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LEARN HINDI

Through English Medium


with my new scientific method

~||l ||t~|| | |z=l |l||~|+
angrez& ke ma@dhyam se hind& s&khiye


HINDI LEVEL I
A PRIMER



Ratnakar Narale










PUSTAK BHARATI
Books India
|-| +||-|l



INDEX
~-|>||||






Lesson 1 The Hindi Alphabet 1
Lesson 2 Common Hind& Consonants 2
Lesson 3 Speaking Hindi Characters 3
Lesson 4 Writing Hind& Consonants 4
Lesson 5 Writing Hind& Vowels 7
Lesson 6 Writing Hind& Vowel Signs 8
Lesson 7 Writing Hind& Compound Consonants 11
Lesson 8 Writing Special Characters 14
Lesson 9 Introduction to Sandhi 16
Lesson 10 Introduction to Hind& Numerals 17
Lesson 11 Making your own Hind& sentences 19
The Pictorial Dictionary 24
Brain Surgery of the Hindi Grammar 48
Lesson 12 Relational Postpositions 51
Lesson 13 Adjectives and Adverbs 76
Lesson 14 Conjunctions and Expressions 80
Lesson 15 General Knowledge 84
Lesson 16 General Dialogues 86
HINGLISH for English Speaking People 93






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Learn Hindi through English Medium - Course Level I
LESSON 1
|z|| ||:

THE HINDI ALPHABET


Hind& Vowels :
~ ~| , , ~ + } } ~| ~| ~ ~:
a a@ i & u u@ r< e ai o au m[ h<
.

Hind& Consonants :
| | t|
k kh g gh n[

-| ~ | ;| ~|
c{, ch c{h, chh j jh, z n~

: < |
t> t>h d< d<h n<

-| | = t| -|
t th d dh n

| ~ | +| |
p ph, f b bh m


~| | |
y r l v, w

| | | z
s{, sh s< s h






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Learn Hindi through English Medium - Course Level I

LESSON 2
=|| ||:

COMMON HINDI CONSONANTS


| | t|
ka kha ga gha n[a (nga)

-| ~ | ;| ~|
cha Chha ja jha, za n~a

: < |

t>a t>ha d<a d<ha n<a

-| | = t| -|
ta tha da dha na

| ~ | +| |
pa pha, fa ba bha ma


~| | |
ya ra la va, wa
| | | z
s{a, sha s<a sa ha

Special Compounds
+|. |. |
ks<a, tra, gya






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Learn Hindi through English Medium - Course Level I
LESSON 3

SPEAKING HINDI CHARACTERS

Alphabet Hind& Sounds like, as in Alphabet Hind& Sounds like, as in
a (~ a in America t> ( t in cut>
a@ (~| a in ca@r t>h (: th in t> with breath
i (, I in India d< (< d in red
& (, ee in peel d<h ( dh in adhere
u ( u in put n< (| n in band
u@ (~ oo in moon
r< (+ ri in ring t (-| t in (soft t)
e (} a in bake th (| th in thunder
ai (} a in actor d (= th in other
o (~| o in go dh (t| dh in buddha
au (~| ou in count n (-| n in men

k ( k in milk p (| p in cup
kh (| kh in khyber ph,f (~ ph, f in photo
g (| g in god b (| b in rub
gh (t| gh in ghost bh (+| bh in abhore
n[ ( n in bring m (| m in mug

c{, c (-| ch in chum y (~| y in yes
c{h, chh (~ chh c{ with breath r ( r in rub
j (| j in jug l (. | l in love
jh, z (;| dgeh in hedgehop v,w (| v, w in rave
n~ (~| n in hinge s{, sh (| sh in shut
s< (| sh in should
s (| s in sun
h (z h in hug






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Learn Hindi through English Medium - Course Level I
LESSON 4
-|||| ||:

READING AND WRITING SIMPLE HINDI CONSONANTS

(4.1) | va, | ba, ka
| |
va ba ka






vima@n (airplane) bara@t (wedding procession) kela@ (banana)

EXERCISE 1 : (on what we learned so far)
Read and Write the following characters in Hind& :
1. ka ba ka 2. ba va ka 3. va ba ka 4. kaba, baka
--- ---- -- --- --- -- -- -- --- ------ -----

