aircraft, and other types are peculiar SE which
apply only to one specific type aircraft.
4. The smaller workstands are usually fixed in
height, but most larger stands are adjustable. The
height is adjusted either manually, electrically, or
hydraulically. The most common type is adjusted
hydraulically. Since the design, use, safety precau-
tions, and procedures are generally very similar,
we will cover only a few of the common SE stands.
5. Maintenance stands and platforms are generally
equipped with some standard safety features which
you should be familiar with. All workstands come
with guard rails, usually on three sides of the work
platform. The rails are normally bolted into fixed
pipe fittings on the platform and are also attached
by wire ropes to keep them from getting lost if
they have to be unbolted and lowered for a specific
job. Some of the guard rails have toe-boards to
help keep you from kicking tools over the side.
Some stands have safety chains across the open
side. All the workstand platforms, steps, or ladders
are made of steel grate.
6. All ladders and steps on the workstands are
equipped with hand rails. Towbars are provided for
safe towing. They usually have an up-latch to keep
them safely out of the way while manually position-
ing the stand. Some stands have two free-swivel
casters on the towing end and fixed casters on
the rear. Most stands now have four free-swivel
casters for better maneuverability in positioning the
stand close to aircraft. The casters are usually
equipped with safety pins to lock them in a fixed
direction when necessary. The caster wheels also
have mechanical brake mechanisms to keep each
wheel from rolling. Some stands have screw jacks
instead of brakes, to provide stability and keep the
stand from rolling.
7. The hydraulic pumps have safety bypass valves
t o prot ect t he syst em i n case t he pl at f orm i s
overloaded. The hydraulic lift cylinders are equipped
with some type of safety lock, or the stand has
platform pins, to prevent the stand from collapsing
when in the raised position and hydraulic pressure
is lost.
8. MOTORIZED SERVICING PLATFORMS.
9. A/S48M-2 DIESEL AND A/S48M-3 ELECTRIC
SERVICING PLATFORMS.
10. You shall be fully qualified and licensed in
accordance with WP 003 00.
11. The platforms, diesel powered (Figure 1) and
electric powered (Figure 2) are used to position
personnel and equipment within functional proximity
of a work site at maximum elevation of 44 feet.
The pl at f or m i s equi pped wi t h a t wo sect i on
telescope cylinder extended boom. The platform
turntable is capable of 360 degree continuous
rotation in either direction. Platform functions are
primarily controlled from the upper control box,
although some functions can be controlled from
the lower control box. All platform functions are
electro-hydraulic. It is four wheel drive with steering
accomplished by hydraulic steer cylinders on the
front and rear axles.
12. On the A/S48M-2 the diesel engine is mounted
on the l eft si de of the turntabl e and provi des
hydraulic pump drive. On the A/S48M-3 the electric
mot or s ar e mount ed on t he r i ght si de of t he
turntable and provide hydraulic pump drive. When
driving or towing the platform shall be in the travel
position (telescope fully retracted, riser fully down,
boom at 0_ , and turntable pin in locked position).
The pl atform may be safel y posi ti oned i n the
working mode on firm, level surfaces. The weight
in the work basket shall not exceed the rated load.
If traveling over uneven terrain, the platform must
be in the travel position.
13. HAZARDS.
14. Carelessness and inattention are the primary
cause factors of accidents involving servicing plat-
forms. Next comes improper positioning, followed
by improper parking and securing. Personnel factors
include: misjudged clearance, improper preparation,
safety devices not used or improperly used, and
horseplay. Some secondary contributing factors are
wind, jet and prop blast, and use in hazardous
elements (icy or wet surface).
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 014 00
Page 3
Figure 2. A/S48M-3 Electric Servicing Platform.
014001
Figure 1. A/S48M-2 Diesel Servicing Platform.
014002
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 014 00
Page 4
15. Condition Hazards. The condition of the equip-
ment makes the use of the servicing platforms
hazardous. Any servicing platform which isnt in good
shape is not safe. Gaurd rails and safety devices
are there for your protection. They cant protect you
if they are broken or missing.
16. Defective servicing platforms are hazardous.
Maintenance and repair are the responsibility of
the SE division. However, they cant repair them
unless they are turned in for maintenance. Since
youre the one who has to use the platform, make
it your own responsibility to see that the platforms
are in good shape or that they get returned to SE
division.
17. Movement Hazards. Maneuvering the servicing
platform in and around aircraft, other SE, tiedowns,
chocks, drip pans, cables, and so forth is difficult
and should be done slowly enough to keep the
platform under full control at all times.
18. Always be aware of minimum clearance re-
quirements when moving and positioning the servic-
ing platform. Servicing platforms can easily punc-
ture radomes; break pitot tubes or other sensor
probes; and generally inflict damage on any part
of the aircraft it hits. Additional clearances may
be required, during maintenance checks, as a result
of moveable surfaces on the aircraft.
19. More Hazards. A dirty, greasy, slippery work
platform is a real hazard. Fuel, oil, and grease are
an unavoidable fact of life on service platforms used
to repair aircraft. It is always going to be there unless
it gets cleaned off. Even if the platform is clean at
the start of a job, it will probabley be slippery before
the job is finished. Extreme care is the only solution
during the job. Thorough cleaning after the job is
the solution to avoiding this hazard before starting
the next job.
19. Trip hazards are well known to all aircraft
maintenance personnel. Tools and parts are neces-
sary to do the job, but they can get in the way
of your feet. Stumbling over a tool box on the ground
is one thing, but doing it on a servicing platform
44 feet in the air is another. If you accidentally
kick a part or tools off the platform it can also
be hazardous to people on the ground.
20. Loose clothing and any type of jewelry is
hazardous anywhere on the job but it is paticularly
hazardoius around servicing platforms.
21. Operation of the servicing platform with the
boom extended during high winds is hazardous.
22. Operation without the use of the safety har-
ness/belt is hazardous.
23. Summary. Hazards of servicing platforms and
their use:
a. Carelessness, inattention, and complacen-
cy while on a platform.
b. Improper positioning.
c. Improper securing.
d. Misjudging clearance.
e. High wind/jet or prop blast.
f. Wet, snow, or ice conditions.
g. Defective guard rails.
h. Missing or defective safety harness/belt.
i. Moving the servicing platform alone.
j. Moving in the raised position.
k. Trip hazards on platform.
l. Slip hazards on platform.
m. Oily hands or shoes.
n. Loose clothing and jewelry.
o. Horseplay on platform.
p. Dropping or kicking tools off platform.
q. Overloading or abusing servicing plat-
form.
r. Aircraft protuberances and moveable sur-
faces.
24. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND PROCEDURES.
25. Since carelessness is the number one reason
people get hurt or damage aircraft while using
servicing platforms, then careful and cautious use
by everyone who uses a platform could go a long
way toward preventing injuries and accidents.
26. Preoperational Inspection. The same safety
precaution that applies to all support
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 014 00
Page 5
equipment, also applies to servicing platforms.
Conduct a good preoperational inspection prior to
each use. If the preoperational inspection reveals
some major defect in the platform, dont use it,
dont jury rig it, or try to repair it. Down it and
tell your supervisor. The service platform shall be
returned to SE division for repairs.
27. Movement and Positioning. Take the following
safety precautions and use these procedures when
moving the servicing platform and positioning it by
the aircraft.
a. Use a minimum of two persons to move
the platform.
b. Make sure the platform is in the travel
position, when moving.
c. Never move the servicing platform in the
hangar or near an aircraft without a safety observer.
d. Make sure each person knows exactly
where the pl atform i s to be posi ti oned by the
aircraft.
e. Beware of wind, blast, and slippery sur-
faces.
f. Beware of obstacl es i n the way when
moving.
g. Beware of aircraft wings, tails, and all
protuberances when positioning.
h. Make sure you position the platform so
that it will clear the aircraft when raised.
i. Make sure you position the platform to clear
any moveable surfaces which might be actuated
during maintenance.
