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The Pocket Guide to

C COj))'rtght LO$ANGE - 63400 Chamall!}rt!'I - france

M,maglng Editor: He"'~ Chaumeton

Pro)l'Ct Coordinauon: Mu"eI Bresson
Oe5ign ar.d Layout: Nathalie Lao:haud, Jean,rran~ols Lauren t. Isabelle Veret
Typesetting , $t!}phaJlle Henf)', VerOOlQue Ja,.,."er, Chantal Mlaion

The author and the editorlillteam WO\.IklIIKe to acknowledge the kInd il5S1Stance of Ren!}-
JiKques Bouteville of lhe Avvergne Natural HI~tory SOCIety, who IS also a member of the Soci·
et~ My<:oIoglque de fraoce, and thank hIm for h>s help and <KMce.

Orl9l1'1i1l tItle: Le mJllI-<}ulde de champ.gnorrs

ISBN of the German ed i ~on J·8331-1314·6

CopyrIgh t C 2005 for th>s English ed,tron;

Tandem Verlag GmbH
KONEMANN is a trademark and an Imprint of Tandem Ve!1ag GmbH

Translatron from french : JOSephIne BiKOO, Chanterelle Tran'ilalions, London

Adilptatron of the English editlOll: Jo5ephIn. BOKon
Typesel1lng : Chanterelle Tran'llatIOrlS. London: OMs. Cologne
PrOject coord inatIOn: Ale~ Morkraml!f

Pnnted In SlovakIa

ISBN ]·8]] 1- 1809- I

X IX \1111 Vr1 VI V IV IU I

Th", tJr:x* has been researched, and the Illustratrons con taIned hereon collated. Wllh the great-
est of care, nevertheles5, there can be rIO guarantee that the contents are completely free of
errOf. The IdentlflCatron of edible and porsooous mushrooms always, In Pf3CtlCe. underlies an
e,..,errenced gatherer's subJectrill' OV'l'fall IJdgmefl\ of varIOUS characteflnru, the publisher
can therelore accept no respor1lo1brlity for the safe usage of these (jesjgnallOlls, arnvor posSIble
mIstakes concerning Ihem. NeIther the autOOr' and editors. nor the publ>Sher can be hekl
responsrble lor any damages whal50ever that may arISe flOm the use of the contents ollhls

The Pocket Guide to
Jean-Marie Polese

his is a field guide to wild mushrooms, also known as fungi. It does not
T include all of the species, of course, because there are several thousand
of the macrofungi, those which can be seen with the naked eye, but you
will find the most frequently found species in this book.
The mushrooms featured here are generally found throughout the
temperate zone of the nonhern hemisphere, though there may be slight
variations from one continent to another. A few species have a more
restricted habitat but are quite common in those areas in which they grow.
A certain number of species which are especially frequent or which are
of particular interest due to their edibility or toxicity are dealt with in
greater detail and are more extensively illustrated.
This book will be of interest to the amateur mycologist as well as to
the novice mushroom-picker who wants to be able to identify fungi
precisely and accurately, and even to the more experienced picker who
would like to extend his or her knowledge to other species, whether they
are edible or nol. In order to give the reader some idea of how mushrooms
are classified, we have used the method adopted by French mycologists
who are the European authorities.
Shape, color, odor, taste, and habitat are all properties that are unique
to each species. It is rare to be able to recognize a species on the basis of
one of these faaors alone. It is usually a combination of several
characteristics that enable identification of a specimen with certainty.
All this makes mycology, the study of fungi, a discipline which
increases powers of observation and exercises the critical faculties. It also
arouses a sense of wonder and increases feelings of humility when faced
with the extraordinary diversity of nature and the amazing creative gen ius
of which the kingdom of the fungi is proof. We hope that this book wi ll lift
the veil from certain aspects of the strange and fascinating world of wild

Introduction 8
Anatomy of a fungus 10
What is a fungus? 12
Ecology 16
Mushrooms and Man 19
Picking and eating 21
Key to identification 26
The Ascomycetes 32

The Phragmobasidiomycetes 58

The A[lhyl lo[lhorales 64

The Tricholomatales 106

The Aqaricales 178

The Entolomatales 230

The Cortinariales 240

The Russulales 284

The Boletales 316

The Gasteromycetes 352

Glossary 366
Index 369
The Wusmtions and descriptions of
spe:cics in this book have Men produ~ed
with the greatest ClIte.
If you an in the slightest doubt, however,
as 10 the edibilily of ~ mushroom, do not H: height
eat it, and consult an identi6eation txpert. L: length
0: diameter



n IH OA m .M·- -- -t


Convex Umbooate
Fibrillo~ Downy Reticulate


(~I O ~ ~
SlI"II.IOUS O,l!).wped
Bulbous Thin

~ E~

0 ~ r::efal -

Smooth Enrolled B ULB

Undulating Of 5inuous

SUialed V OLVA

Sac-like Sheath-like Ridged bulb


Fungi were ollCe classified as plants. but aments, which are called hyphae, and which
today they are (on~idered 10 be in a class of are invisible to the naked eye when found in
their own, neither vegetable nor animal, isolation. Howev!'!, hyphae often cling
inhabitants of the fungal kingdom. Unlike together and their density makes them visi-
plants, they do not have siems, leaves, or ble in the form of a white, felt·like wbstance
rool$. Fungi contain no chlorophyll, the sub· or as thin strings. The mass of hyphae is
stance that enables plants to manufacture (ailed a mycelium. My<:elia (an often be
their own food, w they are fOlced to find found in early fall beneath the moss which
food from their environment, in the same grows on the forest noor, Some mycelia (an
way as animals be found growing over sevefal dead leaves
The mushroom that is visible is actually jusl which they dump together. This is the case
the largest part of an organism most of
which lies in the soil. embedded in leaf litter,
humus, de<ayiflg wood, and similar habitats The fall is {he liesllime of year
A fungus looks like a network of very fine Iii- 101 finding and picking mushrooms.
Mycelium has caJ.JSed the /edves IlrI
this brarlCh /0 Clump logether

two types of genetically different spores to

produce a fru iting-body; as many as four,
may be required, which makes procreation a
rather complicated process!
Fungi produce a huge number 01 sporl'S. The
with certain species 01 Clitocybe. A particu- champion in this respect is the Giant Puff-
larly thick mass 01 mycelium can sometimes ball. a real spore' making factory. This fungus
be seen on the pine needles thaI carpel the can exceed 16 inches (40 em) in
Hoor of coni ferous forl'Sls, l'Specially spruce. diameter. According to an eminent mycolo-
The real function of a fungus is 10 produce gist. a single specimen is capable of releas·
spores, its minute dispersal organs. That is ing 10billion spores into the atmosphere!
why mycologists cali the visible mushroom Despite the amazing number of spores pro-
the fruiting body or w(X.Jphore (from the duced by fungi, they clearly have nO!
Greek karpos meaning "fruit" and p/l!:Jm; invaded the planet. In facl, in nature, sporl'S
"support" or "bearer "). The fruiting body is very rarely develop a mycelium. ftIr instance,
also known as a sporophore (from the groups of Marasmius oreades. the Fairy Ring
Greek spora meaning "seed"). Champignon, are to be found every year in
abundance in certain meadows, wh ile
life cycle of the fungus neighboring meadows, which have the same
A fungus produces spores which, once in the agricultural. physical, and chemical proper-
substrate, germinate into a very fi ne, white ties. never have a single specimen, even
filament which branches out in all direc· though spores must have drifted over from
tions. This primary mycelium is incapable 01 the neighboring field and landed there
producing a carpophore on its own. In order countless times over the years.
for this to happen, the mycelium needs to Although certain mycelia are known to live
encounter a filament from another spore 01 for centuries (an example is the abovemen-
the same species 01 fungus. but one which is tioned Fairy Ring Champignon) the
genetically different. The two types of fila· mycelium of other specil'S die every year. The
ment merge to create another type 01 fila- cycle then starts over in the 'opOres which
ment, the secondary mycelium, which is ler- germinate in the substrate, producing new
tile and is capable 01 producing a filaments and new mycelia, and eventually
mushroom. Very often. it takes more than new carpophores.
How mushrooms are
At a (enain moment in the life
of the filaments, under condi-
tions which are still a mystery,
they start to dump together
instead of growing in all direc-
tions. A little lump then
appears on the filaments. a
ball of hyphal threads the size
of a pinhead. This is called a
prifrl()(dium and it is the start
of what will become the car-
pophore of the mushroom. So
the carpophore consists of a
grouping together of filaments
which in other organisms
would be comparable to a group of cells Several species 01 wild mushrooms lIlal grow irt
combining to form tissue. woods are rrow cufljvated commercially These
Only when the frui ting body is fairly well irtClurJe the Oyster Mushroom. the Blewil (pic-
developed (an the species be identified. tured here). aJ1(/ the Shaggy Irtk cap
Mycelium on its own is very hard to attribute
\0 a spe<ies. especially with the naked eye. as soon as condi tions imprO'v'e. This pheno-
Although it is often said that mushrooms menon has been successfully explOited by
only grow if they find themselves in a favor- mushroom-growers. To produce the store or
able environment, the reverse is actually the Portobello mushroom. growers (O'v'er the
case. If mycelium is grown in the laboratory substrate which is impregnated wi th the fun-
under ideal conditions, it never produces gus mycelium with a layer 01 sandy soil, se\'.
fruit ing bodies. Mycelium needs a form of eral inches thick, stimulating the production
stimulation which will cause it to react and of fruiting bodies. In the case of Blewits, a
emerge from its vegetative state. If it wild variery that has only recently been culti·
believes that its survival is under threat, it vated, the triggering fador is a sudden drop
will produce a response to ensure its (ontin· in temperature.
ued existence, and this takes the form of a
sporophore. The fruiting body will enable the Alovely lorest in glorious fall weE/her is an
fungus to survive in adversity and germinate invilaiioolo go mushroom-hurtling.

Fungi afl' normally divided into three cate- Penicillin is extracted from a Penicillium
gories depending on where they find their nota tum; yeast, used in brewing and bait.·
food and their behavior in the growing ing, is also a type of fungus.
environment. - Parasitic fungi grow on living
- Saprophytic fungi feed on dead plants and animals and thrive at their
organic vegetable mailer (leaves. twigs, expense. The most frequently encountered
logs, etc.) or animal remains (carrion, exc- species are Polypores or the fungi that form
reta), This is the case, for instance, wi th all a lichen·like crust on the trunks or brarxhes
the fungi that grow on dead trl'e trunks or of living lTees. The spores find their way into
logs, such as the Honey Fungus, those which a wound where they germinate or they
grow on dead leaves, such as the Blewit, or
the weird-looking Ear-pick Fungus. which Sapropftylic lungi play an ifT¥X)ftant role in
grows on fallen pine cones. Fungi playa vel)' nature, by cleaning up dead trees and plant
important role in the decomposition 01 all rJebris.
types of waste and in the formation of
humus which enriches the soil. Some micro-
,",opic ~prophitic fungi are valuable aids in
lhe fields of medicine and food preparatfon,

The 81ewe1 is asaprophyte which

grows 01/ oalr or beech leaves.
allack a host in a weakened state and kill it - The mycorrhizal fungi. These are
Numerous spe<les 01 lungi are both fungi tha t live in symbiosis with a plant,
parasites and saprophytes, be<i:luse they con- generally a tree, Symbiosis is a system in
tinue to feed 011 a host e\'en afte( they MV1! which two living beings live ofl each other
til~ it. This is the case with two tree para- to their mutual advantage. The my<:elium
sites, the TInder Fungus. also known as the combines wi th the rootlets of the plant,
Hoof Fungus (Fames fomentarius) and the which take on a swollen appearance. The
Honey fungus (AImillaria melleaJ. Such fungi resulting combination of root and my<:elium
are eV1!n capable of living an entrrely sapro- is called a my<:orrhiza, a latin word which
phytic existeoce, only invading wood when it literally means "fungus-root" 1\ is in the
is dead. The microsc:opic fungi Of molds which my<:orrhiza that the exchange of nutrients
cause plant diseases. such as rust, smut, wilt, takes place. The plant supplies the mush·
and mildew to such devastating effe<t are room with carbohydrates resulting from
also parasites. Fungal diseases of animals are photosynthesis. In exchange, the fungus
called mj'{oses. The commonest in humans feeds the green plant with water and min·
are Athlete's Foot and Ringworm. eral salts, especially tho!>e which the plant
finds hardest to convert from the
soil. such as nitrate!>. it is able to do
this because of il5 den!>e networ~
of my<:elial filaments which are in
closer contact wi th the soil than the
rootlets of plants. It thus creates a
sort of extension of the rootlets,
increasing the area of con tact
between the soil and the rootlets.
Symbiosis is not confi ned to trees
but is practiced by many other
plants, including heather, orchids,
and even cereals. In fact, three-
This strange. long, Ihin fungus is a
species of CordyCepS. COfdyceps
ophiogI05S(lil1eS. It parasilizes other
fungi. in this case asubterrane.lI1 truf·
fle-like fungus called Elaphomyces
muricalus Of Deer Truffle
quarters of all green plants benefit from a Myr;orrhyzal fungi ate ~imes associaled
mycorrhizal asW{iati on. Some. such as with a single species. such as lhe Elegant
orchids. al l' even incapable of life without it. Bolele (Suillu$ grevillei) which only lives unrJer
The system of exchanges enables the green /arch.
plants that benefit from it to grow quickly
and strongly. Experiments conducted by
many research organizations show that to trap and destroy the nematodes (tiny
saplings, in particular, derive great advan· worms) and other insect pests that gnaw
tage flam a symbiotic association with a away at the rootlets of plants and seriously
fungus. damage, stunt, or kill them.
The fungi evl'l1 participate actively in pro- In exchange for the great service rendered
tecting the tree by releasing chemicals into by the mycorrhizallungus, the plant or tree
the soil which prevent attack by predators supplies the lungus with mgank matter
and pests. Some fungi have even been which it is incapable of producing by itself.
shown to create nets of mycelium in which

Man has alw<I)'S been curious about and

fascinated with fungi. The mystery surroond·
ing their growth. the way they appear so
suddenly (Shakl'Speare's "midnight mush-

rooms"). the strange circles which are
formed by some spe<:ies in meadows or for-
est dearings. and the violent reactions they
can cause to the human organism, including Nordic tribes
serious poisoning and even death, have have taken
inspired fear and superstition. Even loday, advanlage
many people have a phobia about wild of tile
mushrooms, despite the fact thai fungal fJal/ucinogeflic
Fly Agaric (Amanita musraria), for instance SiJlJslances found
has been used since at least the eighteenth !n Fly Agaric
century in the rituals of native peoples of (Amanila muscaria)
Siberia, Nonh America, and Lapland.

Fairy rings 01 mushrooms have given

rise 10 many lales and beliefs.

Some mushrooms, such as this Liberty Cap

(Psilocybe semilanceata) afe hallucinogenic.
In central America and Mexico, hallu-
cinogenic fungi of the genus Psilocybe
were used by the priests of pre-Columbian
civilizations. They may well have been sacred
or even deified, as certain figurines and rep-
resentations of the mushroom would appear
to indicate.
Mushrooms must have pfayed quite an
important role in the d~t of early man. They The decoIallVfJ (Jfoperlies of CorioIus
are still eaten in abundance, but generally as versicolor ale used in lIower-amnging
a flavoring or delicacy, though vegetarians
appreciate them as a meal substitute. making bread, cheeses, alcohol, penicillin,
The Tinder Fungus and similar woody and many other useful items. The corky flesh
species probably enabled our ancestors to of the Birch Polypore (PiptOPOM betulinus)
po-eserve fire and carry il around with them. was used to make a leathery substance on
This fungus burns very slowly which barbers sharpened their cut-
and retains an incandescent throat razors, hence it s old-fashioned
spot. At a later date, it name, the Razor-Strop Fungus.
used in tinder boxes. hence Thus quite apan from their food value.
its name. The Styptic Fungus (Panel- fungi are employed in various areas
Ius stypricus) was used in staUf\(h- of human e!1deavor, including the
ing wounds. as the name implies. arts and flower-arranging, The
Fungi have also been harnessed to Many-ZOfled Polypore ((orio-
industry. They are indispensable in Ius versicolor) is often used in
dried flower arrangements. as
If mixed with poIasslum mlrate. are some members of the Pleu-
Ille Tinder Fungus will burst inlo flame rotus family which are cultivated
when struck 10 produce a S(J8rk. for their bfighl colors..
Fungi also have many negative aspects, in
that they can ravage crops. cause illness in
humans and animals, and destroy any type of
vegetable fThll1er that is not carefully stored.

The mold which is used 10 make blue cheese

is /he mycelium 01 a fungus called
Penicillium roque1o~ii

One of the best-known properties of fungi is local tradition and custom. tn Southeast
the edibility of certain mushrooms. In some Asia, for instance, especially Indonesia, the
parts of the world, including (emral and Philippinfls, and China, mushrooms have
eastern Europe. Turkey, and North America, been eaten lor centuries. In these countries.
fungi are assiduously collected for Ihe table. mushroom-growing is a cottage industry.
Whether they are to be eaten at home or Indonesia is the world's biggest produ<:er of
picked for salt! \0 markets and restaurants, Paddy Straw Mushrooms (Vo/varieJ/a
the number of wild mushrooms currently valvae",a). In China. many fungi are use<! in
picked has reached a tonnage that ddually Chinese medicine. In Africa, the most popu'
surpasses that of cultivated mushrooms such lar edible mushrooms are of the species Ter-
as the store or PortobeHo mushroom, the mitomyces, wtlich grow on termite nem.
Paddy Straw Mushroom, and Shiitake Mush- Europe is divided into two camps. the coun-
rooms consequently play a Significant part in tries which rejeo wild fungi and those that
the human diet. They are &lIen throughout eat them with relish. The former group COf!'
the world from the cold countries to the trop- sists mainly of the United Kingdom and
ics of Africa and Asia. Scandinavia, as well as parts of Spain
Mushroom consumption is patchy, however, (though the Spanish eat the Saffron Mil~
depending 011 the country or region and Cap). The latter group includes several west·
ern European countries,
especially France, Italy, Ger·
many. and Switzerland, as
well as the countries of cen -
lIal and Eastern Europe. In
France, for example, con·
sumption amounts to sev-
eral kilograms of wild mush·
rooms per per!oOn per year.
Eastern Europe has a very

Every fall, an abundance

of wild mushrooms
appear on markel
slal/s in Europe.
ancient tradition 01 gathering wild mush- are very young, whose shape and color
rooms and a large number of spe<ies is could be interpreted in various ways.
eaten. Some, such as the Peppery Milk Cap Young sperimens, rKognizable by the firm·
(UK/ilriu5 piperilllJ5) considered inedible ness 01 their I~sh, are much tastier than older
elsewhere, are used as seasonings. ooes. Yoonger mushrooms stay firmer during
cooking and are less likely 10 be worm-eaTen.
Rules for picking wild mushrooms
For eating purposes, on~ pid those wild
mushrooms that yoo have idenlified with
certainty. It is best to pick them before they A IunglJS foray in Ifre (ores)
are lully mature, but beware of those which in search of chanlerelles.
Th! tMhioom-pdets I!q/Jrpmetl/ /$
It!fY COiISISJlng merely 01 a
SlICk. asharp knife. abifsk!I
and shJrp eyes.

or you will be disturbing the

medium 00 I'I'hidlIhe myceIitIn
grows and may kill the
fungus. II you are careful to
pick mushrooms wilhom disturb-
ing their growing medium, you will
not compromise their future growth.
Mycelium present in the soil could produce
Some spe<ies must be removed whole from anothl'l' speCImen during the same glOwing
the grOUnd. with their stipe and base. in season or in the followrng year.
ordef to avoid any dangef of mlStakffi iden- Try not to mix differem species in the same
tily (such as confusing the Blusher with tile basket. Those with fragile flesh should be
Panther Cap). OthelWise. fungi should be
cut away at ground level with a knife. In the
case of fungi which are easily recognizable
but whose stipe is tOO tOugh to eat. such as
the Parasol Mushroom (Maaolepiora pro·
cera). only the cap should be ~cked.
BeIOl'e placing the mushroom in )'OUr bas-
ket. remove any dirt or debris dinging to it.
Try and bring home a harvest of mushrOOfTlS
which are as 1O~·free and dean as possi·
ble. be<ause as WIll be explained iatl'l'. it is
best to avoid washing mushrooms before
cooking them.
00 not scratch around or dig up the dirt
around a mushroom. or root around disturb-
ing moss or dead leaves to find specimens.

In p/acts tnat only they CN/ tw.Children love

to go looking fix rrvshtooms.
separated from firm, fleshy speties which such as the Ink Caps, the Blusher and the
might crush them and reduce thl!m to an Griseue should be quickly fried in very hot
inedible pulp. oil; if subjected to long, slow COOKing, they
will turn into an unappetising mush.
Mushroom cuisine As a general rule, the first stage of cooking
Mushrooms ought to be eaten as soon as consists in making the mushrooms release
possible after they have been picked. Most the water they cO!ltain by heating them in a
species can be stored in the refrigerator for skillet or pan that is large enough to ensure
several days, however. even (ooking, simply to allow the water to
evaporate. This operation does n01 require
Preparation the addition of fal, but a tablespoon of oil
It is not advisable to wash mushrooms, as
this may remove s.ome of the flavor. For
those species which do not need much
cleaning, it is best to pid: them as cleanly as
possible and scrape off any dirt with a knife,
then wipe them with a damp cloth.
If washing cannot be avoided (as in the case
of the Horn of Plenty, and other species that
grow in sand), this should be dOlle as
quickly as possible, and above all do not
leave mushrooms to soak in water. Drain
them on a kitchen towel or kitchen paper.
Cooking methods
As regards the best way to cook them, opin·
ions are very divided. Some cooks simmer
wild mushrooms for an hour or so, while
olhers consider lhatthey should be cooked
quickly over high heat. It is all a matter of
taste, though it also depends on the texture
of the mushroom itself. Fleshy species. such
as Ceps and Chanterelles, can withstand
loog cooking, those with thin, fragi le flesh,

TIle next scene after a lruirfullungus foray In

the forest is set in the kitchen.
could be used to prevent the mushrooms
sticking to the pan. Mushrooms releaS<!
varying quantities 01 liquid, depending on
the species and on whether or not they have
been washed. The Cep. for example, is a
fleshy fungus which does not need to be
washed, releases very little liquid.
The S<!cond stage consists in ~uteing mush-
rooms over high heat in a mixture of oil and
bu tter. Some people used a strongly flavored
oil, such as olive oil, and in france duck fat
These Ceps have been driOO and stored in
Mason jars. They will keep 101 several monlfls.

is sometimes used. Another method of cook-

irlg the mushrooms is to braise them in a
covered pan.
Gastronomy is not an exact science and it is
up to the individual to discover the best
ways to cook their favori te species of mush·
room. Now that wild mushrooms are
becoming so popular on restaurant menus,
and spedes once only to be found in the
wild are now being cultivated, it is becom·
ing easier all the time to find recipes for
cooking fungi. Perhaps the only rule is that
they should not be cooked with any food,
such as cheese, wIlien masks their subtle
flavors. The reduction in price also makes it
easier to experiment. Furthermore, those
who are nervous about not washing speci-
mens found in the wild will prefer the culti·
vated versions, wIlieh are always grown on
a sterile substrate, and thus are free of con·

Spherical or globular mushroom, Not Globular

sometimes dMloping into subterranean
diverse forms







Fungi in the shape of cups,

"z antlers. or

Club·shaped fungi, bfaoched.
-z bum, fungi. neither viscous

Vis(Ous Of gelatinous fUngus
Fungus spreading in a oust or
fans-shaped fungus.

Puff-balls (fragile skin),

Scleroderma (leathery skin)
p. 356 to p. 361

p. 363 to p. 364

Geaster anthurus

GASTEROMYCETES p. 354 to p. 355

p. 364 to p. 365

p. 56 to p. 57

Xylaria hypoxylon,
Bisporella citrin a, Peziza spp.
p. 34 to p. 45

p. 99 to p. 105

Exidia, Auricularia, Tremella ...

p. 60 to p. 62

Stereum, Trametes, Polypores ...

p. 66 to p. 85
Fungus with pores in place 01 Central. diller-
gills entiated stipe.
ground grower.

Lateral or

absent stipe.
growing on
wood or O!l the
I ground
0 Gelatinous flesh
.... fungus with spines in place 01

-'...." gills




0 ,I
Fungi with a pitted or deeply
lobed cap
Trumpet-or funnel-shaped
~ fungus. underside smooth or
(overed in de<urrent veins

Mushroom with flesh separable

from the cap and de<urrent g i ll~

Boletus, Suillus, Xerocomus,

p. 318 to p. 344

p. 80 to p. 85

Hydnum gelatinosum

p. 86 to p. 89

Helvella, Verpa, Morchella

p. 46 to p. 55

Cantharellus, Craterellus

p. 90 to p. 98

Gomphidius, Paxillus

BOLETALES p. 345 to p. 348

Mushroom whose gills are Brittle stipe
not separable from the lIesh

of the cap

Fibrous stipe Spores white or cream,

-•z gills the soame color
but sometimes yellow,
orange, or violet.



Spores pink, gills

pinkish at maturity.

