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By

And
FOR ALL INSTRUMENTS
Edited by
HENRY ADLER

Table of Contents
Melodic application of Odd Time Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
SECTION I - Quarter Note Meters (Odd Time Studies with the Quarter Note having the basic pulse)
(3/4, 5/4, 7/4, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Eighth Note and Rest Studies (#6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Introducing the TIE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Introducing the DOT . . . ... . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Common Writing of Syncopation (#19) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Introducing 16th Notes and Rests in VARIOUS METERS. . . . . . . . . . 16
Introducing 16th Note TIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Five Syncopated Exercises with 16th Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Introducing 8th Note Triplets in Various Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Triplets with Ties in Various Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Sub-Divided 8th Note Triplets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Introducing the Quarter Note Triplet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Introducing Half Note Triplets (#51) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Syncopation with Triplets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Four Exercises in Syncopation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Introducing 16th Note Triplets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Introducing 32nd Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
SECTION II - Changing Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Quarter Notes and Rests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Eighth Notes and Rests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Introducing the Tie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Introducing Syncopation . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Introducing 16th Notes and Rests (#70) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Syncopation with 16th Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Introducing 8th Note Triplets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Triplet Ties and 16th Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Quarter Note Triplets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Half Note Triplets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Syncopation with Triplets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
16th Note Triplets (#90) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
32nd Note Triplets (#91) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
SECTION III - Eighth Note Meters (Odd Time Studies with the 8th Note having the basic Pulse) (3/8.
5/8, 7/8, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
16th Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
The Dot ................................... 70
Syncopation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
32nd Notes and Rests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Exercise with Syncopation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
16th Note Triplets and Ties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Triplet Ties and 32nd Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Quarter Note Triplets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
32nd Note Triplets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
SECTION IV - Changing Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
The Tie (#132) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
The Dot (#133) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Syncopation (#134) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
32nd Notes and Rests (#136) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Syncopation With 32nd Notes (#142) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Introducing 16th Note Triplets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Triplet Ties and 32nd Notes (#146) ....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Exercises in Changing Quarter and 8th Note Meters. . . . . . . . . . . . 96
SECTION V - Sixteenth Note Meters Odd Time Studies with the 16th Note Having the Basic Pulse
(3/16, 5/16, 7/16, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
64th Notes and Rests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
32nd Note Triplets and Ties (#179) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Triplet Ties and 64th Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
64th Note Triplets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
SECTION VI - Changing Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
The employment of so-called "odd" time-signatures is, nowadays, common practice in all forms
of musical endeavor, and music students must be as adept at them as they are at the seemingly
more comfortable 4. The authors feel that this text will be a thorough aid in rounding out any
student's rhythmic/reading vocabulary, and suggest that it be studied both by percussionists and
by players of melodic instruments.
MELODIC APPLICATIONS
When the rhythms of an exercise have been mastered, major or minor scales may be applied to
that exercise, in various ways:
Exercise:
One Scale-tone per measure (C major):
One Scale-tone per note (C major):
Arpeggios may be similarly used:
Exercise:
One Chord-tone per measure (F major):
One Chord-tone per note (F major):
The more advanced student may assign a series of chord progressions to an exercise, write its
proper symbols above the exercise, and then improvise a melodic line, using the rhythms of the
exercise:
Exercise:
Possible Realization:
As can be seen, the possibilities are limitless, and teachers and students are advised to invent as
many melodic applications of this material as possible.