. |. | o. . || . ||. | . . ||
----- ---- ----- ---- ----- ---- ------ -----

v. . |. |. | c. . |. | . ||. |. || z. ||. ||. ||. ||
---------------- ----------------- --- ------------ ------------------------------






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Learn Hindi through English Medium - Course Level I
(4.2) | pa, | s<a, ~ pha
| | ~
pa s<a pha, fa




ped< (plant) s<at>akon<a (hexagon) fat>fat>& (m. bike)

EXERCISE 2 : (only on what we learned so far)
Read and Write the following characters in Hind& :
1. kapa, ka 2. pas<a, kas<a 3. pha, ba, ka, s<a pa, pava 4. bakabaka, kabakaba
. ||. |~ o. |. | . |. ||. ~ . |~. ||. |~|

(4.3) -| ta, -| na, | ga, | ma, +| bha, | n<a
-| -| |
ta na ga




takiya@ (pillow) na@g (cobra) ga@y (cow)






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Learn Hindi through English Medium - Course Level I
| +| |
ma bha n<a







ma@-ba@p (mama-papa) bha@rat (India) ba@n<a (arrow)

EXERCISE 3 : (only on what we learned so far)
Read and Write the following characters in Hind& :
. . |. |. | z. . |. | .. ||. | +. ||. |. || . ||. || o. ||.
|| 7. |. -|. -| . -|-|. -|-| v. . || c. ||-|. +||. ||-|. |-|-|. |-|. ||-|. -||. -|+|.
-||. -||-|. -||. |-|. |-|-| c. |. |. ~ . |. +|. -|. -|. |-|-|. +||-|. ||-|. |-|-|. ||-|+

(4.4) -| cha, | ja, ~| n~a, | la
-| | ~| |
cha ja n~a la




cha@b& (key) jura@b (sock) lad<ka@-lad<ki (boy-girl)






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Learn Hindi through English Medium - Course Level I

EXERCISE 4 : (only on what we learned so far)
Read and Write the following characters in Hind& :

(~ . |. -||-|. z. -|-| |-| ||-| .. +||-|. |-|-|. |-|-| +. +||. ||. ||. . -||. ||-|.
o. ||. |-|. ||. || . ||. -||. |-|| . |. |. || v. ||. |-|. -||

NOTE : Character n~ (~|) is rarely used in Hind&. It is mostly used in Sanskrit language.

(4.5) t| gha, t| dha, ~ chha
t| t| ~
gha dha c{ha




ghar (house) dhan (wealth) chhipkali (lizard)

EXERCISE 5 : (only on what we learned so far)
Read and Write the following characters in Hind& :

. |. -|. ~| z. |. |. -| .. . | +. ||. ||| . ||. -||
o. |+|. || . -|. |. ~|. |. . |. |. | . -||. ||. || . |. |. |. |-|
v. ||. ~| c. ||. || . ||. ~. ||. +|-|. -||-| z. ||-|. ||-|. -|-| |-|
.. |. || |-| +. |~. -||| . |||. ||. ||. -|. |. || o. -||. -||. -||
. ||. ~|~| . ~|. ||. t|. t|-|t|-| v. t|-|. |. |t| zc. ||. ~






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Learn Hindi through English Medium - Course Level I
(4.6) ra, | sa, | kha, | s{a
| | |
ra sa kha s{a






rupaya@ (Rupee) s&d& (CD) khat (letter) sha@d& (marriage)

(4.7) ~| ya, | tha
~| |
y a tha




yagya (yajn~a) tha@l& (plate)
EXERCISE 6 : (only on what we learned so far)
Read and Write the following characters in Hind& :
(B) . t|. ||. |-|. ~|+|. ~||. |. t|-| z. t|-|. ~||.|. |. |. ||. . ||. -|| .. t|-|.
||. |z. |~|. +. +|~|. |~|-|. -||-|. |. ~. || . t|. -||. t|. |-|. ||. ||






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Learn Hindi through English Medium - Course Level I

(4.8) t>a , t>ha :, d<ha , da =. d<a <, n[a <, jha ;|. ha z
: =
t>a t>ha d<ha da




t>ama@t>ar (tomato) thappa@ (stamp) d<hakna@ (lid) dil (heart)
< ;| z
d<a n[a jha ha




d<or (rope) jha@d<u (broom) ha@th& (elephant)