28. Operation and Use. Take the following safety
precautions and use these procedures while operating
and working from the servicing platform.
a. Double check overhead and aircraft clear-
ance before raising the platform.
A safety harness/belt is required to be
worn at all times by personnel performing
operations in the work basket. Failure
to do so may result in death or injury
to personnel.
b. Always wear a safety belt or harness with
a lanyard when working in the basket.
When operating the platform there shall
always be two technicians present, one
in the work basket and another on the
ground directing him. Failure to do so
may cause death or injury to personnel
or damage to equipment and/or aircraft.
c. Al ways operate the pl atform wi th two
qualified operators, one in the basket and one on
the ground.
d. Never operate the platform with an inoper-
able 5 degree warning light or buzzer.
e. Never operate with an inoperable lower
control box.
f. Never use a service platform that has an
inoperable auxiliary power unit (APU).
g. Only use the APU for emergency opera-
tions.
h. Never use the service platform as a crane.
i. Moving/driving the platform must be done
from the work basket only.
j. Never exceed the platform load rating, as
stated on the platform decals.
k. Beware of open or loose clothing and dont
wear jewelry.
l. Dont lean out of the basket or stand on
guard rails.
m. Beware of t ri p hazards on t he work
platform.
n. Beware of slippery hands and shoes.
o. Beware of dropping or kicking tools over
the side of work platform.
p. Before lowering the platform, make sure
area is clear under the basket.
q. Remove al l t ool s and gear f r om t he
lowered basket.
29. Parking and Securing. After carefully maneuver-
ing the servicing platform clear of the aircraft, drive
it to a designated parking or stowage area. Never
leave a servicing platform
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 014 00
Page 6
by the aircraft after a job has been completed.
Leave it in a designated place where it wont be
a hazard to the movement of aircraft, SE, and
people.
a. If you spilled hydraulic fluid, oil, fuel, or
grease on the platform basket wipe it up immediate-
ly.
b. Keep the basket cl ean. Accumul ated
grease and dirt can hide cracks and corrosion.
30. DOS AND DONTS.
S Dont use service platforms in place of
cranes.
S Do be fully qualified and licensed.
S Do perform the preoperational inspection
prior to each use.
S Dont use a defective servicing platform
or one with missing safety devices.
S Do down a defective service platform,
report it, and make sure no one else uses it.
S Do move/drive the platform from the work
basket only.
S Do use two personnel to move or operate
the platform.
S Don t move a servi ce pl atform i n the
hangar or near aircraft without a safety observer.
S Dont exceed the platform rated load, as
stated on the platform decal.
S Dont lean out of basket.
S Dont use a service platform that has an
inoperable APU.
S Dont use the APU for normal operation.
S Do use a safety harness/belt when in the
basket.
S Dont operate the platform in wind condi-
tions in excess of 20 to 25 mph, except to move
it from an operating to a storage position.
S Do beware of wind, blast, and slippery
surfaces when moving or working in the basket.
S Dont raise the basket without checking
clearances first.
S Do position the basket clear of moveable
surfaces which could be actuated during mainte-
nance.
S Dont wear jewelry and beware of open
or loose clothing.
S Do beware of trip hazards and kicking
things over the side.
S Do beware of slippery platform, hands,
or shoes.
S Dont play while on workstands.
S Do be sure everything and everyone is
clear before lowering a platform.
S Dont try to repair service platforms.
S Dont leave workstands by the aircraft
after your work is completed.
3 1 . NON- MOT ORI Z E D MA I NT E NA NCE
PLATFORMS.
32. B-2 MAINTENANCE PLATFORM.
33. The B-2 maintenance platform (Figure 3)
consists basically of a fixed height, 10 foot lower
structure; a variable height upper structure; and
a manual pump actuated hydraulic system for
raising and lowering the upper structure.
34. The upper structure includes a work platform
with guard rails and steps with handrails. The lower
structure includes fixed steps and handrails, a
towbar, and four free-swivel caster wheels. Each
caster is equipped with a safety locking device.
The lower structure also includes four immobilizing
jacks with base plates to act as brakes. You may
find some B-2 stands with the foot-lever brakes
(like the B-4A and B-5A) in addition to the jack
screws.
35. The hydraulic system includes a hand pump,
hydraulic lines, a reservoir, and a hydraulic lift
cylinder with a safety lock. The workstand is raised
and lowered by using the pump and the release
valve, the same as a jack. when raised, the inner
barrel of the hydraulic cylinder is exposed. Most
models have a barrel lock consisting of a ring with
four spring grips, which rides out on the piston.
When the ring is rotated, cams force the grips out
free of the barrel. When rotated farther, the cams
allow the grips to press against the barrel and snap
into one of the grooves. The lock prevents the
cylinder piston from collapsing in the event of
hydraulic failure.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 014 00
Page 7
You may run across some models which have a
U-shaped bolt attached to the piston by a chain.
This U-lock is inserted into a barrel groove to lock
the piston up.
36. The height range for the B-2 work platform
is from 13 feet to 20 feet. Overall height, including
the 3-1/2 foot guard rails, is 16-1/2 feet lowered
and 23-1/2 feet raised. It has a weight bearing
capacity of 600 pounds. The base structure is 10
feet wide and 14 feet long, however the upper work
platform extends the length of the whole workstand
to 21 feet when its in the lowered position. The
work platform space is 4 feet by 4 feet square.
The complete workstand weighs 1900 pounds.
37. B-4A MAINTENANCE PLATFORM.
38. The B-4A maintenance platform (Figure 4) is
a moveable, hydraulically operated, adjustable plat-
form with a ladder assembly. The platform has free
swivel caster assemblies, each having a foot-lever
actuated mechanical brake and swivel lock mecha-
nism. The steel grated platform is equipped with
safety guard rails on three sides, and there are
hand rails on the lower fixed ladder. It is equipped
with two safety locking pins which, when inserted
through the top of the platform frame, lock the
extension scissors. This prevents the platform from
collapsing in the event of a hydraulic system failure
while the platform is raised.
39. The hydraulic system is almost identical to
a common axle jack system. The height of the
workstand is controlled by a hand operated hydrau-
lic pump and release valve.
40. The height range is adjustable from 3 to 7
feet. It has a weight bearing capacity of 600 pounds.
Overall height of the B-4A is 6-1/2 feet lowered
and 10-1/2 feet raised. It weighs 460 pounds.
41. B-5A MAINTENANCE PLATFORM.
42. The B-5A maintenance platform (Figure 5) is
a moveable, hydraulically operated, adjustable plat-
form with a ladder assembly. The platform has free
swivel caster assemblies, each having a foot-lever
actuated mechanical brake and swivel lock mecha-
nism. The steel grated platform is equipped with
safety guard rails on three sides, and there are
hand rails on the upper adjustable ladder. It is
equipped with two safety locking pins which, when
inserted through the top of the platform frame, lock
the extension scissors. This prevents the platform
from collapsing in the event of a hydraulic system
failure while the platform is raised.
43. The hydraulic system is almost identical to
a common axle jack system. The height of the
workstand is controlled by a hand operated hydrau-
lic pump and release valve.
44. The height range is adjustable from 7 to 12
feet. It has a weight bearing capacity of 600 pounds.
Overall height of the B-5A is 10 feet 7 inches
lowered and 15 feet 6 inches raised. It weighs 860
pounds.
45. HAZARDS.
46. If we can rel y on our acci dent stati sti cs
concerning mishaps involving SE then maintenance
workstands and platforms rank as one of the most
personally hazardous pieces of SE you will use.
This is due to the high injury rate connected with
workstands.
