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PB 111633

ROTARY WING AIRCRAFT


HANDBOOKS AND HISTORY
SPECIAL TYPES OF ROTARY WING AIRCRAFT
BY
EUGENE K. LIBERATORE
i
VOLUME 11
-
ONE OF A SERIES OF 18 VOLlttES EDITED BY
EUGENE K. LIBERATORE
PREWITT AIRCRAFT COMPANY
CLIFTON HEIGHTS, PENNSYLVANIA
AND PREPARED FOR
WRIGHT AIR DEVELOPMENT CENTER
AIR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COMMAND
UNITED STATES AIR FORCE
WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE, OHIO
UNDER CONTRACT NO. W33-038ac-21804 (20695)
-
DISTRIBUTED BY
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
BUSINESS AND DEFENSE SERVICES ADMINISTRATION
OFFICE OF TECHNICAL SERVICES
WASHINGTON 25, D. C.
$k WCLSR - 148
t u ... ....
1954
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Engln. library
TL
116
i G9 CONTENTS
V.n
I. INTRODUCTION Page
H. SPECIAL TYPES
'A. Cyclogiros 2-40
B. Magnus Rotor Craft 4l - 50
(And Rotating Vane Aircraft)
C. Ornithopters 5l - l05
D. Other Configurations l06 - l3l
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INTRODUCTION
A. Scope
This volume contains an account of some miscellaneous types of air-
craft that may be included under the heading of rotary wing aircraft.
The volume is divided into parts which deal with:
Cyclogiros
Magnus Effect Rotorcraft
Ornithopters
Other Miscellaneous Types
In each part the information is given in alphabetical order according
to the name of the company or designer.
B. Acknowledgments
Cooperation of the following sources is acknowledged for their
generous contributions and assistance in preparing this volume:
1. Capt. R. N. Liptrot, British European Airways
2. Library of Congress, Messrs. A. Renstrom and P. Beck
C. Preparation
This volume was prepared and edited by Eugene K. Liberatore, Prewitt
Aircraft Company.
The project of which this volume is a part was initiated by the Air
Technical Intelligence Center. It was continued to completion by the
Wright Air Development Center, under supervision of Messrs. B. Lindenbaum
and W. Oleksak.
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H. SPECIAL TYPES
A - CYCLOGIROS
Table l represents five general classes of cyclogiros. The
illustrations for each class show four positions of the blade in the
course of its rotation. The left illustration shows the blade traveling
a circular path and the right illustration shows the circumferential
path as a straight line.
l. Class l - Cyclogiro
In this class, the blades pivot about their own axis through a
small, positive and negative angle. The same edge of the blade is
always presented to the wind.
2. Class 2 - Cyclogiro
In this class, there is a pitching motion between 0 and l80
degrees in the direction of rotation. In this region, the lifting force
is produced. In the latter half of its rotation, the blade is set to
offer a minimum of resistance until it arrives at the position for the
next lifting stroke. Note that in this class, both edges of the blade
alternate in serving as the leading edge.
A variation of this motion is shown in Class 2a. Here, the
blade always remains parallel to the horizontal diameter. The blade
surface is made up of flapper valves so the air may pass freely through
the blade on the upstroke.
8. Class 3 - Cyclogiro
In this class, the blades rotate and pivot about an axis at
right angles to their span axis. The lift is produced in two quadrants
and is feathered in the other two. The right illustration shows a view
looking in from the blade tip.
4. Class 4 - Cyclogiro
In this class, the blade remains parallel to the horizontal
diameter for the first two quadrants. Near the half revolution point,
the blade rotates about its own pitch axis so that it will present the
same leading edge for the following down-stroke.
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5. Class 5 - Cyclogiro
Here the blade makes one-half a revolution for each revolu
tion of the rotor. Note that both edges alternate as the leading edge
of the blade.
The specific types of cyclogiros presented here are listed
in alphabetical order by the name of the inventor.
Of particular historical interest is the work of Congreve in
l828. The magazine article is presented in full as it was written by
the noted engineer.
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A CYCLOGIRO CLASSIFICATION
FoR.
MERlrvlCt Cg>t^t>|TtoM ILLUSTRATED
? ALL C LASSES.
3feO z~\e> loo ^ o
AxtiTOOe oF BLADES \AJiTR
CiRc-LE'A, PEMEb To FoRM
A STRAIGHT LimE"
CLASS-1
O 3feo
3feO CTO l8o <bo
CLASS-2,
O 3foo
LOT R
36 fcio 8o
CLASS-2a
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3t>o -2TO \8o
CLASS-5
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mode, l828 M. CONGREVE
The following account from the British "Mechanics Magazine" is perhaps
the first on record of a cyclogiro design. The author was the famous l9th
century rocket expert, Congreve. (W.C.)
MUSEUM, REGISTER, JOURNAL, AND GAZETTE.
No. MO.]
SATURDAY, MARCH SI, int.
[Price*/.
AERIAL CARRIAGE."
AUIiL ClmMliM*.
An htftmrf taU Uu PtimhiHtf sf Man
. raising hmuel/ tar* Ike Air tf tks
Application f kis men Power.
In endeavouring to imitate the actions
of animated nature by mechanical means,
we are naturally induced, la the Ant
lnstance, to make those movements the
guide of oar proceedings as much as pos-
sible. ld accomplishing this, however,
we And great obstacles, 1st, From the
difficulty of analysing the actions them-
(elves, which are the objects of our imi-
tations; 2dly, From the complicated -
connexion that exists between the will
and all animal power; which it is im-
possible ever to ottaln in pure mecha-
nical operations: thus, in flying, when
we examine and compare the structures
of the wings of birds with those of the
insect tribe, although, in the Arst, tbere
can be no doubt as to the reciprocating
motion of the wing; still, in the latter
ense, it is very doubtful what description
of vibration takes placesince it appears
that the Ane Almy substance which forms
the interior of the membraue of the wing
of the beetle, and other such cumbrous
insects, is scarcely capable of a similar
action to that given by tbe wing of a
bird; at the same time, that the velocity
given by this action is so great, that it is
impossible to form any opinion of it by
observation. Tbe velocity ol the flight
of these heavy insects, compared with
the very small area of their wings, forms
ona of the most carious parts of this
great problem of nature. The buz created
in the operation resembles much more
the noise; produced by a rapid rotary
motion than that of a reciprocating one;
and, indeed, it may be almost pronounced
impossible to be produced by tbe latter
alone. Hence, tberefore, it seems pro-
bable, that this motion is a combination
beieen a rotary and a reciprocating
actionthat is to say, that a very con-
siderable degree of angular motion, per-
haps as much as 90 degrees, takes place
at every stroke of tbe wing, producing
a sort of sculling movement, by which
the air is allowed to escape in the return-
ing stroke, not otherwise provided fur in
these wings, though in those of tbe bird
it escapes through the feathers, which
act as valves.
From tbese reflections on the subject
of the beetle,s wings, it seems fair fa
conclude that nature has not lost sight
of the rotary motion in this great pro-
blem. From the difference of bulk, ln
tbe body of the beetle and tbe bird, as
compared with the sizes of their rupee-
YOU Oh
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MODEL
l828 Mr. CONGREVE
MRU 41 fUMMWi
tlv* wtifi, K Is iotat tka not
effect ls produced bj thU partial rotation
of the wlflg of th* former. ln attaint-
ing, toe re k>f, to solve thU problem by
artiflcial means, ww snort sot neglect
toe example before na; and l an con-
vinced w shall dnd, In conformity with
that example, that smaller lurfecee, thua
applied to the bodies of men, will produce
greaier affect by a rotary motion than
in any other way.
No attempt bas hitherto, l belleTe,
been made to raise the body lnto the air
by nrfaoes impinging by this descriptlon
of movement; and the difficulty of gtr-
lng sufficient velocity to large surfaces
by meana of a reciprocating action bas,
probably, been the cause of the coutant
failure! that haTe hitherto taken place.
Now, in producing the required impulse
upon the air by rotation, art will be
found to haie greatly the advantage over
nature. Since toe approximation to this
motion in the fly,s or beetle,s wings, la
very limited; while, as regards the pro-
duction of a reciprocating motion in the
wing of the bird, nature has decidedly
the advantage over art.
Under these considerations, therefore,
l shall proceed to develope a plan for
raising the human body in.the air, by a
rotative motion, which, for the reasons
above Riven, l think will be more likely
to produce a successful result than any
thing yet attempted, and which, indeed,
in the course of this paper, l hope to
prove actually capable of producing the
effect intended. The following is the
arrangement proposed:A B C are four
rotary propellers, or wing*, in the form
of paddle-wheels, 'urnitbrd each with
eight vanea of silk, strained on brass
tubes, or other fit materials, forming the
frames thereof. These wheels are
mounted on three uprights G H l, con-
nected with a triangular platform J K L,
on which the person intending to travel
is placed; and from which be will give
the necetsary rotary motion to the
wbeels, and direction to the carriage, by
means which will presently be more par-
ticularly explained. ln the mean time,
the machine may be conceived to be a
sort of aerial phaeton, having the silken
vanes, which are to produce tbe effect of
wings, placed above the body, of due
magnitude and capable of sufficient velo-
city. Previously, however, to calculating
what this sufficient velocity, and what
these dimensions, should be, it will be
necessary to say something more as to
the construction and operation of tbe
wheels themselves. lt is obvious, that
if the vanes wen fixed, as those of a
^^^S|^ SShSBBl
sssssssavaa wwear'WSpaaSf vase wwsvsibbj i^ww
ronnd would ptvaSneo no stflbnt waasssvwr
to ralaa or propel toe machine. Tbay
most, therefore, be so ou Detracted that
their planes may ha always parallel to
Mb other as they revolve \ mat was
plan* of their eosnam paralMlasn ad.
joetohie at pleaanr*. A very si male ssaaJ*
of effecting this will here after be *>
plalnad. By this parallelism of tba vasaa,
their mrfssas are, to wUMtm to the
above arrangaussnt, so eeh,swtad as to
allow the atr to paaa tbrwagh to owe
direction by tape, wbMo It ls preventad
fro* passing by tbe etoatag of theee lap*
on tbe otter: it ls evtdeet that whoa
these mar wheels are made to revolve,
there will always be a certain quantity
of impulse, or stroke upon the air, given
by tbesa in any one direction, agreeably
to tba arTwasnMMOt of tbe plane of pa.
ral'.ellsm. Tbos, if tbe vanea are so set,
that in revolving they shall be parallel
to tba horizon, then will the whole of
their impulse, or stroke upon lb* air, be
perpendicular to tbe horizon, and thelr
whole tendency be to raise the machine
perpendicularly) while, if the plana of
parallelism be so adjusted as to make an
angle of 45 degrees wlth the borizon,
then their Joint tendency will be to ad-
vance the machine one foot horizontally,
for every loot lt rises perpendicularly l
and thus, therefore, it is evident that the
angle of flight may be regulated either
from the perpendicular direction to the
horizontal, or to any angle above or
below; and that a continued impulse
may be obtained by means of a ro-
tary motion, in any given direction, and
to any extent of force, according to
tbe position, magnitude, and velocity, of
these vanes.
lt should be remarked, that, in calcu-
lating tbe effect produced by these pro-
pellers, only half the number of vanes,
whatever that number may be, will act
at the same insiant { on* half only of
them striking downwards, so as to pro-
duce a positive ascensional force; while
the other half moving upwards, tbeir
flaps are opened so as to a.'low the air to
escape, and thelr effect is, therefore,
merely negative. Tbe ecilng surface of
such a propeller, containing flu square
feet, would, in faci, be only 40. Thus,
in figures 1 end 3: in fig. S the van*,
No*. 1, t, S, 4, are efficienl.ln producing
an asccnioival motiun; while Nos. 3, V,
1, anil ft, are negaiive, by the opening of
tbeir flaps. ln fig. 3, the vanes being
set to act constantly at 49 degrees with
tbe horizon as the wheel turns i rum A to
through tbe same space; tba vanes 5, 6,
1, and ft, will, as before, open their flaps
and become negative.
The mode of constructing these pro-
pellers, so that they may be made to
revolve wlib thrir vanes parallel, aud that
their parallelism may be varird at plea,
sure, is simply as follows:Tbe wheal
P, P, fig. 4, must be made to revo.va
by a socket oo a fixed spiudla S.
1'be vanes elso, whatevrr be ttieir num-
ber, must be made to revolve lreely at
tbe end of ihe radii P P. At the end of
the spindle S, must bo placed an arm A,
which may be nude tu rivulve upon tb*
spindle, so ns tu be fixed at an} desired
angle. A puint C. uo the arm, must bo
assumed as a second centre, from wl lob
revolving rods oi cummuniuoiion mm be
carrird to one of the corners, C C C C,
of tbe diflVrent vanes ; and with this con-
struction it will be evident, that if the
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MODEL
l828
MFR .
CONGREVE
8
aeeondcentre Cbe fixed ta . .
cular line above the end of the 4Mb 8,
*\nui cmusi.
and lt considered (bat there b nothing
inconTeoient either ln the dimensions of
the prefab tbeaaaaives, or la the Telo-
city of tbalr motion j and If the die.
atari of these rotative propellers be
twelve feet, their tun will not only be
at a efficient data ace to act with fail
effect, but one revolution of each, par
second, will gtte the required Telocity of
10 feet.