...-'""" Spores sepia brown or

~ black, gills bla(kish

-z at maturity

Spores ocher brown,
IlIst or brown-violet,
gills the same color
at maturity

Russula (no milk), Lactarius (milky

RUSSULALES substance appears when damaged)
p. 286 to p. 315

Non- Hygrophorus, Pleurotus, Lentinus,

separable Lentinellus, Clitocybe, Tricholoma,
TRICHOLOMATALES Lepista, Armillaria, Melanoleuca,
Collybia, Marasmius, Mycena
p. 108 to p. 177
Clitocybe nebularis, Pleurotus
ostreatus, Clitocybe aurantiaca
p. 349 to p. 351

Agaricus, Lepiota, Amanita

p. 190 to p.229

Clitopilus, Entoloma, Pluteus (no

ring or volva), Volvaria (volva but
no ring)
p. 232 to p. 239

Psathyrella, Coprinus
p. 180 to p. 190

CORTI NARIALES p. 281 to p. 283

Cortinarius,Hebeloma, Inocybe,
Pholiota, Stropharia, Hypholoma,
Psilocybe, Agrocybe
p. 242 to p. 283
- - - - -- - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - "

Club-shaped Cordyceps

DESCRIPTION: H:l'/.-]'/, in (4-8 em). and blackish tip, which when mature is cov-
Shaped like a club with a $wollen, granulos!!! ered with a whitish powder.

HABITAT: de<kluous or coniferous woods

in the fall. Fairly frequent but often passes


CordycfpS art aU fotmidable parasites.

In some specirs, the myce~um develops
in the bodies of insectS or their larvae,
Cllusing them to die. The bright-red
C",dJ'rtps mililllris kills flirs in this way.
Th~ Club-shaped Cordyceps parasitizes
a type of tl'1.lffie with a yeUow mycelium.
The same family includes crop pests
such as ergot of rye (Cla,,'u!,s I""I',/r(,,).

Scarlet Ncctria

DESCRIPTION: 0:0.08·0.4 in pink pillows or cinnabar red, hard, granu!ose

(0.2-0.5 em). pustules. The two forms are frequently found
This fungus has two distinct together.
forms. that of smooth,
HABITAT: on the dead branches of a ~afi·
ety of deciduous trees. Found all
year round, but mainly in the fall.
Very common.
Candle-snuff Fungus

Fruiting bodies resemble little
stag horns, almost cylindrical
at first, then flallened, black
at Ihe base and white al the
top. fl~ has a corky con-

HABITAT: logs and the dead

branches of deciduous
trees. Found all year round,
but mainly in wintel'. Very

Strawberry Hypoxylon

(0.5-1 em).
Small granulose globule\
brick led at first thefl black-
ening. Blackish-brown, rod-
aceous flesh.

HABITAT: on bark or dead

branches of beedl tr~ Dif-
ferent stages may be PfI?SeI'lt
at the same time. Found all
year rOOM, but mainly in
winter. Very common.
Burnt Uni lina

0:'/.-4111 (2·10 em),
Grayish when young. 1hef1 <level
oping rnto black. ganulose. bnnle
~ 'f.., 10 '10 in (2 to 5 fTIIl) thd.

HABITAT: on decomposing beech

logs. Common. lives lor several
years. The pale gray areas of
growth appear in lale Spllng 01
wmmer, then bladen and per-
SISt from OIl(> year to the next.


Tube ro us Sclcro tini a

DESCRIPTION: H:l 'r-4 In (4·10 em), 0:'/,- black scleiohum. No charactefistic odcw
,'1. in (1-3 em), HABITAT: damp woods. hedge!ows., and
Receptacle at fi~1 deeply cup-shaped lhell meadows aloogside wood ar.emones arid
mallow!!r, brown 01 tlazelnut. Stipe smooth Ranunculaceae such as lesser celaOOmt'.
ami narrow, brown, long but panly embed- Common.
ded in the soil, sinuous and attached to a

This 1U1'lp5 anuhrs i~lf ru a Kit·

rotium to tht dead roots of lht host
plant. It is a hard, bbck splltrial mass
mruuring about 'I. in (1 em) and rtprt-
nllling .. rt'Si§laD! form of tht fungus.
Bac helor's Button

DESCRIPTION: 0: '/.-1 '11 in (O.5·4 em).

Globulo~ at first, then widening and
be<oming slightly cup-shaped, the center
become smooth and shiny with hluish high-
lights. It ~omes (overed with a black dust
(the black spores of the lungus) which stains the fingers. The outer parI is brown, velvety
and granulose. The lIesh is ocher-brown,
SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS elastic, and rubbery.
The 5olm1' species of tree is host to the
HABITAT: grows in patches on bark or
TruncalI'd Bulgaria (Bulgaria rruNClulI),
which is a dose relative of Jl.achelor But- branches of oak, chestnut. and beech that
ton but its spores do nOI stain the fin-
have rffMl1y bet>n cut down. Fall and win-
gers. ter. Common.

Fleshy Ascocorync

0:'/,·'" in (0.5-1.5 em).
The fruiting body is cup- or fun-
nl'!-shaped with a flattl'ned or
convl'~ top, which becomes con-
cave. Violet-pink or purple-red
gl'latinous flesh, margin often
lobed. Stipe absent or very short.

HABITAT: in large, tightly packed

clumps on rotting dead wood,
esPl'{iaHy bel'ch. but alw fir. Fall
and winter. Common.
Pale Bachelor's Button

DESCRIPTION : 0:'I.. , '{, in (1·4 em).

Conical. fleshy, and gelatir.ou~ almost
translucent. The upper side is smooth
with a slightly raised margin. The
underside is smooth, beige or pin~ish.

HABITAT: on the bark of branches of

deciduous trees that have died re<enlly.
espedaliy beech. Grows in light dumps.
From summer through late fall. Fairly


DESCRIPTION: 0:'/,·'" in (0.5·1 em).

A small, wide shallow cup with a wavy mar-
gin, 0!1 a short stipe. The fungus is entirely
blue-green in color, with a slightly paler
exterior; very often the wood around it is
stained blue-green.

HABITAT: grows in colonies on dead

wood with no bark (oak, hazelnut, beech).
Found all year round. The fungus fruits
quite rarely, but the blue-green mycelium
forms large distinctive patches on tref!
trunio::s or branches. It wa~ once used for
Yellow 8isporella

DESCRIPTION: 0:0,04·" in (0.1-0.3 em).

looks like a tiny. shallow (UP al first; la\er,
the lOp becomes cOlwe~ . Bright sulfur yel-
low in color, turning orange as il ages.

HABITAT: in large (olonj~ on brandies

Wipped of bark, espe<ially beech and hazel·
nut. Suml'llef through !.ate fall. Common.

Yellow Nail Fungus

DESCRIPTION: H:l 't.-2'1, in (3-6 em), yellow, devoid

e:!I"" in (1-2 em). ci o:b tnhasle.
This fungus Is completely (OVefed in ~ime
and is the shape of a nail. The edge of the cap HABITAT: grOW§
IS inrolled, nregular, '\Offielimes de-pressed Singly or in ~II
in the (enl~ ~lcm-brown or ~Iow-ocher. groups on moss or
turning fainl/y olive with age. Stipe finely leaf litter In damp
granulos!. sometimes fluted, pale yel. wood, Found in
low 10 ochef. Flesh gelati~ and rubbery. summer through
fall. Fairly
TOXICITY common,
Suspected of being poisonous.
This li mps (ould b<.' confused with a POTENTIAL CONFUSION
young specimen of the Tubular
Chantcrdlt, which is similar in shapt .. CAN'11iAREll.US nJBAF1'ORAUS
and color. Tubu~f Chantcrelle EDIBLE
Acorn Elf Cup

DESCRIPTION: H: '/,·'I. in (1 -1.5 em),

0: '/,. 11. in (1 -3 em).
looks like an acorn (Up. and is sometimes
half-buried in leaf liner. Remains semicircu-
lar even when mature. The interior ollhe
cup is smooth and shiny, bluish-white 10
gray-while. then pale och~. Tht> exte1iof
and margin are covered WIth thick, dense
reddish Of brown hairs lNhich are dafter al
the edge. The f~ is pale and pef!>lSlem.

HABITAT: grows on the ground. on (Ouing

wood in cool. shady urodefgrowth. From
!>Ummel through early fall. Quill' common.

Shield·shaped Elf Cup

DESCRIPTION: 0:0.2 -'1. in (0.4·1 em).

A fairly regularly shaped shallow cup willi
OtJt a Sfipe. The inside is bright reddim-
OIal'!)e and the outside beige and velvety
The margin is covered in blackish-brown
!lairs ',,."J.. in (110 2 mm) long. The cup is
folded inward al first, then flattens out wilh
age. The flesh is reddish, with flO particular
odor or laste.

HABITAT: in dense clumps on wood, some·

times on SOil riCh in humus; in very humid
places. ohefl beside waler. from spI"ing
Ilirough fall. Common.
Crucible Elf C up

DESCRIPTION: 0:'1._2 in (2-5 em). The interior surface is smooth and ochla-
Another elf cup that looks like an acorn cup, (faUS. The outer surface is paler. sometimes
though in this one the edge is curlPd over almost white, and covered with a very fine
until maturity. and when it opens it exhibits down. Short, thin stipe. usually buried in the
tiny rounded indentations on the margin. substrate. Flesh thin and brittle.

SPECIAL FEATURES HABITAT: 00 bare ground in deciduous or

coniferous woods and in gardens. Usually
This is rhe largest fungus in the genus
grows in groups. the specimens may be sep-
Tar:tlliI. Another common species, the
Cup-shaped Peziza (far-dla (ll,,,,/aris) i5
arated or tightly packed together. Fruits in
less than ',. in (2 em) in diameter. summer. Fairly com moo.
Crown Elf Cup

edges.. The interior is pinkish·violet, soon

turning brown. Outer surface whitish.
Whrtish flesh/. in (0.5 cm) thick and brittle;
no particular odor or flavor.

HABITAT: under beech tr~s or pine trees,

espe<ially al the edge of woodland paths Of
roods. Frurts in spring. Uncommon 10 fal/Iy

DESCRIPTION: H:2'lr 41_ ill (6-12 em),
Vtry poiSOIlOUS when r;tW, ptrhaps r,'tn
0 : 4-7 in (10·18 em).
dradly. Ediblc if thoroughly cookcd, but
Globular al first and half-buried. Ihe Crown in vi~ or its toxiciry, it is ~r not to
Elf Cup Ihen opens al Ihe lOp wilh a wide try uling iI, C"CII cooked.
crown·shaped aperture, wilh saw-loothed

Scarlet El r Cup

DESCRIPTION: 0:'/.·2 ill (2·5 em).

This cup with liS irregular margin is ~Iil in
placK. The mner surface IS bl"ight red. The
outer surface is palei' and covered with a
fif"le while down. Stipe ·/r'/. in (\·2 cm) long,
and the same color as the outer wrface.
Thin, leathery. ~nk flesh; no particular tasle
or odor,

HABITAT: grows in large colooies 00 dead blackthofll !Wigs. and in the undergrowth
braMhes and twigs. sometimes half·hidden of dKiduous woods. Fruits from spring
rn moss. often In hedgerows, on bramble or U'llough \0 winter. Fairly common.

0: 1. 4 in (1·10 an).
This Elf Cup has no Stipe The edge
is imolled when young. f1auening
oot wilen older and bKomlng
wavy Ot" lobed. The inner sur-
face is bright Ot"ange, and the
outer surface is pale
orange. and (Ollerro
with a line down. The
nesh is thin and friable.
with no parucula. odor
or taste

HABITAT: on bare
ground, dirt road~
embankments and
freshly turned earth. Found
mainly on day soil.
Sometimes grows in tightly packed dumps.
fall to early winter. Very common.


This is the only Elf Cup Ihal is edible

raw. All the 1'CSt, \\-ith a couple of
uccplions, ~rt poisonous r.lW and mIlS!
bt; coolctd 10 bt; uttn. However, the
Or.lngc Pecl Fungus il not particularly
bSt)'. 11$ m.lin inltrdt lies in il$ brilli"nl
color lhat looks good in salads and C\'fn
in desserts.
Bla dder Elf C up

DESCRIPTION: 13:1'/,-4'/, in (4· 12 em). granulose. The flesh is fragile. brmle arld
Globulose al first, ohen compressed side- whitish, without dfly spedal odor Of taste.
ways. It opem out into a wide cup with an
inroDed, toothed edge. The smooth innef HABITAT: on rich soil and burnt Qfound,
surface is ocher or fil'Nfl. Theft dll! often tiny old compost, and rotting straw. Grows is0-
bladders in the bouom of the cup, hence the lated or In light grou~ from sp!'lng through
name. The outer surface is the same calOf as fall. Fairly common.
Ihe inner, though often paler and finely

Poisonous wIIm TlIW. Quite good to flit

whm thoroughly cooked.

Juicy Elf C up

DESCRIPTION: 0:'1.. 2 in (1 ·5 em).

An inegular·!Jiaped cup with an incurving
margin. There is no Slipe. The inner !>Uriace
is smooth, ocher Of hcl2elnut in color. The
outer surfa<:e is paler, sometimes even
cream-colored, lightly granuloS!! and
pruioose. The flesh is wtlite and lough,
exuding a while, milky liquid. The f\esh
and milk tum yellow a few minutes
alte. (ulling.

HABITAT: under de<idoous trees, beside

paths. on damp, clay soil~ Summer and
lall, Failly common.
Black Cup

DESCRIPTION: 0:'/,-3 In (2-8 cm),

This Elf Cup ha~ no ~tipe and an irregular,
wavy edge. The interiof is reddish·brown,
then gleef1ish brown. The e~tetior i~ also
reddish·brown and finely granulo5e. The
f1e~ is thin. brownish· red, and contains a
watery liquid,

HABITAT: On bare soil, be~ide paths, in

clearings and very damp places on acid


DESCRIPTION: H:l '...-4 in (3-10 em).

Shaped like the ear of a donkey or a
hare. The inner surface is ocher or
pinkish·yellow. The outer surface
is velvety, bright yellow or orange
yellow. and acquires rust·colored
or brown spots with age. Very
short stipe covered in white
down. Very thin, elastic flesh.

HABITAT: In small groups under

de<iduous Vet'S, or somet'mes
conifers in late summer and fall.
Fairly common in places.
Cu p-S haped Srain Fungus

DESCRIPTION: H: 1-'.-2'/. in (3·7 em).

0: I',,-2'/. in (3-7 em).
The fungus is shaped like a chalice, with a
broY.'nistHed intefior. The OIlier SUfface is
paler and Slightly ~ty, The Stipe is short.
though il can be as Ioog as 2 in (5 em). 11
is thickly veined, and sometimes the veins HABITAT: in groups in well.lit deciduous
ale ramified, right up to the cup. Flesh elas- woods beside paths. on plains and moun-
tic then brittle; faint odor and mild navor. tains. Prefers non-acid sandy soil. found
from spi"ing through early summer. Fairly
Sometimu known as the VllItgOlr Brain
Fungul ocuu~ (lit ROlNlnl art said 10
lIave u,rd il like a vinegar boldt.

Common Brain Fungus

DESCRIPTION: H:l l.-4 1: in (3-12 em).

0 : ,'/.-3/. in (3·8 em).
This fungus ~aries considerably in size. The
cap is very irregular. then but wIVed and
curled. It is cream to pale ocher in color.
Stipp !Mute and hollow, deeply funowed.
Fie!.h elastic and thin; faint odcr.

HABITAT: decidUOltS Of (olllfer~ woods,

especially borders, footpaths. dealings, and
in meadows beside wood5. On calcareous
~il. Lale summer and fall. Fairly common.
Elas tic Brain Fungus

DESCRIPTION: H:2't,-4 in (6-10 emL ground sometimes on rotten logs. Calcare-

0:',.- ,'/, in (2-4 em). ous soil. Fall. Fairly common.
Undulating, saddle-shaped cap, often con-
sisting of two lobes. cream !O pale ocher
underside smooth and whitish. Stipe
smooth, whitish, elongated and thickened
at the base, often compressed and hollow,
1'/, to 2 in (3 to 5 mm) in diameter. The
elastic fle~ has no odor or flavor.

HABITAT: under dedduous Irees, on the

PoisonoLl$ when r;lW. The Brain Fun-
guses generaUy make poor cating,
and Iheir Resh is clastic and lough.

Elfin Saddle or Black Bra;n Fungus

DESCRIPTION: H: l /.-4 in (3-10 em).

Very variable in mape, looking very much
like the Common Brain Fungus but with a
gray-brown 10 blacI:. cap <onsisting of two
or three lobes. The un6erside is pale gray.

HABITAT: grows in the same places as the

Common Brain Fungus, but may persist into
the fall. Common and widespread through
the temperate and (001 lones of both
False M orel

DESCRI PTIO N: H:2-4'/, in (5-12 em), 0:2-

Irregular, heavily convoluted cap, looking POTENTIAL CONFUSION
li~ea brain, wider Ihan il is lall and reddish- • AfORCHELLA ESCULENTA
brown in color. The shorl thick stem is MOld EDlIlLf
swollen allhe base. whilish and ooUow.The
Ihin white flesh has a rather fruity odor. Boheml.tll Veipol E01IILf
HAB ITAT: the false Morel is rarely
lound at heights 01 less than
1,700 It (500 mI. It appear~ from
late March through May, and as
late as June at high altitudes. It
lives in coniferous woods. espe-
cially well-lit ones, such as clear·
ings and beside paths; rarer
under deciduous trees. Prefers
cool, damp, rather acid soil. Com·
mon in eastern Europe.


There are other species of Cyromitra TOXICITY

(False Morel) which are ran in Europc
but more common in Nonh America. Although the False Morel has long bten
The Turban Brain Fungus (C)TO",;/r4 taten in many countries, especially those
;"fulll) is a large mountain species with a of eastern Europe, it can be deadly. lis
brownish-yeHow to reddish·brown cap toxicity is extremely variablc, however.
whkh ran reach a height of 8 in (20 em). Some people bave been poisoned who
I! groW$ in the fan in coniferous or had uten the mwbroom for years
mixed woods. The cap consists of two without incident. Sometimes, the poison
or three IObt5, making it look more like docs not manifest itself the first time the
a Brain Fungus. The Ciant False Mord fungus is eaten, but only produces
(G)"rom;/r4 gig4S) is another large species symptoms the next time;t is consumed,
that grows at high altitudes. The cap is especially if this is soon ahefWilrd. Chil·
reddish-bro .... n to dark brown and icss dren arc particularly wlnerable. When
convoluted than that of the False Morel. dried, the mwhroom is much less toxic,
It can measure 8 in (20 em) in diameter and may C,'cn Ix harmless. Caution is
and gro\\'5 in late spring. strongly advised, however.
The Glove-Finger Morel

DESCRIPTION: H:2-6 in (S- IlIlgt, and may have wavy lines of hairs
IS (m), eU-! ',. in (1-3 em), iKross II at inlerval5. The interior is filled
The cap is shaped li~e a trun- with a COllony fiber at first, later be<oming
cated (one, and is reminiscent of hollow. The flesh is soft and fragile with a
a thimble on a fingf!r. II is wrin- laint odor and mild flavor.
kled and coovoluled, sometimes
slightly umbilic:ate at the top. The HABITAT: grows in tr<XJpS in ~1'l9, In
colOI' varies from hfGWni!.h·odlef hedgefows and unOO ~iny bushes. wch as
to reddish-brown. The stipe is bla<ktholn and hawthorn and beneath wil·
cy1mdrKal, !oOOIl'times thickened low and ash. FiIYOfS sandy or gravely lime-
at the base, II is short al first, stone. Fairly uncommon.
then e\oo9ated. somellilleS
exceeding 4 " in (12 em)
in ler,gth, with a diame·
tfr of '/' in (1 em). I! is
Poisonous when raw, not particularly
white, somelimM good to eat when cooked.
with a pinkish
Rohemian Verpa

DESCRIPTION: H:2-8 in (5-20 em), >Um mra/ked ra "r-/"'1' __

0:'/._2 in (2-5 em),
Conical cap rounded at the top, entirely 'I. in (2 ern), It is fragile and cylin·
free (only the top of the cap is attached to drical, stuffed with conony fibers
the stipe), It consists of thick, longitudinal, at first, then hollow. It is whit!',
fibs. folded into shallow, narrow, irregular tinted with ocher In places and
honeycomb, The color is ocher to reddish· may have bands of whitish down
brown. The stipe is short at first, then encircling it. The flesh is
eKlending, sometimes to more than 8 in thin and fragile with
(20 on}, "..;m a cDneter d. III jess than a slight odor,
that becomes

HABITAT: in groups in groves 01 ash,

hazelnut or poplar, !'spedally at mid-moun-
tain height, and often alongside Morel!>.
Grows from mid-March 10 early May.
Uncommon 10 common.
Miniature M o rel

DESCRIPTION: H;2·6 in (5-15 em),

0;'/,... 1'/. in (1 -) cm).
Cap conical and pointed, rather ~a l l. (II,
to <I em) tall. The lower third or half of the
cap is not attached to the stem. It i5 pit-
ted with deep ocher-bl"OWIl pockets,
separated by thin, darker walls which
blac~ with age. The hollow, cylindri-
cal stem expands slightly undef the
cap. The white color ~ lIOOletimes
tinted w!lh pale ochef. 1\ is finely
grained and often funowed at the
top, The flesh is hagile, slightly
elastic, with a faint odor and
mild taste,

HABITAT: glows in spring

hom late Malch through May
in (001, damp groves of elm,
poplar, aldel and hombedm,
often among lessef Celandine,
00 clay and cakafeous soils..


Poisonous when nw, but good to rat

when (oohd. Only the cap tastes as
good as a Mord , according to SlIme
cxpcns. Because it is so small you need
a lot of them to mah a meal. Miniature
Morels should ~ eatcn right ann
picking, al it IkteriorattS quidly.
Tall Morel

DESCRIPTION: H:2'I.-5 in (7-1] em),

0: 1'f.·2 in (3-5 em),
Conical cap. aboot twice as lall as i\ is
wide. The honeycombing is more or less
vertical. the cross-ribs being thinner than
the vertical ones. The cap is browni5h-yel·
low to dark brown. Stem is short and
while. wilh a small ofrolar depression
between the stipe and tile cap.

HABITAT: ~11·ljl coniferous 'M)()(\s and

mixed ~ mainly in the mountains. _ _ illl1ft "IA-
March and Apfil, but sometimes as early as In(~·II"n
from mi<HebfUary, Fairly uncommon.


This Morel VoiIrie!l in shajH' ~nding on

th~ SlXciu of ute under ..... bich it grows.
and othtr tnvironmental factors.
Tnt Ribbed Morel {.lIorcltt/l" (MIllIa)
grows mort frequently on detritUS and
gubage hups. The ribs afe more veni·
cal with cross·ribs at right angles to
them. It is often consiclered a men
variery of "'ort~tlln (/)fr;el!.
Mo rel

DESCRIPTION: The stipe and the cap are HABITAT: Very varied. Damp, cool decidu-
hollow and form a continuous cavity. ous woods. especially under aih, but also
under poplar. willow and hazelnut. Also in
SPECIAL FEATURES hedgerows of these trees, in neglected
a~ orchards. old bum! patche. suub, dis-
Thi5 fungus vants widtly in $hapt'. turbed wiL April and May. until late June at
Som~ mycologislli b~\'r dillid(d it into
high altitude. Fairly common, found in tem-
KVtnl ",,-ntb" or , .. b.spt'(~', but the
perate zones throughout the WOI'Id.
while 51em and honeycomlKd cap arc
Vtry distiMlivf.
.. GYROAlITRA ESCULENTA Poisonous when raw, but delicious when
False Morel DEADLY cooked. Mords are a valuable and
expensive foodstuff, sold at gourmet
foodstorcs. Fresh specimens are from
the U.S. or imported &om Europe and
Turkey; dried Morels are imported from
southeast Asia.
'"Oft (Jf' 1m gllli'"/11St

/ " ' " ..,/I.. " "'"


The Pale or Round Morel (ll/orcbil/n

rolm,dll) may grow larger. The cap is
rounded, sometimes wider than it is tall.
The honeytombing is also more rountkd,
with narrower ribs. The cap is straw·
colored or pale ocher, and may be tinged
with 0151 color on the ribs. The stipe is
thicker and shorter but;t has almOSt the
SlIme habitat as the Common Morel.
Black Truffle, Pe rigord Truffle

0: 1'/.-]'/, in (3-8 em).
Rounded, often irregu-
lar, lumpy shape, black
covered with flattened
pyramid-IDaped warts.
The flesh is firm and pale
al first, then turning violet-
black and heavily marbled
with white veining which red-
dens when exposed to the air. The odor
and taste are powerful and fragrant. 5wion of rm{fl,

HABITAT: grows underground a few inches

below the surface, and may sometimes "
break through. Found in clearings in
wooded areas, mainly under evergreen oaks
on well-drained, caicarel)Us soil. Found in
southern France. Spain, Italy, and Portugal.
Ripens from November through March,
Rare, and has suffered from changes in the
environment. Cul tivated in evergreen oak or
h<lzelnut plantations.

The Black Truffle is famous throughout
the world for;1:$ delicious flavor. No
other mushroom has such prestige or
can match its p<lwcrful odor. The prices
m~tch the grc~t demand and sho" sup-
ply, making il one of the most expensive
foods in the world.
Burgundy Truffle

underground in
woods of oak,
hazelnut, beech,
hornbeam, birch
and pine. 1\ is
more of a wood-
land variety than
the Black Truffle,
growing on lime-
stone soil, matur-
ing from D<:tober
through January. 1\
is probably the
most widely dis-
tributed and com-
monl'St truffle in
continental Europe.
DESCRIPTION: 0:)/.·3/, in (2·8 em).
The BurgundyTruffle is closely relolNl to the
Black or Perigord Truffle, but its warts ale
larger and the flesh is dar~ brown, also
veined with white. It has a strong odor but EDIBILITY
not as aromatic as that of the Black Truffle
and smells a little like ether. Very good to tat. The slightly unpl e~s·
~nt odor disappears during cooking. It
h~s a bettcr flavor than the Summer
Trume, though il has a lower Slatus. It
Ahhough Ih~ Burgundy Truffie is not fetches high prictS, nevertheless, cOSling
particularly demanding as to tcmJX'ra- around S200 a kilogram (211 Ib). There
ture, it is mon: sensitive to rainfaU. In are plans to grow Ihis trume in areas
order to Bourish, it needs to have plenty which are too cold for the Black Trume.
of rain in July and August.
Wit che s' Butter

DESCRIPTION: 0:'1.-2 in (2-5 em).