47. Workstands only rank number 4 on our list
of SE involved in ground accidents - behind tractors,
f or kl i f t s, and l i ne mai nt enance vehi cl es, and
MEPPs. However, they rank number 1 in the injury
rate. That injury rate runs about 30 percent or 30
injuries for every 100 workstand/aircraft accidents.
The average injury rate for all SE/aircraft accidents
is only about 6 out of 100. In other words, if you
have an accident while using a workstand, you are
more likely to get hurt than you are if you have
an accident using any other piece of SE.
48. Most workstand/aircraft accidents and injuries
involve qualified maintenance personnel. Most hap-
pen ashore and more happen on the line than in
the hangar. Of those that happen aboard ship, more
happen on the flight deck than on the hangar deck.
That might give us a clue that using workstands
outside is more hazardous than inside, probably
due to weather and other line hazards.
49. WORKSTAND ACCIDENT CAUSES. Someone
once said We have met the enemy, and they is
us. When it comes to workstands, that is really true.
All of the workstand accidents involved personnel
error of some kind. Carelessness and inattention lead
the pack of cause factors. Next comes improper
positioning of stands and following that is improper
parking and securing.
50. Other personnel factors run along the same
lines as the cause factors for other SE mishaps:
misjudged clearance, improper preparation before
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 014 00
Page 8
Figure 3. B-2 Maintenance platform.
014003
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 014 00
Page 9
Figure 4. B-4A Maintenance Platform.
014004
014005
Figure 5. B-5A Maintenance Platform.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 014 00
Page 10
towi ng, safety devi ces not used (guard rai l s),
improper use, and horseplay. Some secondary
contributing factors are wind, jet and prop blast,
use in hazardous elements (icy surface, high winds,
wet) and a few material failures.
51. Condition Hazards. The same as with aircraft
jacks, the condition of the equipment makes the use
of maintenance workstands and platforms hazardous.
Any workstand which isnt in good shape is not safe.
If the hydraulic system fails the stand will collapse.
52. Guard rails are there for your protection - to
keep you from falling off. They cant do that if theyre
laying down on the platform, or hanging down the
side of the workstand by their retaining wire ropes,
or if they have been ripped or cut loose and are
in the shop or on the junk pile. The hand rails
on the ladders or steps of a maintenance workstand
or platform are also there to protect you, to help
you get safely up and down. They cant do that
if they are broken, bent, have eye bolts sticking
out of them, are greasy, or missing. Stepping,
slipping or being blown off a 7 foot workstand,
mutilating a finger, or grabbing for a handrail that
isnt there can put you into sickbay in a hurry.
53. The frame, braces, struts, tierods, and turn-
buckles are meant to support you and the work
platform, to give the stand rigidity throughout so
it will work smoothly and hold you up. They cant
do that if they are broken, bent, loose, corroded,
or missing. They can let the stand sag, tilt, lean
and jam, or let it collapse. Collapsing steps or
ladders can pinch or sever, and be mighty hard
on hands and feet that happen to be in the way.
This applies when raising or lowering the stand
too.
54. The brakes on each wheel are designed to
keep the stand from rolling while youre on it or
any other time when you dont want it to move.
The same for the jackscrews. They cant do that
if they are not ON or screwed down, or if they
are broken, bent, corroded, or missing. Having the
stand roll back as you try to push something into
place may only be frustrating if the guard rails are
installed, but disaster without them installed. Watch-
ing your work stand roll across a hangar, deck,
or ramp into an aircraft wont make you many friends
either.
55. On the other hand if you try to tow the stand
with the brakes ON or the screw jacks down youll
damage the stand. The brakes will hold and youll
wear big flat spots on the rubber wheels. Unless
the wheels get changed, the stand will be very
hard to move and position, increasing the chance
of an accident. Also, when it is towed, it will bounce
up and down hard enough to shake everything loose
or damage it for good. There are no springs or
shock absorbers on any of the workstands or
platforms. If you tow it with the jackscrews down,
youll knock off all the foot plates. A jackscrew
without the bottom foot plate doesnt do a very
good job as a brake or to stabilize the workstand.
56. The swivel caster lock pins are designed to
keep the wheels from swiveling when you dont
want them to, primarily during towing, moving, or
positioning the workstand. These things are tricky.
When the ring-pin is turned so it can lock, they
may look like therere locked, but really arent. You
cant tell if they are actually locked by just looking
at them! In order to verify that the locking pin is
in the notch, you must twist the wheel back and
forth. It is very possible for that spring-loaded ring
pin to jump over the notches in the pivot axle while
it looks locked.
57. Defective stands are hazardous stands. Main-
tenance and repair are the responsibility of the SE
Division. However, they cant repair them unless
your outfit turns them in for maintenance. If that
isnt done, defective stands tend to get used and
thats dangerous. Jury rigging and local repairs can
be hazardous. Since youre the one who has to
use the stand, make it your own responsibility to
see that the stands are in good shape or that they
get returned to SE division.
58. Most maintenance workstands and platforms
become defective through abuse and lack of care.
Ask any AS how fast a $5,000 workstand can be
turned into a piece of junk. They can probably show
you samples. The B-2, B-4A, B-5A and most other
stands have a designed rated load. Overloading
a stand wi l l usual l y damage some part of the
platform or structure, steps, or cause ladders to
bind when raising and lowering. That, in turn, puts
abnormal pressure on the hydraulic system pump,
lines, and cylinders. Eventually youll get a jam,
failure, or collapse.
59. Jury-rigging a workstand lift structure with
chocks, two-by-fours, or locally made devices to
hold up the work platform, when the hydraulic
system wont is extremely hazardous. The extra
stress put on the platform angle iron, scissor braces,
tubular supports, step, or ladders, where they arent
designed to take stress, will bend or break them
and the stand could collapse. Even if you dont
get hurt, youll damage the stand or provide the
chance to hurt someone else later on.
60. Movement Hazards. The hazards of trying to
move anything with 4 swivel casters on it, in
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 014 00
Page 11
the direction you want it to go, is always a problem.
They never move in the direction you want them
to. Thats dangerous when youre maneuvering
around and close to aircraft.
61. Except for ladders and very small work plat-
forms, maintenance workstands are heavy - too
heavy for one person to manage safely, especially
in close quarters. Their weight, when combined with
the four free-swivel casters make them hazardous
to move or position. Trying to move a workstand
by yourself is an unsafe act.
62. Maneuveri ng a workstand i n and around
aircraft, other SE, tiedowns, chocks, drip pans,
cables and so forth is difficult and should be done
slowly enough to keep the stand in full control at
all times. If a wheel hits something on the deck,
it will usually stop suddenly and the other end of
the stand will swing. If you havent got it under
control - crunch! There is a distinct tendency to
move stands too fast. Trying to actuate the foot
lever brake on a moving stand is no easy trick.
You, and whoever is helping you, are the real brakes
on a moving workstand.
63. If you try to tow a workstand without the rear
swivel casters locked so they track straight, the
rear end of the stand can swi ng out i n ei ther
direction and collide with anything in the way;
people, aircraft, hangar doors, buildings, SE, or
Skippers car. That can sure ruin your day.
64. On the other hand, if you tow a workstand
with the front swivel casters locked, they wont be
free to turn properly and youll ruin the wheels or
break the lock mechanism. Before towing youve
got to check the front swivel casters manually, to
make sure they are unlocked and check the rear
swivel casters manually, to make sure they are
locked.
65. The frames, platforms, and rigging of a typical
workstand create quite a sail area. This sail area
is increased when the stand is raised. High winds,
jet or prop blast are a hazard to anyone on, or
moving, a workstand. They can make you lose your
balance or blow you off. They can move the stand,
which can make you lose your balance or throw
you off. They can blow the stand into you, the
aircraft, or other equipment and damage it.