The only rtmainlof coariaaratioa. ie,
whether a man,s power h "efficient to
1 theae propallere j and
all eltoations perpendicular to too hori-
lon; while if the centre C be placed ho-
rliontal with reepect to the spindle 8, the
vanes will rerolre, in all situations, pa-
rallel 10 the horizon; and again, if the
arm A be eat at 45 degrees, then the
vanea will revalve, in all situations, at an
angle of 43 degrees.
l snail now, therefore, proceed, as the
next >tep, to calculate what their magni-
tudes and Telocities should be. lt ba
bean ascertained that a current of air
moTing at the rate of 100 feet per
second, and impinging on a snrface of
one square foot, would bold about 13 lbs.
in eewtfine. In other words, a surface
of 1 foot square, impinging with a Telo-
city of 100 feet per second, would sustain,
ln like manner, a weight of 13 lb*, in the
air 1 so that if we suppose a man, with
the apparatus above described, to weigh
about 300 lbs., it would require 80 square
feet, rnoTing at the rate of 100 feet per
second, to sustain lt. Should it, how-
ever, be considered that this Telocity is
too great to give to a machine constructed
of materials such as those aboTe described,
the velocity may be reduced by increasing
the surface as toe squares; and it will
accordingly be found that 80 square feet
would be sufficient for the area of the
propellers, supposing them to rerolre at
the rate of 30 feet per second; in which
ease they might consist of four vanes,
each Ave feet long by two feet wide;
which is evidently not an inconvenient
surface to put in motion. lt may, bow-
ever, perhaps, be still considered that 30
feet is too greet a velocity to aitempt;
if therefore these propellers be made with
eight vanes slmilnr to those shove men-
tioned, instead of four, it will be found
that a velocity of 36 feet per second will
be sufficient ,to raise. 300 lbs. ln the alt j
give this velocity to t
of this, l oonceire, 00 doubt can exist.
The measure of effort required to pro-
duea this velocity, map be estimated ae
the weight actually sustained by it in the
air. Now it ia known that the power of
a man will raise ftOOibs. weight through
tan feet in a minutethat ls to say,
300 lbs. through four laches ln a (second
with the same effort on the part of the
man which is commonly assigned to him
as the measure of bis bodily force; that
is to say, the raising of 000 lbs. through
10 feet ln a asinuta. This velocity is
certainly not vary considerable; never-
theless, such a machine would bar* an
ascensional power of twenty feet in a
minuteallowance being mode here,
as throughout the foregoing, for friction,
and the yielding nature of the medium
ln which it acts.
By flg. 1 it will be seen that the per-
eon working this machine is supposed to
give the necessary rotary motion to the
propellers, by a winch upon the stage on
which he stands. On the stage also, he
will have the power of steering the ma-
chine by meens of a tiller R, turning the
upright l, which carries the two fore
wheels C D; thus giving any requisite
- obliquity between the two fore propellers
and the two hind ones. At the same
time also, by ropes 1, S, flg. 1, he will
possess the power of shifting the arm A,
described on fig. 4, so as to render them
either purely ascensional, or partly ascen-
sional and partly progressive.
lt appears, therefore, that we are war-
ranted.in concluding that this great and
lopg sought-for desideratum is attainable,
but that means entirely different from
those hitherto resorted to must be put in
force; that is to say, a continued and
very rapid action upon the air, which can
only be obtained ejr a rotary matin,
certainly not by a reciprocating onethe
only method hitherto attempted. lt may
also be observed, that Ufa powers of such
a machine might he very greatly in-
creased in proportion to the bodily force
employed, by making tt capable o( being
worked by more than ona pat win {
the weight of aoeb a machine, capable of
carrying ten awn into toe air, need not .
by any mean* bo ton tiroes as grant as
that required for carrying onsy one hence;)
therefore, by multiplying the numbers,
an excess of force might be attained to
increase the rapidity of flight to a very
great extent: upon which principle, also,
it Is perhaps not going too far to suppose
that elementary power may ultimately be
lntroduced for working such an angina.
With respect to the dangers of
travelling in an aerial machine, they are
not much greater than those of travelling
by laudcertainly not so great as those
of travelling by water; since the altitude
to which the machine would be required
to be raised, would not necessarily be
greater than that of an oatside pas-
senger by a stage coach. The great
security of Ibis machine would be, that
however great the storm in which it
moves, and however great the velocity,
it would be subject to none of those
dangers which in ordinary navigation
arise from the contending elements of
wind and water. An aerial carnage,
capable of supporting itself in the air 13
or 20 fact above the surface of the
ground, might travel at the rate of above
sixty miles an hour, with all the ease and
steadiness with which it would glide
through the air. It would have nothing
to dread from its height above our sur-
face, nor from the badness of roads.
Neither loreat, nor river, nor mountains,
would oppose the progress of the navi-
gator in the air: like the water-fowl, he
would skim in the tempest over the
billowa of the ocean, reckless of their
fury. He would pass, nnconsetous as it
were of motion, with the velocity of the
wind. This, it is true, epplles only to
the supposition of travelling with the
wind; but as the machine is |capab!e of
great powers of positive motion, it may
be made to travel against a strong wind,
and must therefore be constructed of suf-
ficient strength to resist toe force of that
element. It ls not, however, from the
action of the wind that the ship suffers in
ordinary navigation, but from the com-
bined action of wind and water; and
from this the traveller in the air has
noihing to dread.
We must not, however, conclude this
peper, without saying a few words 00 tho
subject of the power* of flight, which
our machine possesses, against the wind.
It be* already been stated.'.that if toe
materials were such that the Telociiy of
these propellera might be doubled, their
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iad
a sn omi ,nbvub torr!nba iHI
ro ,gam nt ro *nln Xrrtc dlnom e,niXg j
. rejuni euob-eorthebt bflat ,anibjam ahij
,ama^nm abt n dnooaa rap taaj *o ,eroj
orabt,r1inaolia itlpaw)nac ot taJao
a* wo,* *ilth /Cna paoiab laj ,rus
-Jtab *i itpolM thix pno3M lad >mj
/. HI <! in t<t*la* ejoqa bi
. Bll)na ot (MMON rMod aqt daoiaq
,reaop of eteen lsbt ib aa*i* eaibi
4a abt fo X)po|u ailasaiaarp aqt ,tiej
aranbs o| ab o) rla abt of eoaatspar
eq| ot peeopn eniocaos abt fo anjrus
aqt SaawMiN eeejt <nop,oa mfmamt
eqt 01 palldda aq M*ad am J* aaoqji abt
ii w "mi* w*t i
in Smtiito aqt *oj ro ,aonom aTimiJ
aip ot ilerll0 detoved be ot laaop
ojdi 'sbiOOfl a*<*W 4m* "Hi 009
,neni rnoj fo *arc: m oot.5 ,sjfula
pna Suinivuf Jo jqSiaii! tajflW 1 laT
,paebsSob ano inoqu ,aldlMirp *(>niv*<f
no anpina na bsns roj pailnbar rataa. fo
jqi| aqt i 'sql oof [ ta denoqcarab lam
euiSna aa bcaj roj Baa* ano roj lanf ath
jo tbgelM abx ->qi 0OOS 1a deaoqaer
ab to8ln> ,wiioq Wma Hia ,ldP
-ujrd s(qcithljre,i, no ,aniana in bcn
jotole*abx aqi OCM fo ra*op pinots
-nam na ajab Pino* ,dnocet rjd taaj tl
fo.datalnalac ajoba alar aqt t r,atanreid
nl *e S( J ,uanadorp tS gini|id
,noltlanc)ac jtoloJaroj abt Iq 'eingue
na bcns nath! auob ano ot naa iq*is
Sninoqsar ,rjmop auob-aarth a ib im
njaaii by el o| papiuisnoo be ot <u*
wolqjm aaath fo ano fl 'Mad aTg nl
ipul ot Xarnnofa nuojrap plno* bohi*
atu a ta daaooip dpm* tl ,rahiaaa nqac
nleseerb Iresidro im in eli8 het maw
oabt ajoea iiquapuiuoo ppion eeibcaai
a bcns ilinenba*noo i rnob na sailni 09
peeoxa 01 ton datndoioo il sjo(q t(t
0laS t'angoits aqt:riioh na sa||ui 09
fo tath ot lanba is ,daooas rap taaj e; fo
iipote* ath 'dnocas jap taaf 001 fo
itpolv e a ginTab' qt 01 btl* gnnraapo
,aranba tooj 1 of danoitnamajoba mnjsp
ath nopn -alb o> fo ia*od ath nda
,taaj aranbf 0? fo **ra Kuinitar aqt fo
nonatnpmoc het mofr tslnsar boib* tath
ab him r,ajtop slth ib ablintata ,iticoie*
amuilxvai ath joj idoocaa rap jaaj ZL
01 pmba he nouooj ia|nozriob abt
tabt ,taaj 09 ab 01 rla abt nola8a aoibs
-am ath fo ancatspar fo aaja aqt gns
i
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noiteas pstao>|rob a 10 ooncnporp ath in
jamod s|qt jo tnaaJolpuw abt ot patoj.
-ad b ipjqi qoiqm fo sjrqija eloq ath
,ranadojp lanopipda aa qn* dail<Mas ab
eniqsaaj a bcaa ,awjarhet 'jl 'abiova
fo ,ikrec nda feltll fo ailairrac arau
abt dooib ranod fo asasx na d
Itl* aoppani ebi ,acroj noj riath ta
paiofdena ara *arojrehet ,naoi rnoj uewh
! 051 be tl! naai rnoj doa aoibcam
aqt aajar ot ijajaai ajmnbai rawop abx
l OffI ,JlBlnjar li-'nn
ratta) fjqt Ui danael ab at datodprn ton
l aoiqsBabtjotbSl8iiBqx -abiooei
JO Solsiar ath ot pnka ab p|nojk nam
rboj fo ramop abt <t<l*la* 001 gnpsiu
aa pajsnnjaa t\ daiojpau aas baiaa
jo od aqt e,jojaraqt <ty -aonoa
tug abt rS*m <ti fo uataonipabt
Knbaao yb *eno fo paaisai aaas raoj rt*
3A3H0N00
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MODEL Mm.
IERS 10
CALDWELL
Jonathan E. Caldwell, the American inventor, has been associated with
the development of unorthodox rotary wing configurations for a number of years.
Figure l shows the cyclogiro he produced during the early Thirties.
Caldwell received considerable publicity in l949 when the "Grandaddy of
the Flying Saucer" was supposed to have been found in a tobacco shed in Mary
land. He is presently living in Manhattan Beach, California, and is engaged
in the development of a new cyclogiro. This version was reported to have
flown at Oxnard, California.
Characteristics:
Powerplant: "Jeep" automotive engine
60 HP approx.
Rotors: Laterally disposed on a conventional
fuselage
Diameter - 8 Ft.
Blades per Rotor - 3
Length - 20 Ft. each
Projected Area per Rotor - l60 Sq. Ft.
CLARKSON MODEL l9l0
A cyclogiro was designed and built by Joseph Clarkson in l9l0. The four
bladed rotor was 8 feet in diameter and lifted l2.5 pounds on 4 HP, giving a
power loading of 3.l2 pounds per HP.
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MODEL MF.
H. OTHERS ll
HAWKINS MODEL l933
A Hawkins cyclogiro was reported under development in l933. The craft
resembled the Koch machine described elsewhere.
HORNE
Around l9l0, James A. Home of Denver, Colorado, developed a "Home-
speed" propeller which was intended for a flying machine (Figure l).
A reduced model of the rotor was built and tested, driven by a l/3 HP
motor, but nothing came of it. (See U.S. patent 985,034)
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Model wn. IRVINE
12
The Irvine "Aerocycloide" is a project of l909. However, details are not
available.
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MODEL **r*.
JOHNSON
13
The "Omnivator" was a machine built by E. R. Johnson for the l925
British Air Ministry Helicopter Competition, first prize being 50, 000 English
pounds. The requirements included a hovering flight of half an hour in a 22
MPH wind and a climb to 2l40 feet.
Johnson's machine was built to hover and fly in any direction. The result
of this development is not known.
The Omnivator
The invenior of this machine. E. R. Johnson,
claims ii will ascend, descend, move forward,
backward, or remain siationary in the air. Ii
will compete in the Briiish helicopter coniesi.
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MODEL
MFft.
KIRSTEN
14~l
For a number of years Prof. Kurt F. Kirsten of the University of Washing-
ton has worked on the design of a "Cyclocopter". The novel features of this
type (Figures l and 2) were the use of rotors alone for stability, propulsion
and control. In addition, the blades were mounted cantilever fashion to elim-
inate much of the drag producing structure that would ordinarily be used to
support the blade tips (See U.S. patent 2,090,052). Figure 4, from this patent,
shows the rotor drive mechanism. The rotor is driven through gear l3. Gears
22 and 27 are provided to permit rotation of the blades about their own axis,
once for every two revolutions of the rotor, and in an opposite sense. Rotation
of the worm gear, 20, changes the pitch of the blades.
A wind tunnel model was built (Figure l) and tested. The test results were
published by the University of Washington. A full scale ship was never built.
.'
(
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MODEL MF.
The cyclogiro rotors developed by Gustave Koch of Munich were intended
as propelling devices on aerostats. (Figures l and 2) Each rotor consisted of
8 blades that made half a revolution about their own axis for each revolution
of the rotor.
Improvements in the design were outlined in l897, and later, a rotor was
constructed and tested with the financial support of the Mascninenfabrik
Augsburg and others. However, the rotors were of insufficient size to prove
useful. The rotors intended for the aerostat were to be l9.7 feet in diameter
and turned l20 RPM.
Qnerarhniti.
a Ballon.
b BalonhOlle (an Stella d> Ketmmfa).
c Maschinenranm and Kajtte.
d Flfigel der Triebrader.
e Veranda.
f Tregerahmen.
K Oas- and Luftkanal.
h Triebrader.
i Motor.
k Luftpumpe.
1 Sicherheitsveniile.
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The illustration shows the machine built in France by Jean-Baptiste Laisnez and Charles
Wilfart in 1905. The two rotors each consisted of three arms. These arms held small blades
which opened and closed to form a flat surface on the lifting stroke. The development was not
successful.
LAtSNET-\AMV,PM*.T CF*EMCm PATENT "2><i^ SMG^
Generated on 2013-12-17 07:42 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015009840722
Public Domain, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-google
model m*. LASKOWTTZ
l7
I. B. Laskowitz has been one of the leading cyclogiro pioneers in America.
In l933, a considerable amount of wind tunnel testing was carried out at the
New York University tunnel. These models are now part of the collection of
the National Air Museum of the Smithsonian Institute (See Figure l).
The model rotor illustrated consisted of four aluminum alloy blades, two
feet long, with a diameter of the same dimension. Another model rotor tested
had three maple wood blades. The length was two feet and the diameter three
feet. On the basis of the test with the three blade model, a full scale machine
was designed with the following characteristics:
Gross Weight 2000 Lbs.
Blade Area l25 Sq. Ft. total
Static Thrust per HP 9.42 Lbs.
