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MM

YS
Massive MIMO:
Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Erik G. Larsson
June 9, 2013
Div. of Communication Systems
Dept. of Electrical Engineering (ISY)
Link oping University
Link oping, Sweden
www.commsys.isy.liu.se
With thanks to my team and collaborators:
Hien Q. Ngo (LiU, Sweden)
Antonios Pitarokoilis (LiU)
Hei Victor Cheng (LiU)
Daniel Persson (LiU)
Fredrik Rusek (Lund, Sweden)
Ove Edfors (Lund)
Buon Kiong Lau (Lund)
Fredrik Tufvesson (Lund)
Thomas L. Marzetta (Bell Labs/Alcatel-Lucent, USA)
Saif Mohammed (IIT/Delhi, India)
Christoph Studer (Rice Univ., USA)
1/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
Massive MIMO
M=
x100
antennas!
K
terminals
k=1
k=K

Massive multiuser MIMO (MISO):

M K 1 (think 100 10 or 500 50)

coherent, but simple, processing

Potential to dramatically improve rate & reliability

Potential to drastically scale down TX power

Not only theory, at least one known testbed (64 10)


2/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
Large MIMO Deployment Scenarios

Reduce bulky items (coax)

Each antenna unit simple (low accuracy)

Resilience against individual failures (hotswapping)

Potential economy of scale in manufacturing

Grid-free powering
3/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
Massive MIMO Operation

Not enough resources for pilots & CSI feedback, so operate in TDD.

On the uplink,

acquire CSI from uplink pilots and/or blindly from data

detect symbols

M K linear processing (MRC, ZF, MMSE) nearly optimal

On the downlink,

use CSI obtained on the uplink

make necessary adjustments based on reciprocity calibration

apply multiuser MIMO precoding

simple precoders desirable (and very good!): MRT, ZF, MMSE, ...

MRC/MRT operation

intracell interference will appear as noise

1 bps/Hz/terminal; K bps/Hz/terminal total

distributed implementation

ZF/MMSE operation

can cancel out intra cell interference

computationally more demanding


4/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
MRT versus ZF precoding
5/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
Massive MIMO Opportunities

Multiplexing gain K, Array power gain M (ideally)

Rely on the law of large numbers

average out fast fading and thermal noise

Channel hardens h
2
/M constant

no FD scheduling, full BW to all terminals, simple MAC

almost no air-interface latency

In the 1 bps/Hz/t regime, many impairments drown in thermal noise

M K unused degrees of freedom (e.g. 500 50 = 450)


6/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
Massive MIMO Challenges and Questions

Multiplexing gain can only materialize if channel responses are


(nearly) orthogonal

Array gain relies on coherency getting CSI is the main thing

HW power consumption (RF) must scale fast enough with P


HW power consumption (BB) must scale slow enough with M

Scaling down P thermal noise eventually limits performance.

P large enough, interference limits performance

intracell interference

intercell interference
7/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
Limits Imposed by Propagation
8/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
Favorable propagation in Point-to-Point MIMO

M K MIMO link H, M K

Favorable propagation (f.p.) if


H
H
H I
2
1
= . . . =
2
K

For H
2
= constant, log

I +
1
N
0
H
H
H

max if f.p.

max

min
_
2
= extra power needed to use all eigenmodes

H
mk
zero mean & i.i.d., and M K f.p.
9/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
Favorable propagation in MU-SIMO

Favorable propagation if
1
M
g
H
i
g
j
0 for i = j

g
i

2
depends on path loss and shadow fading
10/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
I.i.d. channels give favorable propagation
tail
no tail
~20 dB
~3 dB
11/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
Do we have favorable propagation in practice?

Our partners at Lund Univ., Sweden have conducted unique


measurements [RPL2013,GERT2011,GTER2012].

Indoor 128-ant. (4x16 dual-pol.) array. 3 users indoor, 3 outdoor.

2.6 GHz CF, 50 MHz BW, 100 snapshots (10m).

Normalized to retain only small-scale fading.