Asoh, black gelatinolls mass. irregular,
sometimes lobed and !.Oflletimes globulose,
often folded and convoluted, growing alone
or in groups of two or three attached to
each other. Sometimes $el't!ral individual
fruiting bodies mass togethef. The under- ~ide i~ covered with small conical papillae.
Grayish flesh. odorle!.S and flavorle~~.
HABITAT: on dead logs and Ilfan<hes of
There is a morc rounded form, &idjl/ de<iduous tree~. Present all year round, but
,rllllralll, which is extremely common, especially in winter. Common.
especially on oak branches and twigs.

Gray Brain Fungus

DESCRIPTION: 0:up to 6 in (15 em).

This crust-like fungus sometimes grows in a
ring of fruiting bodies. It is '10 to ',. in (OJ to
0.5 em) thick. The upper side is grayish with
(Ol)(eolri( zones, some (overed in gray
hairs. others folded and darker, The under·

SPFCIAL FEATURES side is gelatinous and cOflvoluted; it is gray·

violet to purplish·brown in color. Flesh is
like the jelly funguses, thc brain and ear
leathery and gelatinous.
funguses arc able \0 dry out and shrivrl
du ring dry spells, When rhey reabsorb
warer, rhey sweUup again ro r('$ume HABITAT: on the dead wood of de<iduous
rheir normal shape. trees. especially ash. Present all year round,
but especially in winter, Common.
Jew 's Ear

DESCRIPTION: 0:1 '/,.4 in (4-10 em).

(up-shaped, no stipe, irregular Of in the
!.hape of an ear. Interior surface is reddish-
brown, ~th al fnt, ~ foldirlg like the
inside of an ear. The outer surface is velvety,
reddish·brown, darl::.enlllg WIth age, grayish-
violet or grayish-olive. The flesh is gelatinous
or elastic, almost translucent. coriaceous
and shriveled when dry. No particular flavor
or odor
HABITAT: On the dead branches of de(idu-
ous trees, ~Ify elder, sometJmes on
other de<iduous trees. such as the walnut, beside wJde rivers. Grows in groops aligned
and on the willow in damp pla<es. such as vertically or horizontally on branches. Pre-
sent all ~ar round. espedally winter and
spring. Common to fairly uncommon,
SPECIAL FEATURES depending on climatIC zooe.

This is ""u-CIT, the "Ooud Eilr" 'which

the Chintw have Men uring for em-
IUrits, mainJy in its dried form, is an
ingrtdicnr in many prtp.lnltions or as a
thickener for S<lU(ts.
ChincH medicine also claims therapeutic
properties for this fungus. In order [0
met'l the demand for il among oriental
popl.llalioM, the J~5 Ear is cultivated in
Chil\.ill and c\sf:v.-htrc in SOl,lthcut As~,
on logs of wood or, more r(untly, on
,lrtifici,ll SUbSlf,ltn. Most Europuns
rq<Ect this fungus fllr nUng, u thty 6nd
it 100 insipid.
Yellow Brai n Fungus

DESCRIPTION: 0: 1'/... 3'1. in (3-8 em).

Convoluted ITIiISS shaped like 11 txain, flaccid
and gelatinous, oembling to the slightest
touch. Generally sulfur yellow, but some
speomens may be pale yellow Of even
white. The fungus be<omes orange. tough,
and brittle upon drying out.

HABITAT: on the dead txanches of decidu-

ous uees that Mve fallen on the gound. All
year round. Common.
Pale Coral Fung us

H: l '1.-4 in (3-10 em),
0:2-6 in (5-15 em),
lool:s like a branching
{Ofai, with white or

whitish vellical branches.

FIe>h gelaliflOus but

on the ground in
the deciduous or
mixed forests of North
Amefica. Summer and fall.
Jelly Tongue

DESCRIPTION: H:l 'I.·l'h in (3·6 em), EDIBILITY

0: 1'/.-3',. in (3·8 em).
Spatulate or semicircular, very soft, gelati· Averagt. Somrtimes lainltd ...ilh a sUghl
laste of resin. Can be uten raw.
nous, and wobbly. Upper surface velvety,
dirty white, gray· blue, turning brownish
with age, and almost
translucent. Urlderside absent. The gelatinous fiesh is
covered in soft, almost translucent.
gelatinous projec-
tions like blunt HABITAT: on rotting conifer stumps,
spines, white with often pine, sometimes buried in the
bluish reflections. ground. Fall and early wimer. Fairly fre·
Stipe excenuic, very quem, especially in the mountains. Does
short, and SOO'letimes not grow outside the temperate lOnes.

Yellow Stagshom Fungus

DESCRIPTION: H: 1".-4 in (3·10 em). HABITAT: firmly attached to the stumps

The fungus is shaped like tiny stag's an tlers and branches of the rotting wood of vari·
or coral, ramified and viscid. the ramifica· ous species 01 (onifer by a wrt of whitish
tions end in a point. The color is bright, "root: All Yl!af round, but especially in late
golden to orange yellow, be<oming darker fall and early winter. Very (ommon.
as the fungus dries out. The flesh is rubbery.


The siagshom funguses arc erect, some·

times branched fungi with tapering tops,
reminisctlll of the Clavaria.
Their consistency may be gelatinous and
tlastic or leathery.
Dry Rot

DESCRIPTION: 0:up to 20 in (50 em). SPECIAL FEATURES

The fungus takes a variety of forms depend-
ing on the stage of its developmenl.The SUI- This is the fearsome destroyer of older
face is \If!!vety, olivaceous or illS! brown, buildings, whith eats ilWily at the wood·
swollen and alveolate; the margin is velvety work in damp constru(rions, especially
and while. The underside is covered with those that arc airlcss or uninhabited.
dirty yellow or brownish irregularly shaped, Dry Rot requires a fairly damp almo-
polygonal or labyrinthine pores, which sphcn for if fO fake hold. It subse-
release droplets 01 water at the edges quently spreads by decomposing the
(hence the epithet "'acrymans·). It has a wood and mortar, using the water in the
pleasant ~ell wt1en fresh, but becomes materials and transporting it to the dry,
inedible parts. It un thus thrive even in
unpleasant as it (t9es,
places which arc not partio,]arly damp,
providing they remain airless ~nd .. ndis-
HABITAT: under floorboards and carpets, in
turbed. It is the scourge of stately homes
the walls. cupboards, cellars and damp and mansions.
unaired places. All year round.
Common Schizophyllum

DESCRIPTION: 0:'1.-2 in (2-5 em),

A tiny fan-shapM OJ kidney-shaped fungus..
from '/~ to 'I. in (2 1a 4 mm) thick, and a very
sinuous 01 lobed edge. The uppe! wrfact is
whitish 10 grayish-beige and woolly. The
underside has darKpink gitls. radiating from
a central point where it is aHache<! 10 the
!.Ubslrate. These unusual gills afe joined
togedlef In pairs and seem 10 be splil HABITAT: the dead wood 01 any decid~
lengthwise The flesh has a faint odor ,mel U~, raref on conrfefs. All year round. Com-
the flavor is mild. mon from temperate regions to the equator.

Many-capped Phlebia

DESCRIPTION: multiple fruiting bodies is pleated with radiating ~eins. Soh gelati-
from 2 to 8 in (S to 20 em) in diamelef. nous flesh in young ~jme~ becoming
Ineguiar cwange CIlJ51with darker, even viC)- leathe!y in the dry slale.
let. (enter, very veined and swollen, falde<!
with a thick, fr inged margin. The underside HABITAT: on slumps or bfand~ of de<id·
uous !lees (mainly birch and bee<h) more
rarely on conifers. All year rOOM. but less
frequent in summer.


Tmnbling ReI: tlltnlliln -hsJ, which

is., rommoa, is \'tf)' ht",iyfokied on
the~, the folds rtKmbinggills. lt
is soh and gelatinous and dt\Idops on the
wne wood as the Many~ Phkbia.
Tobacco Brown Hymc nochactc

DESCRIPTION: 0:4- 16 in (10-40 em).

A fungus that forms a leathery Clust on
wooo, with small patches at first which
spread and merge to form a large sheet.
Velvety, tobacco or rust-brown surface,
paler when the weather is dry. The sinu·
ous margin is golden yellow then orange,
IUlning brown with age. leathery flesh.

HABITAT: on the dead wood of decidu·

ous trees, mostly willows and hazel.
whether standing or having fallen to the
ground. Often localized at the edge of
woods or in hedgerows. Present all year
round . (ammon in temperate zones.


Mougeo!'. Hymrnochaete de
(II)'MtlUK/UWt M4Iugr4lIii}, which is
widely distributed throughout the
world is usy to recognize dut to its
bright red tolor. It grows on dud
branchu of fir Ireu. 1I)'",u«IIII(II
fubigiN4I$1I is a common speciu which
grows on the trunks of old oak ~nd
chestnut trtu. It forms little l uptrim-
posed an d imbric~td caps of i Inth·
cry con,islcncy, which art vtlvcty in
young . petimens. The edge of the
caps is reddish-brnwn, btcoming
duktr with age.
Silver·leaf Fungus

DESCRIPTI ON: 0 :'1..2 in (0.5·5 em),

This funglJS may foml a crust on wood or be
attached to it at one side, leaving the edges
of its cap free and undulatlng.The upper
!>tI'face is white to reddish, hairy and with
various parallel bands of colaf WIth a paler
edge. The undefskle is smooth and slightly
undulating. It is lilac-mlored, turning brown-
ish-violet with age. The flesh is thin, gelati-
I'IOIJS at first, then cOfiaceous.l t has no par-
ticular odor, and a mild fIavoI.

HABITAT: the individual fungi grow in large SPE( tAL FEATURES

patches, one on top of the other. sometimes
welded together, on the brandles or trunks The Silver-tuf fwlgus INIY aJso ~r;l.
of lumber, mainly dec.iduoos trees. Present sirize living but weakened !fees. It
all )'f!ar round. Very common. CilUS4:S Silvcr·lufDisusf in fruit trees.
Hairy S!en:um

DESCRIPTION: 0:'/.·4 in (2-10 em).

Multiple imbfi<ated Of superimposed
caps. barely 'I~ 10/... in (lor 2 mm)
thick, with an undulating or lobed
margin. Ve l~ty upper surface. colored
in parallel yeHow, orange, Of reddish
stripes which are much darker al the
point where the fungus is attached to
the wbsuclle. Undefside smooth and
orange. f~ (Ofiaceous.

HABITAT: in dense colonies on dead or bf.:mches, sometimes on pinewood. Present

felled de<iduous trees, from ~ to large all year round. Very common.

Rough Sicreurn

DESCRIPTION: 13: ',.·4 in (1-10 em), pale ocher in fresh young spe<imens. turn-
Forms a ems! '/" to 'I... in (1 to 2 mm) thid::, ing darker, and be<oming tough and bfinle
attached 10 wood on the upper SlJiace, with during dry spells.
a margin that is somelimes fref!. Upper SUI'
face (see below) grayish wilh a white HABITAT: on the dead t.anches and trunks
edge. Undel~ white through ocher, of dedduoos trees. especially hazel and birch.
smooth or bumpy, turning blood red Pr!Senl all year round. Very (ommon.
when rubbed. The flesh is coriaceous,
r ersinen! Coltricia

DESCRIPTION: 0:'/d'l. in (2-8 em). HABITAT; grows on Ihe ground in small

f unnel·shaped cap wilh thm, often undu- groups. usually under conifers, in dearings
lating margin, ~metimes in(is~ 01 den- Ofbuml, ground on sandy soil. I'!rsists all
tale. Several caps may be welded al the year lOund, sometime~ for sevtral years
edges. The underside is velvety, covered on end. Common.
in cinnamon or rust-colored concentric
circles. The tiny pores on the underside of SPECIAL FEATIJRFS
the cap are yellowish-white al lim, then
fungi Ih~t form a crust on wood art said
becoming coarser and wming brown,
10 be r«lIpin~te . ThOSl' ~n;I(hed to the
except al Ihe edge, which slays while, as
gro mcdhull on onc $UK ud grow
there are no pores there. Shoft, thick,
ooc 00 top of the ntbn- ~rt said 10 be
(entral Stipe ('1.-2 in _ '".',. in (l·S em x dimidute . Some, such;J.S tht Rough
0.]-0.7 em)), wider at the base, velvety, Sicreum (SltrtUm rJlg<1fum), maY'PJIC,r
paler al first, then blackening. Flesh, rust in cithu of these forms.
brown, Ihin and coriaceous.
Schwcinia.'s Polypore

DESCRIPTlON: @:6· 12 in (15-]0 em), stipe is more or 155 developed. short and
Round Of lan-shaped fungi, ohen imbri- thick. Brown, tender, and fibrous flesh, with
cated Of welded together. imprisoning twigs a slightly biner flavor,
Of plants within their growth. Upper surface
hairy Of downy, sulfur yellow with concen· HA8ITAT: 00 the ground, growing in sym-
triC cirdes of ochef. orange, or cinnamon, biosis (mycol'lhiza) with the roolS of living
tuming brown from the center. The margin Of dead cOillfers. pille, spruce, and larch.
stays yellow for a long time. The underOOe From early summer through late fall.
is labyrinthine, yellowish-green at first, turn- Urt(ommoo but widespread and 100md In
ing reddish, and browning to the touch. The many cDuntlies in thl' temperate lone,
Reddening HapaJopilus

DESCRIPTION: The underside is russel and

H:'/,- l 'I, in (1·4 em), COYefed in round, polygonal,
0:2-4-/, in (~'12 em), Of eIcln9aled porK. Flesh soft
Fan-sl\apPd or kidnPy-shaped ard spongy then corky, ocher
foogus. flXl'd 10 the substrate or rilnamon-<Olored.
CM'I' a large area, isolated 01
in groups. specimens s0me- HABITAT: dead braoches of
time ~ together. The u~ de<:idliOus t r~s. main~ oak,
side is of a uniform color, yel· beech, birch, chestnut. as well
Iow«her ullough dnnamon, as on ((lf1ifefS such as fir.
'o'!M!ty al fJS\, then r.mooth. Spring through fall. Common,


Birch Polyport

0:4-10 in (10·2S em).
Roood 01 kidney-shaped cap.
'I. to 2'" in (2 to 6 em) thick, stifle
absenL attached to the sub5uale by
a sweHing. The upper surface is cof-
fee-c:olored, somellfnes grayi~, matte,
smooth, or vetvety, cfiKking with age. The SPE.ClAL FEATURE.S
margin is inrolled forming a ridge on Ihe
This fungus has been put to various
pure white underside. 'Ntlich is covered with
uses, for example, to sharptn the cut-
rounded pores that ale barely visible. The !hroat raZOR once used by ba"wn.
flesh is white, soft and spongy. then {Ofky.

HABITAT: 00 the branches afld trunks of

Ediblt only in tht rollng state, and Dot living Of dead birch trees. Annual but may
very good to eat. persist for sev~ral years. V~ry commOfl.
Burnl Polypore

DESCRIPTION: 0: 11,.4 rated from the pale gray

in (4-10cm)_ lUbes by a black. line
Tllls fungus grows in tletS ('>t'E'f1 irl transverse sec-
or imbricated dumps, in tiOll); fungal odor and
lan-shaped specimens 01 slightly acid taste
in a Vf!ry thin layer only
',. in (6 mm) thid:. at the HABITAT: on slUmps or
maximum). The upper side on the dead or living
is gray-brown and veiwty trunks of deciduous
with a margin that is white trees, especially beedl,
at r~ bIadrelirg with age. lT10Ie rarely on conifffS.
The undefside is cindef Present all year fOund,
gray, then turning darker especially summer and
gray, with tiny pores. The flesh is soft and fall. Very common.
elastic, then hard. whitish. and clearly sepa-


Blushing Bracket

DESCRIPTtON: OJ'I.-6 in (8-1 ~ em). des and sprinkled with little brown wans.
Kidney-shaped cap, no thkker than 2 in Pores are dirty white, rounded and 01 slrghtly
(~em), and with a thin margin. Upper surface elongated, 01 lormlng a maze. They redden
reddish, decorated with darker concentric cir- when tOt.Khed, turning darker red with age.

HABITAT: 011 the dead and ~\lmes liv-

ing braoches of deci<Iuous trees. and in
damp places. Grows mainly on willow and
e\def, but also on popular, birch and hazel_
Present all year round. Very common, rare at
higher al\lludes.
Bulbous Polypo re

DESCRIPTION : H: ".·2 in (2·5 em). HABITAT: singl(> Of in tiered groups on

0: 3",-8 in (8-20 em). branches and trunks of living or dead
Fan-shaped, ~essile , Upper surface vel· deCiduous trees. Present all year round,
vety, swollen at the point 01 fixation, and may persist for one or two years.
whi te or cream, but very ohen greenish Very (ommon in the north, rarer in
due to the growth of microscopic algal' southern regions.
on the surface of the cap. There are it
few concentric bands of color on the SPECIAL FEATIJRES
margin. The underside is creamy white,
This fungus an grow 10 an imprcssi,'c
wilh large. elongated pores which may sizt, and is 5Om~lim~s mort Ih~n 3h
even take the form of short gills near the (\ m) in diameler!
point of fixation. Flesh white and corky.
Many.zoned rolyporc

P",1llk1 hllNl$ ~ \'/lnoors {DIers

IlR dillllllll'lS litIS {ltttgJIS 10

DESCRIPTION: 0:11,·2 in (4·10 em).

fan·shaped caps. tiered and bonded
together. very thin with a very undu·
lating margin. The range of colors
includ~ while. gray. beige. black..
blue· gray. and russel. These are
aflangM in parallel bands, but the mal'
gin is always pale!. belllg white 01 pall'
Yf:l1ow. Velvety patches alternate with
smooth ones. The minute pores are white
at lirst. lurniJ'lg Yf:11ow with age.

The fungus is used in Chinese medicine
is a Il'medy "gaim;! cancer of the Uver
"nd (ena;n Iyptl of jaundice. In the
W"t it is used as a decorative elemeot
in Hower·arranging and on hats.
Hairy Tramctc

DESCRIPTION: 0:2-41, in (5-12 em), face decorated with paraliel bands of white,
Fan-shaped fuJ'lQus when growing on an cream, oc~r, or orange and C~led with
upright medium, rosette-shaped when Ioog. sldf hairs. Underside vAli!e, turning
!pawing on a hofizomal medium. Superiof gray, with very small poi'ts. Flesh white and
~tic; faint odor and flavor.

HABITAT: on dedduous trees. All year

round. Fauly common in many coun tries.

In ~ T!<Imtta pol)~ thm is no Kp-
amion bMI.'ft'n flesh and rulwt, ~ust
tb~ tuba ~ boIlowed out of 1M IIesb.

Birch lenl!i te

DESCRIPTION: Iarge:l-4 in (5-10 em).

Thin ('f, in (2 em) maximum), filfl'~ped
cap. ohen imbricated. Upper surface hirsute
and ~lvety, covered in while, gray, or ocheI
concentric paraliel bands, often colonized by
algae which give it a greenish color. Thefe
are pale gray or ocher crowded gills on the
undefside. some 01 which are faked. deciduous lreer--not confined 10
The flesh ii pale. coria- birch-and felled Iog5. in cool
CKJUS, eIastJC. ex places. All )'f'ilr round. Quilt
'O<ky. common and fo.n:I in
many countries.
HABITAT: on vari-
ous living or dead
Hoof Fungus; TInder Fungus

DESCRIPTI ON: H:1'I,.8 in (4·20 em). turning gray with

0:4-16 in (10·40 an). semi.orculaf stripes Of
The upper surface is odJef Of rl!ddiVl·brown, folds. The l.I'IdeIside is
aeam to gray-brown with
SPECIAL FEATIJRES tiny poI'e5 whICh darkM
.....tlen toudled. The red·
dish-bmwn flesh is as hard
This fungus probably played an impor.
.3$ wood.
ranI role in the Life of prehistoric II1<In,u
it wu ctrtainly u~d'\5 ~ w~y of pre:-
Krving and transporting Iire,sinct it
HABITAT: on the trunks of living Of dead
bunu very slowly. deciduous Ir~ ~11y beech and birch.
All year round, Fairly common.

Beefsteak Fungus

DESCRIPTI ON: 0:4-10 in (10·2~ em). fall. Common in certain places and found in
The fungus is elongated like a tongue Of many countries in the temperate lOfIE!.
semi-circular, It sometimes has it short Slipe
by whidl it is anached to the wood. The
upper surface is brick red, 5l1cky, and densely
covered with little papillae. The pores 0f11he
underside are cream 031 first, then
reddish-pink, staining darker red
when lOiKhed. The fiesh is soh and
spongy. red with pal{'f patches, and
oozing a red juice when CUI. The
lUbes are 1"101 bonded logelhefand
are easily separable. Acidic taste

HABITAT: atlhe base of living

oaks Of chestnut!.. Late summer and
Ani 51's Fung us

0:4-16 in (10-40 an).
The fungus ~ fan-shaped Of
semi-cifcular and is allached
to the substrate ovt'f a large
area on one ~ide. II is quill'
thin ('I. to )'/. in (210 8 em)).
The upper surface is knobbly.
and furrowed, ocher-brown or
cinnamon wnh a very thin.
white margin. WIlen the
spores alt! e,e<ted, the sur-
face is covered with a powdery. ocher layer. HABITAT: on S!lImps and dead or living
The ul'ldefside is ....nitI', turning russel, and tree trunts of decidoous [lees Of ffiOfl' rarely
browning 10 the louch. 1m! flesh is corky. on conifers. Persists for ~,al ~ars. Com-
brown with some white streaks. mon and found in many countries.

la<:quered Bracke t

DESCRIPTION: 2·12 in (S-JO em), brown. Shiny

0:2-8 in (S-lO em). Stipe lal(!fal or
Circular or kidney-shaped cap. Upper sur- excentric, vertical,
face reddish-brown, knobbly. and hard with fai rly twisted. and the
a brilliant glaze. Margin yellow-Ofange in same coo or darter than the
young ij)edmens. Undefside white. turning cap. Flesh elastic but coria·
ceoos. Not edible.
Th( fungus is highly pnz(d in ChinH( HABITAT: on W'TlpS and dead
medicint, and is u~d 10 (urt a n... mbtr
trunks of decidUOltS trees,
of infe<tions and iUnesSCll. someumes on buried roots.
Summ(!f and fall. Uncommon.
Fir Brac ket Fungus

DESCRIPTION : pores of I.II'IeVeO size,

0:'"...1 '/" in (1·3 em). in a labyrinthine
flanish paltern, which 1001
fungi WIth imbri- brCJMl WIth age. flesh
cated on bonded thin and coriaceous.
caps, often in fO'M.
The Uppef surface is gray- HABITAT: on the !Junks of
brown, hairy, sometimes green- dead or felled con ifer~ sometimes
ish due to the growth of a~ae, and on living trees. Grows from sea level
violet or purple on the margin. The under- 10 the tree line, Present all year
side has small, violet, rOUl'lded, or angular round. Common in temperate zones..


Vari ab le Bracket Fungus

DESC RIP TIO N: H: l '/.-2'1. in (]·7 em), Irregular, circular, or fan-shaped bracket,
0: 2·4 in (5·10 em), sometimes lobed, OJ wi th a sinuous mar-
gin,hollow at Ihe stipe end, yellow ocher
or reddish, with fine, darker radial stria-
tions. Underside white then browning,
lubes mOle or less decurrl'nl, vl'ry small
porl'S. ExCl'ntric or cl'ntral stlPI',
tapering at the typically black
base. Whitish or yellowish fll'sh;
pll'asant odor and mild flavor.

HABITAT: on dead wood and stumps of

dl'Ciduous Irees. soml'timl'S on livinglretS.
From spling 10 latl' fall. Common and
found all OVl'r the tl'mperate lonl'S.
Dryad's Saddle


10 cm), 0:4-20 in (10-50 cm).
Kidney-shaped or circular cap,
straw to ocher in color, covered
with large reddish or bfown
scales. Underside whitish, with
decurrent tubes and large
pores, from 'm. to '/0 in (1 to
3 mm). Very short, thick stipe
(up to 3'/. in (8 em) long and
2 in (5 cm) wide). lateral or
excentric, rarely (entral, white
except al the base, where it is
black. Firm white flesh. Flavor HABITAT: grows in tiers on stumps or at
and odor of flour. the base of the trunks of deciduous trees,
such as willow, poplar, walnut, and maple, in
welHi t woods, parks. roadsides, and beside
Spring through fall. Fairly common.


Bay Polypore

DESCRIPTION: resembles P. lepto-

cephalus. but larger. The surface of the cap
is very shiny and pale at first, later becoming
dark brown, with a paler border.

HABITAT: on dead wood and deciduous

tree·stumps, often in groups of two or three.
Spring through fall. Fai~y common.
DESCRIPTION: 0:2-16 in (10- 40 em).
Cap forming voluminous, large, thin, fan-
shaped tufts, with a sinuous, lobed margin.
Surface rough, ocher, reddish or dark
brown. Pores whitish, blac~ning to the
touch and on maturity. Stipes bonded
together at tilt! base into a single point of
allachmentlO tilt! substrate. flesh soon
be<omes coriacoous, white, turning pink
then black wllt!n cut. Strongly funga l but SPECIAL FEATURES
pleasant odor and slightly add flavor.
Stlme dumps ~re of gig~nlic proportions.
They may weigh S('Vcr~l dOlen pounds
HABITAT: on stumps or at the ~se of
and «In me~sure up 10 40 in (I m) in
de<iduous trees. late summer through early diameter.
fall. Fairly common.