66. Workstands left with the brakes off, or the
jackscrews up, are a hazard to aircraft. Aboard
shi p t hey must be t i ed down. I f you l eave a
workstand where it shouldnt be it becomes a
hazard to those who must move around it and move
aircraft around it, particularly at night.
67. Movement and positioning workstands on an
aircraft carrier or other aviation capable ship has
its own special hazards. A pitching, rolling deck
and high winds are a way of life at sea. Enough
people to safely move a stand and tiedowns to
hold it in position, whether in use or not, can avoid
those hazards. The individual wheel brakes or
jackscrews usually wont hold a stand on a moving
deck slippery with fuel or oil and water. Even with
a calm sea, a smart turn into the wind by the ship
can overcome the braking effect of the wheels or
require a couple more bodies to control a moving
stand.
68. Most of the MIMs on newer aircraft show
where workstands should be positioned for certain
jobs on the aircraft. Remember all the protuber-
ances (WP 004 00) on aircraft? We called them
headknockers in previous work packages. Well, just
as they seem to stick out and hit your head, they
stick out and hit workstands. Except now its the
headknocker that gets damaged instead of your
head. Workstands can easily puncture radomes;
break off pitot tubes or other sensor probes; and
generally inflict damage on any part of the aircraft
it hits.
69. There are also all the moveable surfaces on
the aircraft we covered in WP 004 00 on aircraft
hazards. If your workstand gets in the way of any
of these during maintenance checks, it is usually
the aircraft that comes out second best.
70. More Hazards. A dirty, greasy, slippery work-
stand is a real hazard. Slipping and falling causes
many of the workstand mishaps and injuries. Fuel,
oil, and grease are an unavoidable fact of life on
workstands used to repair aircraft. It is always going
to be there unless it gets cleaned off. Even if the
stand is clean at the start of a job, it will probably
be slippery before the job is finished. Extreme care
is the only solution during the job. Thorough cleaning
after the job is the solution to avoiding this hazard
before starting the next job.
71. Trip hazards are well known to all aircraft
maintenance personnel. Tools and parts are neces-
sary to do the job, but they can get in the way
of your feet. Stumbling over a tool box on the ground
is one thing, but doing it on a workstand seven
feet up is another. If you accidentally kick a part
or tools off the stand it can also be hazardous
to people on the ground.
72. Loose clothing and any type of jewelry is
hazardous anywhere on the job but it is particularly
hazardous around workstands. For
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 014 00
Page 12
whatever reason, older workstands seem to accu-
mulate bolts and snags which seem to reach out
for jackets, pockets, belt loops, and so forth to
throw you off bal ance at j ust t he worst t i me.
Mutilations of fingers, wrists, and necks are not
uncommon (finger amputations have happened
many times) when rings, watches, and necklaces
were worn on the job.
73. Summary. Hazards of workstands and their
use:
a. High personnel injuries per mishap.
b. Carelessness, inattention, and complacen-
cy while on a workstand.
c. Improper positioning.
d. Improper securing.
e. Misjudging clearance.
f. Wet, snow, or ice conditions.
g. High winds/jet or prop blast.
h. Pitching/rolling deck.
i. Defective, missing, or unused guard rails,
safety chains, hand rails, brakes, jack screws,
caster locks, barrel locks, or platform safety pins.
j. Moving workstand too fast.
k. Moving workstands alone or with less
people than safety requires for the conditions.
l. Moving or towing in the raised position.
m. Moving workstand while youre under the
platform or from inside the lower structure.
n. Moving while someone is on top of work-
stand.
o. Raising or lowering the B-4A or B-5A while
standing on the ladders.
p. Not manually checking caster swivel locks.
q. Towing with rear casters unlocked.
r. Towing with front casters locked.
s. Towing with brakes ON.
t. Using with brakes OFF.
u. Trip hazards on platform.
v. Slip hazards on platform or steps.
w. Oily hands or shoes.
x. Loose clothing and jewelry.
y. Horseplay on work platform.
z. Dropping or kicking tools off platform.
aa. Jury-rigging lift structure up.
ab. Jury-rigging repairs.
ac. Overloading or abusing workstand.
ad. Heavy and cumbersome to move.
ae. High sail area in wind or blast.
af. Aircraft protuberances and moveable sur-
faces.
74. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND PROCEDURES.
75. Since carelessness is the number one reason
people get hurt or damage aircraft while using
maintenance stands and platforms, then careful and
cautious use by everyone who uses a workstand
could go a long way toward preventing injuries and
accidents. Apparently that is easier said than done.
76. It seems we just dont believe that handling
and using a simple workstand is hazardous. And
even when we believe it can be hazardous, we
seem to be unwilling to take the time to follow the
very simple proper procedures and basic safety
precautions necessary to avoid accidents. And it
does take time, theres no doubt about it. Are we
just too eager to get the job done, or are we too
lazy to expend the effort? Whichever, far too many
people are too willing to risk it rather than take
the time to be safe.
77. If you cant comfortably reach something to
work on it from where the stand is now, do you
take time to change its height or move the stand?
You know you should but its easier, and itll save
time, to just stand on the guard rail or lean way
out and get the job done. Why take the trouble
of pumping a B-4A stand higher, then have to
replace both safety pins to the proper holes? The
B-2 is even more trouble - down a couple of steps;
reach through the steps to unlock the barrel lock;
down to the deck; pump it up; up the steps; reach
through the steps to rotate the barrel lock; down
to the deck; pump it up or let it down
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 014 00
Page 13
until the barrel lock spring grips seat in a groove;
up the steps and back to work.
78. As you can see, those procedures do take
time and are a lot of trouble, but thats the safe
way to do it. If you shortcut the procedures youre
taking a calculated risk. Because of the time and
effort involved in being safe, the temptation is very
strong to shortcut. Thats where the hazard comes
in, because although you may shortcut successfully
sometimes, eventually youll lose out, have an
accident, and hurt yourself. Take the time to be
safe. Expend that extra effort to be safe. Convince
yourself that in the long run the safe way is the
smart way.
79. Qualifications. SE Operators Licenses are not
required for non motorized maintenance stands and
platforms. Therefore you will receive all your training
and qualification from your own squadron or unit.
However, experience has shown that many supervi-
sors are lax when it comes to specific and thorough
check-out in the use of workstands. The reason for
this is probably that the stands are easy to operate
and that all the operator requires is a little common
sense.
80. This, unfortunately, is not really true and the
accident statistics prove it. If you dont get a formal
or on-the-job check-out on how to use a workstand
properly, take the initiative and ask for it. You can
do a lot on your own to begin. Read the technical
manuals for the stands.
81. The manuals will tell you how to operate the
stand and give you some cautions and warnings.
What they wont tell you is all the hazards involved
in moving, operating, and securing it in your area
and with your aircraft. You can get some of that
from this manual but its not a substitute for a
supervised, hands-on check-out.
82. In the meantime, dont move, position, or
operate workstands unless you are under the direct
supervision of someone who is qualified. Dont
volunteer to do something youre not qualified to
do. If your supervisor tells you to use a workstand,
dont let pride or your can do spirit push you into
it. Make it known youve never done it before, and
then, get qualified.
83. Preoperational Inspection. The same basic safe-
ty precaution that applies to all support equipment,
also applies to workstands. Conduct a good preopera-
tional inspection using NAVAIR 19-600-19-6-1 prior
to each use.
84. Make sure you check all the safety items on
the workstand such as guard rails, safety chains,
handrails, platform or cylinder safety locks, caster
swivel locks, wheel brakes, jack screws, and towbar.
Make sure they are there and that they work
properly.
85. If the preoperational inspection reveals some
major defect in the stand, dont use it, dont jury-rig
it, or try to repair it. Down it and tell your supervisor.
