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Perennialism Essentialism Progressivism Social

Reconstructionism
Critical
Theory
AIMS C E B A D
KNOW B E D A C
ROLE C E D B A
CURR A C E D B
Totals


Philosophical
Base
Instructional
Objective
Knowledge Role of
Teacher
Curriculum
Focus
Related
Curriculum
Trends
Perennialism Realism To educate the
rational person; to
cultivate the
intellect
Focus on past and
permanent studies;
mastery of facts and
timeless knowledge
Teacher helps
students think
rationally;
based on the
Socratic
method and
oral
exposition;
explicit
teaching of
traditional
values
Classical
subject;
literary
analysis;
constant
curriculum
Great books
Paidea proposal
(Hutchins, Adler)
Essentialism Idealism;
Realism
To promote the
intellectual growth
of the individual;
to educate the
competent person
Essential skills and
academic subjects;
mastery of concepts
and principles of
subject matter
Teacher is
authority in his
or her field;
explicit
teaching of
traditional
values
Essential skills
(the 3 Rs) and
essential
subjects (Eng.,
Math, science,
history,
foreign
language)
Back to basics;
excellence in
education
(Bagley, Bestor,
Bennett)



Progressivism Pragmatism To promote Knowledge lends to Teacher is a Based on Relevant
democratic, social
living
growth and
development; a
living-learning
process; focus on
active an interesting
learning
guide for
problem
solving and
scientific
inquiry
students
interests;
involves the
application of
human
problems and
affairs; inter-
disciplinary
subject matter;
activities and
projects
curriculum;
alternative and
free schooling
(Dewey, Beane)
Social
Reconstructionism
Pragmatism To improve and
reconstruct
society; education
for change and
social reform
Skills and subjects
needed to identify
and ameliorate
problems in society;
learning is active,
concerned with
contemporary and
future society
Teacher serves
as an agent of
change and
reform; acts as
a project
director and
research
leader; helsp
students
become aware
of problems
confronting
humanity
Emphasis on
social sciences
and social
research;
examining
social,
economic, and
political
problems;
focus on
present and
future trends
Equality of
education; cultural
pluralism;
international
education,
futurism (Counts,
Grant, & Sleeter)
Critical Theory Marxism To challenge and
deconstruct
society, the status
quo, powerful
oppressors; to
teach citizens to
act politically for
social justice
Focus on how the
world works to
privilege some and
not others;
awareness of race,
class, gender,
sexuality, and (dis)
ability politics
Teacher acts
with
conscience and
resolve as a
social agent of
change in the
world with
students.
Teacher opens
up societal
norms to
criticism and
action.
Some forms of
service learning;
socially active,
alternative
education
programs (Freire,
Apple, Giroux)