Section I
Once the student has determined the number of counts (quarter-notes,)per measure in an exercise,
there should be no problem in playing either the quarter-notes, or their partials, in that exercise.
1. "In five" (five equal pulses per measure):
For another example, 4 may be heard as:
1. "In seven" (seven equal pulses per measure):
Where feelings other than straight five, or seven, or so on, have been used in this text, dotted lines
have been employed, as in the above examples, to aid the student in understanding the metric
subdivisions.
(8th NOTE AND REST STUDIES)
INTRODUCING 16th NOTES AND RESTS IN VARIOUS METERS
SUMMARY
SUMMARY OF 16th NOTE TIES
FIVE SYNCOPATED EXERCISES WITH 16th NOTES
INTRODUCING 8th NOTE TRIPLETS IN VARIOUS METERS
TRIPLETS WITH TIES IN VARIOUS METERS
TRIPLETS AND SIXTEENTH NOTES, WITH TIES
SUBDIVIDED 8th NOTE TRIPLETS
INTRODUCING THE QUARTER NOTE TRIPLET
(Having the value of a Half Note or its equivalent)
QUARTER NOTE TRIPLETS AND SIXTEENTH NOTES
INTRODUCING HALF NOTE TRIPLETS
(Having the value of a Whole Note or its equivalent)
SYNCOPATION WITH TRIPLETS
SUMMARY OF TRIPLET FIGURES
FOUR EXERCISES IN SYNCOPATION
INTRODUCING 16th NOTE TRIPLETS
(I laving the value of an 8th note or its equivalnet)
INTRODUCING 32nd NOTES
TWO EXERCISES USING 32nd NOTES

Section II
In passages in which changing meter occurs, the pulse (in this case, the quarter note,) always remains
constant, while only the number of pulses per measure changes, according to the time signature at the
beginning of each measure. Counting will be a great aid in understanding, and in properly performing,
such activity, for example:
The above sequence should be counted as shown, with all counts spoken periodically.
The most common way of indicating that the pulses are to remain constant throughout a quarter note
based, mixed-metered passage is the symbol j = . This may be placed either at the beginning of such a
passage, or at each change of meter, or both.
QUARTER NOTES AND RESTS IN CHANGING METERS
EIGHTH NOTES AND RESTS IN CHANGING METERS
INTRODUCING THE TIE IN CHANGING METERS
INTRODUCING THE DOT IN CHANGING METERS
INTRODUCING SYNCOPATION IN CHANGING METERS
INTRODUCING 16th NOTES AND RESTS IN CHANGING METERS
SUMMARY OF 16th NOTES, TIES AND DOTS
SYNCOPATION WITH 16th NOTES IN CHANGING METERS
INTRODUCING 8th NOTE TRIPLETS IN CHANGING METERS
TRIPLET TIES AND 16th NOTES IN CHANGING METERS
QUARTER NOTE TRIPLETS IN CHANGING METERS
ADDING 16th NOTES IN CHANGING METERS
HALF NOTE TRIPLETS IN CHANGING METERS
SYNCOPATION WITH TRIPLETS IN CHANGING METERS
EXERCISE IN CHANGING METERS
EXERCISE IN CHANGING METERS
16th NOTE TRIPLETS IN CHANGING METERS
THIRTY SECOND NOTES IN CHANGING METERS

Section III
Once the student has determined the number of counts (eighth-notes) per measure in an exercise, there
should be no problem in playing either the eighth-notes, or their partials, in that exercise.
1. "In five" (five equal pulses per measure):
1. "In seven" (seven equal pulses per measure) :
Where feelings other than straight five, or seven, or so on, have been used in this text, dotted lines
have often been employed, as in the above examples, to aid the student in understanding the metric
subdivisions.
116th NOTES IN 8th NOTE METERS
TfLH, I l\ ,nth ~O I~I_ \lf~. I
I THE DOT IN 8th NOTE METERS
SYNCOPATION WITH 16th TIES
32nd NOTES AND RESTS IN 8th NOTE METERSI
[SUMMARY OF 32nd NOTES IN 8th NOTE METERS
EXERCISE WITH SYNCOPATION
16th NOTE TRIPLETS AND TIES IN 8th NOTE METERS
TRIPLET TIES AND 32nd NOTES IN 8th NOTE METERS
S Sth \U f.IZS~ 1
(SYNCOPATION WITH TRIPLETS
SUMMARY
1EXERCISE USING TRIPLETS AND 16th NOTES
132nd NOTE TRIPLETS IN 8th NOTE METERSI