The workstand shall be returned to SE division for
repairs. Workstands shall be taken out of service
when the following items dont meet safe standards:
a. Guard rails or their platform sockets are
cracked, broken or missing.
b. Handrails are cracked, broken or missing.
c. Any major frame, brace, platform, ladder,
or steps are cracked, broken, missing, loose, or
deformed so as to impair safe operation.
d. Evidence of any hydraulic leaks or when
hydraulic system will not hold up the platform
without the safety locks installed.
e. Handpump does not operate freely.
f. Barrel locks or platform safety pins are
inoperative or missing.
g. Flat spots on casters.
86. Movement and Positioning. Take the following
safety precautions and use these procedures when
moving the workstand and positioning it by the
aircraft.
a. Use a minimum of two persons to move
the stand.
b. Make sure the stand is in the fully lowered
position.
c. Physically check that the two rear caster
swivel locks are locked with the wheels fore and
aft for towing.
d. Make sure the front swi vel l ocks are
unlocked for towing.
e. Before removi ng ti edowns or chocks,
make sure all wheel brakes are ON (or jackscrews
are down), or first hook the workstand towbar to
the tractor.
f. Never tow a workstand in the hangar or
near an aircraft without a safety observer.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 014 00
Page 14
g. Make sure all wheel brakes are OFF (or
jackscrews are up) before moving the workstand.
h. Tow or move the workstand no faster than
walking speed, or slower if conditions require.
i. When manually handling, make sure the
towbar is securely latched up unless its being used
to steer.
j. Make sure each person knows exactly
where the workstand is to be positioned by the
aircraft.
k. Lock and unlock the caster swivels, when
and as necessary, for safe maneuvering.
l. Beware of wind, blast, and slippery sur-
faces.
m. Beware of hangar door t racks, deck
plates, seams, cables, hoses, etc. while maneuver-
ing, and particularly while positioning,
n. Beware of aircraft wings, tails, and all
protuberances when positioning.
o. Make sure you position the workstand so
that it will clear the aircraft when raised.
p. Make sure you position the workstand to
cl ear any moveabl e surfaces whi ch mi ght be
actuated during maintenance.
q. When in final position, rotate the wheels
so they are all pointed 90 degrees from the path
of the workstand to the aircraft, so the stand cant
roll into the aircraft. Lock the caster swivel locks.
r. When in final position, apply all four wheel
brakes or jackscrew brakes. Use tiedowns and
chocks if conditions require.
87. Operation and Use. Take the following safety
precautions and use these procedures while operating
and working from the workstands:
a. Double check overhead and aircraft clear-
ance before raising the workstand.
b. Make sure the hydraulic release valve is
closed and the vent valve is open.
c. Remove the platform locking pins.
Keep hands and feet away from stand
when it is being raised or lowered.
d. Pump up the stand to the required height.
e. On the B-4A and B-5A, insert the platform
safety pins into appropriate holes in the platform,
outboard of the scissors track rollers.
The platform safety lock pins shall be
in place in the appropriate holes in the
platform frame whenever the workstand
is in use.
f. On the B-2, rotate the barrel lock to allow
the spring grips to press against the barrel. Then
pump up, or lower, the platform slightly to allow
the spring grips to snap into the nearest barrel
groove.
The Hydraulic cylinder barrel lock shall
be engaged (with spring grips snapped
into barrel grooves) whenever the work-
stand is in use.
g. Dont try to carry too many tools or parts
up the ladder or steps at once. Make several trips
instead.
h. Call and wait for help when you need it.
Dont risk doing it alone.
i. Be extra cautious if a guard rail section
must be removed on ai rcraft si de of stand to
accomplish work.
j. Beware of open or loose clothing and dont
wear jewelry.
k. Dont lean out, or stand on guard rails,
or use chairs or boxes on top of the workstand.
l. Beware of trip hazards on the work plat-
form.
m. Beware of slippery ladder, steps, or plat-
form. Wipe up spills as soon as you can.
n. Beware of slippery hands and shoes.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 014 00
Page 15
o. Beware of dropping or kicking tools over
the side of work platform.
p. Dont skylark while on workstands.
q. Don t j ump from workstands. Use the
ladder or steps.
r. Always face the ladder or steps when
climbing up or down from the platform.
s. Dont overload the workstand.
t. Before lowering the workstand, make sure
everything is clear under and on the workstand.
u. Raise the workstand slightly to free-up the
platform safety pins or the barrel lock. Make sure
the hydraulic pressure is holding up the platform
and pressure is off the safety pins or the spring
grips.
v. Remove the safety pins or rotate the barrel
lock to free the spring grips from the groove and
barrel.
w. Sl owl y open t he r el ease val ve. The
amount you open i t det er mi nes how f ast t he
pl atform comes down. Do i t sl owl y to prevent
damage to the workstand.
x. On the B-4A and B-5A, hold on to the
guard rail. Watch out for the lower fixed ladder
hand rails which come up on the open side as
the platform comes down.
y. Never lower any of the stands while you
or someone else is on the ladder or steps.
z. Fully close the release valve and vent
valve.
aa. Remove al l tool s and gear from the
lowered workstand.
ab. Using two or more people, remove tie-
downs and chocks, check clearances carefully,
unlock caster swivel locks, unlock wheel brakes
or retract jackscrews, and carefully maneuver stand
away from the aircraft. It helps to first physically
turn the wheels in the direction you want to make
the initial move away.
ac. If the stand is to be towed, first move the
stand clear of the aircraft, then attach the tractor.
Never try to maneuver the tractor in close to the
aircraft to hook up the stand and pull it away directly.
88. On the B-2 stand, the piston in the hydraulic
cylinder can extend too far and jam if the platform
is pumped up too far. If this situation comes up,
dont attempt to free it by jumping up and down
on the work platform. Remove the stand from
service and return it to SE division for repair.
89. If any of the stands experience a hydraulic
failure during use, the safety pins or barrel lock
will prevent collapse. Under this condition, never
try to pull the safety pins out or rotate the barrel
lock to the unlocked position because the stands
will collapse suddenly. Return them, in the locked
up position, to SE division for repair.
90. Always be aware of overhead clearance when
using or positioning the stand.
91. Parking and Securing. After carefully maneuver-
ing the stand clear of the aircraft, tow or manually
push the stand back to a designated parking or
stowage place. Never leave a workstand by the
aircraft after a job has been completed. Never leave
it anywhere except in a designated place where it
wont be a hazard to the movement of aircraft, SE,
and people. Then:
a. Lock all four wheel brakes, not just one
or two.
b. Tiedown or chock the stand if conditions
require it. Remember, conditions can change later.
c. If you spilled hydraulic fluid, oil, fuel, or
gr ease on t he pl at f or m or l adder, wi pe i t up
immediately.
d. Keep stands clean. Accumulated grease
and dirt can contaminate the hydraulic system (just
like jacks) and hides cracks and corrosion.
92. DOS AND DONTS
S Dont use workstands in place of hoists
to get heavy gear up to an aircraft (helo transmis-
sions, etc.).
S Dont use workstands in place of jacks.
S Do get a supervised, hands-on, full check-
out on workstands and platforms before you ever
move, position, operate or use one near an aircraft.
S Dont volunteer to move, position, operate,
or use a stand if you havent had a supervised,
hands-on checkout.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 014 00
Page 16
S Do perform the preoperational inspection
prior to each use.
S Dont use a defective workstand or one
with missing safety devices.
S Do down a defective workstand, report
it, and make sure no one else uses it.
S Do use at least two people to safely move
a workstand, or more if size or conditions require
it.
S Do physically check to make sure the rear
caster swivel locks are locked, with the wheels
pointed fore and aft for towing.
S Do physically check to make sure the front
caster swivel locks are not locked.