Marginate Polyporc

DESCRIPTION: H;I '/,·4 in {3· 10 em), 0 :4· upper surface has a resinous crust of palf!r
16 in (10·40 em). yellow turning reddish brown, and finally
Fan-shaped lungus without a stipe. The gray·blacK. ThiCK. yellow·orange margin.
Underside whitish or cream,
secreting large drops of color·
less liquid a\ the margin while
the fungus is growing.

HABITAT: mainly on Slumps

and logs of dead or living
conifers. Present all year
round, perennial. Common in
places and in many countries.
Shaggy Polyporc

DESCRIPTION: 0:3/.-12 in (8-30 em).

Fan-shapM cap. up to 4 in (10 em) thick at
the base. Grows singly or in tufts. Cap red-
dish, turning brown outward from the point
of attachment. The surface is thickly (overed
with stiff hairs. The pores are orange-red,
then brown. The flesh is wft at first and yel-
low then COlldceous and rust-colored. Pleas-
ant odor and mild flavor.

HABITAT: on living deciduous tre1!s, where ash. Summer through fall; it disappears
they have been damaged, or on old trees. when the weather turns cold, but reappears
including apple, pear, aspen, and mountain- annually. Fairly common and widespread.



DESCRIPTION: l:2-12 in (S·3Dan). thick-

ness:',,'/.. in (0.3-0.S em).
White to cream patches. dispersed at first
but growing together 10 form a large sheet.
Shan tubes at the margin, lengthening
toward the center and looking like spines
Wi th age. Tiny white pores. stained wi th
ocher, varying in shape from circular, elon-
gated, angular, or labyrinthirn!, absent on
the margin. Flesh :4 in (1 mmlthick, whitish,
leathery, toughening when dry.

HABITAT: on deciduous trees. espKially parks. Present all year round. Common and
hornbeam, ash, and oak, in forests and widespread throughoullhe temperate 20ne.
Shriveled Polyport:

times with alternate bands, paler at the mar-

gin, often undulating and turned under al
the edge. The underside has radial whitish
folds which look like shriveled gills. The flesh
is soft and elaslic when fresh, hard and brit-
tle in dry weather. The fungus is odorle!>S and
has a mild flavor.

HAB ITAT: grows in large numbers on the

DESCRIPTION: l:'/,-'I.. in (1-2 em). dead branches of various deciduous trees,
Th~ linle fan-sh.1ped caps arl! borne on a especially ~ch and hazel. Summer and fall.
very short stem. The upper surface, is velvety Fairly common but easily passes unnoticed.
and varies from yellow through fawn, some-


DESCRIPTION: 0:2-4 in (5-10 em). HAB ITAT: on the ground, on

The fungus actually consists of numerous pine-needles. or half-buried
indiVidual fruiting-bodies bonded together twigs. in coniferous or mixed
at the base and of unequal size, tiered, forests. Dry, acid soil.
spread out, or funnel -shaped_ The All year
marge is fringed. Twigs and round but
pine-needles are often mainly in
enousted in the flesh. the fall.
The upper surface is Fairly
reddish-bfown then common.
paler at the edge and
covered in stiff hairs. The
underside is paler, irregularly
warty or wrinkled. The flesh is
coriaceous and spongy.
Sheep Po!ypore

DESCRIPTION: H: 1'1,.2 in (4·10 em), HABITAT: in groups, with stipes or caps

0: 2'/.·6 in (7-15 em). sometimes welded together. 00 moss In old
Cap has a !IW1 rn,ygil. sometme5lOOed. mte at IOfests. From late sumlTll'f thlough late fall.

-MIen old. Small rcml JXlIes 01 the
Sho1. thick, ceotral a excentric ~ simla i'1
Fairly common in mountainous regions. fall'
in the lowlands.

cola to the cap. Flesh pale 'Nith mild flavor,

This fungus MUS $Orne rntmblance to
Good 10 ut wbcn young, but OntO the common Hedgehog fungus, but the
wonn-uteD, with firm flesh iM:coming sbttp pol)'POrc Iw no spines.
COlUcto\lll iilnd bitter with Igt.
Hedge hog Mushroom, Wood Hedge hog

4 in (5·10 em), 0:1 1."
The irregularly shaped
undulating cap is
sometHnes lobed and
bonded to other caps.
The margin is iorolled
in young specimens. 11
is creamy while,
slightly velvety. and
reddens Slightly. The
undef~ of the cap
is covered in solt
!opines the same (olor
as the cap which are
easily detached. They
are -J, in (1 em) long
in older ~i mens.
Slipe central or excet1-
trk, shcwt and up 10
1'I. in (3 em) thick
fleshy and full, irregu·
lar, oft en WIVed and
swollen al Ihe base,
SPECIAL FEATURES deeply embedded in the soil and the same
coo as the cap but reddenlllg when llan·
The RedMning Hedgehog Mushroom died. Flesh firm and brittle. white, b«omlng
(II)'II,,~ .. ",(aw.s) is JOmClimes
orange-red when exposed \0 the air 101 a
confused wilh Ihe Hedgehog Fungus,
bUllhe IifilM' iii (enlnl ~nd Ihinne. ~d
few hour!>. flaYOf mild or sligtltly peppery.
Ihe fungus is smaller and redder. 801h
sligh tly bitter in older specimens. Often
mu~hrooms arc edible.
glom alongside the Reddening Hedgehog
Mushroom (Hydnum rufescens).
HABITAT: forms rings in the moss of
fOlem of oak, beech, or chestnut, mixed
foresls. and coniferous foresls in fall
and early winter. Its fie!.hy consis-
tency enables It 10 resist minor

lrtlll")' M'hi/t (I( sligJlliI·

rtllJislt f/tsb)\ 'Thl'l)'


Although some people find it 10 be of

~nle inlerUt, the Hedgehog Mushroom
is olttn considered good 10 cal. The
firm, crunchy nesh has a slightly spicy SPECIAL FEATIJRES
laSIC, reminiscent of that of the
ChantertUc. The Hedgehog Mushroom The Hedgehog Mushroom is 100 d;sl;nc-
should be eaten )'ollng, because it ti\·c to be confused with any poisonous
becomes bitter as it ages. To rrmovc any varicty, since none of Ih~ mushrooms
bitterness, it is advisable !O throwaway v.ilh spines in place of gills arc poi·
any liqllid given offby the mushroom 011 sonous. Seen from above, the Sheep
the start of cooking, instead of kning it rolyporc (Albm,rl/us O,1HUS), which;5
evaporate. II should bt si mmered over good 10 cal, looks very much like Ihe
low hUI. The finn Desh makes it possi· Hedgehog Fungus, bUI il has portS
ble 10 pickle small specimens in vinegar instead of spincs on the undersidc of the
and serve th em iI.5 co ndimcnu. cap and;s more likdy to be wonn-catcn.
Ear-pi ck Fung us

DESCRIPTION: H:l ',.-4 in (3-10 cm),

0:',,-'1. in (1-2 cm),
The cap Is kldney·shaped, bfown or reddtsh·
brown, covered in fine, dense hairs. The
spines are 10119 and large in relatioo to the
size of the cap, and are dirty white, then
turning brown. The stipe is thin, lateral,
darker than the cap and also hairy. The flesh
is ~ry thin, (oriaceous. arld white. The
species is easily identifiable due to it beil'lg
the only variely of hedgehog fungus to grow
on pine·cones.

HABITAT: mostly grows on pine·cones

which are hall·buried in the soil. All year
round, especially in spring and fall. Com·
mon, but difficutt to spot due to its size and
color. tr.edible,


AU rungi with spines inttud of giLk

wrrt oner included in the genU$ Urallll'"
and the br.pick f\lnp' h~d the boWli·
wllilme of /lp/IIIIIII IllIri~II/I';II"'.
Today the genU$ has bun SP~I into ~
do~en different genera bufd on rcolop.
nl differences and microscopic cham:·
teristks. Thrst wngi have t~tn bern
placed in different families.
White Coral Fungus

DESCRIPTI ON; H:3 ',.,6 in (8·15 em). which the spines are attached. The spines are
0:4·10 in (10·25 em). arranged in (CONS on the sides or underside. The
lva)' v.tIite or cream, ~ 'Nim age. The flesh is fragile and 'My friable, wtlite, with afaint
hr1gus is attaehed to the substrate try a mid: aoo pleasant ocb; and mikl flavor.
SIJpE!. wIldl brandles lOlO fruiting-bodies to
HABITAT: gems at the base of dead deOOJ·
srFCIAl HATURFS ous nees. especially beech Late surnmef and
fall. Uncommon and rather localized.
The ConI Fungu' (Uerid"," ((Jr/dIoiMS),
II rdal~d 5pt'ciu, grows on (onfers; th e
spinu au of YlnOUS lengths Ind art
gflltraUy ranillifd and art found at the Goodla UI when young, b«oming
fnd of bl'ilnchu only. s1ighlly 'ONceD"'! and bitter with age.
j'lo rn of Ple nty

DESCRIPTION: H:,',,·4'f, in (4-12 em), ing thinner at the base and i/regularly
0: 1/.· ]'/. in (lS em), swollen.The lIesh is thin and elastic, the fla-
Trumpet·shaped fungus whose margin is vor mild and the odor fruity. The flesh is
curved outward and becomes brown, nevI.'! worm·eaten,
streaked with darker lines which turn black
in damp Wf'alhef. The exterior surface is HABITAT: in very large colonies in lowland
gray, plumose, smooth, or slightly veined. forests of oak, hombeam, and hazelnut.
then rough or swollen, and also black when Rarer on high ground ur.der conifers. Prefets
wet. The stipe is sometimes sinuous, becom· very damp soil, clay. limestone, or neutral
Two other snullu, rarer spuits of
Cratrrtll us IIrc dosdy rtl.ud 10 the
Horn of Plrnty which the French call
the Trumpet of the Dnd, no doubt due
to ils black color. They are:
• the Sinuous Chanlcrcllr
(PstuJO(rlllfrfllu~ S;ftUflSUS), which is
paler in color, ocher-brown or gray,
and decorat ed with brown fibrils and
with II very sinuous, lobd margin. Th e
utcTn;d surfact of the Ifllmp(:1 is
ochnctous and also covered in II whitt
bloom. It grows in the same type of
foruls, bUI on more acid soi ls.
- the Gray Chantutl1e (PSfudocrllttrtl·
lu! ci"trrus) has a strong odor of
mirabelle plum and by the presencc of
strongly marked, gill-like folds below
the up. II grows in the same habitat liS
the Horn of Plenty. The Horn of Plenty maku ncellent
eating. II can M !!cwd and mad e into
3 sauce to be nten with venison ,
(non-acidic). from late jugged harr, and olhtr typ es of game.
September through It is also added to stews, pites , and
lale November, occa- other types of chareuterk These
sionally appearing in trumpet-shaped fungi have the
June if Ihere is enough rain, advantage of drying u sily and the
bUI such growth is very local- flavor is even enhaned by
ized and short-lived. dessication . Once dried , it can even
The fungus seems 10 grow in be crushed to powder and uled as a
cycles. which would explain why condiment, to flavor sauces. Befort
il is abundant in cerlain years and duning the fungus, it should be split
absent in other!.. However, il may lengthwise because th e holl ow interior
be abundant or rare ill the !>ame oflen contains earth , insect laf'lae, and
even slugs.
season, depending on the
C hantcrclle

DESCRIPTION: H: ,'/.-4'11 in (3-12 em) 1· D1BIIITV

0 : , '/.·4 in (3· 10cm). '
The whole lungus is entirely bl'jght Yi!lIow. A very d~licioU5 mushroom, IUghly
The cap is conve~ at first, with an inrolled, soughl Jetr and sold cOllUMrcilolly in
lIWIy COIlIImes. It is n~r worm-u rn
regular margin. 11 lalef sinks into a funnel -
and it to slore and pr~rvt. The
shape, and the margin becomes more sinu-
C!u.ntfftUC . hould be l immtud Ovtf
ous and undulating. The folds or veins under low hu t. II is used .u In a((omjWIi·
the cap look like gills. They are thick and IMllt 1(1 pouluy, fish, or p me and an
de<:urrefll, straight at first, then forked and enD be eaten TilW .
then more sinuous and mOle heavily forked.

With transvef5e, interconnecting veins.. The the year. When il grows under bee<:h and fir.
stipe tape~ slightly toward the base. The il is morl! fleshy and mum paler.
whitish flesh betomes more fibrous in the The ame~OO$ variety can be found in the
stipe and with age. The flavor is mild and undergfOwth under deciduous tree$. It is
slightly peppery. and the pleasant fruity odor quote large {0: 2·4'" in (S·ll em)). and has
is often compared to apricot Of plum. violet scales in the center of the cap.
The bicoIot variety. which is also found
HABITAT: Grows in groups in foresls, under deciduous trees, is very pale yellow
grOVt!s, Of plantations of deciduous trees, beneath the cap. The other part5 are identi·
principally oak, hazel, or chestnut, as well as cal to the classic form.
under conifers. Appears in late May through Camharellus friesii. is only 'I, to 1'I, in (I to
October on acidic soil. The Chanterelle 4 em) in diameter and is br;ghter orange.
appears in the same places every year after
heavy rain followed by several days of warm
weather. It is common in many regioos. bul
is lending to become rarer, espedally in • OM PHA L07VS OLEARIUS
Eastern Europe. Olive tru PleutOM POISONOUS
Thefe are several varieties or fOfms 01 the • I fYCROPHOR.OPSIS AVRANTlACA
Chanterelle. When it grows under hazelnut, False Chamtrelle POISONOUS
it is smaller, ~s fleshy, and appears later in
Yellow ing Chantc rcllc

plessed, and may haY(!

a central furrow 1\ is bright
yellow. even when old. Ve!'j
thin flesh smelling of plum,

DESCRIPTION: H: 2-4'1, in (5· 12 em), HABITAT: deciduous or coniferous forests,

0: 1'/,·2'1, in (3-6 em). espedaUy under pines, from the lowlands 10
The thin cap funnel -shaped cap is often Ihe mountains. on acidic soil. Absent from
pierced in Ihe center.lhe margin is often certain regions. but very common in othe!;.
curved downward, but later flattens and Grows in large colonies. fall and early win·
becomes undulalir.g, curly, and sometimes ter. ln warmer climates. such as the South of
lobEd. The surface is (overed in brown fib· France, it grows in wintl'f (until February),
rils 00 a 'ff!lIowish·brown background. The
undl:!rside of Ihe cap FDlBJI lTV
is lightly Cfeased
and brightly col· Although the fl"h is vcry thin, the Yel-
ored orange or lowing Chanlerdlc m~lt.ts panicularly
salmon pink. good eating, II is ol'ttn confuftd wirh
whidl con· the Tubular Chanttrel1e and both fungi
are called tht Gray Chanrerellt, but the
trasts With the
flavor i5 much stronger and the consis-
brown upper
ttncy 1"5 rubbery. [t an also be dried
surface. The stipe is very n sily. All ChanrelcUe, U n be iden_
long and thin, up to ii'/, Ifl (12 em) long for
tified by the ribs or veins on thc under-
a diameter of less than '" in (1 em). It is side of tbe cap, instead of gills.
cylindrical or ~ry often slightly co·
Tubular Chanterelle

DESCR IPTION: H: H '" in (5-12 em), EI>IBILIl Y

13: '/.·il. in (2·7 ern).
QUilf good {O tal, rhough not strongly
When young, the fungus is nail-shaped, with
a tiny cap 00 a long, narrow stipe, The cap Oavored, arid of a rather l'\Ibbery consis-
expands gradually and becomes corn:ave, teney. It ill never worm-catcn and
eventually becoming deeply hmnel·shaped.
grows in large colonics, so 11 basket is
soon filled. It can thus be prepared like 11
The center 01 the cap is ohen pierced with a
wgctablt. [I dril'!l vtry well, as long as it
small hole which leads to the hollow stipe. is not waterlogged when picktd, a con-
The margin is imolled in the young speci· dibon thai should Ix avoided when
men, becoming !>inuous and urxlulating. The picking illly m... shroom.
upper surface of the cap is ocher through
- - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

gray-brown and the undetsi<!e is covered

thick, widely spaced, decurrent, forked
folds Of veins instead of gills. The~
are /'i!ilow, then turning gray or gray-
ish·violet. The stipe is very Ior.g in
relation to the cap. often (om-
pressed and hollow, It is golden, then
ocher and finally grayish like the folds

d((urrtw, (oMs, rtStlllbliwg lilt
gills 11{ "it "&drils, t'tJ/IIW l/tt.. 8'''t'
The Tubular Chanttrdlc i.sometimes
confuscd with othcr typu of
ChilRluc ll c bUI rhis i. nOI important
Mcause all of them art edible.
Howcvu, thue is iI dangu tlll,l some
Imall varieties of Cortinariul, Ilich is
the Cinnamon Cortinatiu. (COrtiltll,;UJ
ciN''''",OlflCIlS) may grow in the midst
of a colony of Chanlcrelln and may
accidentally be picbd along with
them. The Cinnamon Cortinniu. dots
nOI have a funnel·shaped cap and it
has tru e gill. which art nOI decurrent.
It is Ihudort vcry important 10 lorl
the harvest care fully.
There is ~ yellow form of thc Tubul~r
Ch~ntere lle, which i, golden·yellow
",II over ~ nd h~s a Jm~llerUP. with a
di~meter of no more tbn I ', in
(3 em). In thi, variety, tbe margin
unrolls vcry I~te Ind the nuh is
thicker. The variety is commoner
undcr deciduous trtCS th n it is under
al the top. The flesh is thin, rather elastic,
with a faint odor and mild flaV()(,

HABITAT: grows in colonies.

consisting of tightly
packed speci-
mens. on moss
or pine-needle
liner In comfer-
ous forests. mainly
under ScOI5 pine aod
sp-uce, more rarely under
de<idu0IJ5 trees. It ohen hides
under heaps of k>pped
branches or beside sllCh
heaps, as ~II as near old,
rotten stumps. II normally
appears In fall and early win-
ter. but it is not uncomlTl()(l to
find il growing in mid·winter. The
winter !>pe(imens usually remain
small. The fUl1<}uS persists well inlo
the cold weather and can withstand
a certain amoon\ of frost. The fun-
gus freezes but thaws out wilen
the weather turns
Scaly Gomphu5

DESCRIPTION: H:2'I.·7 In (7-18 em).

0:2-6 in (5· 15 em).
The fungus is cylindrical at firsl. expandIng
the top and funne!·sllaped and hollow at
11M.> bottom. The ytliow 10 Ofangl!·red mal-
gin is undulalH'Ig and lobed and covered in
scales that ale nat at the margin and erect
in the center. The (ream, yellow, Of ocher

f.[)JBILI rv outer wrface is wrinkled and folded. The

Although occuionollly nltn, rhi, fun-
stipe is thick and tapering at the bottom,
gus and ils relativn should bt bet:oming hollow, smooth 01 fibrillose, yel-
,1.voided, siner they .Ie indigutiblc low to orange. The flesh is whitish.
and 50mclimu himr. HABITAT: under mnilers or in mix~ forests
in summer. Quite common.

DESCRIPTI ON: H:l 'I,. 4 In (4· 10 em),

0:',,,,'4 in (0.2- 0.'1 em),
This fungus often grows In tufts, and II may
be upright, ()'Iindrical, 01 ~plf1dle·shaped,
becoming shghtly (ompr~~ 01 wlIh aver·
heal furrow, often twisted, hollow, and b!"it-
tie, WIth a pointed 01' rounded top. It is pure
while, yellowtng WIth age at lhe lip. The
f~ is odor~s.

HABITAT: In grclSS 01' Ofl bafe soil. Spring

through fall. Uncommon but widespread.
Ash-gray hiry Club

DESCRIPTION: H: 11.·4 in (3-10 em).

The fungus look.s like a tiny buoch of antlefs
with natleoed, cuNed, lWl~ljng bfanches.
the liPS are tapering and rounded, and of
uneven lengths. They are ash gray, s0me-
times tinged WIth lilac. '!hi! stem Is about 'I,
in (1 (m) in diameter. The soft flesh Is ~Iighlly
bitter and odorless.

HABITAT: beneath c\e(lduous Ir~ on the

ground, more rarely under coollels, often in
colonies. fall. fairly common.

Crts led fairy Club


H 1'1..4 in (3·10 em). decomposing wood, along
This Fail)' Club is J paths. In ruts,. and under de<idu·
shaped like a bush or, 0I.tS and COOliefOus trees. SUrnmef
when the branches arl! 10 early winlel'. Very common.
lighlly packed. liKe a
cauliflower. Ills usu-
ally pure while, bill FDlBII.lTY
sometimes il is pale
Somt pfoplt tal Ihi5
gray_ The ups of the fllry Club and ~o1Uidtr;1
llIaoches ale flattened 10 ha,·c a pluliInl navar,
and dentate or lobed i. but ;1 is not (Of" a1110lSttS.
like a coxcomb The f~ is
willie, odcJffes.s. and mild.
Fiery Coral Fungu s

DESCRIPTION: H: 2-4'" in (5-12 un). 0:

1'''.2 1" in (3-7 em).
This Coral Fungus Is thickly bfafl(hed abovf!
the ba~, and hl'ight red or scarlet, th(! tips
be<oming Ofa~ to yellow. The base is
wt1lle or yellowish-while. The stipe is ~ery
short or absent, 11. in (3 em) long at the
most. The flesh is thick and fibrous.

HABITAT: gOM in the fan I.IxIer 'M!Stem hem·

kxk(Tsuga hE'~ in NonhAmerica.

Good to t at, and harvMltd in large
qu.anliliu in !he northwCSltm United to RAAIARJA FORJUOSA
Statts. Bcauuful Coral fungus POISONOUS

Flaccid Coral Fungus

DESCRIPTION:: H: 1'1.-V. in (3-6 on).

YelloN ochefto 1x"0MIish ocher tv;n:hes '" to '"
in (1 10 3 mm) thick. Color does not charge
when tooched. lIrancheseryj ina.e or two paler
teeth. Stipe " lOb in (0.5 10 1 on) thid: with
....nile base. 'Mlite ftbrcus flesh, titter taste.

HABITAT: grows on the ground in lines or cil-

des. under conifers,l!Spe(ially Norway spruce,
in mountainous regions at altitude. Summer
and fall. Common.

Beau tiful Co ral Fungus

DESCRIPTION: SUp! is short, MUlish then turning

H: 4-12 in (10- pinkish. The pinkish-gray flesh is brit-
30 em), In·8 tle when cut. The flavor is fairly
in (5-20 em). MleI'
thIS handsome
cOIal fungus has HABITAT: de<:iduous fOfests, espe-
eftct, cylindrical cially under beedl, also found in
branches, which may be mixed woods. Summer through fall,
slraight or bent and have UllCommon.
~t ramifications at the lips.
It is an allractlVE! !oalman pm!:.
except at the tips which all! brillianllemon
yellow. As 11 glows older, the fungus
becomes ochraceoos orange all 0Yef. The

Erec t Coral Fungus

DESCRIPTION: H: 1'1,-4 in (4-10 em). HABITAT: on the

This (oral fungus has V!rtlcal, densely dead and rotten
packed. straight arxl Yee-shap!d brandies. branches of de<iduous
In young specimef1s the color valles from the trees (especially beech)
narlOW, pointed lip which is pale yellow and or on conifers. some-
the lower part of the branches which Is red- times embedded In the
dish ocher Of pinkish ochef. The whole fun- ~il. AI~ found on
gus reddens WIth age and turns brown sawdust or wood
when rubbed. It has no stipe; the lower part sha~ings. Sum-
forms a short trunl:: whidl txtends into the mer througtl fall.
whitt filaments of the mycelium tmbtddtd Fairly common.
in the wMtrate. The nesh is wtilte Of pale
ytllow, coriaceous. with a pleasant odor but
bitter, peppe'Y taste.
Kun ze's Coral Fungus

DESCRIPTION: H 11.-4 In (4-10 em), HABITAT: on lhe ground or ITIOi'I! rarely on

0; I I,-n in (H an) wood, In woodland, meadows. or at
ThiS bushy (Olal fungus has few bul dense the edge 01 fiekk. $umrrtef through lall.
ramificatIOnS, endif"lg In !ohoft lorks. The Uf"lCommoo.
Stipe is absent 01 only I. 10 ',.111 (1 \02 (m)
long and '4 in (4 mm) wide Fragile lIesh.
Cauliflower Fungus

0:4-16 in (10·40 em).
A globulose mass of densely
pa<:ked, wrinkled fronts, loolcing
like a cauliflower or a spooge,
creamy white at Ii!;!, then ~lIow
ocher. The brarl(hes are flattened
and sinuous, divided and very
numerous, splitting at tips when
old. Very short thick, white stipe.
flesh smelling slightly of drma-
mon, lender but slightly {oria-
CellUS when older, lasting of

HABITAT: Almost always on 0.-

near conifer SlUmps or living
trunks. especially pine, sometimes
spruce. Oiten grows again in the

same places. Fall, sometimes summer. Fairly

l'OTENTIAI. CONFUSION common in mountainous regions.

Some Sp('cimens of the CauliDower Fun-

FDiBILlTY gus can weigh up 10 22lb (10 kg)! A
vel)' simil~r bUI much rarer species, Ihe
Good 10 ut wh~n )'oung. Flavor of older leafy Fungus (Srilr~5li;S bm;/",s), is only
specimen, less pleasant. and Ncoming found nur or allht base of ook IfftS.
rubbery and slightly laxative. It is often The branch~5 art flalltr, wider and Dop.
cooked with cream and good Karoning. pier. It smeUs s1ighlly of bleach and;s
II needs long and urerol washing. $,lid 10 ~ slightly 10xic.
Giant Fairy Cl ub

H 4· 10in(10·25eml.
0 : '/.·2 in (B em).
This club·!Jlaped fungus
can take on very diverse
appearances. Jt may be tall
or !Jlort, WIth a swollen
rounded trp, Of rather puffy
and bloated. The surface
is smooth at first, bec:om·
ing deeply wnnkled or
folded. Yellow at first,
reddelling when mature
The flesh is soli in young
specimens, later becom·
ing hard and fibrous. It is
while, changing 10 red·
dish· when cut.
Faint odor, billet taste

HAB ITAT: singly 01 in

groups uncler deciduous
trees. tspeCially bee<h, on
lintstone SOil. Late SOO'fTlef
through fall. Uncommon.