EXERCISE 7 : (only on what we learned so far)
Read and Write the following characters in Hind& :
. : = z. < < ;| .. ;| z ;| +. =| | | |-| . <|| <~ <
o. =z-|. =| . |~. |: . z:. |-| v. |-| -|. ||= c. ||. z|. ||







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Learn Hindi through English Medium - Course Level I

(4.9) +| ks<a, | tra, | gya (jn~a)
+| | |
ks<a tra jn~a

(4.10) Anuswa@ra, C}andrabind& and the Visarga - ~ m[, ~ m[, ~: h<

~ am[ ~: ah< | pam[ | pam[ |: pah<
EXERCISE 8 : Read and Write the following characters in Hind& :
. ~ ~: z. || |= || || .. +|| -|| ~-|-| : +. |-| =< | . || ||~| z| |-| o.
~-| |-|: . -|=-| | |-|| |= || ||-| |-| |: . |t| :< <:| | -|| || |-|~|
~: v. ~| ||| |-| ~| |=-| c. || || ~= ~= |= |=-| |= |t|+

< d<a d<ha


EXAMPLES :
(A) ||l. z|. ||-||. |||-||. |||l. |||. -||=. -||=l. -||=-|l. ~|-||. ~||. |-|-||. |z|. ||t|.
||-|. ||-|-||. ;||-||. ;||l. ;||;|. ;||||. ||. ||. ||-||. :||. :|-||. <|. <|-||. <|||<|.
<||. |-||. -|z|. -||||. -||||. -||||. =-|||. =|-|. =||. t||-||. t|||-||. t||t||l. t||~|. t|||-||.
-||t|-||. |||<|. ||-|. ||-||-~|. ||-|||. ~=. ~=|. ~|-||. ~||-||. ~-||. ~|=-||. ~||-||. ~||l.
||||. ||-||. ||-||. |||. |||. ||;|. ||-||. ||t|-||. |||. |||l. ||z. +||||. +||. +||<|.
+|||-|. +|||-||. |<|-||. |~. |<-||. |<-||. |=-||. ||. |||. |||-||. ~|z|. |-||. ||,. |||. |<.
|t|-||. ||t|-||. |z|. |||||. |||. z|. z|. z|-||. z|||. z|l. z|-||. z|<l. z|~-||+
(B) ~<-||. ~<|-||. ~-||<l. ~|<|. ~|-|. <-||. <. |,. l. l<|. >l<|. |<|. |<|<.
|. t||<|. -||<|. ~|<-||. ||<-||. ;|<-||. <|. |. ||. -|<|-||. -|<||-||. -||< -||. ||<|. =|<-||.
t|<-||. -||<l. |<-||. |l<|. ~|<-||. ~||<|. |<|. |,. |-||. | |-||. | ||. ||. +||<|.






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Learn Hindi through English Medium - Course Level I
+|<|. +|l<. +|l<-||. |<-||. |<l. |. ||<. ||<-||. l. |<-||. |<|,. |<-||. ||<+
LESSON 5
||-||| ||:

PRACTICING THE HINDI VOWELS

(5.1) ~ a, ~| a@, ~| o, ~| au , i, , &
~ a ~| a@ ~| o ~| au , i , &

EXERCISE 9 : Write the following words in Hind& :

(A) . ~|. ~|. ~|. ~|| z. ~|. ~. ~|. ~|-| .. ~|. ~|. ~| +. ~|. ~||. ~+| . ~|.
~|. ~|t|| o. ~|;||. ~||. ~| . ~t|. ~|||. ~||. ~||. ~||. ~|z. ~||. ~|-|. ~|.
~|:. ~|:. ~|t|: . ,. ,. ,| v. ,. ,. , .. ,. ,. , c. ,|. ,. -|,. ,t|. -|,. -|,+

(B) idhar (,t|. aurat (~|-|. ma& (|,. aur (~|, an[k (~. &ndhanam[ (,t|-|. om (~||.
aman c{aman (~|-| -||-|. anda@j (~=||. kaila@s (|||. chauk& (-||l