S Do release caster wheel brakes and raise
jackscrews six inches.
S Never tow a workstand in the hangar or
near aircraft without a safety observer.
S Dont tow or move a workstand any faster
than walking speed. Slower if conditions or obstruc-
tions require it.
S Do latch up the workstand towbar when
handling the stand, unless youre using it to steer.
S Dont tow with personnel on top of plat-
form.
S Do lock and unlock the caster swivels as
necessary for safe maneuvering and positioning.
S Do beware of wind, blast, and slippery
surfaces when moving or working on top of a
workstand.
S Do beware of hangar door tracks, deck
plates, seams, cables, hoses, and aircraft wings,
tails, and protuberances when moving or positioning
a workstand.
S Dont use a workstand if the platform
bumper guards are missing.
S Dont raise the workstand without check-
ing clearances first.
S Do position your workstand clear of move-
abl e surfaces whi ch coul d be actuated duri ng
maintenance.
S Do apply all caster wheel brakes when
in final position and tie down the stand if conditions
require it.
S Do keep your hands and feet away from
the stand when raising or lowering it.
S Don t use a workst and i n the rai sed
position without using the platform locking pins,
barrel lock, or other lock mechanisms provided.
S Dont jury-rig devices to hold up a work-
stand or platform.
S Do use all the guard rails, toe boards,
safety chains, and other safety devices designed
into, and provided with the maintenance stands and
platforms to keep you safe.
S Do face the ladders or steps of work
platforms when climbing up or down.
S Dont try to carry heavy parts or too many
tools up the ladder or steps at once.
S Do be cautious if a guard rail or safety
chain must be removed for access to work.
S Dont wear jewelry and beware of open
or loose clothing.
S Dont stand on guard rails or lean out
too far.
S Dont use chairs, boxes, etc to stand on,
especially on top of a work platform.
S Do beware of trip hazards on platforms
and kicking things over the side.
S Do beware of slippery ladders, steps,
handrails, platform mesh, and slippery hands or
shoes.
S Dont play while on workstands.
S Dont jump from workstands. Use the
ladder or steps.
S Dont overload a stand or platform with
people, or tools and parts.
S Dont use a maintenance platform as a
jack or to raise heavy equipment up to an aircraft.
S Dont use a maintenance platform as a
trailer to move equipment.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 014 00
Page 17
S Do be sure everything and everyone is
clear before lowering a platform.
S Do be sure hydraulic vent valve is open
before pumping up the stand.
S Do open the release valve slowly when
lowering the platform.
S Dont let the platform drop too rapidly and
slam at the bottom.
S Don t l ower the stands whi l e you, or
someone else is on the ladder or steps.
S Do fully close, but dont force, the vent
valve and release valve after the stand is lowered.
S Dont add hydraulic fluid to the reservoir
while the stand is up.
S Dont tow the B-2 maintenance platform
with the pump handle sticking out in the pump
position.
S Don t extend the B-2 stand hydraul i c
piston cylinder too far.
S Dont jump up and down on stands or
platforms.
S Dont try to pull the platform safety pins
or rotate the barrel lock if the hydraulic system
has failed or is leaking.
S Dont try to repair maintenance stands
or platforms
S Dont leave workstands by the aircraft
after your work is completed.
S Dont remove a workstand from an aircraft
without first checking to see if someone is using
it.
93. LESSONS LEARNED/ACCIDENT REPORTS.
94. Caged in a Workstand. A KC-130 Hercules
was taxied to the far end of the squadron flight
l i ne f or an engi ne runup. A copi l ot and fl i ght
engineer were at the controls and a mech was
positioned outside and in front of the aircraft as
the outside observer. He was in communication
with the flight crew by interphone cord. The four
turboprops were at idle, about to be advanced for
the runup, when the observer informed the flight
crew that an individual, inside and underneath a
B-5A workstand, was attempting to push the stand
along the ramp behind the KC-130. The distance
of the individual and his piece of SE was about
40 feet aft and perpendicular to the aircrafts tail.
95. The flight crew discussed the situation and
decided that it was OK to run the engines up to
6000 inch pounds to check the synchrophaser. No
one recalled that, at this power setting, 100 knots
of wind would be generated 40 feet behind the
aircraft.
96. As the power was added, the outside observer
tried to wave the caged individual away from the
danger area. All efforts were to no avail. As the
maintenanceman and his workstand entered the
propwash area, the blast started to move them
faster and faster towards the edge of the ramp-
totally uncontrolled!
97. The frantic outside observer notified the copilot
to reduce power to idle, but it was too late. The
B-5A stand and its along-for-the-ride individual
rolled (and ran) across the remaining ramp area
at a high rate of speed. They exited the concrete
portion of the ramp and flipped over on the grass
area. The individual received multiple head injuries
and facial lacerations and the damage to the B-5A
was extensive.
98. Either the flight crew or the individual with
the B-5A could have prevented this accident if they
had only used a little common sense. Trying to
move an 860 pound workstand by yourself violates
procedures. Doing it behind an aircraft with engines
running is just plain asking for it.
99. They Looked Locked. Responding to a request
from maintenance control to move a B-2 mainte-
nance platform to an aircraft parked on the line,
and having visually checked the rear wheels locked
in place for towing, a lineman proceeded to tow
the stand via the roadway around the hangar. When
he rounded the corner and the hangar, the rear
end of the B-2 stand continued to swing toward
the outside of the turn and hit a parked van causing
damage to the lower right side panel. The rear
wheels were not locked and this allowed the stand
to swing into the van.
100. Remember, those caster swivel lock mecha-
nisms are tricky. The only way to make sure they
are locked is to physically try to turn the wheels.
A little time and trouble now can save you a lot
of time and trouble later.
101. Heres another one. A lineman drove a tractor
into the hangar to pick up a B-4A stand. Another
lineman hooked up the stand to the tractor and
released all four brakes on the wheels. Neither man
checked to see if the rear wheels were locked.
The stand was towed straight for
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 014 00
Page 18
about 10 feet before a right turn was made out
of the hangar to parallel the fire lane. The rear
of the B-4A stand swung left, pinning the arm of
a passing airman against a tire rack attached to
t he wal l of t he hangar. The ai r man r ecei ved
contusions and abrasions on the right forearm,
wrist, and hand.
102. Jury-Rigging. The following two incidents relate
to shortcutting of workstand maintenance procedures.
However, they are good examples of the injuries or
damage that can result when you jury-rig workstands
whether you are a boot using one, or an expert
repairing.
103. A technician was directed to install a hydrau-
lic actuator on a B-2 maintenance stand. Normally,
when an actuator is to be removed or replaced,
a crane or overhead chainfall is used to elevate
and support t he upper st ruct ure. The manual
contains a specific WARNING to that effect. Unfortu-
nately, this was not the method used by whoever
removed the old actuator.
104. The technician assigned to install the new
actuator noted that instead of a crane or hoist,
the upper structure was being supported by two
wooden aircraft chocks placed between the base
structure and the support rails of the upper struc-
ture. As this method appeared safe, he proceeded
with the job. Climbing to the upper structure, he
knelt on one of the top steps near the work platform.
He reached between the steps and started to install
and secure the upper end of the actuator. Suddenly,
the support rails of the upper structure buckled
at the points supported by the chocks. Although
the maintenanceman got his arms and hands clear,
he could not get off his knees in time. The scissoring
action of the falling upper structure trapped them
between two steps.
105. It took rescue personnel over 10 minutes
to free him, but fortunately, no permanent injuries
resulted. A survey of other B-2 stands revealed
that three out of four had received some damage
as a result of some object (probably chocks) being
used to hold the upper structure up when the
hydraulic actuator couldnt provide the support.