Tip Speed 200 FPS
Other conclusions drawn from the tests are as follows:
l. Horizontal flight tests gave quantitative results that were not
adequate for practical flight.
2. A slight variation in blade setting varied the forces on the
blade system very powerfully.
It was believed this was the first time tests of a feathering rotary system
were made. (For other data see U.S. patents l, 872, 758 and 2, 079, 2l7).
Figure 2 from the latter patent shows a proposed full scale machine. No.
l9 is an inboard guiding ring which travels on rollers (l8) mounted to the air-
frame. An off center displacement (5) provided the cyclic pitch variation. A
novel means was used to declutch the rotors from the engine in case of a
power failure. The clutch was engaged by a piston displaced by compressed
air against the action of a spring. The air pressure was maintained by the
engine through its own supercharger or an external one. If the engine failed,
the compression pressure fell off and the spring disengaged the clutch.
Although model tests were made, as indicated above, a full scale machine
was never built.
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model Mr.. McWORTER
19
The "Autoplane" was designed by John E. McWorter of St. Louis, Missouri.
The craft was a cyclogiro with one rotor located on either side of the fuselage
turning about a longitudinal axis. The blades were rectanglar flat plates and
feathered in a manner to present a surface on the downstroke and an edge on
the upstroke (See U.S. patent l,ll4,l67). There was no provision for emergency
landings.
A one-quarter scale model was built and tested. The following data approx-
imates the test results:
Blade Velocity Blade Loading Power Loading
(FPS) (PSF) (Lbs./HP)
40 l.2 l3.7
80 4.8 6.9
l20 l0.8 . 4.6
Around l9l9, a proposal was submitted to the U.S. Army Air Service for
construction of a machine, but it was rejected on the basis of mechanical
rather than aerodynamic difficulties.
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MODEL
MQTNEAII
20
This cyclogiro was conceived by Rene J. L. Moineau of Paris, France,
around l9l6. Moineau was an aeronautical engineer of long standing, and was
at one time associated with the French Salmson Motor Company.
The craft he proposed consisted of one rotor system with its rotational
axis in the direction of the line of flight (Figure l). The rotor blades l3, l4 and
l5 are driven by friction engagement of wheels 6 and 7. Number 55 represents
a surface mounted on a spoke of the rotor. A number of these serve as a
variable pitch tractor propeller.
Figure 2 shows the pitch changing mechanism. The letter "O" represents
the rotor drive shaft and the O' the eccentric displacement of a ring which
varies the pitch of the blades through push rods "t". See British patents 244,
786 (U.S. l, 656, 592) and 23l,856 for other details.
A one-tenth scale model of the design was tested in the wind tunnel of the
Institut Aerotechnique at St. Cyr. Two experimental prototypes were built
and tested, but the results were not encouraging.
Characteristics:
Power plant:
Transmission:
Clerget Rotary l30 HP
The blades were driven by means of
metal cables.
One, 3 bladed
Diameter - l9.6 Ft.
Length - 2l.6 Ft.
Blades - 2l.6 x 3.94 Ft. areas
Airfoil - RA-l8 (symmetrical)
Projected Swept Area - 430 Sq. Ft.
Total - l980 Lbs.
Thrust Developed - l720 Lbs. at 900 RPM
at about ll0 HP. There is no record that
the machine was flown.
Rotor:
Weight:
Test Results:
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MODEL.
MFR.
N.A.C.A. TESTS
22
The N. A. C. A. conducted wind tunnel tests on a cyclogiro rotor. The
results of this research were published in Technical Note 528. The rotor
tested had the following characteristics:
No. Blades 4
Span 8 Ft.
Diameter 8 Ft.
Chord .3l2 Ft.
Airfoil 00l2 modified so the mean camber line was
an arc of 9 foot radius. The mean camber
line was chosen to coincide with the blade
path during a representative condition of
operation.
Based on the results of the tests, the power required curve for a cyclogiro
determined. TJus curve is presented here.
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V. AIR SPEED, MJ2H.
EXPERIMENTAL COMPUTED
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unr, 1913-29 mf. NEMETH
Since l9l3, Stephan P. Nemeth of Chicago, Illinois, has been conducting
research on unorthodox types of aircraft. During the period l9l3 to l929, a
number of reduced models and four full sized cyclogiros were built.
One of these machines consisted of two, three blade rotors laterally disposed
on a tubular truss frame. The rotors were l4 feet in diameter. Power was
supplied by a rotary engine mounted forward of the rotors along the center of
the ship. This tended to counterbalance the operator who was seated aft of the
rotors. The engine was mounted with its axis of rotation in a lateral rotor
direction. A structural failure terminated the first tests.
In addition to cyclogiro developments, Nemeth conducted research on a
reciprocating rotor system, circular wing airplanes and more conventional
jet and propeller-driven rotors.
Another unorthodox type developed by Nemeth was an aircraft with tandem
wings. These wings produced lift by displacing fore and aft on guide rails
simultaneouslv varying their incidence.
MODEL MF. PET LING
In l894, C. Oetling of Leipzig proposed a cyclogiro type aircraft provided
with feathering blades.
The axis of rotation lay in the direction of flight. The extent of this project
is not known.
model mf. PENDELTON
D. L. Pendelton, Winchester, Kentucky, developed a model cyclogiro
around l920. Many tests were conducted, but final results are unknown.
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MODEL MF.
pichou 1 2A
The rotor developed by Frenchman, Alfred Eugene Pichou, was originally
invented around l883, but it was not until l902 that tests were made with the
system.
Figure l shows a plan view of his proposed "Auto Aerienne", while Figure 2
is an end view. Four two-blade rotors were used to lift and propel the machine.
Gear train V (Figure 2) permitted a half revolution of the blades for every
revolution of the rotor. The dotted lines in Figure 2 show the different positions
of the blades for propulsion flight. For other details see French patent 326,476.
Test Data
The first rotor tested had two blades, each 3.3 feet long, 2.3 feet wide.
The greatest thrust was 20 pounds at a tip speed of 26.2 FPS and a rotor
RPM of 80.
A second two-bladed rotor was tested. The blades had a reduced area, each
being 2.34 feet long and 5.4 square feet in area. The maximum thrust reading
was 39 pounds at a tip speed of 44.6 FPS and a rotor RPM of l30. On the basis
of these tests, Pichou estimated a thrust of 700 pounds at 286 RPM.
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MODEL
MFR .
PISKORSCH
25
An unusual type of cyclogiro was designed by A. Piskorsch. In operation,
the cantilever blades describe a conical surface. Actually, these blades
accelerated the surrounding air by a beating motion.
Figures l and 4 show a model with blades set at a 90 cone. This model was
built by Warzog Coach Works of Troppau, Czechoslovakia, a firm interested
in its development.
Figure 2 shows the Piskorsch Model 2. The position of the blade in hovering
is shown in Figure 4 while the forward flight blade positions are shown in
Figure 3. Note that the blade reverses its position at the end of the lifting
stroke. Two different Piskorsch configurations are shown in Figures 5 and 6.
There is no record that a full scale machine was built.
Rtv\
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MODEL
MFR .
PLATT
27
Havilland H. Piatt, the American rotary wing pioneer, proposed a cyclo-
giro during the l930's. The machine was to have a lateral rotor system (Fig-
ure l). The blade pitch variation was to be obtained by means of eccentrics,
Nos. 44 and 48 (Figure 3). Some details of the machine are given in U. S.
patents 2, 004, 96l and l,795, 50l (Reissue No. l9,438).
The proposed cyclogiro was to weigh 3000 pounds, including the pilot and
a normal payload. The engine rating was 300 HP.
^2
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MODEL.
MFR .
PROSDOCIMI
28
Around l932, Giuseppe A. Prosdocimi of Bologna, Italy, proposed a
multiple rotor cyclogiro (Figure l). Two sets of rotors were located fore and
aft of the pilot's cockpit. Each set consisted of two rotors turning in opposite
directions about the longitudinal axis of the machine.
The rotor blades were made up of a number of feathering paddles which
accelerated the air on the down stroke and feathered on the upstroke.
Figures 2 and 3 show a model of the machine. However, the inventor
never built a full scale version. For other data see U.S. patent l,988,9l6 and
Italian patents 268,l05 and 325, 783. This latter patent also shows a variation
of his configuration using rotors listed as class-3 in the accompanying clas-
sification list.
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MODEL
MFR .
RAHN
29
A prototype cyclogiro was built by The Rahn Aircraft Corporation during
the early l930's based on designs of William Rahn of New York. The lateral
rotor configuration was used, each rotor having two large blades. Due to this
configuration, the blades had to be constructed so that either edge would act
as the leading edge.
Figure 2 shows the means employed to feather the blades. The blades l8
and l9 are driven by the frame l5 which in turn is driven by the engine by means
of a chain and sprocket drive 40. Gears 25, 28 and 30 rotate the blades about
their own axis relative to the frame. Gear 20 is ordinarily stationary; and
yg, 'its operation, by means of worm 22, permits
'a variation of the position of maximum blade
I impulse, and provides the control for forward
flight. (See U.S. patent l,894,057.) The pro-
totype was powered by a 240 HP Wright Whirl-
wind engine.
The trial results of this machine are un-
known.
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MODEL.
MP*.
RICHARD
30
The Frenchman, Gilbert C. Richard, proposed a cyclogiro in the early
l930's. The four rotors were disposed laterally, fore and aft of the machine
(Figure l) Each rotor consisted of a number of feathering blades which closed
to form a solid surface on the downstroke and opened on the upstroke, offering
a minimum of resistance.
Figure 2 shows the position of the blades in different angular locations
for the hovering condition; Figure 3 represents the blade positions with the
_ machine in translation.
This configuration was
never built.
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model Mm. RTCHARD
3l
Another configuration proposed by Richard is shown in Figures 4 and 5.
Figure 4 represents a working model of the configuration which obtains its
lift by a paddling action. The rotors turned in a vertical plane about a long-
itudinal axis and in an opposite direction.
The trials with this model are not known. Other data will be found in
French patent 801^ 225.
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^*-*
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modil Mr.. ROHRRACH
33
One of the most publicized cyclogiro designs was that proposed by Adolf
Rohrbach of Berlin around l932. The craft included two, 3 blade rotors
mounted laterally (Figures l and 2). A description of the machine is found
in U.S. patent 2,l23,9l6 (Figures 3 and 4). The blade pitch variation was
obtained by an eccentric motion (Figure 3)
A prototype was reported under construction by the Weser Flugzeugbau,
but the extent of this work is not known.
Characteristics (Design Data)
Power plant:
Transmission:
Rotor:
Weights:
Dimensions:
Performance:
Hirth or Argus, 8 cylinder, 240 HP
Worm Drive (See Figure 2)
Two, three bladed
Length - l4. 5 Ft.
Aspect Ratio - l4 to l
Diameter - ll. 5 Ft.
RPM - 420
Gross - 2l00 Lbs.
Empty - l500 Lbs.
Length - 28 Ft.
Width - 33 Ft.
Height - l4 Ft.
Maximum Speed - 124 MPH
Minimum Speed - l7 MPH
Ceiling - l4, 800 Ft.
MODIL.
MM .
RUB
The journal "Rundschau Technischer Arbeit" for April 2l, l937, reported
a cyclogiro project of L. Rub. (Figure l) A model was tested in the laboratory.
Little data on this project has ever been released.
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MODEL MFR.
STRANDGREN
34
Karl Bruno Strandgren of Sweden was reponsible for a considerable
amount of research on cyclogiros. During the Twenties, model tests on a
Strandgren rotor were carried out in France at the Aeronautical Institute of
ST. Cyr under the sponsorship of the National Bureau of Inventions. The
rotor was made up of five rectangular blades.
Based on the results of the model tests, a pair of full scale rotors were
constructed and tested at the Loire et Olivier Co. at Arguenteuil.
Characteristics:
Powerplant:
Rotors:
Test Results:
Clerget Rotary l30 HP
Two
Diameter - l9.6 Ft.
Length - 8.05 Ft.
Blade Chord - l.35 Ft.
Max. Thickness - l.09 In.
Weight - ll Lbs. each
Static Thrust (one rotor) - 860 Lbs. on 55 HP
925 Lbs. on 65 HP
Figure l shows the rotor system as illustrated in U.S. patent 2,023,750.
The proposed full scale machine was to weigh l320 pounds.
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Around 1910, a cyclogiro-airplane was built in Russia by E. P. Sverchkov. The craft employed
laterally disposed rotors for lift and propulsion. In addition, fixed wings were used. Each rotor
consisted of six blades. The blades were pivotally mounted on three arms in biplane fashion.
Characteristics:
Powerplant: Buchet (French), 10 HP @ 2000 RPM
Weight - 98.3 Lbs.
Rotors: Two, six blades each
RPM - 450 to 500
Test Results: Unavailable
o
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Moott mm.. VAN LAMMEREN
36
The "Rotalift" was a cyclogiro design by the Hollander, W. P. VanLammer-
en. A single rotor was tested developing 364 pounds of thrust, absorbing l4
HP. The tipspeedwas 62.3 FPS. The power loading was 26Lbs/HP.
Another version powered by a Cirrus Mark-3 engine was supposed to have
lifted l698 pounds.
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MODEL
MFR .
VAN ZANDT
38
Two versions of an aero turbine ornithopter were built by Dr. Henri
Van Zandt of Port Chester, New York, during the late l930's. (Figures l to 3)
Essentially, the machines consisted of a number of rotors with blades of a
peculiar shape. The blades were made in the form of scoops.
Figure l is an early version with inclined rotors. Figure 2 shows a man
carrying version with different type rotors. Figure 3 shows a "cleaned up"
version of Figure 2. Much of the external structure has been eliminated.
The later model weighed l000 pounds and was powered by a D. H. Gypsy
engine of 98 HP. The overall dimensions were l5 x 2l feet. Van Zandt
claimed the ship was capable of hovering, but it could not fly forward, the
idea being to use a jet for propulsion. In the hovering condition, the machine
lifted 50 pounds per horse-power.
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MODEL.
MFR.
VOITH-SCHNEIDER
39
The Voith-Schneider rotor (Figures l to 4) was a type of cyclogiro rotor
originallyintended for the propulsion of water vessels, but around l938, it was
given attention as a means for propulsion of aircraft.