12/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
Lund measurements, example of results
tail
no tail
~26 dB
~7dB
13/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
Summary

Assumptions on f.p. have substantial support in measurements

I.i.d. model for small-scaled fading appears reasonable

More details and models in F. Tufvessons tutorial next


14/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
Limits Imposed by Noise and Intracell Interference
with Linear Processing
15/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
Single-Cell (Noise-Limited) Uplink

M antennas

K terminals

Power (SNR) per terminal: P

i.i.d. Rayleigh fading

Coherence interval: T symbols (e.g. 2 100kHz 1ms = 200)

K mutually orthogonal pilots of length (K T)


pilots data
t
T-t

MMSE channel estimation


16/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
Spectral-energy eciency tradeo

Sum-spectral eciency bounds [NLM2013]:


R =
_
_
_
_
1

T
_
K log
2
_
1 +
(M1)P
2
(K1)P
2
+(+K)P+1
_
, for MRC
_
1

T
_
K log
2
_
1 +
(MK)P
2
(+K)P+1
_
, for ZF

Energy eciency:
R
P

SISO system: K = 1, M = 1
max
P,
, s.t. R = const.
17/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
UL, T = 200, SISO reference, M = K = 1
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
10
-1
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
K = 1, M = 1
20 dB
10 dB
0 dB
-10 dB

R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

E
n
e
r
g
y
-
E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

(
b
i
t
s
/
J
)
/
(
b
i
t
s
/
J
)

Spectral-Efficiency (bits/s/Hz)
18/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
Spectral-energy eciency tradeo, cont.

Sum-spectral eciency bounds [NLM2013]:


R =
_
_
_
_
1

T
_
K log
2
_
1 +
(M1)P
2
(K1)P
2
+(+K)P+1
_
, for MRC
_
1

T
_
K log
2
_
1 +
(MK)P
2
(+K)P+1
_
, for ZF

Energy eciency: =
R
P

SISO system: K = 1, M = 1
max
P,
, s.t. R = const.

Single-user SIMO system: K = 1, M = 100


max
P,
, s.t. R = const.
19/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
UL, T = 200, SISO and SU-SIMO
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
10
-1
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
K=1, M=1 (SISO)
20 dB
10 dB
0 dB
-10 dB

R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

E
n
e
r
g
y
-
E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

(
b
i
t
s
/
J
)
/
(
b
i
t
s
/
J
)

Spectral-Efficiency (bits/s/Hz)
K=1, M=100 (SU-SIMO)
20/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
Spectral-energy eciency tradeo, cont.

Sum-spectral eciency bounds [NLM2013]:


R =
_
_
_
_
1

T
_
K log
2
_
1 +
(M1)P
2
(K1)P
2
+(+K)P+1
_
, for MRC
_
1

T
_
K log
2
_
1 +
(MK)P
2
(+K)P+1
_
, for ZF

Energy eciency: =
R
P

SISO system: K = 1, M = 1
max
P,
, s.t. R = const.

Single-user SIMO system: K = 1, M = 100


max
P,
, s.t. R = const.

Multi-user SIMO system: M = 100, K 1 adapted


max
P,,K
, s.t. R = const.
21/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
UL, T = 200, SISO, SU-SIMO & MU-SIMO
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
10
-1
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
(MU-SIMO)
M = 100
K adaptive
ZF processing
K=1, M=1 (SISO)
20 dB
10 dB
0 dB
-10 dB
-20 dB

R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

E
n
e
r
g
y
-
E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

(
b
i
t
s
/
J
)
/
(
b
i
t
s
/
J
)

Spectral-Efficiency (bits/s/Hz)
K=1, M=100 (SU-SIMO)
MRC processing
22/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
Analysis Methodology - MRC & Perfect CSI
y =

PGGGxxx + nnn
..
noise, i.i.d. CN(0,1)
z
mrc
GGG
H
yyy = GGG
H
_

PGGGxxx +nnn
_
=

PG
H
Gx +G
H
n
z
k,mrc
=

Pggg
k

2
x
k
. .
desired signal
+

i=k
ggg
H
k
ggg
i
x
i
. .
interference
+ggg
H
k
nnn
..
noise

Achievable ergodic rate


R
k,mrc
=
E
_
log
2
_
1 +
Pggg
k

2
P

K
i=k
| g
i
|
2
+ 1
__
log
2
_
_
1 +
_
E
_
P

K
i=k
| g
i
|
2
+ 1
Pggg
k

2
__
1
_
_
= log
2
_
1 +
P (M 1)
P(K 1) + 1
_

Observe that: g
i

ggg
H
k
ggg
i
ggg
k

CN (0, 1), indep. of g


k

Use E[log(1 + 1/x)] log(1 + 1/E[x])

Here: E

1
g
k

=
1
M1
, since
E

tr

WWW
1

=
m
nm
, if
WWW W
m
(n, III
n
).
23/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
Analysis Methodology - MRC & Estimated CSI