106. In another case, an airman assigned to a
corrosion control team was tasked to prepare a
B-4A maintenance stand for sandblasting. Before
starting on the job, he decided he needed some
kind of a brace to hold the platform in the elevated
position while he removed the actuator. For some
unknown reason, he disregarded using the stands
platform safety pins which are designed specifically
to lock the upper platform in the elevated position.
107. He designed an elaborate brace shaped like
an arrow, cut from 1/8 inch steelplate, and had
it welded together. He elevated the stand hydrauli-
cally and inserted the brace between the junction
of the scissor section and stands bottom rail.
Lowering the platform to the brace, he proceeded
to drain the hydraulic system. Leaning over the
end of the stand, with his upper body between the
elevated platform and the bottom rail, he discon-
nected the hose from the reservoir at the actuating
cylinder.
108. No one knows at which point his brace bent
and snapped out from between the scissor junction
and the bottom rail, but obviously it did. This allowed
the platform to suddenly drop and trap the airman
against the lower rail. An airman apprentice, sent
to the sandblast booth to check on the airman,
found him pinned to the stand by his head. He
tried to pump the platform up, but it wouldnt work.
He tried to lift it, but couldnt. Calling for help, he
and the supervisor finally lifted the platform and
pulled the airman free.
109. Mouth to mouth resuscitation and emergency
heart massage were immediately administered and
continued throughout the ambulance trip to the
hospital, but to no avail. The airman was declared
dead about an hour after the accident.
110. A safety officer once said, Man, whenever
possible, will attempt to find the easiest and fastest
method he can to get a job done, and in doing
so, will use every conceivable shortcut - whenever
and wherever he can. There is nothing basically
wrong about thinking along that line, but before
you apply that idea, remember that some shortcuts
can be very hazardous. Shortcuts of standard
procedures are almost always unsafe in one way
or another and they rarely work out the way you
expect. Dont shortcut and dont jury-rig.
111. DEICERS.
112. You shall be fully qualified and licensed in
accordance with WP 003 00.
113. TRUCK MOUNTED DEICER, A/S32M-16
(Figure 6).
114. A truck mounted deicer used to disperse
glycol (agent) and hot water mixtures for removal
of frost, ice, and snow from aircraft surfaces. The
unit consists of a truck chassis, deicer body,
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 014 00
Page 19
body group, safety rail assembly, and aerial device
group.
115. Truck Chassis. Consists of a Ford truck chassis
equipped with a V-8 engine. The chassis is modified
to accept the deicer body and accessories are added
to the cab. Included in the accessories are an
overhead window with wiper, catwalk, cab monitoring
panels, and control station.
116. Dei cer Body. Consi sts of a si ngl e t ank
partitioned into three sections for water, deicing
fluid, and detergent. Total capacity is 1800 gallons.
It has a two stage pump capable of an adjustable
delivery of 30-125 gpm. Operating pressures are
360-440 psi for the water system and 310-390 psi
for the glycol system. It has two diesel-fuel fired
fluid heaters with a combined output of 2,300,000
BTU.
117. Body Group. The body group consists of the
body assembly, accessory body group, electrical
harnesses, ground control station and boom rest
assembly. The body assembly forms the floor to which
deicer system components are attached. The front
cover and access panels form the outer enclosure
of the deicer unit and provide mounting for running
lights, ground control panels, ladder, catwalk, boom
rest and safety rail.
118. Safety Rail Assembly. The safety rail assembly
consists of a collapsible rail attached to the roof of
the deicer enclosure along the full length of the deicer
unit up to the aerial device basket. The safety rail
prevents personnel from stepping off the roof while
performing maintenance but must be collapsed during
aerial device operation.
119. Aerial Device Group. The aerial device group
consists of the basket assembly, aerial device assem-
bly, turntable assembly, and intercom system. The
aerial device is used to elevate the basket occupant
to a height sufficient to perform deicing activities.
The turntable is used to rotate the basket occupant
to a more advantageous position without having to
move the deicer unit. Movement is accomplished by
a hydraulic system operating at 1850-1950 psi. The
intercom system provides direct communication be-
tween the truck operator and basket occupant.
a. Basket Assembly. The basket assembly
provides a semi-sheltered platform for the occupant.
Controls at the basket enable the occupant to
operate the aerial device.
b. Aerial Device Assembly. The aerial device
assembly consists of the upper and lower boom
assemblies and the elbow.
120. TRAILER MOUNTED/TACTICAL AIRCRAFT
DEICER, A/M32U-20 (Figure 7).
121. A trailer mounted deicer used to disperse
glycol (agent) and hot water mixtures for removal
of frost, ice, and snow from aircraft surfaces. The
deicer is self contained and requires no external
power source for operation.
122. The four wheel trailer has a tow bar with
lunette eye on the front and a pintle hook on the
rear bumper for chain towing. A maximum of two
deicers may be towed in a chain. Access panels/
door are provided for operation/maintenance ac-
cess. Hinged storage compartments are provided
for stowage of nozzle, ground gun, winter starting
power cable, refill hose and refractometer. The
engine, heater, fluid tanks, hydraulic boom/basket,
and all control panels are mounted on the trailer.
A fire extinguisher is mounted on the left side of
the deicer (rear of front fender).
123. Operator control is accomplished in two basic
areas. The main control panel (left side of deicer)
and the operator basket control panel. The main
control panel provides all controls for heater and
engine operation and an emergency stop switch.
The operator basket control panel contains controls
for fluid level indicators, no flow indicators, emer-
gency stop switch, and boom raise/lower switch.
Fluid mixing requirements are provided by a manual
control in the basket. An emergency boom lowering
ring is located on the boom.
124. The front tires are steerable (controlled by
towing vehicle) and are connected to the hitch with
tie rod assemblies. Pneumatic mud and snow tires
are provided. Hydraulic operated drum type surge
brakes provide braking during towing. All four
brakes are activated by the surge brake system
(mounted on tow bar) in the event of deicer/towing
vehicle separation. A manually operated parking
brake operates the two rear brakes.
125. The boom is hydraulically raised and lowered
and has an operator basket mounted to it. The
basket has four individually controlled spotlights.
Toe boards on the basket are provided for operator
safety. The basket has a lockable access door with
fixed guard rail above the door to prevent unin-
tended exit from basket when door
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 014 00
Page 20
Figure 6. A/S32M-16 Truck Mounted Deicer
Figure 7. A/M32U-20 Tactical Aircraft Deicer
014007
014006
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 014 00
Page 21
is open. Access to basket entry door is via steps
on left side of deicer.
126. The engine is a four cylinder water cooled
diesel engine. It drives the water pump, agent pump,
and main hydraulic system pump.
127. The hydraulic system consists of a main
hydraulic system pump, hydraulic tank assembly,
filter flow divider, heater blower motor, and boom
raise/lower cylinder valves. The hydraulic fluid goes
through a flow divider and provides power to the
heater blower motor and the hydraulic cylinder.
Hydraulic fluid is delivered to the hydraulic manifold
at a rate of 14 gpm, 2,000 psi.
128. Fluid delivery is between 20 gpm at 140 psi
and 40 gpm at 100 psi. Water temperature at or
near the nozzle is maintained between 180_ and
190_ F.
129. HAZARDS. Many of the hazards associated
with deicers are the same as those for workstands
and platforms. Carelessness and inattention coupled
with adverse weather conditions contribute to most
of the mishaps.
130. Movement and positioning the deicer is of
primary concern. Remember all the protuberances
(WP 004 00) on aircraft. Radomes, pitot tubes,
sensor probes, and in general any part of the aircraft
can be easily damaged by the deicer boom or
basket.
131. Additional hazards to personnel are slippery
catwalks and basket, safety rail not raised along
deicer roof, and slippery steps to deicer roof.