Not good to ut dut 10 the biller flavor
Tht Truneated Fairy Club (Clal'llr;/IJd· and fibrous tuture. In lome platn,
, tllllf frII~(Qlllf) looks very ' ;lIIi11(, but notably eastern Euro~, it is picked
the top is not rounckd, but &'t, as if young, th~ pidded in vineg;u
truneated. and uttd as I tondiJMnt.

DESCRI PTION: H: ]'1.·6 in (8·15 em),

0: '/.-l'b i1 (2-4 em),
This fungus i$ shaped like an upturoed cone,.
The top is swollen and the margin extl'nds over
the edge. forming a ridge. 11 is pale yellow,
turning ocher and finally re<Xlish. Stipe indis·
tinct. The lower part is ocher and slightly wrin-
kled. The flesh i$ firm, soon be<omrng spongy,
....nIle or pale ocher, witll a faint odor aocl
sweet taste.

HABITAT: forests of fir and mixed forests in

the mountains, oolimeslone soil and in cool,
humid regions. late summer and fall. fairly

Yellow Fairy Club

DESCRIPTION: H:l ".-2'h in (3·6 em),

Tall narrow, founded spikes or club·shaped
fungus without branches, often bent Dr
wrved, and may have a vertical furrow.
Golden-yellow, paler toward the base. Flesh,
pale yellow aod Ilblou!" Odorless but wilh a
mild flavor.

HABITAT: i!>Olaled or in groups. in the grass

or moss of lawns or in woods. Fall.
Widespread but uncommon.
Meadow Wall.eap

cream -colored gills.

wide apart, slightly
dKurrenl. Thid supe
narrowing toward tile
base and often
curvt'd, smooth and
bfif1ll', paler in color
than the cap. Flesh
thkk in the center of
r the cap. pale orange.
Pleasant odor and
mild flavor.

HABITAT: In well·
drained meadows.
beside paths. espe·
DESCRIPTION: H: 1'1,,3',. in (4·8 em), cially at an altitude of over 1,670 ft
0: 1".-3'1, In (3·8 em). (500 m), Fall. (ommon to uncommon btll
Cap convex at first but soon flattening and wi~ead
ending Wlth an upturned margin and a
lafge central umbo. Flesh thick in the cen-
ter, thin <lI the edge. Slightly greasy to the
touch, aprKO\ or salmon pink. Thick, wide,


Snow-white Wax -cap

DESCRIPTION: H: 1'1.-3'1. 111 (4·8 em), oc~1 odIef or reddish s.pots. WhIle gills
0: '/r 1'/, In (1 -4 em).
Cap (olllcal aod umbonate at lirst. then flat-
tening, often Wi th a central depression;
fleshy under the center, pure while,

very wide apart and fined to the edga From fall

decurrent. Stipe and through early wintef. Common
sinuous. white "',"'" wi,h and widespread.
pink or red al the base.
FleVi white

HAB ITAT: meadcrovs

and pastures. mossy .. CUTOCYBE OEALBATA,
lawns, grassy moors. and C. RlVULOSA. C. CANDICANS
damp, glassy woods Whitt Cbtocybcs POISONOUS
where it is frequently con·

"arrQI Wax-ca p

DESCRIPTION: H:I'/,.2'/. in (4·7 em), iog COI'M!K or IlaUened, umbonate, with

0;)/.-, '1, in (2·4 em). striated margin. Very viscid, blue-green dis-
Hemispherical or campanula te (ap becom- (010(109 with age 10 yellow orange; the cap
may be multkolon!d. Gills ~ightty emargl!late,
yellowi!oh-green or orange. Stipe solid al
first, thef1 hollow, and with the same viS-
cosity and coloiallon as the cap. green at
first, then yellowing from the base. Yellow·
green IIesh thin, odorIm and Oavorlm.

HABITAT: meadows, pastures, roadsides, in

lowlands and highlands. Summer through
late faiL Uncommon.


Thr I/JI""t'w ~ brightly colored
Will ups which grow in grutWId.
~y of thrm appur 10 br brcoming
Ie" nu.mcrolli.
Lemon Wax-cap

DESCRIPTION; H: "J..3 n(3·7 em), HABITAT:!1O\4l'S" ~ and the edge of

(l jj,.. 3 in (3-1 on). 'NOOdIaod and beside hedge!> in wmmef
CorM!)( cap. 1LattefW'g. retan"g a cecllrallJ:'J'lOO Ihroujl fall. UI'I(OITlmon but widespreild
"" be<oow>g s>j>"""""""w.......
striated. vised. p1en !hen
yeIow Pale
_ "",..,..
_ _.S"'".'TOO.
pale yellem IIeVi aoo oOOr\ffi, mild flavor.


1I).,,~~ obnr!StJli is mother solMn-

ye:Uow hygrophoNS, bul the "P ~ns
conical and the stipe is nOI ,;,ad,

Sca rlel Wax-cap

DESCRIPTION: golden-yellow to
H: 1"._3',. In (4-8 em), red: falll! odor
€I: '1.-2 In (2·5 (m). and mild flavor
CQf1vex cap. blood-re(j at whkh Is hard to
first, theflturning pmk as it define.
ages. Widely-spaced gills. red
dish orange men turning yel - HABITAT: grows in Ifoops
lower, alw.lys yellow al the on gr;ml,md and <lIthe
edges, Stem hollow, slightly edge of forests. Summer
(OmPfes~, often With a longi- and lalL Uncommon, mom
tudinal furrow, or<lf'lge-red but frequently found al higher
yellow <lIthe base. Flesh Ihln, altitudes. Widespread.
Vermillion Wax-cap

DESCRIPTION : H: ".-1. in (2-5 em),

0: 'h- l 'I. in (1-3 em).
Cap hemispherical at first, then corwex or
flattened, more or less dePfessed in the cell-
ler, with striated margin {overed in liny
tightly-packed scales. vermillion then lUmir.g
yellow. Gills the same color. Hollow, brittle
stipe wlth smooth, matle, dry surface, red with
an orange-yellow \0 pale yellow base. Flesh
orange and odo!less. mild flavor.

HABITAT: lawns and heaths. on add soil,

especially in the mountain!>. Fairly (ommon
and widespread.
Stinking Wax -ca p

DESCRIPTION: H:2·4 In (5·10 un), ish-ocher iflthe

0: 11.-3'1. in (3·g em), center with age. J
The cap is hemispherical and conical, Ihefl Gills broad aod
flattened, wi th a smooth, viscid surface. <ream-<olored. Stipe narrowing at
whi te to cream, turning yellow or brown- the base, viscid. with flakes adher-
ing at the top, aeamy white. yellow·
SPECIAL HATURFS Ing with age. Thkk white fle!J1 With
unpleasant smell and mild
This Wax-cap resembles the 1\'01)' Wax- flavor.
cap bUI is more slcndrr; the unpleasant
odor of cooked Jerusaltm artkhokes HAB ITAT: deciduous
makes it distinctive. The botanical epithet
for em, especially oak
·(OSSI/S~ comes from the name of a moth
whose caterpillar has the same unpleas-
ami mixed woods. (om-
moner in warmer dimates. on limestone
ant odor as the mU5hroom.
soils. Fall.
[yory Wa)( -cap

DESCRIPTION: H:2 '1t-4',. in

(6·12 em). 0:4'/,..4 in (4-10 em).
Hemisphel'ital or conical cap. bec:oming
flattened and more or !eM undulalll'lg. HABITAT: often glows
WIth margm which remains imolled !Of a in colonIeS In de<iduous
long lime. Vefy viscid, pure while, then lareslS, especially beech
cream-tinted. Thick. white, widely woods. on non-aodic
spaced gills, slightly decurrent. soil. Early through late
long. while, viscid slipe, thinner at the fall. Fairly (ommon.
base, often WNlng, granuiose or
floccose al !he lop. Flesh thin and

Yellow-gilled Wax -cap

DESCRIPTION: H:il,-4 In (6· 10 em), flallemng and become slightly depres~ in

0:1'/.·2'1. in (3·] em). the (!Oter, wuh or without an umbo, malgln
Cap conve~ or campaoulate at filst, then remaining inrolled for a long time. Cap fib-
rillow. very VIKid, oIive-brcmn palll'09 to yeI-
Iow«hel as il dlies. Gills ~ S9iK1!d.
de<urrenl, white turning progressively bright
yellow·orange. Stipe long and thin,
very viscid, eKcepl allhe top, while
then yeliowis/H) Flesh
thick, I'filite, yellowish-orange
under !he cutJCk!. ododes\ with
mild fIavcw

HABITAT: coniferous forests, mainly

pinewoods. on acidic wil!>. It appears late.
alter the first frosts. in late fall and early
wrntel'. Fairly common and widespread.

March Wax-cap

DESCRIPTION: HI I,:3'/. in (4-

8 em). 0:2·4/, in (5-12 em).
Cap thick, hemispherical at firs!
then convex or ilallened, or
slightly depressed. umbonate,
with a margin thai remains
imolled for a long time. White
when VOUng. turning grayish and
eYef1llially blackish. Gills thiel,
stJa'9ht. slightly de<Ullent. while
then graYIng. becoming wider
apafl with age. Slip!! thick and
short, lull, while then wrning gray
like the 16! of the fungus. flesh
thick and white, odorless With a
mild flaYOl'.

HABITAT: In small groups in

coniferous forests, mainly fir, pine,
and spruce, 1\ is often hidden by
moss or puW!-needle hilI!!'. On
limestone soil at mid-mountain
a!!Jlude, but also in the lowlands
in ITIOI'I! northerly rtglOl'lS- late
WInter, lin9l'flng on into spnng In some regions. Fairly common \0 rare, depending
on the reglOll,
Some ptoplc find if is nOI p~rtiwlarly
lall)' and claim th,l I ils only virtue is thai
il a~ln in early winter ~ncllpring,
whrn eclible mushrooms Ire al their Edibk, though Ihere it some clisp"te al
rlIfftl. to whether il is wonh eating.
Oli ve Wax-call

DESCRIPTI ON: H: 4·6 in (10-15 em), white to pale gray. Stipe lall and slender
0: 2-tl. in (5-8 em). (4·6 in (IO· IS em)), very viscid, (overed in
Hemispherical 01 campanulale cap, becom- olivf!·bwwn stripes. except at t~ lOp which
ing convex 01 flattened with an umbo, 'li!ry is while and dry, the two zones being sepa-
viscid, olive-brown, da rl:ening in Ihe cenler. rated by a fairly distiIX\ ring. WhiTish lIesh,
Gills decurrent and bow-shaped, waxy. thick only in Ihe center; odor and lIavor not

HAB ITAT: under spruce, glowing among

Not partiruLuty good, and the viscid
cuticle should N pt'dtd off. bilberries. blueberries, and moss, on add
soils. Common in the late summer and fall.
Modest Wax.cap

DESCRIPTI ON: H: )'/.-4'/. in (8·12 em). and WIdely spaced, bow·shaped and only
0: l/.·S in (8· 13 em)_ shghtly decullent, wtllle at fi~1 then of a
Cap hemispherical then convex WIth inrolled color Similaf to that 01 the cap. Stipe ~ighlty
margin, fleshy, very viscid in damp weather, bulbous. thicl: (up to 1J. in (3 em)), slightly
malle and silky In dry weather, pale odIIa· viscid al first, the same coo as the gills and
ceous-orange to fawn, dar~ in the center brOWfling Slightly at the base, doned Wilh
and oumy pink at the margin. Gills broad pinkish·white granulations <lIthe top, Flesh
while, pinkish ul'lder Ihe wIKle of Ihe cap.
I DlBII.ITY wllh a resinous odOf. Flavor mlkllo slightly
CKrid or strongly resinous.
Some specimen, lIave such a strongly
resinous Ibvor that they art intdiblt . HABITAT: urder conifers. especially spt'uce
Others arc mtffly of poor edibility. and Ilf, on noo-acK!i< soil. and even lime-
stone Commoner on high ground.
Russula Wa x-cap

then dry, pinkish, rapidly becoming cov-

ered in dark pink spots. Gills tightly
packed, wide, non·de<urren1.
while Of pale pink. becoming
spotted with darker pink. Stipe
thk\:, up \0 1~ in (4 em) in
diameter, the same color as thl'
cap. covered in longitudinal purple
fibers, graoulose at the lOp. flesh
pale or spoiled with dark red spots,
pleasant fruity odor, mild or Slightly bitter

DESCRIPTION: H:3 '/.-6 in (8-15 em). HABITAT: often in groups under deciduous
0:3'-'-6 in (8-15 em). trees such as oak and be«h, on limestone
Cap hemispherical then convex, neshy, can soil. Summer and fall. Fairly common in
analn 8 in (20 em) in diameter, viscid al lirst, more southerly regions,

Branched Oyster Mushroom

DESCRIPTION: H:',.-4 in (2· 10 em),

0:1 '/,.4'" in (4· 12 em).
funnel·shaped tap, 01 unHOfm color, oeamy
wilile or beige, dail::ening with age Creamy
gilk vel)' decurrent, bonded \ogethef al the
base of the stipe to form a nel~. Stipe cen-
Ira! Of extentri(. CldoJ pleasant, flavor mild. HABITAT: singly 01 more often in tufts on
stumps or the dead branches of various
deciduous trees (elm, WIllow, poplar, oak,
be«h, etc.), May throogh August. Fairly com -
mon in the south, rarer in the flOIth.
Eryngo Oyster Mushroom

DESCRIPTION: H:l '/.-3'I. in (3-8 em). of eryngo and sea-holly, ~ar coasts. Spring
0:2·/1 '1, in (~·12 em). through fall. fairly commoo along the coast
Cap conye~ then flattening, margin almost and in soolhem regions.
always inrolled, smooth, beige 10 brown.
Gills quite widely spaced, decurrent, creamy
white or reddening. Stipe excenllic or (en·
tral, usually wrved, white and velvety. flesh
white, quite firm, pleasant flavor and odor.

HABITAT: in dry. meadoY.ts on poor soli and

and fallow land. Dewlaps on the dead roots
Oyster Mushroom

DESCRIPTION: H:l'/.-4 in (l
10 em), 0:2-6 in (5-15 em).
Cap spatulate al first, extend·
ing to look mo;e like a mollusk
shell, with a margin whkh
remains inrolled for a IOrlgllme
and a smooth surface with a
(OIOf that varies but is uniform,
ohen slate gray or gray-brown.
be<oming paler with age. The
very decurrent gills are ivory in
color. Lateral stipe, more or less
curved, generally very snort,
velvety althe base. Flesh while
with a pleasant odor and

HABITAT: forms compact lults

01 tiered specimens on klgs or
the dead trunks of various
d«iduous trees, such as poplar,
willow, walnut, oak, and beech,
from fall through early wimer
and during the wimer in
!>OUlhefly regions. Filllly (Om-
mon and widespread.

The oyster mushroom;s now rultivated
Coocl lO ~al. Should b.e picked young as aU over the world. It;s grown inten·
il often bccomd worm -tillcn and coria· sivdy in a manner similar to that of the
(COlIS with agc. Cultivated Mushroom.

Spiral lcntinus

DESCRIPTION: H:l/,·4 in (4·10 (m). edged and cream to browni!>h.

0:1 ',.-3". in (3·8 em). ~<::::;;:::=:~ The stipe is (enual or eKceo·
Thi! cap is continuous tric and the same color as the
with the stipe, giv- cap at the top, darker at the
ing the mush· base, The flesh is thick and
loom the shape coriaceous, whitish to beige,
of a (ornel(hat is with a mild aniseed odor and
notched on one flavor.
side, The mar-
gin is inrolled and HABITAT: in dense, tiered
is fawn or reddish tufts on stump$ and at the
bfOWf'l in color. The gills base of trunks of de<;iduous
are strongly decurrent, saw- trees. lale summer and fall.

Striped lcntinu5

DESCRIPTION: H: 1'1,-3',. in (4-8 em),

0: " "-4 in (4· 10 em),
Cap globose at firs!, be<:oming convex, and
finally depressed in the center, with a thin,
sinuous, inrolled margin that is often split;
the backgroorld color is cream, covered with
brown or black scales arranged in a fairly HABITAT: often grows in tults on willow
regular pattern, more densely in the (emer. and poplar, frequently beside water. From
Gills decurrent ar.d lightly packed. with an spring through fall. Uncommon but
irregularly emarginate edge, creamy white widespread.
then tinted orange. 5upe rnOfe or ~s excen·
llic, thinning toward the base, whitish and
brown toward the bollom, scaly like the cap. f~rly good to tat whn young, 100 (ori·
Flesh whi tish, elastic. Odor fruity, "avor mild 3((OUS whn older.
at first, becoming acrid.
Winter Pancllu$

DESCRIPTION: 0:1 '~-4 in (liO em).

Shell-shaped or spatulate fungus.
with a yellow-green or brownish cap.
velvety bu t very viscid in wet
weather with a margin which is
inrolled at first Gills tightly packed
and forked, pale yellow then pale
ocher. Stipe lateral, very shon, ochla-
ceous orange and cO'Iered in small
bfown scales. Whitish flesh thick, §oft,
and elastic; faint odor and mild flavor. low and alder, in damp places. especially
beside waterways. late fall and winter. Fairly
HAB ITAT: in tiered clumps. on branches common.
and dead or living tree-trunks, especially wil·

Styptic Mus hroom

rowed margin, ocher Of pale !>fawn. Felted

suriace, cracking with age. Russel gills
crowded and ohen forked. Stipe excentric or
lateral, very shoIt ('I. in (2 em) at the most)
ar.d thinning toward the base, paler than the
cap, FI~ soft and elastic, whitish or pale
yellow, aromatic odor but bitter, acrid flavor,

HABITAT: in dense, tiered clumps on dead

wood, fallen branches. and the slumps of
de(idllOUS trees. mainly oak. All year round,
DESCRIPTION: 0: '"., '" in (1-4 em). but mainly in the fall. Common.
Semi·circular cap. depres~ where attached
10 the stipe, with inrolled, striated or lur-
Moss Omphalia

DESCRIPTION: H '1.-2 in (l-S em). pale ocher Of re11ow·bI'own in coo. Gills

o /.,',. in (0.7-2 em), decuutm. widely spaced and thick, but thin·
COlM!~ cap. SOOIl becormng funnel-shaped ning toward the edge of the cap, oeam to
in the center, undulating Of ~nuate margin; pale yellow. 511pe thin and short ('I, to 11. in
!oUrface stJialed to the cente!' or WIth darker (1 10] em)), pale blown, darker at the lop.
rad~1 bands over the gills. White-beige, to Flesh thin and pale, odorle~~ and flaVOfI6s.

srI'( IAI Ff.ATURES HASITAT: in coldel' regions. especially in the

mountains, on damp. clCidic soil, heathland
Thi, is one of Ihf COmmOnH! fungi in
tbf no"ht m htmisphtrt . It lives in
and beside bogs. Summer through fall.
mon, in .ymbiotis with an alga. Common aod widespread.
Cup-shaped Clitcx:ybe

DESCRIPTION: H: 2%-47\ in (7-12 an),

(I: 11'-27\ in (3·7 em).
Cap cup-shaped, with small limbo and
inrolled margin, darK brown, almost black
when wet, becoming much paler as il dries.
Gills de<:urreot and forked, with crenelated
edges. white turning pale grayish-beige..
Very long STipe thickening toward the base,
brown ar.d striated with
paler !jmils. Base
felted with white
fibers. Flesh thin
and spongy; pleas-
ant odor and mild

grassy paths,
ground or on rotten tree
slumps. late fall. Common.

_ _ ~,m"8i,lI, inS(rr(a i'llll'tin kmg OIl'S

\ ""-'''. ~Ii,~ 51riilrtd The PscudodilOCYbcs differ from I h~

y';rh Mwilish plori/5. CliuxYMI due 10 Ihtir forlccd gills.
White Clitocybe

DESCRIPTION: H: 1'/,-1 /' in (H em), 0:'/.- HA8ITAT: lawns, grassy clearings, undef
1',. in (2·3 em), deciduous trees or in copses. Summer through
Cap convex theJ'l flattening and slightly fall. Fairly common.
depressed, pure v.t'iite, later dirty v.tlite or SIXll'
red with ochef or brO'Ml. Margin infoUed for a
Ioog time. 'Mlite gills crowded and slightly
decurrent lNhile stipe elastic, often bffil. cr/II'
!!fed in while flakes on the lW' third. Flesh
th4n and wIlile; pleasant odor and mild flavor.
HOII!), Clitocybe

DESCRIPTION: H: 2·4 ill (5· 10 em),

0 : l /d'1. In (3-8 em).
Cap (OIM!K then "anening. eventually
slightly depressed, margin imolled for a
1009 time. Silky surface with a while
COOlir.g liu Iloar·frOSI, dispersing with
~ \0 reveal a pinkish 01' ocher ground.
ClOwded, slightly decurrent, white or cream

gillS. Stipe while, ohen tuNed. solid then

holIaN, wider al the ba!.e which is (overed
with a while down which holds the leaf hl-
lef around the base. Flesh blanche . slightly
floury odor, mild flavor.

HABITAT: coniferous forests from summer

through early fall. Fairly (ommon.


C/if«J'~ I'II,'IIfl,lIIilll is simibr in ever')'
rupcCl , but groW$ unoo dccidllOUI
IrttS, and hilS been c1usificd as a
~nolc spedts, [, is c~ cIlngcrwf.
Ivory Mushroom

DESCRIPTI ON: H:, '/.-2f in

(3-6 on), 0: '1.-2 III (2-5 on).
Cap COI1Yel, soon Oatleflif"IQ.
and evt'Il be<oming sHghtly
depressed. margin inrolled.
White, matte and silky, (eN-
eled in a cootWlg like hoof·
frost, marked III places With
beige or pale brown, !>haded
with pink, Gills crowded,
slightly dKurfeflt, whitish
lhefl reddentng Stipe ~
Dilen slightly bent at the
base emd elastic. whitish or
beige. flesh thin and while,
slightly floury odor, mild

HABITAT: in Uoops or rings

in paStures. on lawns. beside
hedgerows. and on playing-
fields. Stirnmel' dvoogh fall.


Tht while 5pc'rirs of ClitO<)'~ are very
bard (0 ttll_p.o."_C/il«,·~ ril"lIloS1l is
more distinctive, in tbt it is 1m whitt,
talItr, and bas no odor of Hour.
Striated Ag"ric

DESCRIPTION: H:2-l/. in (5·8 em), flay. WIth lorqtudinaI....n.te ~Iri!., while 001-
O:, ',.·2'/, in (3·6 em). tony fibers at the base. Flesh thin, gay to
Cap convex with Inrolled mal'gtn, slightly stri· brown. lainl fIcuy or rancid ~ mild ftayor,
aled when mature; smooth, gray-brown
v.tIen wet, discoloring \0 pale gray as it dries, HABITAT: o:nferous,y(\ mixed Iorem. from
star\Ul9 in the cemer, Gills slightly decurrenl, mid-faH tIYOJgh ~ winter. FairlycO!M\Oll.
pale gray or brO'Ml. Stipe soIKl then hollow,

Funnel-shaped Clitocybe

DESCRIPTION: H:2·4 In (5-10 eml. funnel -shaped in !he ceIlter with faintly 5111 -
13:11,-4 in (4· 10 em), aled margin, becoming more or less sinuous.
Umbonate cap with illlolled margin. then May retain slight umbo. Cream-
thin, lull\hen hollow, whitish Of pale russet,
the base is surrounded by leaf litter felted
together With a fl uffy white mycelium. Thin,
white fiesh, faint but pleasant odor, mild

HAB ITAT: In troops in deciduous and conif-

erous for~ts. in lowland or al altitude. Sum-
mel through fall. Very common.

Qu.iIC good 10 eal, as long as the librou,

colored, beige or pale IUS~t. White. stem is discarded.
crowded gills, very decurrent. Stipe fairly



In (4-8 em), 0:1 ',.·g in
Cap convex, with an umbili-
cus in the center, sometimes
becoming funnel-shaped.
Gray·brown when wet,
beige to pale brown during
dry spells. but very often
with a darker patch in the
center. Gills more or less
decurrent, yellow-gray or
pale brown. Stipe twisted
and rigid, paler, with while
fibrils. turning dalker gray a(
(he base. fleih thm and whitiih; faim odor, HABITAT: deciduous or coniferous woods.
mild "avOf. from fall through winter. Very common.
Club- footed Agaric

DESCRIPTION: H:2'ir·4 in (6·10 em), 0:

1'1,·2',. in (4·7 em).
Cap convex then flattened, with a slighl
umbo, be<:omir19 funnel·shaped in older
specimens. gray-brown with a darker center
and paler at the margin. Gills decurrent.
widely spaced, {[earn or palE' y(!lIow. Stipe
swollef1 al the base, twice as thid as at the
lOp, ocher \0 brown, striated. Flesh spoogy. HABITAT: coniferous forests, on acid soil, in
espe<ially at the center of the cap and base the plains or mountains. late summer and
of the Stipe. Sirong odor and mild flavor. fall. Very com moo.

An iseed Mushroom

DE SCRIPTION: H: 1'/,-4 in (4· 10 em),

0 :1'/•. 3'/. in (4·8 em),
Cap convex allirst with an lnralle<! margin,
~melimes umbonate, then flattening, with
an undulating, slightly retracted margin.
Mane blue-green in young spe<imens. turn-
ing grayish-green or gray-brown in others.
Gills very slightly decurrent, dirty wtllte, then
gray green. Stipe whitish, fibrillose, then tak-
iog on ttw cob of the cap, and with a white
down around the base. Flesh white and solt,
SHang aniseed odor and flavor.