CSI from pilots:



GGG = GGG +EEE, where
i
CN
_
0,
1
P
p
+1
III
M
_
, ggg
i
CN
_
0,
P
p
P
p
+1
III
M
_
,
P
p
= P, =#pilots

MRC
z
mrc
=

GGG
H
yyy =

G
H
(

PGx +n) =

GGG
H
_

P

GGGxxx

PEEExxx +nnn
_
z
k,mrc
=

P ggg
k

2
x
k
+

P
K

i=k
ggg
H
k
ggg
i
x
i

P
K

i=1
ggg
H
k

i
x
i
+ ggg
H
k
nnn

Achievable ergodic rate per terminal


R
k,mrc
=
_
1

T
_
E
_
log
2
_
1 +
P ggg
k

2
P

K
i=k
|

g
i
|
2
+ P

K
i=1
1
P+1
+ 1
__

_
1

T
_
log
2
_
_
1 +
_
E
_
P

K
i=k
|

g
i
|
2
+ P

K
i=1
1
P+1
+ 1
P ggg
k

2
__
1
_
_
=
_
1

T
_
log
2
_
1 +
P
2
(M 1)
P (P + 1) (K 1) + ( + 1) P + 1
_
g
k
and

g
i

ggg
H
k
ggg
i
ggg
k

, i = k are independent
24/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
Summary

10 spectral eciency and 1000 radiated energy eciency


possible with M = 100 antennas and MRC

Results for DL are similar (no D.o.F penalty for pilot transmission)
25/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
Limits Imposed by Intercell Interference
26/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
Pilot Contamination Problem

(Probably) must rely on UL pilots to get CSI

On UL, may rely partly on blind/joint channel estimation and data


decoding techniques to avoid pilot based estimation

But on DL, need explicit CSI to precode


27/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
Pilot Contamination Problem, cont.

Consider UL training; one interferer


Y
p
..
M
= G
..
MK

..
K
+N + fff
..
M1

T
..
1

LS estimation, with orthogonal pilots


(
H
= P
p
I, say P
p
= 1)

G = Y
p

H
= G
..
MK
+N
H
. .
i.i.d.
+ fff
..
M1

H
. .
1K
. .
rank1
1
2
M
g1
gk
gK
1
K
k
f

Say g
1
used for MRC data detection: y = Gx +fffz +n

1
M
g
H
1
y =
1
M
_
g
H
1
Gx + g
H
1
fffz + g
H
1
n
_
=
1
M
g
H
1
G
. .
eee
T
1
x
. .
x
1
+
1
M
_

fff
H
_
1
fffz
. .
1
M
(

)
1
fff
H
fffz
. .
(

)
1
z
+
..
O
_
1

M
_
28/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
Pilot Contamination Problem, cont.

In principle, could project away fff


T
:
Y
p

T = G

T +N

T
and estimate G from Y
p

T . But rank
_

T
_
= 1, so we
sacrice signal space

The eect on the downlink is similar

Can show: p.c. fundamentally limits performance of massive MIMO


if P is xed and M [Mar2010]

Can show: other cells transmitting data is as bad as other cells


sending pilots [NLM2013]

But currently not clear, how bad the p.c. eect is if other types of
CSI estimation is used
29/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
Summary

Interference from other cells can signicantly impair CSI estimation


and the ensuing UL detection & DL precoding: pilot
contamination

Possible (partial) countermeasures (on UL)

Blind (partial pilot-free) CSI estimation (NL2011)

identify subspace associated with dierent cells exploiting power


control & channel hardening [MVC2013]

clever allocation of pilots in dierent cells [YGFL2013,FAM2013]

pilot cont. precoding [AM2012]


30/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
Excess Degrees of Freedom in Massive MIMO:
A Unique Opportunity for Hardware-Friendly Signal
Shaping
31/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
Excess Degrees of Freedom

There are M K unused degrees of freedom.

In the downlink, these excess DoF may be used to shape the


transmitted signals in a hardware-friendly way

Per-antenna constant envelope or low-PAR multiuser precoding

Robust to PA non-linearity/less PA backo

Exploit nullspace of H
T
:
nullspace dimension = M K!
y = H
T
x +w = H
T
(x +z) +w
32/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
Beamforming versus Low-PAR Signal Shaping
33/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
Constant-env. MU-MIMO, Flat channel [ML2013]
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
10
8
6
4
2
0
2
4
6
8
Number of Base Station Antennas (M)
M
i
n
.

r
e
q
d
.