The cyclic pitch variation was obtained by means of an eccentric 6 (Figure
4). Figure 2 shows the position of the blades in the course of a revolution of
the rotor. This system was tested in water and gave a maximum efficiency of
80%.
Figure 5 shows the application of the cantilever rotor to an aircraft.
Abb. 1. Voith-Schneider-Propctler. lm
Schnitt PliigelsieuerunK durch Kniippel.
JT
Abb. 2. Voith-Schneider-Propeller.
Schema der Pliigelsteuerunj;.
O Steuerpunkt. p^.^
Abb. 3. Voith-Schneider-Propeller.
Aufbau. Pit,-/}
.x+- t
Abb. 4. Voith-Schneider-Propeller.
VerstellunK der FlOKe! in Auslage.
stellun*.
Fit*-5
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model mf. WELLNER
40
The German engineer, George Wellner, was associated with the develop-
ment of rotary wing aircraft for a number of years. As early as l883, he
proposed the use of cyclogiro rotors for heavier-than-air flight. The blade
pitch variation was such that it made a half revolution about its own pitching
axis for every revolution of the rotor.
In l893, Wellner proposed a giant cyclogiro using six rotors (Figure l). It
was to carry 8 passengers. The overall length was 65. 5 feet. He believed
that a l4,l00 pound machine could be lifted using only 80 HP.
A large sized model rotor was tested in Vienna under financial supervision
of Siemens-Halske Co. and others. The tests were not successful. Wellner
died in l909.
Wellner appears to be the first to propose a cyclogiro-type rotor with
the lift being produced at the upper and lower sweeps of the rotor blades.
However, the idea of a feathering rotor is much older.
A
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II. SPECIAL TYPES
B - MAGNUS EFFECT ROTORS
Although the rotating cylinder is usually associated with
the magnus effect, rotating vanes also produce this phenomenon.
Both types are presented here under this heading.
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l934 mfk. DE CHAPPEDELAINE
42
The "Aerogyre", built by Jean DeChappedelaine in France, is perhaps
the only full scale aircraft ever constructed incorporating a rotating vane
principle.
The machine was a more or less conventional biplane in which the lower
wing was rotable about its span axis by either mechanical or aerodynamic
means. End plates were used to improve the efficiency.
The advantages of this type machine are as follows:
l. It permits a steep vertical descent.
2. It permits fixed wing flight as an airplane.
3. A vertical descent is possible by supplying power to the
rotating wings.
The wind tunnel tests brought out the following comparison:
l. Lift coefficient for a fixed wing - l.2 to l.3
2. Lift coefficient for an autorotating wing - 2.32
(for a speed of about 32 FPS)
3. Lift coefficient for a powered rotating wing - 3.29
(for a tip speed ratio of 3. 65)
4. The drag was likewise very high.
In l934, the project was subsidized by the French Air Ministry which
spent 500, 000 francs in the course of the development. The prototype was
flown by Delmotte, the well known French pilot, who demonstrated its flying
qualities as a fixed wing biplane. The pilot could only make a few straight
flights near the ground with the wings in autorotation. Although the action was
self-starting, a safety device was at the pilot's command for mechanical
starting.
In these early tests, it was discovered that the autorotational speed
(around 200 RPM) was too low. This induced a general structural vibration
of large amplitude. In fact, no landings could be made in autorotation because
of the large deflections at the wing roots.
A total of l0 hours of flying time was accumulated by pilots Delmotte,
Massot and Rigaud. It was during the last of these flights that Rigaud experienc-
ed a grave accident which cost him his life. A part of one of the plywood wings
came loose and was blown away. The pilot tried to make an emergency land-
ing. A sharp turn was made to avoid a tree, but the ship stalled and crashed.
At the time, it was not possible for the pilot to put the autorotative wing to
use.
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l934 DE CHAPPEDELAINE
43
De Chappedelaine drew the following conclusions from these experiments:
l. The mechanical device for disengaging the wings was imperfect
and consideration should have been given to the deflections pro-
duced in flight.
2. The rotor RPM was too low, inducing vibrations in the structure.
. These vibrations did not show up in wind tunnel tests because
the RPM was seven times greater.
3. The means for increasing the RPM consists of increasing the
aspect ratio of the wings and then using several wings adequate-
ly located.
Characteristics:
Powerplant:
Transmission:
Wings (Rotors):
Wing (Fixed):
Fuselage:
Weight:
Performance
(Estimated):
Item
Renault 7 Pc, 90 HP (l00 HP Max.)
The wings could be driven through a
clutch engagement of the powerplant.
Two rotors (or one wing)
Total Area - l29 Sq. Ft.
Span - l3.l Ft. (each panel)
Max. Chord - 5.25 Ft.
End Plate Diameter - 4.9 Ft.
Wing Spread - 29.8 Ft.
Area - 64. 5 Sq. Ft.
Originally from a Caudron airplane
Overall - 25 Ft.
Gross - l540 Lbs.
Aerogyre
(Fixed Wing) (Autorotating Wing) (Powered)
Cruising Speed (MPH) 87
Landing Speed (MPH) 40.3 2l.7 l7.4
Landing Run (Ft.) 490 l48 l62
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MODEL
MFR.
FLETTNER
44
The Magnus Effect rotor has often been referred to as a Flettner rotor
because Anton Flettner pioneered the use of a rotating cylinder to produce an
aerodynamic force.
It is interesting to note that Flettner never built a cylindrical rotor aircraft,
but that his work involved the propulsion of ocean vessels. Two ships were
built employing Flettner rotors: the "Buckau" and the "Baden-Baden" (illus-
tration). This work was carried out in Germany during the Twenties.
The "Buchau", a ship of 680 tons displacement, was fitted with two rotors
in tandem. The rotors were mounted on the top deck with their axes of rotation
vertical. Each cylinder was 60.7 feet high and 9.2 feet in diameter. They
were rotated l20 RPM by two ll kilowatt, 220 volt electric motors which
received their energy from a 45 HP Diesel engine. In ordinary winds, the
ship could travel at a rate of 5 to 6 knots.
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MODEL. 1932 m,,. GUEST
45
This rotorplane was the invention of John B. Guest, a Briton, living in
Oakland, California (See U.S. patent l,3ll,389 of l9l9). A prototype was built
by Guest with the aid of I. C. Popper, construction engineer.
The machine resembled a conventional tractor-airplane except for the
wings. In place of these, rotors were mounted laterally on outriggers. Each
lateral unit consisted of two rotors, a main one for support and an auxiliary
one for lateral control. Each set of rotors was driven by its own two cylinder
Vee engine. The rotors, or spindles, of aluminum alloy had a double tapered
shape to improve their efficiency. Two cockpits in tandem were provided for
the crew.
Lack of publicity after the initial ammouncements leads one to conclude
the test results were discouraging.
Characteristics:
Powerplants: Three used, one for propulsion and two to
drive rotors.
l. Propulsion - Cirrus, 85 HP approx. in
line air cooled engine
2. Rotor drive - Two, 2 cylinder air cooled
engines.
Transmissions: The two cylinder engine drove the main rotor
through a clutch. The auxiliary rotor was
driven by the main one by means of a chain
and sprocket gear.
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MODEL
mfr. N.A.C.A. TI
46
The NACA carried out tests to evaluate the properties of the Magnus
Rotor. The data summarized below is from Technical Notes 209 and 228.
Letting Y = Peripheral Velocity/ Translational Velocity
l. The crosswing force does not appear until Y = 0. 5.
2. Between Y = .5 and Y - 2 the cross wind force increases
steadily with no appreciable increase in drag.
3. The maximum value of L/D = 7.8 is achieved at Y = 2.5 approx.
The L/D value given above is for infinite aspect ratio , and in practical
design, considering end conditions, etc., the figure shrinks to about 2.8.
Another conclusion resulting from the tests was that the theoretical equation
based on the circulation theory of lift is extremely optimistic, and test data
should be used in calculations.
The illustrations from NACA data show the flow around a rotating cylinder
for different peripheral speeds, and also the lift coefficient developed.
CVRou Mb A^;" I
rotating cylinder, producing Magnus effect.
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Model
During the early Twenties, the N. V. Instituut Voor Aero En Hydro-
Dynamiek of Amsterdam issued reports summarizing their work with Magnus
Rotors (Report Nos. A-96, A-l05 and A-l30).
Various applications of the Magnus Effect are described in British patent
222,845 and Netherlands patent l9, 5l3 to this organization.
In most cases, one or more rotors are combined with a fixed wing. Use
of these rotors on windmills and vessels is also described.
mm. . THOMPSON
The Magnus rotor principle was incorporated in a fixed wing by Raymond
Thompson during the l930's.
A reduced model of the idea was successfully flown. The ship had a span
of 38 inches and a length of 42 inches. The total wing area was 360 square
inches. The rotors were driven by an electric motor. With these in operation,
the model lifted 9. 5 pounds to a height of l8 feet.
The ikMpM iln-waf wit* Um ratar lmb*dd4 la a 4mp wla M. Um thaw air
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model mm. SAVONIUS
48
Sigurd J. Savonius of Helsinfors, Finland, has pioneered the rotating
vane over a period of years. He has tested the "Wing-Rotor" in a number of
applications from a wind driven pump to a "Wing Rotorboat".
The principle of the Savonius rotor is illustrated in Figure l. This
figure represents the two dimensional flow around a rotor with two curved
blades: a and b. Dynamic pressure sets the rotor in motion. Once a circu-
latory speed is obtained there is produced a difference in pressure between
the tips of a and b. This is a manifestation of the Magnus Effect that is more
familiar when applied to cylindrical rotors.
Figure 2 shows a modified version with the blades shifted toward one
another. The advantage of using this configuration is in the reduction in the
vacuum behind a, with a net increase in rotor torque. Also in this case,
the airflow impinges on both concave surfaces before it passes into the free
stream.
Savonius carried out a number of tests with rotors from November, l924
to June, l925. Over 40 different shapes and sizes were tested. In addition,
comparative tests with wings, sails, windmills, etc. were made. Usually,
two different rotors were tested on the same shaft; so the relative efficiency
was easily determined by observing which rotor drove the other.
The following conclusions were drawn:
l. The best wing form for all around efficiency was the semi-cylinder
2. The power of a Wing-Rotor was in direct proportion to its pro-
jected area.
3. The greatest torque was obtained with an opening between the
wings equal to 20 to 25% of their chord.
4. The diameter of the end plates (which increased the efficiency
considerably) had to be 20 to 30 % greater than the chord.
5. The number of blades which gave the greatest torsional power
and Magnus pressure was found to be two.
An interesting account of Savonius' work is given in the booklet "The
Wing-Rotor" by S. J. Savonius, published by Savonius and Company, Hel-
singfors, Finland.
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MODEL.
1930 u>. ZAP 1 ^
The Zap rotorplane was an American development of the early l930's
carried out near Mamaroneck, New York. The project was based on the
patents of Edward F. Zaparka and was financed by H. E. Talbott, Jr. and
Walter P. Chrysler.
The machine consisted of two cylindrical main rotors with a third smaller
one intended for a central position. Lateral control was to be obtained by
use of ailerons located forward and pivoting about a vertical axis. A conven-
tional airplane tail was also used to complete the control means.
In order to conduct the tests in secrecy, the craft was fitted with floats
and moored to a boat in Long Island Sound. In the course of tests, the machine
lifted off the water but capsized and fell into the sea. The project was abandon*
before any practical flight was achieved.
Characteristics:
Powerplant: Propulsion - A radial engine was used to
drive a 3 bladed propeller
Lift - AD. H. Gipsy, 90 HP in-line air cooled
engine drove the rotors.
Main Rotor: Two, cylindrical
Diameter - 2.3 Ft.
Endplate diameter - 3.94 Ft.
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II. SPECIAL TYPES
C - ORNITHOPTERS
The oldest idea for a heavier-than-air craft is undoubtedly
based on imitating bird or insect flight. Yet through the years, there
has never been a successful ornithopter.
The development followed two basic lines:
l. The utilization of muscle power for lift and propulsion.
2. The use of an engine for lift and propulsion.
When one considers that a man will rarely, if ever, produce
more than 2 horsepower through his own muscular effort, use of this
type of powerplant is only adding more complications to a complicated
problem.
The basic principle of ornithopter flight is to produce a sus-
taining force by beating the air with a wing. A simple up-and-down
flapping motion is not the answer because the thrust would alternate
its directions.
The answer to eliminating the down-thrust on the up-stroke
is given in numerous patents, and in general suggests using various
types of one-way valves and synthetic feathers that allow the air to
pass freely through the wing on the up-stroke. Others employ a
mechanism that feather the wings through a figure-of-eight or other
motion. In addition to the numerous simple ornithopters, multiple
wing machines and combination type aircraft have been proposed.
Presented here is a mixture of the many configurations, myth
ological and real, proposed or constructed. Although there is little
thought given to ornithopters by the greater part of the aeronautical
world, there has been, and perhaps always will be, a small group of
exponents of this form of flight.
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MODEL.
M. A. OTHERS 52
AEROMOBILE MODEL l9l0
The Aeromobile "Flapper" was a machine built in l9l0. Propulsive force
was produced entirely by flapping wings. The span was 29.5 feet, and the
height, 26.25 feet.
ARCHYTAS MODEL 400 B.C.
Archytas of Tarentum (428-347 B.C.) was a Greek scientist who is supposed
to have built and flown a wooden pigeon in 400 B.C.
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MODEL
l947
MFR .
BINSTEINER
53
This machine is a relatively recent ornithopter built in Germany by a
Catholic priest, Father Albert Binsteiner of Berglern, Germany. This
machine used a one cylinder engine. The wings were built of aluminum,
covered with canvas.
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171 mm. BLANCHARD
54
Jean Pierre Blanchard built three man-carrying flying machines in the
latter part of the Eighteenth Century. The craft included four flapping wings
which were worked by the operator.
The first machine was tested near St. Germain, France, in l78l. The other
two versions resembled the firs (See illustration). The operator worked foot
and hand levers that were connected to the wings by means of chords. Behind
the pilot was a seat for a fare-paying passenger.
The best result obtained with these machines consisted of lifting about-
nine-tenths the weight of the craft including the operator. Blanchard dropped
his heavier-than-air activities with the advent of the balloon.