HABITAT: in deciduous forests (mostly

beech and birch) or under conifers (mainly
spruce) from plains to mountains. Summer
through fall. Fairly common.
Clouded Agaric

DESCRIPTION: H:2'1,·6 mycelium accumulates leaf

in (7-1 5 cm), 3:3',.·8 in (8· littef around the stipe. flesh
20 em). white and soft, strong but In
Cap convex then flattened may definable odor. flavor mild or slightly
become depressed. with or with- b4l1er.
out a small umbo and a margin
which remains inrolled for a long HABITAT: often grows in rings in decidu·
time. Surface gray or gray-brown. ous or coniferous forests. sometimes in
dark at first. t~n paler. (ov· parks. In fall and often late into the win-
ered in a sort of cottony veil. ter. Very common and widespread.
Gills crowded. slightly
decurrent, whi te to pale yel· TOX IC ITY
low. Stipe thick. soon A1rhough considtrHI td:i~, the species
becoming hollow with age. gray- should be rtj««'d as it tJlI ause: smOld
ish·white. covered in gray fibrils, base digestive problems.
swollen. but hidden in leaf littef. White

Monk's Head Agaric

DESCRIPTION: H:4-IOin (10· ... ==~ bouom, t~ same COIOf

2S em), 3:2'1...8 in (6-20 cm). as the cap. Flesh white, thick in
Cap more Of less nat and umbonate, then I~ center, thin at the edge of the
becoming funnel·shaped while retaining the cap: strong odor of bil1er almonds.
central umbo. pinkish·beige Of fiesh·coIOfed. mild flavor.
Gills very decurrent cream or beige. Stipe
thick and smooth, thickening from top to HABITAT: in circles Of rows in well·
lit deciduous woods, clearil'l9s,
wooded pastur(>$, in hilly Of moun-
Good 10 UI when young; the flem is too tair.ous country. on non·addk Of lime-
fib""" and , haWd be disarded. stone soil. Fall. Fairly common.
Inside O ut Agaric

DESCRIPTION: H:2·4 in (5· 10 em), 0:1 'lr stipe 2 in (S em) maxi-

4 in (4· \0 em). mum), the same color as the
Cap rapidly becoming funnel-shaped, bul cap, with a white downy base
wi th a thin, HghUy inrolled margin. orange surrounded by leaf liner.
or reddi!.h, often sprinkled with reddi~ ·
brown patches as it ages. Gi!ls very crowded HABITAT: in dense
and decurrent. cream then orange. Shorl dumps in (oniferous
wood in lowland and
SPEnAI FFATURI S highland. Sommer through
lale lall. Very frequent and
Sn-tnI species once IYd the bot.aniaI
rwne Ltpisbt irn-, .uch as lM )YDow
u/isM pn'/l and the dalttr ttd Lt/,;~
f/ata.u. wbidJ grows undn- duiduous
ttm or in mimi woods.


Cloudy Tricho loma

DESCRIPTI ON: H:l 'I.. 2'I. in (4-7 em), 0:

1'/.-4 in (3-10 em).
Cap thick, convex, with a slight central
depressioo. soon flanening and long retain- 2 in (5 cm)
ing lhe inrolled margin; gray-beige, with maximum, dirty
small round, darker oily or waxy scal1ered white. Flesh thick.
at random Ot' in rings around the edge. whitish, smelling
Gills white then grayish·pink. Stipe shOt't, stlongly of flour,
flavOt' mild bot not
particularly pleasant.
Good 10 Cil, wilh a spicy IhVOf whcn
cookrd, bul oftcn wonn·Cilcn. HABITAT: In small groups in mountain pas'
tures. Fall. Fairly common.
Wood Slewi t

DESCRIPTION: H:2'b-4'h in (6-12 em), 0:}-6

Cap thick and smooth, becoming depiessed
in Ihe center, margin imolled for a long lime,
blue-violet allil51, but may lose all trace of
violet color with age, Gills crowded,
amethyst cob', darker than Ihe cap. Stipe
thick (1~ \0 4 in x '.4 10 I'A in (410 10 em x
1.5 to 3 em)), wider at the base, the same
color as the gills. covered in ~Ivery fibrils.
Flesh thick, friable, slightly fibrous in the
stipe. paJe liJac; strong, fruity odor, smellmg
slightly of aniseed and mild fiaVOf.

HABITAT: in groups or drcles in deddu-

ous woods (beech, chestnut, oak) or
among conifers. from lale rail to early
winter, but appearing earlier a1 altitude.
Very common, but requiring low tempera-
lures. The species grows alrrlO$\ throughout
the year, especially in spring
and from lale

pes' - hi! I D1BIlITY
Vfry good 10 n l, bul rt quir« birIy pro-
longt'd cooking at tht Ba h is lovgh. Tht
Wood 81rwil can 1K: d.
Lesser Blue-Foot

DESCRIPTION: H:l "r 2'h In (4·6 em), 0:

1 /.· l '/. in (J.7 em),
Cap sI.gllt/y dep!'essed in the Ctfltef, With
II !>ITIa1l umbo, tllln, slightly inrolled
margin, dark bluish violet, darken-
ing Wlttl age Pale lilac gills. Stipe HABITAT: meadO'NS.
no more than ~ in (1 em) in diam- smoky places. conilet
eter, the same (alar as the cap. plarll<llians, gar-
dens, avenues.
lale summet' and
fall. Uncommon.



DESCRIPTION: H:2-4'h in (5·12 an), 0;3/.-6 Hem~icaI cap, bKOO'ling convex, then
in (8·1Scm). ftanened, coffee or betge color, smooth, matte
su1i1Cl'. Stipe short .nI tf*:k. !tom '.10 10 1/. If)
(2 10 3 em) in diamet« swollen at tht base.
fillliliose. blue-violet. contrasting With the
darker rob 01 the gills and cap. Flesh thick.
white, or p!fIkiVl-be!ge; fainl bul pleasant
1Xbr, mild fiaVOf.

HABITAT: in circles in meadows and parks, on

rlf!leS10111! soil. from liite fall to early vMle!'.
Fairly common II pIa(es.

Honey Fungus

DESCRIPTION: H:2'1.-8 in (7·20 em),

0 : 1',.-4 in (l-IQ (m).
The cap is hemispherical and scaly at
fif~t, be<oming flattened and wavy with
scales that ale widely separated or
absent. The color is wry variable, honey-
(olor or yellow-brown. The gills are white,
slightly decurrent, with reddish spots. The
stipe is ~ry long and smooth, except al
Ihe whitish, striated tOp. It tlas a fragi~,
(ottOrlywhile ring. Strong. unpleasant

HABITAT: forms large lUtts on stumps or

fallen branches of deciduous trees. espe-
cially beech. Sometimes parasitizes living
!lees. Fall. Very commoll.


The Honey flmgus is a ~gefOU$ pMa· I DlBIl.ITY!1 OXKITY

sile which attacb living or ~nened
trees, causiDg hem-rot. It pfOlNIptn by The Honey Fungus is nOI nt ensMily
means of •.unified blIck liWnmu which tdiblt , ~CiI,* older or unckrtooked
I1In bc-ne.1Ith the IwIo: of the InInU or spmmtnl Iuovt produced poisonings.
branches. Thnc libmenu, which a~ ~cimtn$ for the ublt should be vcry
merely bIInehcs of mycr6um, look 6kt )'OWl8 ~nd the fibrous Itml mUSI be di,-
thin roots and for this ~ason they are urdtd. Onpilt these prU41iution5, fOtm
caUed rhizomorphs or psruclorrhiu. peopk CoIMO! digcst the Honey Fungul
which is wickly rilCn in Wltm Europ:,
IWy, and SjNin.
Darkening Armillaria

DESCRIPTION; H:2'I.-6 in (7-15 em), 13:

, ',,.4 in (4-10 em).
Cap cooical or convex. then iI.lneoed and
lKIdulating. The surface is ooYefed with dark
brown scales. crowded in the Cl'I1tl'l,on a
or reddish-brown background. Margin Striated,
paler than the rest of the cap. ard with more
widely spaced scales. GiIs ....nil! or cream,
bewniog spotled WlIh I~.tmvn paldlK HABITAT: in tufts on tree-stumps 01 the roots
5~ bnttIe. solid, beooming hoIow, ocher bot of SjWCe or fro Summer and fall. Common. toward the base. SlrIated aIxwe the
v.tUte ring edged.,..;m flakes.

Bulbous-s temmed Armillaria

I~r ont membranous, the

upper one dOWlly. Flesh com·
pact, thick and white.

HABITAT: isolated 01 in
groups under (omlers. espe-
dally fils, in North Amellca.
late summer and lall.
DESCRIPTI ON: H:2'J.·6 III (7-15 an), 13:3'1.· II)JBllITY
ConV(!x cap dry and smooth, whitish or pale Ouilr lood 10 lOll. A Jim&or species
gray. Gills sl~htly decurrent, whitish or pale which it a1so t diblt is found in EIlfOpt',
brown. Thick stipe (1 \0 2 in (2.5 to 5 em)), tht Impnial AnniIbN. (CtdllllKhmfNI
deeply buried in the soil, while to yellowish- i_ptn.lis. II is WJtT with iI dMktr up.
brown Wllh a characlerisuc IbJble ring, the
Ame thys t Deceiver

DESCRIPTION: H:H'/, in (5· 12 em). 0:',._ mature. The Slipe is long, thin, sinUOllS and
21, in (2·6 em). fibrous. !he same color as the cap, often
Cap convex then flatt~, thin WIth an COOSISling of whitish fibrils and With lilac
inrolled margin, then undulatlllg felling at the base. The thin, viOlet flesh is
and sometimes slightly elastic in !he stipe, and has a mild odor
crenelated. often umbilICate and flavor which are not characteristIC.
in tile centef. Amethyst.
turning 10 pale lilac, HABITAT: coni ferous or deciduous
almost whi te or ochla- fOlests, on acid or limestooe soli, mainly
ceoos ~Iolel whef1 dry; in hilly or mountainous regions. from late
Ille surface is maUe. !.Umtnef thfough lall. Very common.
granuw, or (OV-
ered WIth fine
scales toward the
centl'f. The wide,deep vio·
let gills are thick and widely
spaced, Inlefspersed

Wllh shofter gills.
They all! spl'in-
kled WIth white

"""" S I' J (JAt 1'1 All rRl'S

The deep amethyst violet color in young

specimens !lab it easy 10 r«Opliu the
Amethyst DenNer growing on moss or
1uili",•. The up is pod 10 ut but the
6broullinn Ihould be disankd. AI ont
rime the Amnbyst I)c,(rivtt _ rntrtly
cont.ickrtd to be I YWI)' of the
Dtcrivtr (iAwI,u '-'(011"')" dOKIy
rtlmd .penes.
Deceive r


10 em), 13:'1.- 1'1, in (2·4 em),
Cap domed then convex and
depressed In 1M cenlel'. The edge
remains culVed downward fOf a
long ume. Coo is russel, pinkl!oh.
OIangt'. Of brownish-orange, paling
whef1 dry or with aging. Surface
mattf, smooth, or slightly grainy.
Gills wide, pinkish-brown. Stipe
thin and elastic, reddish-brown
with white fibflls. Flesh
whitish to brownish,
depending on the
degree of humid-
ity. Odor faint and
flavor mild.

HABITAT: decid-
uous or conifer·
ous forests and
copses. Lale summer
through lalL Common
and widespfead .

El egant Tricho loma

DESCRIPTION: H:l·3',. in (5·8 em).

0:2-6 in (5-15 em).
Bright yeHO'N or yellow«her <ap Wlth fine
gray-brown scales or fibrils. denser in the
center. conical at first then (()IIYeX or flattened.
The margin remaiflS inroUed for a klng lime.
Gills bright yellow with while l'dges. Stipe
long and thin, often I'Xce!ltrk or CUrvM, fibril-
lose, the same color as the cap or paler. Flesh
bright yellow, no panicular 000r Of flavor.

HABITAT: singly ex f1 tufts, Ql conifell:os 1. !.IrIIIIt.l and T. fIRm_it! an: snWler fungi
~ ~ cr tree tnris mairIy nthe root.fI- with rtddisb-brown 5C3Ies.
tans.l..:ue soowner !hn:lugllatelaI.l/ncOrmlon.

Pl ums and Cus tard

DESCRI PTION: H:2'h-4'/, in (6-
km ""
12 em), 0:2·4'h in (5·12 em),
Cap conical or domed, then with red
flattened, velvety aod covered scales less
with fine. brick-red or purplish dense than
scales ()f1 a yellow background, hence the those on the cap. Pale
name. Gills crowded and egg yellow; stipe yellow flesh, !.lightly bitter, or mild.
thrlening at the base, sometimes cuiWd, yeI.

I' D IBIUTY HABITAT: in tufts on the rotten stumps of

conife~ (pine trees) or on tile Hunks. From
Dtspitt irs name this fungvs is no! ronsid·
em! edibk in watrm Europe, though il is late summer through fall. Fairly common and
uttn in muin pam of tilSttm E~.
""""'' ' .
Dove-li ke TrichoJoma

H:3'1.-S in (8·13 em), 0:2-4 in (5-10 em).
Cap convex or cOllical at first, soon
flattening, then becoming
more or less undulating,
sometimes with a cen-
tlal swelling. Ohen
indined, and pure
wllile in color, "''''I''rrc~' ditl
sometimes spoiled With tiny, red- Ifm~hroom
dish-pink or blue-green mark!.. The
center may be pale ocher, The silky
and ~Iiny surface is covered in line
radial fibrils and is slightly viscid when
weI, ohen becoming covered in traces of
soi\' Gills oowded and wIlile, toothed al the
edges, Slipe sturdy, slightly spindle-shaped.
full and firm, fibrillose. flesh firm and white,
with an odor and laste of flour.

• de<iduOllS
woods, mainly under
oaks. sometimes under
conifers, on I'IOn-acidic
or sandy soil. Summer
through fall. Fairly Dwroymg Angel Df.AlllY
'. 4-, ' common in places. .. AM ANITA VERNA
Spnng Amanita Df.ADIY
While Dealh Cap Dt.AllIY
White Tricha loma

DESCR IPTION: H:2'I,-4 in (6-10 em), SI'f.ClAL I'F.ATURFS

O:l/r 2'l, in (4-6 (m).
Cap domed Of conkal, then nanened, mane The Off.white Tricholorna (frilbl1loma
chalky white. Gil~ wide and GIn be seen in V('f- /1Stu,/oolbr",,) can mUSUft up to 6 in
tkal sedion 10 be of unequal width, wtllte (15 ern) in dMeler. The margin is
then pale ocher. Stipe white, elongated and fluted. It is complclfly whitf, browning
H~r.g. solid, slightly swollen at the base. Of slightly 10 the touch and emiu a sirong
tapefing. Flesh thin and white, with a faintly and disagreeable odor. The navor is vcry
acrid odor and flavor. acrid. It grows among oaks and hom-
bum. TricblIJIfIIlIIlS(jnlll' has a beige or
p~lc ocher cap and smdls pltas.a.ndy of
HABITAT: under de<:iduous trees, espe<ially
birch, in acid soil. lale summer through fall.
Fawn TrichoJoma

DESCRIPTIO N: H :3'1.·~ in (8-13 em), 0:2- wilh dirty rust with age. Stipe of the same
4 in (5-10 em), color as the cap, 01 yellower. Flesh whi te in
Cap conical or convex then flattened, the cap bUI cilaracteli51icaHy yellow in the
umbona!e or slightly depressed, with an stipe, smelling of flour and wi th a slightly
inrolled, striated or fluled margin. Smooth, biner 1aSle,
viscid in the young state or when wet red-
dish-brown with a paler margin and yellow HABITAT: In small groups of deciduous
tints. Gills bfighl yellow becoming tinged or mixed woods, especially under birch, on
very damp, acidic soil. On lowland and
SPECIAL FEATIJRES highland. late summer through fall. Very
common and widespread.
Trk~olomlll'St"Jo";flirllll$, which tends
to i ppcar uno:kr conifers, d~, nor luve
i RUled margin and the gill, ate ..... hitish
spLuhtd wilh 1'\151.
'" 1
Bitter Tricholoma

DESCRIPTION : H:2-4 in (5·10 em), 0:1" ,· Cap hemispherical or conical then con~ex or
3'1. in (4·8 em). flattened, with an inroUed, sinuous margin,
reddish-brown then paler at the margin.
SPI.UAl FEATURES Gills white then spotted with red. Stipe
white and larger at the base which turns
The Tawny Tricholoma (TrirhQloma brown with age. Pale colored flesh, darker at
us,,,lo;Jt.s) re$~mble$
the Burnt Tri· the base of the stipe; faintly floury odor and
cha lama, bUl lhr cap is brighter russrl, !.lightly bitter taste.
and the two·colored stipe has two clear
areas or color, while II the lOp and HABITAT: decidllOus woods (bee<:h) on
RISse! btlow. II exudes a strongly damp, flOn-addic soil. From late summer
floury odor. through fall. Fairly common.
Brindle Trkholoma

DESCRIPTION: H:2'1,..4 in (6·10 em), 0: base whkh (an anain ',. in (2 em) in diam-
l'I.--l/. in (4-8 em). eter, and the same color as the cap. flesh
Cap domed 10 coni<al, then flattening to (hill and whitish, except at the base of the
slightJy umbooate, (overed with reddish- stipe where Itis red<!ishbrown and under
brown, woolly Of filxillose, dense, crowded the cuticle when~ it is pinkish. Rather
scall'S, thinning oul at the edge:againsl a unplea$ilnt floury smell, biuer flavor.
pale ocher background; Margin woolly and
slightly mrolle<!. Gills wide, toothed. cream HABITAT: under conifers, rarely under
then splashed with pink. Stipe hollow, laller deciduous trees, mainly in the mountains.
than the diameter of the cap, swollen at the Fall. Common.
Pre tenti o us Tricholo ma

2'1,·4'1: in (6-12 em),
0:2·4'/, in (5-11 em).
Cap (onical or
umbonate, then nat-
telling. mouse-gray or
slall'-(olored, shiny
and very fibrillose,
with typical yellow
I'lighlights, sometimes
wilh violet lin t~ Gills
wide, white, or slightly
yellowing. Stipe white,
tinted lemon yellow in
places. Flesh white,
sometimes yellowing
00 the surface. Floury
odor and flavor.
does nOI fear frost. Uneven distribution,
HABITAT: Conif- very common in places.
erous forests.
espedally SPF.C1AL FFAnrRES
pine, In
the low- In the r~gions in which this mushroom
lands af'ld is abundant, it is sold 10 taoncrirs.
mountains, There arc a number of varittiu of tht
but most frequent al sptciu, one of which grows under
al!lludes of 1,670 10 deciduous trtC! and is larger.
3,330 II (500 \0
1,000 m), more rarely
under de<iduous trees;
prefers sandy !iOil. Appears late.
from mid-fall 10 early winter, and
Tiger Tri choloma

DESCRIPTION: H:2-6 in (~-1 ~ em),

0:2',(·nin (6·18 ern).
Cap domed then eonvel(. with a thick, ~ .. TIUCU OLOJUA TERREUM
margin, covered in fine gray scales arranged in Dirty Tricholom8 EDIBLE
tigef-stripe pattefn, against a pale gray bad·
ground. Dinywtlite gills oowded and slnuate.
Stipe can be as large as 1 ~ in (4 em) in diam·
eter at the ~ wtIite or reddening. Flesh HABITAT: in groups in fir or beech woods, in
thick with floury odor and mild navar. the mountains on limestone soil. SUmmer
through fall. Common in places.
Poisonous, causing severe gll5lro-
t ntcritis.
, .

Saddl e-sha ped Tricholoma

H: 2~·4 in
(7-10 em), 0:2·4 in
(S·10 em),
Hemispherical Of
conical cap, margin
inrolled al first
then flanening,
with or withe'J\ an
umbo. Surface vis-
cid when wet,~I·
!OWish·ol~, red-
dening in the
center, covered in
scales scattered
with red or brown-
ish ocher. Gills bright yellow. crowded, SPH IAI. fF.ATIJRES
paler al lhe upper part Stipe solid, and
bright yellow. Fle~ firm, bright yellow, A species iI found in pine forests on
with mild floury odor and f1avOl. sandy soil (upcdally along the SOUlh -
Wl'!Ilcm Atlantic tour of Europe) whith
HABITAT: in groups in lowland or moun- some mycologist differentiate from Tri-
(!wIomll E'1l1l.lrt. 11 i5 aII(d thc Golden
lain deciduoos woods. Fall through early
Tricho]om~ (Tri(holom" "lIfll'lI m). ]t is
winter in southern regions. Fairly common.
largeT, the up !,ting up 10 6 in (15 em)
in diamtttr and the stipe up 10 ] II in
(3 em) widc, with a cap that is more
POTENTIAL CONFUSION golden or nddish. The stipe is paler )'cl-
low and the nuh whitish.
Sulfur Tndloloma
Death Cap DEADLY
Sulrur Tricholoma

DESC RIPTI ON: H:2'lr 4'/, in (6-12 em), striated with

13: 1/.·4 in (3·10 em), reddish fibfHs
Cap (onical 01 hemispherical, then 00 a sulfur yel-
depressed, sulfur yellow, sometimes slladed low ground,
with Mset, with a depressed or slightly bul ....nite al
umbonate (enter. Sulfur yellow gills thick the base. FIe!.h
and widely spaced. Stipe thicker al the base, thin, also su~ur
yellow. wim a strOl'lg gaseous or su~urous 000r
and unpleasant fIava.

HA8ITAT; de<idllOUS or coniferoos woods. On

fairly acidk soil.frOOl sea IeveIIQ mountains.
Fall. Very commoo and widespread.

Dirty Tricholoma

DESC RI PTI ON: H:l ,.·4 in ()·IO em),

0:1 'lrJl.ln (4·8 em).
Cap (ooical at first then more or Jess ilanened
• with radial striations, fTlOlM-gray or gray-
brO'Ml, often umbonate. Gilfs ve!Y wide, wnite,
turning gray. Stipe short and thid. fibrous.
!Jight ~ spir.d~shaped or thmning al the
baSl', solid then hollow, white or dirty white,
flesh firm and thin, whitish, almost odorless,
with a pleasant odor becoming biner with age.

HABITAT: grows in large groups in coniferous rOTf.NTlAL CONFUSION

woods (pine and SJ)'UCe), on limestone soil. Fall .. TRICH OLOMA PARDlNUIIf
and even early winler in the south. Common in TIger Tncholoma POISONOUS
""'" ",,"
Acri d Tricholoma

DESCRIPTION : H:il.-4 in (7- 10 em), 0: Cap conicallhen flattening and umbonate,

1'/,.3'/. in (4·8 em). ~Iver-gray or cinder-gray. with more or less
visible grayish or black radiating fibrils or
SPECIAL FEATURES marKs, sometimes slightly scaly. Gills pale
gray With crenelated edges. Stipe slightly
The: vtry simili\r Cray Tricholoma (fri- bulbous at the base, whitish and fibrillose.
rh%mt! sciojdts), groW$ undcr deciduous F~ white or pale gray with a faint odOf of
trees. [I is distinguished mainly by its
gills of which the edges arc spotted
radish or of earth and an auid or peppery
with black. Thr sri~ is thinner al the
base, and all ~rts of the mushroom can
b.ecomc tiRled pink. HABITAT: under conifers or in mixed
woods. Fall. Fairly common and widespread.
Burning Tricholo ma

DESCRIPTION: H:2-4 in (5-10 em),

0:,'11·3',. in (4·8 em),
Cap conical or convex then umbonate, cov-
ered in radial fibrils, bright sulfur Of lemon
yellow, reddish-bfOwn in the center, with an
almost white margin. Pale yellow gills with
eroded edges. Stipe thickened at the base,
bright yellow with reddish-brown I,bfjls.
sometimes sp1ashed with dirty pink at Ihe
base. Flesh Ihin and pale, thickening under
Ihe umbo. Famt odor, biuer then acrid flavor

.. TRICHOLOJUA EQUESTRE HABITAT: coniferous forests, especially

Saddle Tn(holoma EDI8LE spruce. in I~ mountains or (ooler zooes of
Ihe nonhero hemisphere. Uncommon.

5<:aly Tricho lom a

DESCRIPTION: H:2',,-4 in (6·10 em), 0:

, '1.-3'1. in (3-8 em).
Cap ari:aI ex ~ then flanened, often with
a rentIallJl'lbo. coYeIed in c\af'K fl~ scales on a
paIef ~. Gills wkIe ard white with
~own or SjXItIed tkd: edges. Stfle soIK:l (I hol-
low, fiOO:lu5, pale 'Pi or with black scaies, and
«me<! fl white lll')«Iium at !he base. Flesh
'l>'hjtish. mIkI flavor and spicy or peppel)' odor.
HABITAT: de<iduous Of conifelOUs woods, .
on limestone soil, ~ially in the moun- ~ TRICHOLOMA PARDlNUJU
tains. Fairly common. Tiger Tntholomi! POISONOUS

Soap-scented Trichol oma

DESCRIPTION: H:]".-6 in (8·15 em), 0:

2'1,-5 in (6-13 em).
Cap hemi~erical then lIanened, fleshy, very
variable, from gray through gray-green,
whitish, brown, and yellowish, some-
times covered in thin scales. Gills
widely spaced and brad, white
to yellow, sometimes spotted
with red. Whitish 10 dark·
gray stipe, sometimes scaly
and often shaded pink at the
base. Flesh firm and white, reddening at
the base of the stipe; slIong odor of soap.

HAB ITAT: solitary or in colonies in decid-

uous or coniferous woods, in lowland and
highland. Summef through fall. (ommon
and widespread.