P
T
/

2

t
o

a
c
h
i
e
v
e

a

p
e
r

u
s
e
r

r
a
t
e

o
f

2

b
p
c
u


K = 10, Proposed CE Precoder (CE)
K = 10, GBC Sum Cap. Upp. Bou. (APC)
1.7 dB
34/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
Constant-env. MU-MIMO, Freq. sel. channel [ML2013a]
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3

M
i
n
.

r
e
q
d
.

P
T
/

2

(
d
B
)

t
o

a
c
h
i
e
v
e

2

b
p
c
u
/
u
s
e
r


L=1,2,4,8. ZF upper bound (TAPC)
L = 1,2,4,8. Coop. lower bound (TAPC)
L = 1, CE
L = 2, CE (T >> )
L = 4, CE (T >> )
L = 8, CE (T >> )
35/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
CE-MU-MIMO PrecodingAnalysis Methodology

E
k
: energy per information symbol u
k
(per user)

P: total transmit power

Received signals:
y
k
=
_
P
M
M

i=1
h
k,i
e
j
i
+n
k
=

P
_
E
k
u
k
+

P
_

M
i=1
h
k,i
e
j
i

_
E
k
u
k
_
. .

k
+n
k

With Gaussian symbols per user:


I(y
k
; u
k
) = h(u
k
) h(u
k
| y
k
) = h(u
k
) h
_
u
k

y
k

E
k

y
k
_
h(u
k
) h
_
u
k

y
k

E
k
_
h(u
k
) h
_

k

E
k
+
n
k

E
k
_
= log
2
(e) h
_

k

E
k
+
n
k

E
k
_
log
2
(e) log
2
_
e var
_

k

E
k
+
n
k

E
k
_
_
log
2
(e) log
2
_
e E
_

E
k
+
n
k

E
k

2
_
_
= log
2
(e) log
2
_
e
_
E[|
k
|
2
]
E
k
+
1
PE
k
_
_

Downlink signal design:


min

i
[,)
K

k=1
|
k
|
2
min

i
[,)
K

k=1

M
i=1
h
k,i
e
j
i

_
E
k
u
k

2
36/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
PAR-Aware MU-MIMO OFDM Downlink [SL2013]

Precoder design problem:


(PMP)
_

_
minimize max
_
a
1

, . . . , a
N

_
subject to y
w
= H
w
s
w
+ noise, w T
y
w
= only noise, w T
c
.

H
w
: time-frequency channel

T : used subcarriers; T
c
: null subcarriers

Convex optimization problem, fast algorithm; relaxation


37/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
PAR-aware MU-MIMO OFDM DL (99% percentiles)
38/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
PAR-aware MU-MIMO OFDM DL (99% percentiles)
39/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
Summary

Low PAR may be desirable to enable high overall energy eciency &
low cost

Large number of antennas oers entirely new and unique


opportunities for low PAR signal design
40/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
Massive MIMOa Goldmine of Research Problems

Base station receiver processing

Partially distributed processing (MRC/ZF/MMSE hybrids)

Advanced channel estimation (exploit excess DoF)

Synchronization at low SNR

Base station transmitter processing

Partially distributed processing

Low-complexity low-PAPR precoders

OFDM or single-carrier?

Eects of hardware imperfections: Will the law of large numbers


deliver?

phase noise and clock distribution,

I/Q imbalance, A/D resolution, PA linearity

Pilot contamination (both UL & DL) may be mitigated by

Blind channel estimation algorithms [NL2012]

Coordination and planning of pilot reuse [YGFL2013]

TDD operation using UL channels for DL precoding requires


reciprocity calibration

Cost? (BW & power), algorithms?, dedicated hardware?