Navicella di Blanchard.
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MODEL - 1928 Mr. BONNEY
55
The Bonney "Gull" was built by Leonard W. Bonney, the well-known stunt
flier of the pre-War l years. The craft was a gull wing monoplane with
articulated joints at the wing root.
The "Gull" took five years to build, and a total of $l00, 000 was invested
in the project. On May 4, l928, the machine was tested by Bonney at Curtiss
Field, New York. It took off and climbed to about l00 feet when it appeared to
go out of control and crash. Bonney was killed, and the ship was demolished.
ModcL_La54 mf.. BREANT
This machine used two flapping wings, each fitted with 3 valves. The
operator's legs and arms lowered the wings, and they were raised by elastic
cords.
185V - BHEANT. - , . ... ..h iiur- ,!i, MMplfM. Im |
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MODEL.
MF*.
BOURCART
56
The Alsatian Bourcart family was associated with heavier-than air
flight for over l00 years, encompassing three generations. The last of the
group, J. J. Bourcart, produced a number of ornithopter ideas from l886 to
l9l0. Figures l to 3 show proposed ornithopters which date back to l866.
Figure 4 shows a "Two Place" version of Figure l, built at Colmar in l908.
The machine took six weeks to build. It weighed about l00 pounds empty, and
had a total lifting surface of 64.5 square feet. The device was built to sell for
l500 marks. It was claimed that Bourcart flew a distance of 600 feet at a
height of 5 feet off the ground. The forward speed was "somewhat faster than
a running man".
A reduced model of Figure 3 was displayed at Frankfort in l909. Figure 5
shows a later machine built at Colmar in l9l0.
Tandis que le pied
droit abaisse l'aile droite
de derrire et l'aile gauehe de
devant, il relve l,aile droite de
devant, et l'aile gauche de
derrire. Le pied gauche
fait la rciproque.
Le chaasia de l'aile eat
rouvert de toile ou de papier
impermable i liair.
Lea ailes sont un peu inclines en
toit pour permettre de se diriger.
Traverse ly, aert i mettre l'aile eu
tranchant en la relevant et a plat eu
l'abaissant, cela volont au moyen
des cordea qui la relient aux pieds.
r ,
Chaque paire d'ailes est fixe a
un bion at N en roseau et au
moyen des charnires
a,a,.,.
Pied
. de fon-
_ fixe au
>lules.
L aile est forme par deux roseaux
tte,HK? et **e traverse XJ, so-
,lidines tu moyen de quatre
jjigarures i, a, 3, 4.
Fttrto-
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coips p*i des couiroies,
mais d*ns lequel on
peur enirer ei soriir.
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MODEL .
l900
Mm.
BOUSSON
58
The "Auto Aviateur" was built by Firmin Bousson in l900. It consisted of
a number of flapping wings and a tractor propeller. The craft was tested
October, l900 at Avron Plain, but with no success.
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This ornithopter was a German development by Frederick Budig. It consisted of a pair of
curved wings which were capable of telescoping through an arc into a fixed central vee portion.
The telescoping portions pivoted about "a" (See Figure 1). The extending and retracting of the
wings produced a flapping effect. For other details see U.S. patent 2,155,468.
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MODEL
MF.
B. OTHERS
60
BACQUEVILLE MODEL l742
In l742, the Marquis de Bacqueville proposed the use of four wings to
fly across the Seine. He tested the apparatus by jumping from the terrace
of his hotel. About halfway across the river, he fell into a boat and broke
his thigh.
BARON MODEL l9l2
This machine had two conventional wings capable of flapping, located for-
ward, and two bird-form wings aft which produced an "oaring" motion.
BEAVERS MODEL l9l0
The Beavers ornithopter was under construction in Scranton, Pennsylvania,
by D. Beavers during l9l0 - ll, but details are unknown.
BESNIER MODEL l673
Besnier was a locksmith from Sable. His flying apparatus consisted of
two sets of hinged surfaces which worked alternately.
174B. - Marqnla de BACQUEVILLE |
S'.iiu. .liiile. vx knqwlb* i'amiHir , I
ca** la mi*.? en toulani iraier-rr ln S,.in.
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MODEL
MFR .
B. OTHERS
6l
BJORK MODEL l9l0
This machine was built by E. Bjork of Chicago in l9l0 The craft was 32
feet long, weighed 400 pounds, and was powered by a 35 HP engine.
B LA DUD MODEL
Bladud, mythological King of England in 852 B.C., by using feathers,
made a flight which ended in his death.
BODHESATVA
Bodhisatva was a mythological man from India. In prehistoric times, he
made a non-stop flight from Himalaya to Ceylon on a "Flying Horse".
BORGHESE-PARIZZA MODEL l93l
The "Cyclo'Voilier" was a muscle-powered ornithopter tricycle. The
apparatus was tested in Paris during the l930's, and it failed to leave the ground.
BRUNNER MODEL l939
Karl Brunner of Vienna constructed a small flapping wing machine in l939.
Prior to this, Brunner had successfully flown rubber-powered models using
the same principle. Figure l shows th<=* structure of the man-carrying version.
The powerplant, a 4 HP aircooled engine, was mounted at the top of the machine.
Below this was a box containing the wing actuating mechanism.
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model Mm. E. OTHERS
BRUSTMANN MODEL l925
This somewhat conventional flapping wing glider was built in Germany
by Dr. Martin Brustmann. In l925, a flight of about 60 feet was made in
this machine.
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unn l92l - 37 MM. CHERANV0SK3
63
Since the conception of the USSR, V. I. Cheranovski has been a leading
engineer in the field of powerless flight. A number of gliders were built to
his designs through the years, the most notable being the parabola flying
wings Of the Thirties. Cheranovski is still one of the leading Soviet engineers
in this field.
In earlier days, he produced some interesting designs for muscle-powered
ornithopter-gliders. The first of this series was built in Moscow in l92l (Fig-
ures l and 2). This machine was a biplane type with articulated wings. The
opposite upper and lower wings were interconnected and given their flapping
motion by means of pilot-operated pedals. The wings had a degree of spanwise
flexibility. This configuration required an assisted takeoff (And a forward
speed) before the flapping thrust could be developed. The apparatus was un-
successful. Contributing to the lack of success were the uncomfortable position
of the pilot, and the means for an assisted takeoff.
In l93l, the Model l6 was produced (Figures 3 to 5). This version was a
220 pound flying wing ornithopter with propelling surfaces located at the wing-
tips. At the trailing edge of the central wings were two movable surfaces which
served as elevators and ailerons. A dorsal fin was added for stability. The
apparatus was strapped to the pilot by a special harness. Originally, the
weight was carried by the pilot, but later a central landing skid was added. It
was intended that the ship would become airborne by an assisted takeoff. Struts
were attached to the tip surfaces, permitting the flapping action (Figure 4).
However, with the flapping hinge located so far outboard, the amplitude of this
motion was insufficient. The problem was complicated by the fact that the fly-
ing wing principle was a new idea.
Perhaps the best conclusion drawn from this project is expressed in
Cheranovski's words: "In drawing up projects of such new experimental machines
like the ornithopter, it is best to avoid simultaneous solution of other problems.'
This design philosophy has been iterated time and again by engineers the world
over.
Around l937, the Model l8 was produced (Figures 6 and 7). This machine
was a biplane ornithopter-glider and, because it was muscle-powered, Cheranov-
ski called it a "Sarcoflier". The principle of operation resembled the l92l
model. A common pivot for the wings was located behind the pilot's head. The
upper right wing panel and lower left panel were part of the same continuous
wing. The other two panels were also integral. This flapping motion brought
the tips of both wings together or moved them apart. The combination of a hori-
zontal flight velocity and a vertical flapping velocity produced an angle of attack
which was large on the wind down-stroke and small on the up-stroke. When the
two upper wings were moving down, the bottom two were moving up. Thus the
greater lift was on the upper pair. In this manner, the lift increment alternated
between the upper and lower set of wings, resulting in a steady lift for the system.
By proper design of the wing incidence, a thrust component would also be pro-
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M0DI, 1921 - 37 M. CHERANVOSKI
64
duced. In this version more attention was given to pilot comfort. The operator
was enclosed in a furnished cockpit. Wing flapping was produced by leg work,
and control of the craft was through a hand lever. The control system was the
conventional glider type (the upper wing having ailerons) except that a twisting
motion of the stick replaced the rudder pedals.
Characteristics:
Powerplant: Muscle-powered
Assisted takeoff
Wings: Biplane, four equal area panels
Total area - l07,5 Sq. Ft.
Span - 26.2 Ft.
Weights: Empty - l5 Lbs.
Gross - 286 Lbs.
Construction: Plywood fuselage
Single spar, rigid wings
Test Results: The machine was flown successfully as a fixed
wing glider by P. A. Pischechev. However,
its performance as an ornithopter is not known.
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model 1908. mfr. COLLOMB
66
Around l908, a flapping wing machine was built by Jules Collomb of Lyons,
France. The ornithopter had two flapping wings that were made up of a
number of hinged surfaces. The "doors" remained closed on the down-stroke
and opened on the up-stroke.
The ship was powered by a 40 HP engine and weighed 550 pounds. The
wing flapping frequency was 3 strokes per second. The span was 39.4 feet, and
the total wing area was 258 square feet. For other data see French patent
374,l26.
mm
%
3G
P 111
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MODEL
XHBS.
67
CANNON MODEL l9l0
This "Flapper" was built by Reverend B. Cannon who, as early as l900,
had the design revealed to him by the Bible. That year, he formed a company
to build a prototype. The machine was unsuccessful.
In May, l9l0, he began work on a new machine "Ezekiel-II".
CAPREDONI MODEL l909
This ornithopter was built by Guarino Capredoni at Genoa, Italy, in l909.
It consisted of a monoplane wing system in which flapping was produced by a
crank. The machine never flew.
CLAUDEL MODEL l864
In l864, Claudel proposed an ornithopter with two rotating wings. The
craft was to be steam-driven.
COULOMB l78l
The well known French scientist, Coulomb, had given Blanchard's flying
machine some thought. It is interesting to record his conclusions on the sub-
ject. In l78l, before the French Academy of Sciences, he stated flapping
flight to lift a man would require wings two or three thousand feet long, and
oscillating at a frequency of three feet per second.
COUSIN MODEL l9ll
Dr. Joseph Cousin of Avignon, France, spent a number of years studying
bird flight. Numerous monographs on this subject were written by Cousin,
and in l9ll, a machine was built. The craft was incapable of flight.
1864 - CLA.UDEL, - A^rv
uei iitftiO]''vir. Si-Umc il':ul#- MUF-
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MODEL.
MFft.
DA VINCI
That Leonardo Da Vinci made sketches of flying machines is well-known.
Presented here are some of his ideas. The reduced model of a DaVinci
machine is the work of Mr. Paul Garber of the Smithsonian Institution
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MODEL
l9l0 ~. DUBOIS-RIOUT
72
This flapping wing monoplane was built around l9l0 by two Frenchmen,
Jean Marie DuBois and Rene Louis Riout. The flapping action was produced
by a central crank. The wings were sufficiently flexible to permit warping
with flapping. Lift and propulsion were obtained by means of the wings. The
power was supplied by a 3 cylinder "Fan" engine.
The machine was unsuccessful. For other details see U.S. patent 1,009,692.
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MODIL MFR. IL QTJHEBS.
73
DAEDALUS
Daedalus was a mythological character who made a successful overwater
flight near Crete, using waxed feathers. He was the father of the famed
Icarus, with whom he was trying to escape.
DAMIAN MODEL l507
In l507, John Damian supposedly attempted to cross the English channel
by use of wings made of hen feathers.
DANDRIEUX
Frenchman, Dandrieux, was a popular l9th century figure because of the
numerous toy helicopters he produced. A muscle-powered flapping wing
machine was also proposed by him, but nothing is known about it.
DANTI DA PERUGIA MODELS l500
Danti Da Perugia supposedly built two flapping wing machines around l500
A. D. In one experiment, he jumped from a church, struck his head against
the roof and fell to the ground. Both legs were broken.
DEGN MODEL l809
One of the earliest heavier-than-air flights was made by Jacob Degn, a
horologist of Basle, Switzerland. In l809, operating a muscle-powered
ornithopter, he rose to a height of 54 feet. Some support was obtained from
a small balloon attached to the apparatus. Actually, Degn lifted only 70 of
the l60 pounds of the device, including the operator. The wings, totaling ll6
square feet in area, were covered with taffeta bands arranged to simulate the
valve action of birds' feathers. The span was 22 feet.
Degn was an international airman, having given demonstrations in Vienna
and Paris during the period l808 to l8l2. IfcJ" ~7$\
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MODEL _
mm. D. OTHERS
74
DEGROOF MODEL 1874
DeGroof was a Belgian shoemaker, who invented a "Beating-wing Filer".
This apparatus was constructed around l874, but he could not find any support
for the project in his country. He eventually went to London. Here he success-
fully drop tested Ms device by using a balloon on June 29, l874. Hoi/ever, on
another trial, he cut loose at about l, 000 feet. The craft immediately collapsed,
and the inventor was killed by the fall.
DE LOUVRIE MODEL l877
The "Anthropornis" was proposed by DeLouvrie in l877. The wings were
driven by a steam or oil engine, and springs were used to aid in lowering the
wings.
D'ESTERNO MODEL l864
In l864, the Count D'Esterno proposed an ornithopter in which the wings and
tail could imitate the motions of a bird.
16M -Comw dESTKHIIO.- Al|..in.ii [
il 'ni nil*, m l qimM |.|ivi*ni imiii* if. ilif-
lffaiii, ni'iufiinmii-il.i J'i'.iu.
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D. OTHERS
DE VILLENEUVE MODEL l872
In l872, the Frenchman, Hureau DeVilleneuve, constructed a reduced
model of a flapping wing machine with a span of 48 feet. The device was used
by the Societe Francaise de Navigation Aerienne for experiments. It was flown
uptoSOFPS.
T:
117*. - KUHKAU 4a VI1XKNEUVE. - mi-
aaiqaa 4oat riu 4m naafiuii t*i iaHiatf p 43r*. Cat gaMprif.
t|<ManK atraM U 8oriU t'ram.iiia <l .Nm i.'iima hum.