Specific hazards:
a. Carelessness, inattention, and complacen-
cy while using the deicer.
b. Improper positioning.
c. Improper securing.
d. Wet, snow, or ice conditions.
e. Misjudging clearance.
f. High winds.
g. Defective basket or safety rail.
h. Moving deicer too fast.
i. Moving in the raised position.
j. Moving too fast or not maintaining proper
clearance while someone is in basket.
k. Slip hazards on catwalk or in basket.
l. Oily hands or shoes.
m. Loose clothing and jewelry.
n. Aircraft protuberances.
o. Use of hand held nozzle in place of turret
mounted nozzle.
132. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND PROCEDURES.
133. Carelessness is the number one reason
people get hurt or damage aircraft while using the
deicers. Careful and cautious use by everyone who
uses a deicer could go a long way toward preventing
injuries and accidents.
134. Preoperational Inspection. The same basic
safety precaution that applies to all support equip-
ment, also applies to deicers. Conduct a preoperation-
al inspection prior to each use. Make sure you check
all safety items such as safety rails. If the inspection
reveals some major defect, dont use it, dont jury
ri g i t, or try to repai r i t. Down i t and tel l your
supervisor. It shall be taken out of service when the
following items dont meet safe standards:
a. Safety rail cracked, broken, or missing.
b. Any major frame, brace, platform, ladder,
or steps are cracked, broken, missing, loose, or
deformed so as to impair safe operation.
c. Evidence of any hydraulic leaks or when
the hydraulic system will not hold the basket in
the set position (basket creeps).
135. Movement and Positioning.
a. Take the time to position the deicer and
basket for proper operation. Avoid stretching and
leaning out of the basket which could end in a
fall.
b. Never position the deicer near an aircraft
without a safety observer.
c. Never drive or tow the deicer faster than
4 mph with a person in the basket.
d. Beware of wind and slippery surfaces.
e. Beware of aircraft wings, tails, and all
protuberances when positioning.
f. Make sure you position the deicer so that
it will clear the aircraft when raised.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 014 00
Page 22
136. Operation and Use.
a. Double check overhead and aircraft clear-
ance before raising the basket.
b. Make sure safety rails are raised while
working on the deicer roof to prevent personnel
from stepping off.
c. Make sure safety rail is lowered prior to
aerial operation to prevent damage to equipment.
d. Exercise caution while dispensing high
pressure, hot, fluid to avoid contact with yourself
or other personnel.
e. Avoid leaning too far out of basket, reposi-
tion the basket.
f. Beware of slippery ladder or basket floor.
g. Always face the ladder when climbing up
or down from the deicer roof.
h. Before lowering the basket/boom make
sure everything is clear under it.
i. Exercise caution when climbing into the
basket.
137. DOS AND DONTS.
S Dont volunteer to move, position, operate,
or use a deicer if you havent had a supervised,
hands-on checkout.
S Do perform the preoperational inspection
prior to each use.
S Dont use a defective deicer.
S Do down a defective deicer, report it, and
make sure no one else uses it.
S Dont move a deicer faster than 4 mph
with a person in the basket. Slower if conditions
require.
S Do beware of wind and slippery surfaces
when working with deicers.
S Don t rai se the boom/basket wi thout
checking clearances first.
S Do face the ladder when climbing up or
down to the deicer roof.
S Dont wear jewelry and beware of open
or loose clothing.
S Dont work on roof of deicer without safety
rail raised.
S Dont lean out of basket when deicing
aircraft.
S Do beware of slippery ladders, catwalk,
basket, and slippery hands or shoes.
S Dont overload the deicer basket.
S Do be sure everything and everyone is
clear before lowering the basket.
S Dont operate if the hydraulic system has
failed or is leaking.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 015 00
Change 1 - 1 July 2001 Page 1
CORROSION CONTROL EQUIPMENT
U.S. NAVY SUPPORT EQUIPMENT
COMMON
BASIC HANDLING & SAFETY MANUAL
Reference Material
Aircraft Weapons Systems Cleaning and Corrosion Control NAVAIR 01-1A-509 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Handling and Securing Equipment WP 005 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
History and Prevention WP 003 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preoperational Checklist, Jet Engine Corrosion Control Cart NAVAIR 19-600-77-6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Support Equipment Cleaning, Preservation, and Corrosion Control NAVAIR 17-1-125 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alphabetical Index
Subject Page No.
Corrosion Control Support Equipment 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Corrosion Control Cart, A/M32M-18A 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dry Honing Machine, C-150-6 and C-150-7 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Jet Engine Corrosion Control Cart 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Model T Foamer 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pressure Jet Steam Cleaner, A/M48A-5 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hazards. 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dry Honing Machine 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Jet Engine Corrosion Control Cart 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Model T Foamer 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lessons Learned/Accident Reports 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Safety Precautions and Procedures 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dry Honing Machine 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dos and Donts 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Jet Engine Corrosion Control Cart 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dos and Donts 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Model T Foamer 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dos and Donts 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pressure Jet Steam Cleaner 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dos and Donts 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Record of Applicable Technical Directives
None
1. CORROSION CONTROL SUPPORT EQUIPMENT.
2. Corrosion control support equipments are impor-
tant tools in the never ending fight against salt spray.
ships stack gasses, aircraft engine exhaust, and oth-
er corrosive materials. It is much simpler and easier
to protect aircraft, engines, andequipment fromcorro-
sion than it is to correct the damage that corrosion
causes.
3. The governing directive for corrosion control in
the Navy is Aircraft Weapons Systems Cleaning and
Corrosion Control, NAVAIR 01-1A-509. It discusses
the corrosion control program and all the equipment,
materials, and procedures used. NAVAIR 17-1-125 is
a subordinate publication dealing only with support
equipment.
4. DRY HONING MACHINE, C-150-6 AND C-150-7.
The portable dry honing machine (Figure 1) is used by
maintenance personnel for removing corrosion fromair-
craft components. The unit is air operated, from an ex-
ternal source, and functions without the loss of abrasive
material to the atmosphere. All controls, valves, pres-
sure regulator, water separator, and other components
are located on the machine to permit operation by one
operator.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 015 00
Page 2
015001
Figure 1. Dry Honing Machine
5. The major components of the dry honing machine
are: carriage assembly, dust collector, air ejector
pump and muffler, abrasive reclaimer, vibrator screen
with magnetic separator, abrasive hopper and feed
system, blast gun assembly, pneumatic system, and
auxiliary vacuum pump (C-150-7 only). All compo-
nents are mounted on a two wheel cabinet assembly.
A hose storage handle and storage box are provided
on the front of the unit for storage of hoses, brushes,
and accessories.
6. The unit is 34 inches high, 24 inches wide, and 31
inches deep. The total weight, including hoses, gun,
and 5 pounds of abrasive, is 165 pounds/193 pounds
with vacuum pump (C-150-7 only).
7. The machine requires a lowpressure (80-100 psi)
compressed air source, 80-90 cubic feet per minute
without vacuum/60cubic feet per minute withvacuum.
The vacuum pump requires 115 vac power. The blast
gun assembly consists of a hand held gun, control
valve, and three hose connections: air pressure, abra-
sive supply, and abrasive return.
8. JET ENGINECORROSIONCONTROL CART. The
corrosion control cart (Figure 2) is a trailer mounted, self
contained, mobile unit. It provides a way to apply fresh
water as a rinsing agent and a preservative compound,
under lowpressure spray action, tothe compressor sec-
tion of various jet engines. It can be used both ashore
and aboard ship.
015002
Figure 2. Jet Engine Corrosion Control Cart
9. The primary components are: a large solution
tank, two nitrogen cylinders, a work platform with
guard rail, four applicator wands, and the trailer.
NAVAIR 00-80T-96 015 00
Change 1 Page 3
10. The trailer is a tubular steel frame mounted on
three wheels. The tw