Other system issues

Time and frequency synchronization at low SNR

Idle-terminal paging (DL) under non-CSI@TX


41/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
Eq.-Free SC vs. OFDM @ 1 bps/Hz/t [PML2012]
50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
No of Base Station Antennas (M)
P
o
w
e
r

(
n
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d
)

[
d
B
]


Time reversal MRT precoding
Coop. SumCapacity Bound
OFDM Bound T
cp
=T
u
/4
K=10
42/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
Literature
RPL+2013 F. Rusek, D. Persson, B. K. Lau, E. G. Larsson, T. L.
Marzetta, O. Edfors, and F. Tufvesson, Scaling up MIMO:
Opportunities and Challenges with Large Arrays, IEEE SP
Magazine, Jan. 2013
NLM2013 H.Q. Ngo, E.G. Larsson and T. Marzetta, Energy and
Spectral Eciency of Very Large Multiuser MIMO
Systems, IEEE Trans. Comm. 2013, arXiv:1112.3810.
ML2013 S.K. Mohammed and E.G. Larsson, Per-antenna Constant
Envelope Precoding for Large Multi-User MIMO Systems,
IEEE Trans. Comm. 2013, arXiv:1201.1634v1.
ML2013a S.K. Mohammed and E.G. Larsson, Constant-Envelope
Multi-User Precoding for Frequency-Selective Massive
MIMO Systems, arXiv:1305.1525.
SL2013 C. Studer and E.G. Larsson, PAR-Aware Large-Scale
Multi-User MIMO-OFDM Downlink, IEEE JSAC, Feb.
2013.
HBD2013 J. Hoydis, S. ten Brink, M. Debbah, Massive MIMO in the
UL/DL of cellular networks: How many antennas do we
need, IEEE JSAC, Feb. 2013.
GERT2011 X. Gao, O. Edfors, F. Rusek, and F. Tufvesson, Linear
pre-coding performance in measured very-large MIMO
channels, IEEE VTC 2011
GTER2012 X. Gao, F. Tufvesson, O. Edfors, and F. Rusek, Measured
propagation characteristics for very-large MIMO at 2.6
GHz, in Proc. Asilomar, 2012 VTC 2011
YGFL2013 H. Yin, D. Gesbert, M. Filippou, and Y. Liu, A
Coordinated Approach to Channel Estimation in Large-scale
Multiple-antenna Systems, IEEE JSAC, Feb. 2013.
AM2012 A. Ashikhmin and T. Marzetta, Pilot Contamination
Precoding in Multi-Cell Large Scale Antenna Systems, in
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NL2012 H. Q. Ngo and E. G. Larsson, EVD-Based Channel
Estimations for Multicell Multiuser MIMO with Very Large
Antenna Arrays, ICASSP 2012.
GJ2011 B. Gopalakrishnan and N. Jindal, An Analysis of Pilot
Contamination on Multi-User MIMO Cellular Systems with
Many Antennas, IEEE SPAWC 2011.
NML2013 H. Q. Ngo, T. Marzetta and E. G. Larsson, The multicell
multiuser MIMO uplink with very large antenna arrays and
a nite-dimensional channel, IEEE TCOM, 2013.
PML2012 A. Pitarokoilis, S. K. Mohammed and E. G. Larsson, On
the optimality of single-carrier transmission in large scale
antenna systems, IEEE Wireless Communication Letters,
2012.
PML2012b A. Pitarokoilis, S. K. Mohammed and E. G. Larsson, Eect
of Oscillator Phase Noise on Uplink Performance of Large
MU-MIMO Systems, in Proc. Allerton, 2012.
Mar2010 T. L. Marzetta, Noncooperative MU-MIMO with unlimited
numbers of base station antennas, IEEE Trans. WC 2010.
JAMV2011 J. Jose, A. Ashikhmin, T. L. Marzetta, and S. Vishwanath,
Pilot contamination and precoding in multi-cell TDD
systems, IEEE Trans. WC 2011.
ZYP2013 J. Zhang, X. Yuan, and L. Ping, Hermitian Precoding for
Distributed MIMO Systems with Individual Channel State
Information, IEEE JSAC 2013.
SY...2012 C. Shepard et al., Argos: practical many-antenna base
stations, in Proc. MobiCom 2012.
MVC2013 R. R. M uller, M. Vehkapera, and L. Cottatellucci, Blind
Pilot Decontamination, in Proc. WSA 2013.
FAM2013 F. Fernandes, A. Ashikhmin, and T. L. Marzetta, Inter-Cell
Interference in Noncooperative TDD Large Scale Antenna
Systems, IEEE JSAC, Feb. 2013.
LTEM2013 E. G. Larsson, F. Tufvesson, O. Edfors and T. L. Marzetta,
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arXiv:1304.6690.
43/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University
Thank You
Visit the massive MIMO website
www.commsys.isy.liu.se/egl/vlm/vlm.html
44/44
Erik G. Larsson
Massive MIMO: Fundamentals, Opportunities and Challenges
Communication Systems
Link oping University