. voW aTar aa viteaM a. 9 atlf p*/ teando.
I
DI LIONE MODEL l908
Around l908, an ornithopter was built in Italy by luge DiLione. The machine
included two flapping wings with a total area of 560 square feet. The machine
weighed 330 pounds and was driven by a 20 HP engine.
DIXON MODEL l909
A flapping machine was built in l909 by Cromwell Dixon, formerly an ex-
hibition flyer. The project was apparently abandoned.
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MODEL
MFR .
F. OTHERS
76
FIORENTINI MODEL l938
The Fiorentini ornithopter consisted of two flapping wings and a framework.
It weighed l6. 5 pounds and had a span of l3.l feet. This reduced model was
tested in l938 at Borgaretto and was able to produce flight of about l3 seconds.
The flapping frequency was l0 to l2 beats per second.
FIRNAS MODEL 875 A.D.
Abul Qasim Abbas Ibn Firnas was a mythological character who made a
flight in Spain in 875 A. D. by use of feathers.
FOUIN MODEL
A Fouin ornithopter was described in an early copy of L'Aeronaute (No. 570),
but additional data could not be located.
FUSERI MODEL l909
The Fuseri "Ortoelicottero" was an Italian project of l909.
FuSERl
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MODEL
G. OTHERS
77
GAMMETER MODEL l907
The Gammeter ornlthopter was an American project. The flapping wings
were made of bamboo, covered with silk. Two hinges were used to attach
each wing to the fuselage. Originally, a horizontal flywheel turning at l500
RPM was used for stabilization, but it was later removed. On its first flight,
the ship lifted off the floor developing a thrust of 24 pounds.
Characteristics:
GERARD MODEL l784
In l784, Gerard, a Frenchman, proposed a flying machine consisting of
two bird-like wings and a hull for passengers. Spring-loaded legs were
used for landing.
GIVRAY-GALEOTTI MODEL l908
This ornithopter consisted of two flapping wings. The machine was tested
near Cannes, France, in l908.
GREEN MODEL l9l0
W. L. Green of Monroe City, Missouri, designed a flapper-helicopter.
The fate of this project is not known.
Dimensions:
Weight:
Wings:
Powerplant:
Curtiss, 7 HP @ l200 RPM
Weight - 50 Lbs.
Two
Total Area - l54 Sq. Ft.
Flapping Frequency - 75 strokes per minute
Span - 30 Ft.
Length Overall - l2 Ft.
Gross - 440 Lbs.
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m... HARGRAVE
This combined airplane-ornithopter was built and flown by the well known
British and Australian pioneer, Lawrence Hargrave. Hargrave built a number
of reduced models driven by a compressed air engine with all/2 inch cylinder.
His Model l0 flew 368 feet in l890, and in l89l, Model l3 flew l28 feet in 8
seconds.
In l893, Hargrave abandoned flapping wing studies and produced the stable
box kite. This was shortly adopted by airplane builders seeking a stable wing
system.
The Illustration shows a model presented to the Smithsonian Institution by
Hargrave in l893. The flapping wings were used for propulsion. Each blade
produced a thrust on the down-stroke.
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MODEL mfr. H. OTHERS
79
HAFNER MODEL l909
This machine had a flapping tail that was operated by the pilot by means of
pedals. The craft was 26.2 feet long and had a span of 23 feet. The weight
was 53 pounds. Short hops were made with the apparatus, after which it was
abandoned.
HALL-BORN MODEL l9l0
This combined helicopter-ornithopter was reported under construction in
l9l0. Test results are unknown.
HARRIMAN MODEL l9l0
This ornithopter was under development in the U.S. in l9l0.
HAYN and LEILICH MODEL l9l0
An ornithopter by Hayn and Leilich was reported under development in a
book "Jane's All the World Aircraft" l9l0 - ll. Results of this work are not
known.
HERMAN MODEL l93l
This muscle-powered ornithopter was built by W. H. Herman of San Jose,
California, as a result of twenty years of experimentation. The apparatus was
strapped to the operator's body and the flapping was produced by means of hand
leyers. The operator wore a cap which, through cables, actuated elevators in
the rear. Nodding of the head produced control. The takeoff was assisted;
a trailer carrying the pilot and his apparatus brought the device up to takeoff
speed. The ornithopter weighed 56 pounds and had a wing spread of 36 feet.
The framework was built up of wood with wire bracing, and the wings were
covered with light canvas.
HUTCHINSON MODEL l905
The Hutchinson ornithopter was a development of l905. The wing span was
20 feet and covered an area of 60 square feet. There were l00 flapping strokes
a minute. The powerplant was a 3 HP gasoline engine. The transmission
system consisted of a cone friction clutch and a two stage chain drive.
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MODEL MFR. ICARUS
80
Icarus, the famed mythological character, attempted an overwater flight
near Crete using waxed feathers. He flew too near the sun, and his machine
melted apart. Icarus fell into the sea and was drowned.
MODEL
l9l0
MFR .
JACQUELIN
This ornithopter was the invention of Edmond Jacquelin, a Frenchman, and
is described in French patent 403, 650. The numerous wings were made up
of hinged surfaces which closed on the down-stroke and opened on the up-stroke.
A propeller was used to drive the machine. The illustration shows a reduced
model of the apparatus.
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MODEL.
Mr,. J. OTHERS
8l
JOBERT MODELS l87l - l872
In l87l, Jobert tested a reduced model ornithopter using two flapping wings.
In l872, be built the Jobert "Mechanical Bird" which consisted of "four wings
whose flapping, at the rhythm of a trot, produces the equilibrium of the ma-
chine".
4 Mb.
1 .
'1872. JOBERT.owjiu nivrAiiiijM* ii ijwiitv ailt*. ,
il'm' lh teitt'iMnl.*u rvCuup iig m'i. ]iioiJiiii rnjiiililirc aV
l i'
JORDANOGLOU MODEL l948
Current interest in the flight of insects has been maintained in the United
States by Alexander Jordanoglou
For this type of aircraft, he suggested the word "Entomopter". The illustra-
tion shows the mechanism used in his studies. The device was placed on a
balance to measure the thrust. The wings were driven by a l/6 HP motor. The
tests were limited to a wing cycle of 700 strokes per minute. Results of this
research have not yet been published.
JUGE and ROLLAND MODEL l909
This ornithopter was built in France around l909 by Jean B. Juge and Paul
Rolland of Lyons. Support of the craft was by use of two flapping wings covered
with silk. Each wing was l6.4 feet long. The wings were driven from the engine.
The empty weight of the craft was 66 pounds. The ornithopter was tested on the
ground andfound "satisfactory" according to Rolland. However, he felt the power
plant used was too weak and that at least 40 HP was needed to fly. For other in-
formation see French patent 392, 544.
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The "Orniplane" was designed in the United States by Kemph around 1924. It was made up of
a conventional parasol monoplane with the addition of a lower set of flapping wings. The scale
model, illustrated, was constructed by Paul Garber of the Smithsonian Institution.
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model mf. K. OTHERS
83
KAHN MODEL l925
In l925, Louis Kahn built an ornithopter resembling a dragonfly. A set of
flapping wings were located fore and aft on the fuselage. A 300 HP engine
powered the craft, and it weighed 3520 pounds. It was designed to fly about
ll0 MPH. In addition, it was capable of hovering.
No flights were made with this machine.
KUNOW MODEL l909
The Kunow "Flapper" was reported under construction in l909, as a
result of the inventor's successful work with reduced models. It appears
that the prototype was never completed.
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MODEL MFR.
LILIENTHAL | 8?
LILIENTHAL MODEL l890
In l890, Otto Lilienthal and his brother, Gustave, built a flapping wing
glider which was to be operated by muscle-power. The two wings were
built up of artificial feathers. This apparatus failed to fly.
Another somewhat similar machine was used to determine the lifting capa-
city of muscular effort. The apparatus was rigged up on a set of pulleys and
balanced by a counterweight. By a flapping action, Lilienthal was able to
develop about 88 pounds of thrust. The machine and operator weighed l76
pounds.
LILIENTHAL MODEL l924
This ornithopter was built in Germany in l924 by Gustave Lilienthal in the
Otto Lilienthal Gesellschaft. The craft was powered by a 3. 5 HP D. K. W.
engine. In l928, it was destroyed in a storm. The machine was later put in
the German museum at Adlershof.
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MODEL.
MFR .
L. OTHERS
85
LEBRIS MODEL l857
In l857, Jean Marie LeBris, a French sea captain, constructed a giant
flying machine patterned after an albatross. The wings were powered by the
operator working against the action of a spring. The wing span was 23 feet.
The "Artificial Albatross" was built of ash and covered with canton flannel.
LeBris tested his apparatus near Brest. It was mounted on a cart which was
drawn.by a horse. The craft took to the air, but the operator was forced to
bring it down as the result of a minor operational difficulty.
* t857. LB IRIS. l.'."ii. .it lit*,!in*.iil l'shniwiiwiif
LEFEBURE MODEL l9l2
This ornithopter was generally similar to the De La Hault machine. It had
a span of 29. 5 feet and a height of l3 feet. The fate of this project is not
known.
LINDMANN MODEL l934
In l934, Lindmann constructed an ornithopter-velocipede which was operat-
ed by his own muscle-power.
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MODEL
86
LIPPISCH MODEL l930
During the l930's, Dr. A. Lippisch conducted tests on a flapping wing
glider built in Germany. It was essentially a monoplane glider with articulated
wing tips. The flapping motion was to be produced by the pilot's effort which,
in this case, was estimated to be l HP.
Dr. Lippisch is presently in the United States and is attached to the Naval
Aircraft Factory in Philadelphia.
LOUP MODEL l852
In l852, Michel Loup proposed a flying machine which included fixed and
flapping wings in combination.
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MODEL.
1944
MAULE
In l944, Bedford D. Maule of Ohio successfully flew an ornithopter-glider
of his own design. The wings were operated by a manual system of levers.
In this ship, Maule was able to climb or prolong his flight at will.
The gull wing machine (illustrated) weighed 385 pounds and had a span of
54 feet. Its length was 30 feet. The wings were capable of moving through
a 32 inch arc. This glider required an assisted takeoff.
A second machine was designed by Maule in which the wings could be
operated in a 3 foot arc while it was still on the ground. The builder expected
this version to take off without any assistance.
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Modcl ym. M. OTHERS
88
MAREY l890
The work of the French professor, Marey, is included here because of his
painstaking laboratory work on the flight of birds. This research was conducted
around the turn of the century. One of Marey's important publications on the
subject is "Le Vol des Oisseaux" published in Paris, France, in l890.
McNAIR MODEL l9l0
An ornithopter was reported under development in l9l0 by the McNair
brothers of Peoria, Illinois. The fate of the project is unknown.
MESSINGER MODEL l9l0
This ornithopter project was under development in l9l0. It included two
propellers, one located at either end of the fuselage.
MILLER MODEL l843
In l843, W. Miller of London published a monograph on an "Aerostat worked
by manual power". In this, he described his ideas for a muscle-powered orni-
thopter. The two flapping wings used were made of hollow cane, covered with
oiled silk.
MONTEZEMLO MODEL
The Montezemlo ornithopter was a reduced model driven by compressed
air with a maximum rating of l/2 HP. The span was l5.9 feet, and the craft
weighed 45.7 pounds. The central part of the wing was fixed, while the tips
were movable. During tests, this apparatus flew l2l feet.
MOSSE MODEL l905
The Mosse ornithopter was built in l905. Two flapping wings were located
laterally on a central fuselage.
MURRAY MODE L l9l0
In l9l0, L. J. Murray of New York constructed an ornithopter which utilized
a special power plant.
MYERS MODEL l928
The Myer's ornithopter was built by Robert Myers of Rockford, Illinois,
about l928. Outcome of this project is not known.
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MODEL.
m. O. OTHERS
89
OCHOA MODEL l909
An ornithopter built by V. L. Ochoa was displayed at the Arlington, Vir-
ginia, Flying Meet in May, l909. The lift was produced by two large flapping
wings.
A considerable amount of controversial discussion in aeronautical
journals of the period centered around this machine. The craft was never
flown.
OEHMICHEN
The name of Etienne Oehmichen, the helicopter pioneer, is worthy of
mention here because of the number of years he devoted to the study of bird
and insect flight. Two of his published works on this subject are as follows:
l. Nos Maitres les Oiseau, published by Dunod Company, Paris,
l920, l90 pages.
2. La Securite Aerienne Animaux et Machines, published by
Hermann & Co., Paris, l938, 74 pages.
OLIVER OF MALMESBURY l000 A.D.
In l000 A. D., a mythological Englishman, Oliver of Malmesbury, equipped
with fabric wings, made a jump from a tower. He broke his legs.
OTSON MODEL l9l0
This ornithopter was reported under development in l9l0, but additional
data is not known.
OUTCAULT MODEL l9l0
This machine was under construction in l9l0 by A. S. Outcault of Richland
Center, Massachusetts. It consisted of two sets of "parachute wings" combined
with a cigar-shaped gas bag. The pilot's nacelle was suspended below.
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The ornithopter built by J. B. Passat in Wimbledon, England, consisted of four bird-like
wings movably mounted on the fuselage. The wings revolved at 90 - 95 RPM. Power was
derived from a two cylinder A. B. C. engine rated 10 HP at 2000 RPM. The engine was geared
to turn 900 to 950 RPM or 10 times the wing frequency. During trials the machine lifted 250
pounds on about 5 HP.
Passat's ornithopter was one of the more "successful" machines in this class. However, he had
no provisions for propulsion or control of the aircraft.
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M.Dt_l879 __ mm. PICHANCOURT
9l
The illustration shows a reduced model of the Pichancourt ornithopter
which was built in l879, a time when any kind of mechanical flight was a
rarity.
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MODCL _ 1882 Mf. POMPEIEN
92
J. C. Pompeien (Piraud) of Lyon spent a number of years trying to solve
the problem of mechanical flight. During the late l880's, he devoted his time
to the ornithopter. The illustrations show his proposed machine which he de-
signed to simulate the flight of a bat.
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MODEL MFR. P. OTHERS
93
PEGASUS ll00 B.C.
The famous winged horse of Greek mythology (ll00 B.C.). He is currently
earning a living selling gasoline.