Vtl)' variable mushroom taking on vari·

forms, which differ ITom nch other
0 115
mlinIy in the color of the sript or cap
and the pr&enn or abstnce of scales.
AU vmcticii ~rnit a $uongly soapy odor.
Shon-,u~mmed Melanoleuca

Gills crowded, wide. Sinuate hut deo.JJlent

along a narrow Strip, pale then grayish.
Stipe shorter than the diameter of the cap,
often With a thick btrlb at the bast'. of the
DESCRIPTION: H:I 'f,· 2 In (4-5 em), same color as the cap btrt slriated with
0:2 4 in (S·IO em), fibrils. flesh thin, fibrous In the stipe, pale
Cap convex at first then slightly umbonate btrt darkening toward the bast'; no ~prcal
or Hat. sorneumes inegular, eveo capabie of odor, mild or slightly biller flavor
l)e(omlng depressed. alwa~ WIth a soon,
inrolled margin SUrfCKe smooth, mouse HABITAT: r~ forests, IawM. parks.
gray to grayrs/l·brown, darker in the center, SUmmer and fall. Fairly common.
paling with age as ~II as in dry weather

Warty.foolcd Mclnnolcuca

- -: - ' - -- -- , ":' '

Cap flattened, sl~htly
depressed, ueam or pale

'PI ~ wl1h a dall:er
cef\\ef. GIs light, some-
trnes slitjltiy sIoprng

deo.rI'ent, v.t.iush, S~
thd:erung toward the
base. whte. but OOIted

',I ~_~ .. . ,
With black Of brown
flakes, excepl al the top.
Flesh v.tule, ffljl~ odor
and mild flavor.

HABITAT: lawns, mead·

DESCRIPTION: H:2'!.-4 'I, in (7· 12 em), ows, and on bare gOllld, on 9'~ tn::Ier decid·
02·4 in (S· 10 em). uous trees or on bu'ied wood. Uocommon,
Distincti\le M elanolcuca

DESCRIPTION: H:3 ',.-6 in (8·15 un),

0:2·4 in (5·10 em),
Cap con~x Ihen fla ttening, wilh a
large umbo, yeliow-brOWfl, fawn ocher or
copper color, Gills crowded, pale oeam or
pinkish (f@am. Stipe thickened or slightly
bul00u5 al Ihe base, pal~ than the cap.
Flesh whitish; no particular odor or flaVOf, or
smelli"9 and tasting of floor. SPFClAl FEATURI.S
Despite its (ommon name, this speOl.'S is
HABITAT: wooded meadow$, edges of not particularly easy 10 discinguish from
forests. Spring through fall. Fairly (ommon in similar spedes of MdurrlI/tIKIl.
the mountains, rarer in the plains.

Black-and-white Mclanolcuca

DESCRIPTION: H:2-4 in (5·10 em), HABITAT: me~ ~ grassy woods,

0:2·4 in (5·10 em). grass Yefgl'S. Lale summer through fall. Fairly
Cap CQ"I'IeX al firsl thef1 fianemrog and bec0m- common.
ing slightly depressed in the center, with a cen·
tral umoo; gtay-brown v.t.eo damp, pale ochef
in dry wea\hef, Vefy crowded white gills. con·
trasting IYith dark« color of tOe cap. Stipe
gay-broNn, with darker longitudinal striations.
FieYl while inside the cap. datkelloward the
base of the stipe. No special cdor a flavor.
Tufted Lyophyllum

DESCRIPTION: H:2-4 'II in (~-12 em),

0 :1 ".3'/.
in (4·8 em),
Cap SI¥ rorrvex for a long time. then Rauen-
iog. maue or silky ....tute surface, Tightly paded,
white gills. [lining cream or pale yellow. S~
thinoef al the ~, the same color as !hi:' cap.
Flesh wh!te. smelling slighttt 1My, mild fIa\oof.

HABITAT: !1OWS II tufts. sometImeS illafge

!1Ol4lS on IaYm5, II weIHit, rp<£1 woods iWId
road!.des. late SlIMlef and fall. Fairly com-
mon in uplands.


Gray,cllpped l.yophy lJum

DESCRIPTION : umbooate, UndUlating, smooth and shiny,

H:2-6 in gray or gray·brown,lhefl palel 0fI the margin.
(S·15 em). 0:].6 striated with whitish fibfils. Gills crowded,
in (5- 15 em). dirty while. Stipe Is cylindiical, thickening or
Cap (OIlV1!X !1Ien felracted at the base. The Il!sh is MIiC.
expandiAg, may be white, thick in the tef1tl.'l', without a typiCal
IIavof or odcw.

HABITAT: grows in tufts in de<iduous

woods, mamly con fined to clearmgs.
grass wrges, aVef1ues, and parks. Fall.
Common in places and widespread.
SI George" Mushroom

DESCR IPTION : H:2-4 in (5-10 em),

0:1'Ir 4'/, In (4-12 em),
Cap remaining hemispherical lor a long Edib~ I nd sood-Some people (OMider
lime, with an imolled margin, becomir.g it to be the IH:st edible mushroom, but
irregular and lumpy. very fleshy, with a SUI- for othen the Jtrong flolIl')' Ibvor i5 nO!
face as smooth and velvety as chamois Ipprtcal~.
lealhef, Clearny while, sometimes tinted with
rust. Vtfy crowded, emalginale. very the cap. Flesh while and firm, very !hide
narrow gills. Stipe thkl:., 'b to at the center 01 the cap; very strong
I'/. in (I 10] em) in diame- odof and f\avo! of flour.
ter. lull, the same (ob as
HABITAT: 9fows in

groups or aIdes in
meadows and grassy

hedgerows. especially
under hawthom and
blackthom, and in
parks. Favoo non-acidic
and limestone soil.
Spfing, especially April
and May. someumes
thtoogh to early !.Um-
mel'. Uncommon in
some places. frequent
in others, especially on
high ground.
rOll Nll AI ( O NI US ION
... ENTOLOMA UVIDUM l'tryr,o"l'IlrJ
Uvid EmoJoma POlSONOUS M'''1t gills

Rcd-mrnu'l& lnocybc POISONOUS
J'lcsh-colo rcd Mushroom

DESCRIPTION : H: l '/..-2'/, in (3-6 em), 0:'1._

1'I, in (2·4 em).
Cap nol very fleshy, convex then flattened,
with an imolled margin, f\ more Of
less brown in the center. Gills white, not
aowded. Stipe the same colOI' as the cap.
Flesh white, faint odor aod mild naYOl'.

HABITAT: in small groups in meadows. 00

lawns. in parks, and beside forest paths. fall.


Sl8r. bclI ring Nyc tali s

DESCRIPTION : H:'/,· I'/. in (1 -3 em), are deposited 00 the cap when the fungus
O:'lr 1'I. in (1-] cm). matufei. Gills white. ,educed 10 widely
6Iobo!.e. white cap 1umlO9 chamois !opaC.ed thick folds. !oOI'Ilelimes absent. Stipe
color due to the acrumuiallOll of a shcwt and wiHf. white. Flesh thid:. and
thICk layer of whitish. rancid odor.
spotl'5. whICh
HABITAT: often in groups or
tufts growing on Blad:efling
Russula (Russula nKJn-
cans) and IllOfI! rarely
on othef RuS!>ulas,
which it causes to
t Summer and
I, especially after
heavy rain. Fairly
Parasitic Nyctalis

DESCRIPTION: 0:'11-1 '/. in (1 -3 em).

Cap hemispherical or conkallhen flattened
and umbonate; surface silky, smooth or stri·
ated, dirty while, turning g.ay.Gills thld and
widely spaced, pale gray. Stipe thin and
white, about 'I. to I'/, in (2 to 4 em) long.
flesh thin, whitish; strong, ra ther unpleasant
ocb. mild flavor.
HABITAT: parasitiZes certain rowng speci-
mens 01 Russula. sIKh as the Slackening
Russula, sometimes found on Milk Caps.
Fall . Uncommon.

J'orce!ain Mushroom

DESCRIPTION: H:l 't.·4 in (3-10 on). 0:

, ',.-] '{. in (J-B em),
Cap hemispherical then convex, brilliant
whill' or slighlly russel with age. especially
in the center, (overed with a \hkk mucus.
Gills widely spaced, wide, and white. Stipe
!hid or bulbous taward the base, stllilled
above the ring, smooth and viscid below.
The W{!II-developed ring is si tuated quite
high on the Stipe Flesh thin and white, with
a pleasant odor and IlaYCll'.

HABITAT; in groups or dumps on recent

wour.ds in the tlllnks and branches of beech
trees. from lale Stlmmer through late fall.
Very common.
Rooting Shank

DESCRIPTION: H:4·8 in (10-20 an), 0:1'b- lomorph run '

4 in (4-10 em). ning deep into tile soil.
Cap convex but soon Ildtlenll19. with a cen- Flesh soft, thin, and while;
tral umbo; Viscid, smooth then very 'Min- faint odor, mild or slightly
1:100, ocher, russet, 01 hazelnut. Gills wide biller flavor.
and wnll!!. StJpI! while al the top, the same
color as the cap toward the bottom, not viS- HABITAT: on Uet! UOOU and
cid, but coriaceoos and very long, often stumps of de<idoous trees. especially
IWisted. thickening at the base aod beech. ~mmef thlOugh fall. Common and
extended downward by a rhi- WIdespread.

Saffron Parasol

DESCRIPTION: H: 1'1,-Z'1. In (3-7 em). 0: '{.· km-orange ttvoucjllawn, garUose a poN-

1'I, in (2·4 em), defy, 'MilkIed in the Ce!ltel, with a ffirqed. vel·
Cap coricaI then tlanl!lW'lg and 1.IT1bonate. .,eI- W'ty margn Gil!. otJMIed and oMVte then
pale yellow. Stipe hollow,
smooth al the top. else-

. ~; --- ,
t.·. ....... -.-H,
where (CM!red in ~
!ions or red tlakes, up 10
the scaly ring v.t1idl is

often poI)tj defined. Flesh
. 'r
,. . . "., '. (",''/I}'-.,1-
~J' ~ thin, or3rlQe·yellow; un·
... "
. -' .. / ..... i pleasant ocb. mild
..,. "JiI' t"... ~
:,~ ~ .'
' .~~ r.l.".' ~ r!
~~ '" ~ ·t. - .- .
HABITAT: on the gOllld
~.~ ..
'".' . .:".' /.
......... :
~ . .: ,'.
,. ."

'J in deOOJous 01 memus
woods. on rathe! aci!ic
soil. late summer and

. .' •
fall. Common .
Velvet Shank

DESCRIPTION: H:rh·4 in (4·10 em),

0:1'1... 4 in (3- 10 em).
Cap convex then flauened and be<oming
undulating, orange 10 reddish. often red-
dish-orange on the margin and reddish
10 reddish-brown in the center,
smooth, mdd when ~1. Gills white
aoo wide, then pale orange-yellow,
dotted wilh rust as the fungus ages.
Stlpr often curved. soon becoming
hollow, coriaceous, yellow .11 first
then IUrning brown 01 black from the
bottom, and covered in the dlaracter-
istic: thick, vt!~ty coal.
Flesh soft and while,
pleasant odor and
mild flavor,

HABITAT: growing in (lumps. occa-

sionally alone, on tree Slumps. dead wood,
wounds in living llees. or on the roots of
deciduous trees. as well as on broom. late
fall and winter, frosHMtant. Common.


10 Japa.o, the Vdnt Shank is cuJtiVltrd

I III 811 ITY on ~ Ia~ ""\r. The JlIp;tnC1lC prodllCC
KVtl'lll tent of thOUJallds of tOilS of it a
Quile good to til, bUI the lIe$h is gelati.
yur. The mushroom is nOI popuW in
nous Of ru~l)'. Tht fibroUl .ript
should ~ disankd, .. dlould the dimy !he Wnl, bul i, O(usioD.llly uten in
(Uricit-. Ullelll Europe.
Garlic·'~c n to::d Marasmius

DESCRIPTION: H:4-6 in (10- 15 em), HABITAT: solitary, on lea-m and

0:'1.. 1'" in (2·4 an). rotting litter in be«h woods. on
Cap (Jearn th"ough somebmeS fawn hmeslOOl! ~. SooImef through fall.
ttvOlJ!il ocher, remaining COI'lVeX for a long Uncommon.
tlllll!. Matgln has long stnatlOnS when weI.
Gills wtlite. Stipe very long (up to 8 in (20 em))
and slender, thkkening at the base, hoIkIw
but IIgk!, brownish-black, palei' at the top.
pfUi~ and felted with rnycehlXll .11 the
base, often rooting deep into the soil.
Strong $melt and garlic: flavor.

Horsehair Mushroom

DESCRIPTION: H: 1 1.-2'/, in (3-6 em), 0: 'I.- parachute, sometimes depressed In Ihe cen-
'/rlo (0,5-1 em). let", reddish-pink or blown. Gills very widely
TIny cap, soon flattening, se<:11Ot1ed like a spaced, the same color as the cap. Thread-
like slem, very rigid, blackish and shmy, like
hcwsehair. Very ttlin, odorless fleVl, and mild
HABITAT: In groups on plant debris on the
ground, especially prne-needles, leaves, 0/
twigs. Spring through fall. Fairly common,

Sf'1 (I AI FfATl JRI'

Muy tp«kt of ~1Ilius IfOW on

woody ckbm, but ~ to thtir lIUlI
sile, they often ~"unnoU(ed .
fairy Ring Champignon

DESCRIPTION: H;1',.-4 in (3·10 em),

0: )/..·2'1. in (2-7 em).
Cap cookal or campanulatl' at first. then flal- .. A-fARA SMIUS COU /NUS
tening OUt, becoming undulating and slightly Hill Marasmius POISONOUS
striated on the margin; center always raised .. CLITOC YBI: DEA LBATA,
into a large umbo. R~dish·O(her when C. RlVULOSA
waterlogged. creamy while when dry. Gills What Chtocybe spec iu POISONOUS
wide, wide apart and separating furthef as
the cap expands. (ream or pale grayish-
whi te, ta~ing on a color similar to that of the
cap. Stipe thin, fi brous, aJ'ld firm but remark-
ably elastic, IDlOOlh, sometimes twisted,
becoming hollow with age, pale at the lop
and reddish toward the bilse, deeply
anchored in the soil. FJeYl thick. in the cen-
ler, whitish; odor reminisceot of
bitter almoods. mild flavor.

HABITAT: meadows, pas-

tures, Iavms, roadsides, golf
courses and any grassy plot ;
often forms circles or lines, on
any type of soil. Spring
through fall. Very

Th~ stipe: of the Fairy Ring Mushroom is

txtTaordinary ~lastic and an bt wound
f1)IUId several timtS arQl,lnd itstlf with-
V~ry good to Cil; th~ corac£OUS stipe: out it breaking.
should bt disankd.

"~}, 'r
Branch.gilled Fu ngus

DESCRIPTION : H:",· I',. in (1 ·3 em),

e:',.·\,\, in (005·1.5 em),
Cap eOl1vex then flallened, shghtly wllnkled,
(learn through pinkish·white, Of redder. Gills ,
of the same color. Stipe short, no longer
.,. ",

'' ,;'-~/'.~
Ihan 1',. in (3 em) aoo '" m (1 em) wide,

elastrc, wtlnish at the top, reddish and spot· .
led WIth white fibers al the base. Flesh
white, odorless and navorifss.

HABITAT: in I.1rge groups, on branches and

dead twigs and stems of bramble bushes.
Summer through lall. Common.
. ,.~
'\:' " .
.. ~ "."
. .~

Liule Wheel Fu ngus

DESCRIPTION: H:1'1.· 2 long and very slender.

III (3·5 em). 0 :/0-'1. In IIgid. black or dark
(OB·I.Scm). brown. whitish al the top.
Hem~1Ca1 Of convex Flesh white in the cap.
cap, m Ihe IOfm of a brown in the Sllpe. WIth a
parachute. typiCally fur · laml cxb" and 1Iavor.
rowed, wllh a dentate
margin, always With a HABITAT: in dense
well-marked central clumps 011 fallen twigs
depression. Ivory, some- and branches of deddu·
times ocher or gray Gills ous trees. late spring
cream, Wide apart. not through to early winter.
allached 10 Ihe Sllpe oot Very common.
to a membrane erKirciing
the top of the stipe. Stipe
Hairy Marasmius

DESCRIPTION: H: ',.- l /. in (2·4 em),

0:'/,.1/. in (1-2 em).
Cap con~ex or slightly depressed, sometimes
with a liny umbo, CMred in reddish·brown
silKy hairs on a pale background. Gills pale.
The stipe is shon, sometimes wider al the
lOp. rigid, undulating. often furrowW. russet
and covered in tiny, stiff hair!>. grassland and grassy moors, in summer
through fall. Fairly common and widespread.
HABITAT: grows on dry twigs. thatch, poor

Edible Tough -shank

DESCRIPTION: H:",-2 in (2·5 em), HABITAT: in groups. on spruce cones that

0:'/.· 1 /. in (0.5·3 em). have fallen Of are buried beneath moss,
Cap convex then f1anening. ocher or reddish- sometimes on fir cones. From ~te wimet
brown viscid, sometimes slighllycreased. Gills through early spring. Fairly common.
while, turning gray, fairly crowded. Stipe thin,
CQfiaceous. and smooth, often undulating,
orange or brown, paler toward the top. with
white filaments althe base. Flesh while, thin,
rather CoriiKOOIJS. Faint 000f, fungal navor.

Dupitt its nlmt, thil Tough.shanlc is

not partkuJarly talty, and it if tJltrt mtly
smaU. Its inltrest IitS in the bct that it
appean at a time of yur whtn olhtr
mushrooms irc ra f t .
Tenacious Tough-s hank

with paler or redder center. Gills white, (on·

trasting with darker (olor of the cap. Stipe
smooth, rooting, white or yellow at first, then
taking on the color of the cap from the base,
passing through orange·brown. Flesh white
and very thin; faint odor and binet flavor,

DESCRIPTION: H:'/.-2'h in (2-6 em). HABITAT: on Scots pine cones. which maybe
0·'1.- 1 in (1 -25 em). buried in the soil. sometimes on other cones.
Cap smooth, reddish brown or date-brown. Spring. Fairly common.

Mouse-tail Tough.shank

DESCRIPTION : H:'/.· I'I, in (24 an). 0:'lr aowded, white or beicJ.'. Stipe the §(II:llI' cola as
1'/. in (I ·] an). the cap. doMri. erdirg fl a Ioog rhCzornorjjl
Cap C~ then fIa~ SOO'IeIimes with small covered fl ....t1ite hai~ which digs deep flto the
lITlbo; 5nIIXlth. ~ odler. ~kish brown or sOOstrale. FIeh thin arxl beige; fungal oeD;
hazelnut, paler at the margin. Gills very rrikl RaYor.

HABrTAT: on pineor~e cones, fallen on the

~oond or buried. or on their detached scales, in
forl!51S and parks. From fall tlYOO'Jl early winter.
Pr/:t)a/)/y conmon but often urnoticed.


Many spKifl grow on f~llcn pine conn.

Thest incll.ldc the SIrO"i/u",s and some
specits of Myccna and Collybia. They
can be idcnti6ed mainly through their
microscopic char.llclcristic:s.
Perfo rating Ma rasmius

DESCRIPTION: H:'... 1'I. in (1.s-l em),

0:'1.·";10 (0.5- 1.5 em),
Cap convex to Aattened. beige to pinki91-
brown, with a furrowed margin and center
l'JlO(e or less depressed. Gjl~ be~ \0 pinkish·
brown. Stipe barely '1,," in (1 mm) in diameter,
ve~ty and blad:ish, except allhe lop. where
it ~ paler. The flesh has a fetid odor.

HABITAT: olte!1 in dense colonies on spruce or

fll' needles. SUmmer through fall. Common.

Bell Omphalia

DESCRIPTION: H: 'I.-2 in (2-5 em), margin, smooth, !>lIghtly ~Iscid, striated up to

in (1-2 em). the umbilicus, orange to reddish-brown. Gills
Cap umbilical from the start, With inClJrved bowed ar.d very de<.urrenl, widely spaced
and with some interveinil19. pale yel·
low to ochraceous orange. Stipe (Of I·
aceous, yellO'Nish-orange al the top,
reddish-brown toward the base wilh
suff, fawn hairs. f lesh thin and coria-
Ceo\IS, reddish-brown, odorless. mild
flavor turning slightly billet

HABITAT: in dense clusters, some-

times attached at the base of the
stipe. mainly on the rotten S\llmps
and branches of conifers, on high
grour\d. Spring through fall. Fairly
common \0 rare.
Shredded Tough.shank

DESCRIPTION : H:il.-S In (7 - 13 em),

0 :2·4 in (5·10 em).
Cap hemispherical Of campanulale al first,
often umbonate, soon Hattenirrg, sometimes
depressed in the center, gray or gray-brovm
covered in dart-gray radial fibrils; when
older ar.d in dry ~ather. the surface
cracks and ~reds. showing the
while fiesh underneath. Gills
very wide, white then pale ocher.
Slipe thidening toward the

base, very fibrous. slightly pater Ihan the

cap, extended at the base by very long.
thiel:, brittle, wtlitish, cottony mycelial cords.
Flesh brillle, while and (oriaceous, mild or
slightly biat! flavor.

HABITAT: on half·buried pial'll maller, near

deciduous tr~ or stumps. Spring Ihroll9h
fall. Very common.

Buttery Tough-shank

DESCRIPTION: H:2·4 in (5· 10 em). 0: 1'1,- reddish brown or graying depending OIl the
3'1, In (4·8 em). ~ariety, be<oming markedly paler when dry,
Cap domed then COll~ex, with a large umbo, margin often paler than the rest of the cap,
and with a darker umbo; typically smooth
surface wnich feels greasy 01' buttery 10 the
[ollCh. Gills crowded and white. Stipe gradu-
ally expanding toward Ihe base inl0 a
spongy, very fibrous bulb, which be<omes
hollow and is similar in cOklr \0 the cap.
Pleasant odor and mild flavor.

HABITAT: deciduous Of coniferous fOfests

on iKidic soil. From fall lhrough early winter.
Very common and wide*read.

Clustered Tough-sha nk

DESCRIPTION: H:2 '1..4 in (6· 10 em),

0:",-1 '/, in (2-4 em),
Cap convex then flattening, whitish, yellow-
ish Of gray.beige. Gills very crO'Nded, Ihe
!.arne color as the cap. Stipe long and thin,
the same color as Ihe cap at first, com-
pressed, sometimes with a (entlal furrow
along its length., becoming darker and red-
dish-bI'own, and covered with a fir.e whitish
down. Flesh cOI'iaceous arid thin; pleasant
odor and flavor.

HABITAT: in dense tufts on pine-needles OJ

leaves. often in lines or rings. on acidic soil.
tate summer and fall. Common.
Twisted Tough-shank

DESCRIPTION: H:2'lr 4'1, in (6-12 em), 0:

1'1.-3'1. in (4-8 em).
Cap conical or campanulale, then convex and
umbonate, smooth. ~91t reddish-brown, mar-
gin inrolled for a long time, becOO1ing wy
Iii,,,, M'hi,t, wend undulating. Gills very crowded. white. redden-
.lirhnm _ __ ing. Stipe oMlite. splashed 'Nith rust, co...ered in
Iongitudiroal striations in a broad spiral pallern,
giving a twisting impr~. ~leasan1 odor ard
mild flavor.

HABITAT: in small groups in coniferous

woods. sometimes among de<H:luous trees.
on the ground or on rotten buried branches
In summer and fall. Fairly common.

Oak Tough-shank

DESCRIPTION: H: 1'11"2'/. in (4-

7 em), 0:1 '/.·2 in (3·5 em).
Cap conve x then itauening
and sinuous, smooth, yellow-
bfown 10 russet, WIth a pale, margin HABITAT: often In large groups on
and faint striations. turning almost white in the forest floor amid deciduous or conif-
dry weather. Gills crowded and white. Stipe erous \lees. Spring through early winter.
hollow. very fibrous. same color as the cap Very common.
or orange-brown. paler toward the top. hairy
base embedded in the leaf liUer. Faint odor,
mild fiavor.


DE5CRIPTlON: H:2't.-7 III (7·18 em), 0:

1'b-l/. 11 (4-8 em).
Cap convex, then flallenmg. and
rounded, sometimes WIth a large umbo;
smooth, reddish brown wnh darker spiam
of color, tumlllg pal@!' wllh age. Gills widely
spaced, whiush then reddefling. Slip! spin-
dle-shaped, f1auened and deeply fUllOwed,
very (Ofiaceous and eiaslK, the same color

as the cap but

paler <lIthe top; all the stipes
in a single tuft ale fused
TO X I ( ITY together into a SOft of bIaOOsh-brown rhi·
lOITIOfph whidl is buried deep In the sub-
Fonntrly cOlUickrcd tdibk when young, strate. flesh coriac:eoos and wtlrlish, odof·
this mushroom Iw a1rr~ aousc:d Slom- ~s Of slightly randel, mild flavor.
K h upsoet:s, pnhllps dut 10 tilt tOIIlUlDp-
rion of sp«imml WI ww: 100 old. HABITAT: in dense tults on tree-trunh Of
The symptoms QII pnsiM for 5t'Ycnl
slumps 01 deciduous tr~ especially oak
and beech. SuR'UTlef through fall. Commoo.
Red-stemmed Tough-shank

DESCRIPTI ON: H: 11,·2'1. in (4-7 em). 0:'1.-

2 in (2-5 em).
Cap convex thef1 flattemng. often with an
undulating margin; beige to pale fUS5e1.
When !he cap is damp, the gills Ylow
through the uansparefll culide, which
minkles In dry weatller. Gills whitish
Of beige. Oark red slipe paler at the
top. very thin and 1009, cylir.drical,
!>OfJletimes Ihickel' at the top, compressed,
and may have a longitudinal furrow. Hairy al
the base. Pleasant odor.

