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HIED 595

-Statement of the Problem
The Impact of Reading Fluency as Related to Children at Risk
Fluency is the ability to read, speak or write effortlessly while maintaining syntax and style
(Stahl, 2003). Reading fluency has proven to be difficult for many children especially those from
minority groups, broken homes, and those who have otherwise been identified as at-risk learners.
The more risk factors children are faced with during the development of their early learning
years, the more likely they may encounter further difficulties. This study will examine whether
reading fluency is a determining factor in the success of at risk students in grades K 3.

-Research Questions

What is fluency?
What skills do fluent readers possess?
Does fluency affect comprehension?
If students are not reading fluently by the end of 3
grade, will they continue to fall behind their

-Selection of Sample
In this research study, I will conduct a random sampling of students standardized test results
who have been identified as at-risk, and who have the taken STaaR assessment in both 3
and 4

grade. I will ask for permission from campus principals and the district administrators before
conducting my research. Upon approval, I will randomly select students test results that were
labeled at-risk for reading failure. I will use the data from five elementary campuses within the
school district. My aim is to prove that students who do not develop oral reading skills by 3

grade will continue to struggle and continue to fall behind their peers.

A correlation research design will be implemented in this study. The purpose of this study is to
determine if one variable is the direct result of another variable. I will analyze data from both 3

and 4
grade test results.

-Data Analysis
At-risk students will be identified prior to the study using the 3
grade TPRI results. STaaR
results for students in 3
and 4
grade will also be measured. A comparison of the 3
STaaR results and the students 4
grade STaaR results will be compared to determine whether
a correlation between students fluency rates in 3
grade is a factor in students failing the reading
STaaR in 4

HIED 595
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Fullard, J. Z. (2009, January 1). An Intermediate Extended Literacy Routine to Support Struggling Third
Grade Readers. ProQuest LLC

Kieffer, M. (2011). Before and after third grade: Longitudinal evidence for the shifting role of
socioeconomic status in reading growth. Reading and Writing, 44, 1-22.

Kim, Y., Wagner, R. K., & Lopez, D. (2012). Developmental Relations between Reading Fluency and
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Psychology, 113(1), 93-111

Kuhn, M. R., & Stahl, S. A. (2003). Fluency: A review of developmental and remedial practices. Journal
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Palmer, M. L. (2010). The relationship between reading fluency, writing fluency, and reading
comprehension in suburban third-grade students. San Diego: San Diego State University ;.

Reutzel, D. R., & Cooter, R. B. (2009). The essentials of teaching children to read: the teacher makes the
difference (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon/Pearson.

Samuels, S. J., & Farstrup, A. E. (1992). What research has to say about reading instruction (2nd ed.).
Newark, Del.: International Reading Association.

Schwanelnflugel, P.J., Meisinger, E. B., Wisenbaker, J. M., Kuhn, M. R.., Strauss, G. P., & Morris, R. D.
(2006) Becoming a Fluent and Automatic Reader in the Early Elementary School Years. Reading
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Stahl, S.A., & Heubach, K., (2005). Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction. Journal of Literacy Research,
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