Section IV
In passages in which changing meter occurs, the pulse (in this case, the eighth-note,) always remains
constant, while only the number of pulses per measure changes, according to the timesignature at the
beginning of each measure. Counting will be a great aid in understanding, and in properly performing,
such activity, for example:
The above sequence should be counted as shown, with all counts spoken periodically.
The most common way of indicating that the pulses are to remain constant throughout an eightnote
based, mixed-metered passage is the symbol ,~_.b. This may be placed either at the beginning of such
a passage, or at each change of meter, or both.
iTHE TIE IN CHANGING METERS
THE DOT IN CHANGING METERS
SYNCOPATION IN CHANGING METE RSI
132nd NOTES AND RESTS IN CHANGING METERS
SYNCOPATION WITH 32nd NOTES IN CHANGING METERS
INTRODUCING 16th NOTE TRIPLETS IN CHANGING METERS
TRIPLET TIES AND 32nd NOTES IN CHANGING METERS
(QUARTER NOTE TRIPLETS IN CHANGING METERS
SYNCOPATION WITH TRIPLETS IN CHANGING METERS
32nd NOTE TRIPLETS IN CHANGING METERS
I XLR(,ISI: IN CHANGING ANN;) 8th NOTL ML"I'LRS

Section V
Once the student has determined the number of counts (sixteenth-notes,) per measure in an exercise,
there should be no problem in playing either the sixteenth-notes, or their partials, in that exercise.
1. "In five" (five equal pulses per measure):
1. "In seven" (seven equal pulses per measure):
Where feelings other than straight five, or seven, or so on, have been used in this text, dotted lines
have often been employed, as in the above examples, to ait the student in understanding the metric
subdivisions.
(USING METERS( 16th IN NOTES 32nd
THE TI1' IN I(it11 NOTE METERS
ITHE DOT IN 16th NOTE METERS
SYNCOPATION IN 16th NOTE METERS
'SYNCOPATION USING RESTS IN 16th NOTE METERS
164th NOTES AND RESTS IN 16th NOTE METERS
SUMMARY USING 32nd NOTES
EXERCISE WITH SYNCOPATION
132nd NOTE TRIPLETS AND TIES IN 16th NOTE METERS
TRIPLET TIES AND 64th NOTES IN 16th NOTE METERS
EIGHTH NOTE TRIPLETS IN 16th NOTE METERS
SYNCOPATION WITH TRIPLETS IN 16th NOTE METERS
SUMMARY
64th NOTE TRIPLETS IN 16th NOTE METERS

Section VI
In passages in which changing meter occurs, the pulse (in this case, the sixteenth-note,) always
remains constant, while only the number of pulses per measure changes, according to the time
signature at the beginning of each measure. Counting will be a great aid in understanding, and in
properly performing, such activity, for example:
The above sequence should be counted as shown, with all counts spoken periodically.
The most common way of indicating that the pulses are to remain constant throughout a sixteenth -
note based, mixed-metered passage is the symbol .4 _.A . This may be placed either at the begin -
ning of such a passage, or at each change of meter, or both.
ITHE TIE IN CHANGING METERS
THE DOT IN CHANGING METERS
SYNCOPATION IN CHANGING METERS
164th NOTES AND RESTS IN CHANGING METERS
SYNCOPATION WITH 32nd NOTES IN CHANCING METERS
INTRODUCING 32nd NOTE TRIPLETS
TRIPLET TIES AND 64th NOTES IN CHANGING METERS
EIGHTH NOTE TRIPLETS IN CHANGING METERS
SYNCOPATION WITH TRIPLETS IN CHANGING METERS
EXERCISE IN CHANGING METERS
64th NOTE TRIPLETS IN CHANGING METERS
EXERCISE IN CHANGING METERS