(5.2) u, ~ u@, + r<; } e, } ai; ru, ru@
~ + } }
u u@ r< e ai ru ru@

EXERCISE 10 : Read and write :
. . ~. + z. t|. , .. |. ~| +. ||. ~-| . ~. : o. -|. ,t| . }. }.
+ . |}. -|} v. }-|. ~|. +| c. }. ,|. }-|. ,t|-|. ~-|:. ~|-|. ~||. |. -|+







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Learn Hindi through English Medium - Course Level I
LESSON 6
~:|| ||:

WRITING HINDI VOWEL SIGNS


Vowels ~ ~| , , ~ + } } ~| ~|
Signs | | l | |
Sound a a@ i & u u@ r< e ai o au
aa ee oo ri

| | l | |
a@ i & u u@ r< e ai o au

|| || |l | | | | | || ||
pa@ pi p& pu pu@ pr< pe pai po pau


EXERCISE 7 : Read and write the Hind& words :

|l-|-||. ||-|-||. |-|. |-|-||. |-||. ~. |||. ~|t||. |=~||. =l~||. | |l. |||. ||l. +|=. |. |+|+||. ||-|l.
|=-||. || |||. |z|-|-||. || =:|. -|z|. ||-|~|| |. |z|+||-|l~|. ~|l-|. ,|<~|-|. -|l|. |||||+






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Learn Hindi through English Medium - Course Level I
CHART OF ALPHABET WITH VOWEL SIGNS

~ ~| , , ~ + } } ~| ~| ~ ~:
- a@ i & u u@ r< e ai o au am[ ah<
| | l , | | :
| || || |l | | | | | || || | |:
| || || |l | | | | | || || | |:
t| t|| |t| t|l t| t| t| t| t| t|| t|| t| t|:
-| -|| |-| -|l -| -| -| -| -| -|| -|| -| -|:
~ ~| |~ ~l ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~| ~| ~ ~:
| || || |l | | | | | || || | |:
;| ;|| |;| ;|l ;| ;| ;| ;| ;| ;|| ;|| ;| ;|:
| | l | | :
: :| |: :l : : : : : :| :| : ::
< <| |< <l < < < < < <| <| < <:
| | l | | :
| || || |l | | | | | || || | |:
-| -|| |-| -|l -| -| -| -| -| -|| -|| -| -|:
| || || |l | | | | | || || | |:
= =| |= =l = = = = =| =| = =:
t| t|| |t| t|l t| t| t| t| t| t|| t|| t| t|:
-| -|| |-| -|l -| -| -| -| -| -|| -|| -| -|:
| || || |l | | | | | || || | |:
~ ~| |~ ~l ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~| ~| ~ ~:
| || || |l | | | | | || || | |:
+| +|| |+| +|l +| +| +| +| +| +|| +|| +| +|:
| || || |l | | | | | || || | |:
~| ~|| |~| ~|l ~| ~| ~| ~| ~| ~|| ~|| ~| ~|:
| | l ( | | :
| || || |l | | | | | || || | |:
| || || |l | | | | | || || | |:
| || || |l | | | | | || || | |:
| || || |l | | | | | || || | |:
| || || |l | | | | | || || | |:
z z| |z zl z z ; z z z| z| z z:
EXERCISE 8 : What we learned so far, SUMMARY






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Learn Hindi through English Medium - Course Level I

THIS EXERCISE IS ONLY FOR READING AND WRITING HINDI WORDS

READ the Hind& words and WRITE them for practice
(help is given in the brackets)