PENAUD MODEL l872
Around l872, the Frenchman, Alphonse Penaud, experimented with a number
of successful ornithopters, each powered with rubber bands. The wings were
actuated by means of a crank.
'1872. FB3f AUD. Auirr gnn
M*a Mri'npiniir. wait *MH iiu'liuaiftuu ,l*.' l"aw
iU r'Ubmi. Cfi uliIiarU a uM. I
POULAIN MODEL l92l
In l92l, the Frenchman, Poulain, made a short hop in his ornithopter-
bicycle. The apparatus consisted of a conventional bicycle abovej which was
installed a set of biplane wings. The flight was for a distance of about 50 feet,
flying 5 feet off the ground.
PRIGENT MODEL l87l
In l87l, Prigent proposed a flapping wing machine which used two sets of
wings in tandem, applying the principle of the "dragonfly".
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MODEL 1905 MFR.
ROUX
94
This machine was built by M. F. Roux, a Frenchman. Two flapping
wings were used for lift, and a propeller at the tail was used for forward flight.
This propeller was l.l5 feet in diameter and turned 600 - 700 RPM, absorbing
2 HP. The wings absorbed about 5.5 HP for each HP of propeller. The wing
area was 22.9 square feet. The machine weighed 440 pounds. Roux believed
that 6 or 7 HP was sufficient to fly the ship.
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MODEL MF.
R. OTHERS
95
REUCHE-CAZAURAN MODEL l9l0
This ornithopter was reported under construction in September, l9l0. It
was a combined monoplane-flapper. The articulated wings were intended to
lift the machine and to be fixed for a gliding flight.
RICCI MODEL
The Ricci ornithopter consisted of two flapping wings hinged to a central
fuselage. Only a scale model was built and tested. Ettore Ricci spent a
number of years studying unconventional forms of flight. A summary of his
studies, and the works of others, is covered in a recent book: Dal Volo
Animale Al Volo Muscolare Umano" by Ettore Ricci, published by Editore
Ulrico Hoepli; Milan, Italy; l946, 403 pp., 4l0 illustrations.
ROTH MODEL
This ornithopter was the design of G. Roth. The two wings were made up
of flexible strips which permitted a one-way flow of air through the wings. The
wings were power-driven, and their maximum amplitude in flapping was 85.
ROUQUETTE MODEL l9l4
In l9l4, Rouquette, a Frenchman, tested a flapping wing-bicycle craft
which failed to leave the ground.
RUSS MODEL l9l0
This ornithopter-biplane was under construction in l9l0 by Fritz Russ of
Johnstown, Pennsylvania. The fuselage had a closed cabin for passengers.
The craft was powered by a 40 - 60 HP Elbridge engine.
RUTHENBERG MODEL l900
The German, Ruthenberg, was reported to have built an ornithopter around
the beginning of the century.
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This ornithopter project took two years to build and was completed in 1909. The
failed to fly and was abandoned on the spot.
Characte r is tics:
Powerplants:
Wings:
Dimensions:
Weights:
Two, 8 HP each
Flapping Frequency - 60 strokes per minute
Span - 46 Ft.
Length - 19.8 Ft.
Gross - 1100 Lbs.
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model_L910_ m. SOLTAU
97
The Soltau ornithopter was produced in Vienna in l9l0 based on the principle
of the De La Hault machine.
Characteristics:
Powerplant:
Wings:
Weights:
Dimensions:
Test Results:
Dewar, l cylinder, liquid air engine
24 HP at 60 RPM
Two
Span - 38 Ft.
Max. Chord - 8 Ft.
Taper - l2 to l
Gross - l2l2 Lbs. (including pilot)
Length - 28 Ft.
Width - 38 Ft.
The machine made short hops, but other
than that,, there is no record of a success-
ful flight.
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The "Flying Man" was patented in 1889 (See U.S. patent 398,984) by R. J. Spalding. In
those days, the patent office requested models of the inventions, and the illustration shows
Spalding's creation. The model is now on exhibition in the National Air Museum of the Smithsonian.
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MODEL.
l947
MF* .
STOUT
99
William B. Stout has been a proponent of insect-type flight for many
years. A number of designs have evolved, and one made public recently
was named "Geflopigator". In this type, two wings were used which pivot
in a horizontal plane, each sweeping a half circle as it oscillates.
Figure l shows a test set up for this type of wing motion. In operation,
the pulley P flexed the wing up and down through a certain arc at the rate of
200 to 400 strokes per minute. The results were encouraging and Stout built
an improved version which he called the "Geflopigus".
Tig. l^TJkl^CMlopijrtor"
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model Mm. S. OTHERS
100
SARACEN MODEL ll00 A.D.
About ll00 A.D., Sarcen of Constantinople built a pair of wings which he
tested at a public demonstration. His flight was brief, and he crashed to
earth.
SCHEUES MODELS l906-l9l0
The first Schelies ornithopter was built in l906 by Richard Schelies of
Hamburg. It consisted essentially of lateral wings in tandem, mounted on a
bicycle. It was reported to have flown a distance of 400 yards. A second
ship was under construction in l9l0.
SCHMAEDELBACH and BERNER MODEL l909
This ornithopter incorporated a biplane system. The prototype was tested
near Dresden, Germany, in l909. It was claimed that this machine flew for
l500 feet about 3 feet off the ground. The weight of the craft was 827 pounds.
SCHULKE MODEL l908
The Schulke ornithopter consisted of a cigar-shaped body with a flapping
wing on either side. On the down-stroke, the wing was flat against the air,
but was feathered for the up-stroke. In l908, reduced models, using this
principle, were successfully flown. Shortly thereafter, construction was
begun on a full scale ship.
SMITHIES MODEL l860
In l860, Smithies proposed a flying machine consisting of fixed planes and
flapping wings driven by steam.
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MODEL.
MFR .
T. OTHERS
l0l
TATIN MODEL l874
The French aeronautical pioneer, Victor Tatin, experimented with a
tiny ornithopter in l874. The machine weighed 5 grams.
TWINING MODEL l909
This muscle-powered ornithopter was built by H. la V. Twining, Presi-
dent of the Aero Club of California. The apparatus was completed in October,
l909. It consisted of two flapping wings mounted on a simple tubular frame-
work, the whole being supported by a tricycle landing gear.
Characteristics:
Powerplant:
Wings:
Control Means:
Weight:
Test Results:
Muscle-powered
Two
Area - 65 Sq. Ft.
Span - 26 Ft. (Max.)
Chord - 4 Ft.
Leverage Rate - 5 to l
Construction - Maple slats covered with
fabric
The operator shifts his own weight
Empty - l00 Lbs.
It was claimed that each wing could pro-
duce a thrust of 850 to l000 Lbs. How-
ever, an earlier version of this ornithop-
ter was unsuccessful.
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MODEL MF.
V. OTHERS 102
VANDENBERGH MODEL l909
This ornithopter was built in Belgium in l909. It resembles the Oe La
Hault "Flapper". The gross weight of the Vandenbergh machine was l320
pounds. The project was apparently abandoned shortly after it was built.
VIKRAMADITYA
Vikramaditya, a mythological king of India in prehistorical times, made
a high altitude flight on a mechanical horse. The King was shaken up as a
result of landing in a tree.
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#
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MODEL l926 MF. WEIL
l03
The Weil machine was a fixed wing aircraft that used a "breast stroke"
for propulsion. Hinged surfaces produced the flapping thrust.
Details of this invention are disclosed in U.S. patent l, 569, 794 issued to
Lehman Weil of New York. The power was supplied by pedal action of the
operator.
Figure l shows a reduced model of the principle while Figures 2 and 3
show the prototype. The ship was unsuccessful.
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#
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MODEL
l928
MFR.
WHITE
l04
The "Orthicopter" was built by George White of Stony Brook, New York,
and tested in secret at St. Augustine, Florida.
The craft was pedal-driven and exhibited a 90 degree flapping angle. The
wings were built to simulate those of a bird and were composed of a number
of artificial feathers. The span was 29. 5 feet. The ornithopter was complete-
ly covered with cellophane.
The ornithopter was launched from a speeding automobile. It was claimed
that fourteen flights were made, travelling up to 4000 feet distance a few
feet off the ground. However, in a public demonstration it failed to take to
the air.
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#
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MODtL MF.
W. OTHERS I l05
WASEM MODEL l908
The Wasem ornithopter was reported under development in l908, but
additional information is not known.
WEATHERBY MODEL l909
The Weatherby ornithopter built around l909 consisted of four sets of
aluminum wings. In January, l9l0, the ship made a few short hops.
WEAVER MODEL l9l0
This combined ornithopter and monoplane was built by Weaver and Morton
of Coventry, England, around l9l0. It was designed to hover.
Characteristics:
Powerplant: 20 HP
Flapping Wings: Two
Each 20 Ft. long
Propeller: Diameter - 8 Ft. adjustable pitch
Construction - aluminum and steel
Fuselage: Aluminum and bamboo frame
Dimensions: Overall width - 40 Ft.
Tail: The rear elevators also flapped
Test Results: First flown May, l9l0 over l/4 mile course
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106
H. SPECIAL TYPES
D - OTHER CONFIGURATIONS
There exists a group of aircraft which may loosely be included
in this work on rotary wing aircraft. These are presented here in al-
phabetical order according to inventor, irrespective of the configuration.
Some designs are more practical than others, and they serve
to complete this survey of rotary wing art.
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MODEL.
MF * .
AUTO-STABLE
107
This machine, proposed in l909, consisted of two large cylinders mounted
laterally on a triangular fuselage. Each cylinder served as a shroud for a
large pusher screw as well as doubling for the lifting surfaces. The fate of
this project is unknown.
3
teroplane Auto-stable
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MODEL - MF. B. OTHERS
l08
BEGG MODEL l924
In l924, an American, A. C. W. Begg, entered a rotorcraft design in a
forthcoming helicopter competition. The ship consisted of a series of tri-
angular surfaces hinged at one edge to horizontal crossbars rotating about a
vertical column. The surfaces were tilted at small angles to the horizontal
by a system of levers and sliding collars on the column. References indicate
the craft was never built.
BRITISH HELICOPTER CO. (Purton and Purton) MODEL l924
In l924, this firm entered a rotorcraft design in a forthcoming international
helicopter competition. Actual description given by the company was somewhat
vague. The machine was to be powered with a 50 HP Green engine.
BROWN MODEL l924
In l924, V. E. Brown, an American, entered a rotorcraft design in a
forthcoming helicopter competition. In this machine, airscrews discharged
downwardly on a conical deflector. From here, the air was deflected horizontal-
ly. The length of this craft was 42 feet; width, l8 feet and height, 8.7 feet.
Three engines totaling 440 HP were used to drive it. References indicate that
this ship never materialized.
BUCKLEY MODEL l925
In l925, E. T. Buckley, an Englishman, entered a rotorcraft in a forth-
coming helicopter competition. This machine was a biplane type powered by
three 50 HP Engines. The length of the machine was 20 feet and the span,
22 feet. This craft was apparently a convertible type.
Buckley experimented with reduced models but a full scale machine was
never built.
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l932 MF. CORDY
109
Around l932, Harry Cordy of Los Angeles, California, built a rotorcraft
with two lifting screws. These screws were of a special scooped shape. For
forward flight, a tractor propeller was used, and it could be disconnected at
will from the power source.
Hollow monoplane wings served as air scoops. Air was ducted through
the hollow wings and roof and out under the lifting screws. This augmented
the lift of the airscrews. The wings were hinged at their root and could be
folded against the sides of the fuselage. For other details see U.S. patent
l,8l8,ll6.
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MODEL
mfr. DE CHAPPEDELAINE
l11
The "Tubavion" was designed in France by Jean de Chappedelaine in l926.
The aircraft consisted essentially of two turbo blowers located on either side
of a stubby fuselage. These blowers ejected air downward and aft, providing
the lifting and propelling forces. Deflector flaps controlled the direction of
the jets of air. The horizontal blower shafts were driven by engines inside the
fuselage. The exhaust products were mixed with the ejected air. The inlet
of the blowers was connected with slots provided on the upper surface of the
fuselage in order to use the boundary layer suction as a means to reduce the
drag of the machine.
The "Tubavion" was never built in full scale, but several models were
built, weighing up to four pounds. Experiments made in l926 - 27 at the
Office National des Recherches et Inventions, Bellvue, France, show that
the power loading could reach 9 Lbs. /HP based on static thrust.
MODEL
MFR .
De GROSSE
In l924, an Australian named F. De Grosse entered a rotorcraft design
in a forthcoming international helicopter competition. No particulars are
available, and it appears the craft was never built.
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MODEL MM. . OTHERS
l12
FITZGERALD MODEL l924
In l924, M. Fitzgerald entered a rotorcraft design in a forthcoming
international helicopter competition. Particulars are lacking and it appears
the ship was never built.
FORD MODEL l925
A. S. Ford was an American who entered a rotorcraft design in a l925
helicopter competition. A prototype was reported under construction.
This craft was powered by a l750 HP steam turbine. The height was
l4. 5 feet. An 8 foot propeller was incorporated in the design.
MODEL MFR.
GEISSLER
This "Ornithoplane" was built in l909. The lift was to be derived from
flexible surfaces running over rollers producing a wave motion.
There is no record of any success with the machine.
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model l92l mm, HANSCHKE | 1l3
The following item is reproduced from Aerial Age, July l8, 192l:
"THE HAGUE - Dutch agents here are exploiting a new helicopter invented
by a German named Hanschke, which it is predicted will revolutionize aviation.
The helicopter flies 3l3 MPH, can ascend and descend vertically, hover,
and cannot fall. Hanschke declares he can fly to New York in one day and
could fly around the world, if financed.
Col. Williams of the British Aviation Commission saw a model in Berlin
and was amazed. Allied restrictions prevented Hanschke from constructing his
invention; and the German War Ministry forbade him to offer it to any foreign
country, although unable to use it, because it would mean reorganization of
the Flying Corps".
The machine is described in U.S. patent l, 63l, 86l. Figure l shows the
principle of operation. The lift is provided by two sets of impellers in tandem.
The airflow is directed up against the roof (a) of the ship. The tractor screws
provide the propulsive force.