| (mai - I), z| (ham - we), ~|| (a@p - you), -| (tu@ - you) -|| (tum -
you), |z (vah - he, she), | (ve - they), z| (hame - to us), ~||| (a@p
ko - to you), || (us ko - to him, to her), -|| (un ko - to them), |-|
(mai ne - I), ~||-| (a@p ne - you), -|-| (tu@ ne - you), -||-| (tum ne -
you. |-| (us ne - he, she. |;| (mujhe - to me), ~||| (a@p se - from
you. |;|| (mujh se - from me. -|;|| (tujh se - from you -||| (tum se
- from you. || (us se - from him, her. -|| (un se - from them. |
||| (mere pa@s - with me. | ||~| (mere liye - for me. ~|| ||~| (a@pke
liye - for you. z|| ||~| (hama@re liye - for us. -| ||~| (unke liye -
for them. || (mera@ - my. |l (mer& - my. | (mere - our. z|||
(hama@ra@ - my. z||l (hama@r& - my. z|| (hama@e - my. -|| (tera@ -
your. -|l (ter& - your. -| (tere - your. ~||| (a@p ka@ - your. ~||l
(a@p k& - your. ~|| (a@p ke - your. |;|| (mujhme - in me). -|| (tere
me - in you). -|;|| (tujhme - in you). ~||| (a@p me - in you). ||
(us me - in him, her). -|| (un me - in them). |;| | (mujh par - on
me). -| | (tere par - on you). -|| | (tum par - on you). -|;| | (tujh
par - on you). ~|| | (a@p par - on you). | | (us par - on him, her).
-| | (un par - on them)+ | z (mai hu@ - I am). -| z (tu@ hai - You
are). -|| z| (tum ho - You are). ~|| z (a@p hai - You are).






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Learn Hindi through English Medium - Course Level I
LESSON 7
||-||| ||:

COMPOUNDING THE CONSONANTS
(Compare the following chart with the one given on page 1)

Hind& Half-Characters :

~ ( (| (| t (t|
k kh g gh n[

- (-| ~ (| ; (;| ~ (~|
c{, ch c{h, chh j jh n~

: < (|
t> t>h d< d<h n<

- (-| (| = t (t| - (-|
t th d dh n

(| ~ (~ (| + (+| (|
p ph,f b bh m


~ (~| (| (|
y r l v,w

(| (| (| z
s{, sha s< s h






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Learn Hindi through English Medium - Course Level I
USE OF THE HALF CHARACTERS TO MAKE
HINDI COMPOUND LETTERS AND WORDS

*Character k (. ~ : |~| (pakka@ strong), ~|| (klab club), ~||| (kla@s class),
~~|| (kyo why?), ~~|| (kya@ what?), ||~~| (va@kya sentence) |~-| (vakta time),
~-| (rakta blood), |~||l (Rukmin<&)
*Character kh (|. : ~||| (khya@l attention), ||~| (saukhya happiness),
||| (khwa@b dream), |||z| (khwa@hish desire), ~|||-| (khya@ti fame)
*Character g (|. : ||| (gla@s glass), =t| (dugdha milk), ~|-| (agni fire),
+||~| (bha@gya fortune), |||| (gwa@la@ milkman), ~||z (gya@raha eleven)
*Character gh (t|. t ) : || ||t-| ||t|-| (vighna obstacle), ,-|t-| ,-|t|-|
(kr<taghna obliged), |t|||l |t||||l (laghva@sh& moderate eater)

*Character ch (-|. - ) : |--|| (bachcha@ kid), |--|| (sachcha@ true), ~-~|-|
(Achyuta Krishn<a), ||-~| (va@cya utterance), ~-~| (achha@ good), --||
(kaccha@ raw)
*Character j (|. : |~| (ra@jya kingdom), || (sajja ready), ||
(ujjawal bright), ~|||-| (jyoti brilliance), |||| (jwa@la@ flame)

*Character t> ( : ~l ~l (chhut<t>& holiday), ||l. ||l (mit>t>& soil) ||
|| (khat>t>a@ sour), |:| (pat>t>ha@ pupil), |:l (mut>t>h& fist)
*Character d< (< : |_| |<<| (khad<d<a@ pit), z_l z<<l (had<d<& bone), _~|-|
<<~|-| (ud<d<ayan flying)
*Character n< (|. : ||<| (Pa@n<d<ava), : (kan<t>ha throat),
(kan<t>aka thorn), <<| (d<an<d<a@ stick), |||| (s<an<ma@sa six months), +|<|l
(bhan>d>a@r& storekeeper), ~<| (an<d<a@ egg)