A reduced model was demonstrated before an interested group, as related
above. The impellers were driven by a clockwork mechanism. The model was
balanced by a counterweight prior to the demonstration. In this manner, two
weights of 30 grams each were lifted.
One of the observers reported "it was not an impressive demonstration."
The proposed full scale machine was to have the following dimensions:
Length - l3.l Ft.
Height - l3.l Ft.
Width - 7.9 Ft.
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MODEL
MFR .
H. OTHERS
TT5
HAN1SCH-BUCHER MODEL l847
The Hanisch-Bucher paddle plane was a monster design of l847.
illustration is a reproduction of a contemporary journal.
The
The ship consisted of four rotors, quadrilaterally disposed on a central
hull. Each rotor had 8 fabric "blades" which were cyclically reefed to obtain
a net lifting thrust.
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HURD-HALES MODEL l9l0
This project consisted chiefly of two chain driven disks. The craft was
l4 feet long and weighed 400 pounds. An l8 HP engine was used to operate
the aircraft.
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MODEL .
mm. H. OTHERS 116
HOLLANDER MODEL l925
In l925, M. Hollander, an American, proposed a type of rotorcraft in
which the lift was derived from a current of air of high velocity directed
against the upper surface of the machine to create vacuum.
This design was entered in a helicopter competition but nothing came of
it ,
MODEL MF. Urn- OTHERS
LANE MODEL l908
The Lane rotorcraft consisted of a single wing 40 x 20 feet, in the center
of which was a large screw l6 feet in diameter. The screw was used to com-
press air from above and discharge it from below by means of special cups.
The flow was a pulsating one and operated 250 cycles per minute. The craft
was designed to take a 36 HP engine.
It was reported that in September, l908, Lane made a l l/2 mile flight
in this machine using his own muscular energy for power. The ship was the
development of the Lane Automatous Airship Company of San Francisco.
LE BOLOCH MODEL l925
The LeBoloch aircraft was a French design of l925. The structure re-
sembled a dirigible except that a well passed through it vertically to take a
pair of coaxial screws.
LeBoloch built reduced models of this configuration which were tested in
the Institute Aerotechnique at St. Cyr, France. In these tests, the models
developed a lift of l3.2 Lbs. /HP. In l947, a modern version was proposed,
having the following characteristics:
Rotor Diameter - l0 Ft.
Powerplants - Two, 40 HP each, one for lift and one for propulsion
Width - l3.l Ft.
Length - l6.4 Ft.
Total Lift - 550 Lbs.
Max. Speed - 80 MPH
Min. Speed - l2 MPH
Details of this invention are given in French patent 795, 3l6.
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unr. l929 M. MAIWURM
TIT
During the early Thirties, a machine called the "Wurm Device" was
produced by P. Maiwurm of Reno, Nevada. (See British patent 347, 679).
The machine incorporated a central hollow rotating band around which was
wrapped a coiling surface on both its exterior and interior walls. This gave
the effect of a large helix and, because it was tiltable, served as the lifting
and propelling means.
The machine was tested, but it failed to fly. It ran along the ground at the
rate of a few miles per hour, and occasionally lifted or bounced off the ground.
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MODEL.
urn. M OTHERS l18
MOLLER MODEL l925
C. J. Moller, a Dane, proposed a "drop shaped" rotorcraft in l925.
This craft was to be about 6 feet long and about 5 feet high. It was intended
that two Harley-Davidson engines of 7 - 9 HP mounted on top of the machine
would be sufficient to lift it.
MUIR MODEL l925
In l925, N. S. Muir, a Briton, proposed a type of rotorcraft having
multiple wings. It was to be l00 feet long and as many feet wide. The height
was about 20 feet. The power unit was to be one or more engines, or internal
combustion turbines, rated at about 500 HP.
Model tests were planned prior to construction of a prototype, and it
appears that the full scale machine was never built.
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119
OEHMICHEN MODELS 4 and 5 l929-3l
Etienne Oehmichen, the French helicopter pioneer, conducted tests on
a combined aerostat-helicopter during the years l929 to l935.
Two prototypes were built, the first incorporating the model numbers
4 and 5. This craft consisted of a small non-rigid airship to which was
attached a framework carrying the pilot, power plant and rotors. It was a
logical development of his first machine built in l92l. The two lifting screws,
set on inclined axes, produced a lifting force of 440 pounds. In addition, two
propulsive screws with variable pitch were provided for counteracting the
horizontal component produced by the lifting screws. A fifth screw was used
for directional control, permitting a pivoting of the craft about its own axis.
Details of this configuration are given in U.S. patent 2, 098, 877.
The "Helicostat", as it was called, was first tested in l929, and trials
continued to l93l. It showed good stability even in turbulent air. Some of
its performance feats are as follows:
l. Hovering flight of half an hour at about l000 feet.
2. Power-off descent from l000 feet at a speed of l4.8 feet per second
3. Without landing, receiving anddischarginga passenger by means of
a rope ladder.
4. Rearward flight against a wind of 4. 5 MPH
5. Left and right hand pivots about its vertical axis.
6. A five minute flight "Hands Off" in turbulent air.
7. Precision takeoffs and landings.
Characteristics:
Powerplant: Salmson, 40 HP
Lifting Rotors: Two, inclined
Lift Component - 440 Lbs. (combined)
Propellers: Two, variable pitch
Diameter - 7.2 Ft.
Control Screws: One
Aerostat: Non-rigid (built by Zodiac Co. )
Construction - rubber
Gas - hydrogen
Useful Lift - 726 Lbs.
Capacity - l4,l00 Cu. Ft.
Weight: Gross - ll66 Lbs. max.
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MODEL
OEHMICHEN
120
OEHMICHEN MODEL 6 l935
The "Helicostat No. 6", also built by Oehmichen, was produced at Valentig-
ney, France, in l935. It consisted of a balloon and a tubular frame composed
of four lifting screws.
The balloon was intended to stabilize the craft rather than lift it, and for
this reason, it was inflated with cold air. This balloon was the only stabiliz-
ing means. Oehmichen wanted to prove the stabilization was derived from its
shape, and not its buoyancy.
The "Helicostat" was tested by Oehmichen in a large hangar in Orly on
March 2, l935. It was flown four times for an accumulated time of 6 minutes
between altitudes of 30 and 60 feet. The ship was not developed beyond the
prototype form.
Characteristics:
Powerplant: 40 HP Salmson
Rotors: Four
Weights:
Balloon:
Diameter - 9.4 Ft.
Spherical
Gas - cold air
Capacity - 3530 Cu. Ft.
Gross - ll00 Lbs.
Empty - 924 Lbs.
Balloon - 88 Lbs.
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MODEL - 1911 M. PORTER
l22
In l9ll, James Robertson Porter was engaged in the development of an
unusual type of rotorcraft. Figure l shows a proposed machine based on his
tests. The lift was produced by a jet of air that was produced by a centrifugal
turbine.
Two "Turbine machines", as Porter called them, were tested. Machine
No. l was a laboratory setup using a 5 foot diameter rotor. The area of the
intake duct was equal to that of the annular outlet duct. A 6 HP engine was
used to drive the rotor by means of cables and an l8 inch pulley on the rotor
shaft.
Tests were made using blades (Figure 2) of different sizes, varying in
width from 5 to 9 inches. The depth of the blades was fixed at l2 inches.
The rotor speed was about 700 RPM. At this speed, the measured thrust was
30 pounds. According to Porter, this gave a thrust efficiency of 32 %. Machine
No. 2 was a larger version of No. l. The rotor diameter was ll.5 feet.
On the basis of these tests, Porter proposed the flying machine shown in
Figure l. He calculated a total lift of l000 pounds, using 32 of the 80 HP of
the power plant.
In l924 - 25, Porter entered his design in a current helicopter competition
but nothing came of it.
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MODEL MM. P. OTHERS
123
PAYNE MODEL l925
C. Q. Payne, an American, entered a rotorcraft design in a l924 helicopter
competition. The extent of this development is not known.
PITTNER MODEL l925
In l925, H. Pittner, an Austrian, entered a rotorcraft design in a current
helicopter competition. References indicate it was never built.
POTTS MODEL l9l0
A combination aircraft was designed by J. Potts of Winchester, Ohio,
around l9l0. The craft, powered by a 30 HP engine located below the wing,
drove four paddles. Two of these were located on either side of the ship.
These were used for both control and propulsion.
The fate of this project is unknown. (See U.S. patent 923,075)
PUSTERLA MODEL l925
In l925, A. Pusterla, an American, entered a rotorcraft design in a
forthcoming international helicopter competition. British patent 205, 84l was
cited as representative of his entry.
This craft consisted of a special type of lifting rotor driven by screws.
The rotor diameter was 50 feet, and the ship design was to be powered by
two, l00 HP aircooled rotary engines. There is no indication that this
proposal was constructed.
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MODEL.
l934
Mr*.
REDER
124
Although not a rotating wing aircraft, the Reder "Gyroboat" is an interest-
ing application of the autorotating rotor to a water borne craft.
The "Gyroboat" was designed by Otto Reder of the British Weir Autogiro
Company in l934 and built with the cooperation of J. T. C. Moore-Brabazon.
The rotor was installed on a small boat of the Redwing class. This type weighs
about one ton.. The weight of the standard sail rig was about 45 to 50 pounds.
The craft was tested by Moore-Brabazon in the Solent.
The following comparison was made between the "Gyroboat" and a conven-
tional rigged Redwing. In light winds up to 7 MPH, the "Gyroboat" was inferior.
The rotor did not have sufficient speed. In l5 MPH winds and higher, perfor-
mance was very good. However, its general use for cruising craft was con-
sidered dangerous and unpractical.
A similar type of water craft was built by E. B. Wilford arouad the same
time.
Diagram c* Autogbo-Sail
QJtDlH 2-6.34
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MOO EL Mr*.
R. OTHERS
125
ROBERT and PILLET MODEL l904
The device of these two French inventors was actually an aerostat with
lifting screws. The screws were used to obtain better control of the aerostat.
The lower part of the nacelle was fitted with two rotors on vertical axes.
These 7.9 foot screws incorporated a variable pitch feature. The buoyancy
of the craft was slightly less than its gross weight.
ROBINSON MODEL l909
Fly Magazine for October, l909 reported R. M. Robinson of Philadelphia
was working on a "common sense" flying machine. It consisted of a horizontal
ly flattened gas bag and four lifting screws, helicopter fashion.
Nothing else has been reported on this project.
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MODEL
l932 MrR. SAB AS 126
This craft was built by John Sabas of Grand Rapids, Michigan, in l932.
The lift and propulsion were supplied by a pair of paddle wheels located on
either side of the fuselage. The blades of the paddle wheels were built up of
a number of small pivoting surfaces. These surfaces changed their angle of
attack during rotation to allow for the necessary cyclic impulses to produce
lift and propulsion.
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MODEL MF.
S. OTHERS
127
SAMIDE MODEL l924
In l924, F. Samide, an Englishman, entered a paddle wheel rotorcraft
in a forthcoming international helicopter competition. The paddles were
partially enclosed in casings. A tractor screw was used for propulsion.
Samide was unable to construct his entry due to a lack of financial support.
SCOTTER MODEL 1925
In l925, W. C. Scotter, an Englishman, entered a rotorcraft design in a
forthcoming international helicopter competition. The machine was covered
by British patents l7,98l/l9l5 and l6,494/l9l3. The former disclosed a helical
screw wrapped around a central cylinder, while the latter patent shows a
rotorcraft with a lifting rotor consisting of blades that spin around their span
axis as the rotor turns.
SHEARER MODEL l909
E. J. Shearer of San Francisco, California, was reported to have built
an airplane of "side wheeler" construction in l909.
SPURGEON AND CHAPMAN MODEL l925
In l925, the Englishman, G. Spurgeon, and his assistant named Chapman,
entered a rotorcraft in a forthcoming international helicopter competition.
Indications are, however, that the design was never built.
SUNDERLAND MODEL
The aircraft proposed by Sunderland consisted of a number of ducted
helical screws, taking air in at the top of the ship, and expelling it from
below through a plurality of tubes. The extent of the development of this
idea is not known.
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MODEL.
l9l0
MFR .
TEASDELL-BUCKELL
128
The Teasdell-Buckell aircraft was built around l9l0. The machine con-
sisted of two tractor screws and two lifting screws. The lifting screws con-
sisted of a number of plane surfaces arranged in the form of a helix.
Characteristics:
Power plant:
Weight:
Dimensions:
Lifting Screw:
Wings:
Performance:
30 HP
Empty - 500 Lbs.
Length - l8 Ft.
Width - l4 Ft.
One, two bladed
Blade Size - 5 Ft. x 6 Ft.
Area - l66 Sq. Ft.
Span - 28 Ft. approx.
Chord - 6 Ft.
Max. Speed - 70 MPH (estimated)
TEASDELL-BUCKELL
UNiFORM AEROPLANE SCALE
MCTMS
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Although this craft looks like a helicopter, it is actually a combination kite and parachute. A
large heavy rotating wheel was used as a stabilizer with the intention of taking advantage of its gyro-
scopic properties. The lift for this system was produced by a disk-shaped, fabric surface attached
to the spokes of the rim. Th;s surface also served as a parachute. To aid in reducing the descent,
the disk was built with a radial opening, producing a very flat screw. The machine was to be tested
in 1903, but nothing came of it.
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The ,llins rotorcraft was constructed in Germa- in 1910 by B. L. T. ,ll's. Each of the
two rotors contained 3 sets of hinged surfaces. The surfaces feathered due to the aerodynamic
forces acting on them. The rotors were driven by a chain and sprocket system. The illustration
^i shows the
craft as
exhibited
in a German
museum.
3
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MOOfL.
mm. W. OTHERS 131
WAITE and TURNER-CLARKE MODEL l924
In l924, two Englishmen, J. W. Waite and Col. Turner-Clarke, entered
a rotorcraft in a forthcoming international helicopter competition.
Lift was supplied by two partially encased paddles rotating side by side,
about fore and aft axes. The overall dimensions of the ship were l6 x l6 x
l2 feet. The prototype was under construction in l924, but it failed to compete.
WHEELDON MODEL l925
H. P. Wheeldon, an Englishman, entered a rotorcraft design in a l925
helicopter competition. References indicate the ship was never built.
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