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Learn Hindi through English Medium - Course Level I
*Character t (-|. - : |-| (satka@ra honour), --|| (Ratna@kar), ~|-|| (tma@
soul), |-~| (satya truth), -~||| (tya@g sacrifice), ||| (tra@s trouble), -||
(tvara@ rush), |-|. |-|-|. |-|-|| (sattava truth), |z-|. |z-| (mahatva,
mahattva greatness)
*Character th (|. : -|~| (tathya truth), |~| (pathya diet)
*Character dh (t|. t : ||t~| (ba@dhya binding), ~t| (adhvara lower lip),
=t| (dadhma to blow), |t~| (madhya centre), t~||-| (dhya@na meditation),
t||-| (dhvani soundon)
*Character n (-|. - : ~|-|-= (nanda joy), |~-| (jannat heaven), ~~ (anna
food), |-| (janma birth), ~-~| (anya other), t|-~|||= (dhanyava@d thanks),
|+|~ (bhinna different), ,--||| (intaja@ra wait), ~-t|| (andhera@ darkness)

*Character p (|. : ||||-| (sama@pti end), ~|| (pya@r love), |-| (svapna
dream), -|-| (tapta heated), || (plava bird)
*Character ph, f (~. ~ : ~||| (fla@war flower), ~|| (fla@sk), ~|| (flo
flow), ~-|| (rafta@r speed), z~-|| (hafta@ week)
*Character b (|. : t||| (dhabba@ spot), | (blu@ blue), |= (shabda
sound), ~|l (beauty), ~||z (bya@ha wedding), ||l (sabj& vegetable)
*Character bh (+|. + : ~+~||| (abhya@s study), |+~| (sabhya gentle), |+~|
(labhya available)
*Character m (| . : ~|| (amma@ mother), ||=| (sampada@ wealth),
|~| (samyak proper), |||-| (samma@na honour), ||, (mumba&,
Bombay), ~| (amla sour), ||~| (sa@mya similarity), ||-t| (sambandha
relationship)

*Character y (~|. ~ : |~~|| (shayya@ bed)






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Learn Hindi through English Medium - Course Level I
LESSON 8
~|:|| ||:

SPECIAL COMPOUND CHARACTERS

(1) Character d (= forms following commonly used SEVEN compound letters :

(i). d + ga = dga writen as : = - | =| , +|||,l-||
(ii) d + da = dda written as : = - = == |
(iii) d + dha = ddha written as = - t| =t| |
(v) d + bha = dbha written as : = - +| =+| . |l|.||,l-||
(v) d + ya = dya written as : = - ~| =~| |||
(vi) d + ma = dma written as : = - | =| |
(vii) d + va = dva written as : = - | =| ; ;|

(2) Characters ra and r (. form following TWO types of compounds :

(A) WHEN FULL CONSONANT ra ( comes after a half consonant character, it is written
as a slant line attached to that (half) consonant. (Note : Even though that half consonant
apprars to be written as a full consonant, it is actually a half consonant) :

(i) k (half) + ra (full) = kra ( - > -|>
(ii) g + ra = gra ( | - | | ~|
(iii) t + ra = tra ( -| - -| | ||||
(iv) d + ra = dra ( = - = =|
(v) sh + ra =shra ( | - ~ |l

(vi) t> or d<+ ra= tra, d<ra ( - (truck. | (ra@s<t<ra nation. t|-|| (Dhr<tara@s<t>ra)
(vii) s + ra = sra (| - | |z






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Learn Hindi through English Medium - Course Level I

(B) WHEN HALF CONSONANT r ( ) comes before any full consonant character, the r (
is written as ( over that full consonant.
(viii) r + k ( - + ~ (arka extract. || (svarga heaven.

AGAIN REMEMBER :
(i) The slant line character ( represents the full (ra), it does not represent half (r)
eg\ | | - |||

(ii) The curved line character ( represents half (r), it does not represent full (ra)
eg\ | - | ||

(3) Character z forms following three types of very common compound letters :

(i) h + ma = hma (z - | u
(ii) h + ya = hya (z - ~| z. ||z (bahya outer
(iii) h + r> = hr> (z - + ; ;=~| (hr>day heart)


THE SPECIAL LETTER kta


(4) Character k : character k + ta = kta. kta can be written as - -| ~-|_ but there is a
special character for this combo which is written as - -| ~-|

eg\ (rakta blood. +|| +||~-| (bhakti devotion. || |~-|| (vakta@ speaker. | |~-|
(mukta free. | |~-| (vakta time. || ||~-| (pan[kti line ...etc