HABITAT: Singly or in dumps on the rOiling

slumps and buried branches 01 de<idUOl.l5
trees. Fall. fairly (ommon.

SpoIled Tough-shank

DESCRIPTION: H:2'/.-S',; in (7· 14 em). HABITAT:

0:1'/,·4 in (4 -10cm). In groups or
Cap hemi~lIcal al first then CO/lW!X, wfts.. lings or
smooth and completely matte white al first lines in cOf1llefOus
but soon spotted with rust-red patches. Gills forests.. mainly pines.,
Ihm and very oowded, o!'am, finely !>inuale. or in mixed
Stipe long. very tough and fibrous. l'I'oOI'e or forem on ac:id
165 rootmg, c/I!amy whlle lik! the cap, but soil. late wmmer
may be spotted WIth Mlloward the base. Ihlough fall.
fleh while, thid::: in the (ente!', coriac:eous.. Fairly (ommon.
and bille!'-tasting afte!' a lew seconds.

Wood woolly. foot

DESCRIPTI ON: H:2· vinegar when rubbed, very

n. in (5-8 em), 0: peppery HiM)(, which bums the
1'/.-2'/' in (3·6 em). longue in a few seconds.
Cap convex then flattening ,
with a small umbo ....tlich be<omes HABITAT: in smallgfOUps on damp leaf·liller
wrinkled with age, ocher, fawn, Of in deciduous woods, espe<i.llly beedl, or
brown. Gills widely spaced, conifers. From lale summer thlOUJh fall. Very
yellowish at firsl,lheo cin·
namon. Stipe thin, bul
thickening laward the
base, covered in long
whitish or yellow dClluhabk ,;S(kl
hairs over one third of (~,klt "",Itt fill'
the lower part Flesh
coriaceous: odor 01

Fern Mycena

DESCRIPTION: H:l 'fr-J't. in (4·8 em), 0:'''- soil is acidic and damp.
',. in (1·2 em). Summer through fall.
Cap conical Of con~ex. striated almost to the Common and
center, with a denticulate margin. ocher or wide5pfead.
cream, (overed with a detachable gelati·
nous layer. Gills pale in color, Stipe long and
slendef, 'A. in (2 mm) wide at most, viscid,
bright yellow at the lop. The base is some·
limes dis<olored or reddish. Flesh very thin,
yellowish, with faint odOf and mild flavor.

HABITAT: in cok)ni~ on moss or leaves in

deciduous or coniferous forests, where the
Orange Milk Myce na
DESCRIPTION: H:2'I.·4/. in (7·11 on), stem or cap are broken. Odor-
0: "1· 1'1. in (I.] em), less WIth a mild flavor,
Cap cooi<al then convex al'ld umbonate. stri·
ated over the whole diameter, wtlitish or HABITAT: 00 lea/-litter espe·
grayish, spotted with orange. Gills the same clally of bee<h. Fairly
color. Stipe brownish-orange, paler or yellow certain places.
at the top, covered in white or yellowish Iii-
aments at the base. Flesh thin, safflon ~ .
low, exuding af1 orange-colored mill: when
Red-milk Mycena

DESCRIPTION: H:2-3'/. il (5·8 Olll

0:'11 in (1 an),
Cap a::nicaI, sometrnes flattenng will a CI.'fItraI
~ r~ cr pIlkish.tmNn, darker i1
tI'e <entel; striated Of ~~ the gis sro.v.
ing tIYou;t1 the cap. Gills wk:IeIy spaced. pale
with pale 1:K0Ml eO;Jes. Stipe YeIY kJlg and very
slendel;the same cOO or <:\.:ri:er th<rl the cap.
IMlen In*en a little pale red or pill:; mill: is
exuded. Flesh very thin and reddish, laint ocb'
and mikI fIao..ty,

HABITAT: Ql nm; a ~ in decid.oos cr

corilerous forests. SlmneI' tlYOltjI Iall. Very
ISl eed ing Mycena

DESCRIPTION: H:2-4'h in (S-12 em), 0:'1.-

1'/. in (2·3 em).
Cap conkal or campanulate. striated 10 the
middle in damp weather, pink or pink ocher
and powdery. Gills pinkish-white, the same
color as the cap. Stipe exudes a bklod-red

milk whef1 broken. Flesh blood-red, no typi-
These two myunas IAlJ'ftNOI 54lfgui"o- cal odor and mild or slightly biller lIavor.
1''''1/), arc Ihe only fungi which n ude a
red milk. M)'tttlll (TllCtllII uude$ an HABITAT: In lufts 00 the stumps of deciduous
or~gc milk. trees. Summer and fall. Fairly common \0
UllCommon. Widespread.
Indi ned Myce na

DESCRIPTION: H:3'l.-4'/, in (8-12 em), a:

1/._ 1'/, in (2·4 em).
Cap Cilmpaf'lUlate, with a Strong~ striated mar-
gin to the middle of the cap. and a toothed
edge, gray ~own but darker in the cellIe!'.
Gills cream·cOOed then fIesh-roiored. Sl ~
often curved, hollow and brittle. while al fil'1t, HABITAT: in dense IUfts on old deciduous
then clearly reddefling from the base, finally tr~ stumps. mainly oak and cheslllUt Fall and
reddish-brown ard whitish at the lop, Flesh early winter. Very (ommon and widespread.
thin, smelling strongly of greasE!. Mild flavor.

Milk-drop Mycena

DESCRIPTION: H:2-4 in (5·10 011), 0 :'J.-l'/' thin and white,

in (2·3 em). without any par-
Cap hemispherical or coni<a!. often downy, ticular odor or
striated OYer almost all the surioce, beige
through gray-brown, darker in the C{'nlef. '""".
Gills widely spaced, .....nile to gray. Stipe very HABITAT:
slender (about '~ in (2 mm)), smooth and on woody debris
hollow, the base covered in grayish down, in de<iduous or
and exuding a while latex when broken, cooiferous Ioo!sts.
which is abundant in young specimen!>. flesh SUmmef and
lall, until the
SI' I(IAIIIAIl ' RIS beginning of
winter, Very
This vuy common mushroom hu a
common and
...tW variety caDed Ill". or raJiU and
• black _ ~ ,""""coaAIkted by widespread.

_ _ 10 be I IqIInItt ~cin, M~fU

DESCRIPTION: H:3 'I.-4'J, in (8- al the lop. Roots into the sub-
12 em), 0 :1'I.· t l.. in (]· 7 em). strate by means of a rhi -
Cap conical al filsllhen shaped like lomorph. Flesh while and
a pith-helmet, striped up to the ...._
:....I~ thin with a floury odor and
umbo, gray-beige through gray- lIavor.
bfown. Gills whitish, may turn pink in
older specimens. Stipe very {oria<eous and HABITAT: grows ill clumps or
hollow, the ~me COIOf as the cap but paler groups on roUing stumps or
brafl(hes of deciduous trees. In
SP[( tAl FFATl JRI S summer and lall. Very common
and widespread.
A1thwgh one of the IMgnt lny(tlW in
the Itlllpmltt wne, ;1 is rarely ~r
than 2'/, in (6 em) in diuoeler.

Striped Ste m Myccna

DESCRIPTION: H:2-6 in (5· Flesh whitish, odor-

15 em), 0:'/..·2''' in (2-6 em), less, navor mild.
Cap conical then slightly flat-
tened with a central umbo, HABITAT: in
wrinkled or deeply striated, small tufts on
gray-brown wilh a pruinose buried dead
surface. Gills white 0/ pale wood, old stumps
gray then IUmiog pink. Stipe 0/ tree· trunks. In
amy attain 8 in (20 (m) in summer arid fall,
length but is a fraction of an and late in the
inch thick. Silvery-gray and year. Common arid
heavily striated along its widespread.
length, hairy at the base.
Flesh whitish at the base.
Conical Mycer.a

DESCRIPTION: H: ~II becoming stronger when the fungu~ is

I'f.-tl, in (3·6 cm). dessicated. Mi!d fla'Xlf.
0:'1,. 1 in (1-2.5 crn).
Cap conical. faintly HABITAT: in troops on leaf lillet or pine
striated along oeedles.lale summer through late fall. Fairly
three'quaner 01 common.
the pruinose
area, beige to SPECIAl FEATURFS
pale brown
with a paler Another .~dtl of Mytella, tlfJ1't""
margin tim- {i/o/1ft (" ,II. ilHloltlls) which is jusl as
ed yellow or pink. Gills whitish, with refle<- fragile, POJKsJ6 Ihis same odor of
tions turning pink with age. Stipe long and iodine. Th e species are orten confun d,
slender, smooth and bfown, hairy at the as il is hard 10 distinguish berwren them.
base. Flesh thin. smelling of iodine. the

Thin-ca pped Myccna

DESCRIPTION: H:l',,·i/, in (3·7 cm).

0:'/,,'/. in (t ·2 em).
Cap ovoide then campanulate. striated to
the center, grayish. Gills pale gray with white
edges. Stipe long and thin, thickening
slightly al Ihe base. covered in long, white
li!amems. flesh very Ihin. paJe in colO/.
smelling of bleach, and with a mild flavor,

HABITAT: grOOM singly 0/ in groups. txrt

without forming clumps. in coniferous or
deciduous forests. Summer through fall. Very
common and widespread.
Strong-s tem med Myccna

H:2"j'S in (6·13 em), 0:
'/0.1'1. in (1.5-3 em).
(ono;ex or cooical cap.
sometimes umbonate,
with a slightly viscid
surface aod faintly SIIi·
ated or smooth, SO thin
that lhe gills can be
seen through it. Dirty
yellow in <olor, paler at
the margin. Gills broad,
whi tish then pale gray.
Stipe very long and
slender {about ',.. in
(2 mm) in diameter),
hollow but very rigid
and brittle, white OJ
gray-beige, slightly vis-
cid when ~\. f lesh thin
and pale: no particular
odor or flallQr.

HABITAT: under decid-

uous trees, on the
ground or on twigs,
SPFCIAI FFATURFS usually isolated. Summer and fall. (ommon
and widespread.
Tbi$ fungus is similar 10 the Sniped
Stem MycrM (M)wra l'oJrgra ......a), and
;1 , har« the same habitat, but thcn: an:
no sl ripn on its stem.
Olive.edged My.::c na

DESCRIPTION: H:2-2'.4 in (5-7 em), 0:"r

I'/. in (I .] on).
Cap conical or campanulate. then expanding.
with furrowed margin, tIw! color 01 oat straw
Oight bfownish-yellow). Giis lai~ WIdely
spaced. whitish with an oIive<oIoIed edgt.
Stipe ',I, in (3 mm) thick at most, al50 yellow-
ish·bn:mfl, paler al the top. Flesh very min,
light or dark odor of r~ and mild ftawr.

HABITAT: lawns and pa~lures. StJmfTlef

through lall. Fairly common.

De Scync. Myccna

DESCRIPTION: H:1 'h-:n . ln (4-

8 em), 0:'/,. , '" in (1-3 an).
Cap campanulate then expand·
ing, striated margin, pink.ish
bfown 10 biOWflrsh violet Gills
pale pink with a brown edge.
Stipe sIendef, the ba~ curved
base covered WIth a white down
and Mding in a bulb.

HABITAT: ooly grows on pine

woes. esp«ially on OOslef- Of
sea-pine. Uncommon.
I'u re Myccna

DESCRIPTION: H:l ',.-3'f, in (3·9 em), 13:

1'1.- 1'/, in (3-4 em).
Cap COIM!J( then flattening. margr'l striated in
wet we<lther, pOOsh-vioIet CK ptnkJsh and 1)1)"
icaI in !ohape but can adopt a vallely of coicn
from white through ~own and )'@low. Stipe
smooth, rigid, hoIk:r.v ard bnnle, pinkish-violet
or lilac, with whitish !\aIrs or down at the base.
Flesh vnelling quite strorv:JIy of radish.

HABITAT: often grows In

groups on leavt'S in de<:id-
uous woods. espe<ially WI (IAI HATl JRI S
beech, !.OIlM!llffieS under
conifet's, Sumtnef lluough Tbtrt UC' KYmJ varittits of tbt PuTC'
Myct~ 101M of which ;arc COClJickred
fall. (ommon and
10 be ItJMl1IIC spccia. The commonUI
widespread. is the Pink M)'(r~ (M,n'" _.) whith
is '-xcr (the ap an amin 2'.( in (6 em)
in dWnelCt) ilIId which is J, uniform
bria:hl pink color.
Cone-cli pped Agaric

DESCRIPTI ON: H:4-6 in (10-15 em), straII'jltCM gON I.4lIO 8 ... (2Q on) k:r'g. ttldef
0: (2·4cm). at the base. smooth and -MlitISh, Sjn1k1ed with
Conical 01 ~te cap, 5ITIOOth 'Ni!h a stJi. \'Jtlte at the top. Flesh thin, odorless. mikll\awr.
aled margJl, re<klish·1Jrw,n (date-brl:w.fl), Iei'd·
JIg toward ~ ochef as ~ 00es. f'net1 Slriated HABITAT: on buried plant debfis, di~turbed
or dotted v.ith bIad. \'ftoen seef1 L.f1der a ~ ground. in light copses. at the edge 01
r-,;ng~ IIf<:rM'I gills WIth redcish reIIe<ticIm W()()(h, in parks and galdens. Late !>Ummer
.nl whte edges. St~ haloN ard brittle, thlOugh lall. Fairly common and widespfead.
Crumble Tuft

DESCRIPTION: H:l 'lr 4 In (4· 10 em),

0 :1'/.-3'1. in (3-8 em).
ConICal CiA then bKomlng con -
vex. orange yellow or ocher, mane,
soon turning pale in dry weather
and becomlf"l9 cream WIth a darker
center and fringed margin, splil1ing
at the end. The gills afe broad and
very crowded, pinki!Jl·.....tlite but soon
darl:ening in stages to lilac brown or violet
brown. Stipe smootf1 and white, soon becom-
ing hollow and fragile. Flesh thin, grayISh.
with a pleasant oOOr and mild flavoI.

HABIT AT: Singly or lTlOI'e frequefllly

in lullS on rouen wood or near old
stumps. In parks. forest paths. and
grassy clearings. Spring through fall.
Common and widespread.
Wee ping Widow

DESCRIPTION: H:H··4/, in (6· 12 em),

0: 1",-4'/: in (4-12 on),
Cap domed or conical, then convex. fawn or
russel. covered in woolly fibers. Filaments,
the remains of a Vi!iI which (overs the gills
in young specimens. hang from the margin
Gills bfOlYl'l. exuding copious "'ears' 01
Ifansparent liquid when young. turning gray
in Siages. and finally blackening. Stipe frag- turning blad: al maturity due to befog
ile, fibnllose. whitish. russet at the haw, rovered In spores.

HABITAT: !lingly or in ~11 tufts al road-

~ 00 forest paths, In gardens and
meadom. late summer through fall.
fairly common .


DESCRIPTION: and s.lky, while and powdery al

H: 3'H in (8-15 em). the top. f~ thm, reddlsh-
0: 'Jr. 1', il (1-4 on). brown through beige. odof~s.
ConlCallhen mild flavor
cap with a HABITAT: Ifl compact tufts,
sill:y. fibrillose COInpri!oing dozens 01 specimens
surface, reddish-brown or in grassy woods and parks. late
grayish·brown, paling tD summer through lall. Uncommon,
()(hef as it dries. Gills crowded, ~_ _ m/llmUiOU$ rll(is
gray-beige. then dark Y~et bfown,
wl\h white edge. Slipe long and
slender, hollow and bllttle, smooth

Slltin·, temmed Agark

DESCRIPTION: H: 2·4'/. in brown WIlli a

(5· 12 an), 0: (2·5 em), white edge. Stipe
Conkal then campanulate smooth, hollow,
cap. mote or less and britt!.!, ~tlSh
expanded; the edge 01 then turning brown,
the cap is laced with colored black by the spores.
the white remains of the Flesh thin, brown, paling to
~il; ~ry hygrophanous. beige as it dries; faint odor, mild
changmg from yellow fl""".
ocher In the dry stage to
dark reddish·brown when wet HABITAT: in deose tufts on rot·
Both shades may be present on the 111'19 !oILrT1PS or in the ground
same cap. Gills crowded, pale. then ilfound an ~ of tr~ trunt.. Surrvnef
tLtfniog gray-brown and fill(lily dark d'vough fall Common and widespread

Gray.brown Psathyrclla

DESCRIPTION: H 2·4 in (5· 10 em), """ _ hoIow

o 1'f..v, in (3·6 em). and brittle SITIOO!h
Cap o:rQ th!n o:xMX, 'M1t1 a Icrge I.ITOl and v.tutiSh. Flesh
fnett striated l4l1O the IJTlbo. espeOatj as it pale,~fLMl
ages; odYaceous.bwMl, fa'Ml a gray~ mik:l.
tl.mng gr¥h Ia~ oot palng to ocher or dirty
cream wflen cr,.1he fari1 HABITAT: 00 the gro.rd or on
oOMled giIs ill! 00m rotten 'MXld, on turus, along
<Jt1Of deo.rJe1 CI'I a lil- for~ paths. I.I'Idef deOOJous
lie SIi1l.n:l remail pale trees. Malllly III ~
<J<lY b a blg trne, I"" I\ril ......
tfw:on timing don vdMt tm!S in the fat
brO'Ml. ~ slightly Fairly ctmTKJl
thickened at the base,
Fairies' Bonnets

DESCRIPTION: H: '4-2 in (2-5 on),

0: 'Ao,'!. in (O.S-I.S em).
Cap ovoid Of campanulatl', with finely woolly
surface, cream vmen young. tI'K!n ocher, light
brown, Of gray, the center remaining ocher,
wilh a smooth surface, deeply striated to
the center. Gills while, blackefling, but not
dehqlll'SCent, wllh while edge. Stipe hollow
and thin, very fragile and wflile. Hardly any
flesh, odorlm and naWlf~s.

HABITAT: in huge. densely-packed dooIps

on or near ~ and rotting wood. Spring
through fall, Vefy common.

Domesticated Ink-cap

DESCRIPTION: H: 2-4 in (5·10 em).

0 : '1.-2 in (2-5 em).
Cap 0Y0id at first then cOlUcal.latt'll'xpand-
ing and slightly convex. ochef WIth a reddish
(eflle!'. In young speclmeM it ii covered in
dense, whitr!>h granulalion\ whidl subse-
quenlly disappear ('Keepl at the lop. the SUI-
face is then striated or furrowed almost \0
the center. Gills whitish then dark bfOwn.
Stem velvety in young specimens, with a HABITAT: On stumps and cut branches of
scaly bulb at the bollom whldl sometimes de<iduous tlees. and eYefI foul'd in the cel-
displays the bright red mycelium. Pale flesh, lars of houses. Late spl'ing through early fall
not very deliquescent, faint SllM!II and mild Fairly common

Glistening Ink-cap

DESCRIPTION: hollow and fragile, brittle,

fI: 2-4 in (5-10 (m), slightly wider toward the
0: If- 1'" in (2-4 un).
base, white and silky.
Ovoid then conical cap. Flesh thin, odorless and
striated almost 10 the centl'l; flavorless.
with a saw-toothed edge.
brown through ocher, darkef HABITAT: in tufts or
81 the center, and sprin· groups on Of near
~Ied in young spe<imens Jotting deciduoos
with shiny specks like wood, stumps. half-buried
mica. Gills white then branches, in copses and
purple-brown. black and woods, beside paths,
finally deliquescent, with Spring throogh fall.
white edge. Stipe 1009, Common.

Snow Whi te Ink -cap

DESCRIPTION: edge. Slipe hollow and

H: 2·4 in (5·10 em), brill Ie, slightly thitkening
0: 1"·2 in (2-5 em). al lhe base, pure white,
Ovoid cap, opening like also floccose in young
an umbrella, ending in an specimens. Flesh thin and
upturned margin which Is gray; flO characteristic
ohell ragged, pure white odor or flavor.
pure and floccose a1 fbI,
the flakes tending subse- HABITAT: singly or in
quemly to disperse, small groups, on buffalo
revealing a pale gray chips, COWpalS, or h()(se·
bac~ground. Gills while, dung, in pastures. from
blackening and eventually spring throl>Qh fall. Fairly
dellquescing, with a white common.
Hare's-foot Ink-cap

DESCRIPTION: ~:2 '/,·'1'IJ in (6·12 em). HABITAT: seal·

0: '1.- ,'" in (2·4 em), tered or in groups
Cap cylindrical or ovoid, eventually lIat of several individu-
and With an upturned edge, entirely cov- als in cool places.
ered with while wooly down which even- under bustles aod
tlJally disappears. revealing a mouse-gray in grassy places in
background, bul persisting in Ihe cenler woodland. Summer
when Ihe cap is fully expanded. Gills through fall. Fairly
widely-spaced. narrow, whitish [hen black- common and
ening quickly, Stipe cylindrical, thickening widespread.
at the base, hollow and brittle, covered
like Ihe cap wilh whitish wooly down
which is very dense at first. Flesh while,
odorless, flavor mild.
Magpie Mushroom or Magpie Cap

DESCRIPTION: H;4·8 in (10·20 em), deciduous woods, in shady places. l.;lIe sum-
0:'/.- 2'/.· In (2-6 em). mer through fall. Uncommon.
Cap (l'.'()id and ....nitM at first, later campanu-
late and reddis/1-brO'Ml, sprinkled with ....nite.
Gills crowded, free, ....nile then reddening.
befOfe tuming black, I.WfIttlally liquifying. Stipe
hollow, rigid arid br~tIe. thickening toward ttle
base, ...mite and fibrillose. Flesh thin arid gray-
ish, with an uopiea5anl odor arid flavor.

HABITAT: singly Of in small groups in


6 in (5·15 em), 0:"','
2'/, in (4-6 em).
Cap ovoid al first,
with liule broWl1
flakes al tile top. then
opellil'l9 into a bell·
shape and cracking,
(Jearn through
mouse-gray, striated
almost over I~
whole surface. Gills
very crowded, while,
~ blackening
starting althe edge
and melting into a black in open ground. such as the edge 01 woods
liquid. Stipe hollow and and roadsides. Spring through fall. Com-
britt~. fibrillose, while, mon and widespread.
marked at the base with
a reddish annular zo~. FDlBIlITY
deeply embedded in
the substrate by means Whcn very yo ... ng it is edible, but
of a rooting base. alcohol must not be drunk during th e
fle!Jl thin and while, mcill or it will intcrotct with (aprin t,
with faint odor and producing symptoms such iS hUrl
pleasant flavor. paipititions, nausu, flIcial congestion,
and n'tn disl'\lpcions 10 vision. Thtst
dfem !\\iy n'rn manifest themselves if
HABITAT: in large dense
alcohol is consumed StVtril WlYS ahtr
clumps. rarely singly, on
consu.mpcion of tht mushroom since tht
rOiling wood, some- principle brem down very slowly in the
times in the 9fOUJ'\d, hunwt body. Coprint is n'tn used as 01
althe foot of rure for akoholism.
old stumps,
Sha.ggy Ink'ca" , Lawye r'. Wig

DESCRIPTION: H; 4·8 in (10·20 em), the top which is

0: 'J.-l'J. in (2·7 em). dearly defined by
In young sp!Cimens. Is elongated inlO a a round ocher or
sheath surroundll'lg the Slip!. It is wh,te redl:iishpatch; it
and enlnely (overed In Ioog, upturned
scales WIth Of reddIsh lips. except at "'" ""'"' ""
QUickly into a
bell and st3ftS to
liquefy from the edge, turn·
ing inlo thick black inl:. The
gills are free. very crowded,
while but soon turning
pink, then black from the
edge of!he cap. The stipe is
long (sometimes more than
8 in (20 un)), cylindrical
and hollow, slightly bul·
boo~ becoming dirty gray or
brown upon maturity. it has
a lillie ring whid'l eventually
bKOIl'oPS detached aoo falls
off. The fleY1 is while and
soft, WIth little. odof 01 flavor.


Vtty good 10 U I, tvl'n when DW.

Howewr, th~ ShaaY Ink.Up abtoluttly
mUM M picktd \'tf)' youna, whik the
JiIh ~ still whitt, or..n you will be ltil
with in the ~ is u ~ thick,
blat:k liquid. For the smM: rusoa, it
mUSI be utrn ~ $00II .., pouibk after
picking. Cannol be dmd or pickJed.

HABITAT: in groups. sometimM 01 ~ry

tightly packed individuals on lawns, waste·
land and all types 01recently disturbed
earth, 100Mt paths. and roadsides. From
spring through fall. Very common and


II hiS bun pMsiblt 10 grow SNogy Ink·
Cilps (OmtntrciaUy for 5l'Vcral yun now,
eithtr from my«lium or from
impregnaled compost. Howcvtr, since
gills /rltdlwillS from tbt bottom theft is no mcthod of pr~crving Ih~
fungus, evm by frtezing, snWI·sule and
large.sule growers of the CllItivalcd
Mushroom Ind wild mushroom. Nove
been n:luctant to produce il.
Pleated Ink-cap

DESCRIPTION: H: 1',,-il. in (4-

7 em), 0:',,- I 'I. in (2-] em),
The cap is elongated at fir$1 into a
cylinder Of egg-shape, and reddish-
brown, but it subsequently expands
inlO a furrowro grayish umbrella,
like a parachute. though the center
remains smooth and reddish. The
gills ale white, turning gray hut first
becoming pinkish. The stipe is very
sk!nder and long, hollow and brittle, smooth HABITAT: on lawns. in pastures, at road-
and while. There is hardly any f~. and no sides, among grass or on bare soil. Spring
odor or flavor. Through fall. Fairly common.

Sidewalk Mushroom

DESCRIPTION: H: 2·4 in (5· 10 em), round the stipe likE' a volva. Flesh thick and
0: 1'11-4 in (4-10 (m). and firm turning faintly pink when cut.
Cap convex, $OOn flattening,
smooth Of fibrillose, white _~.......... HABITAT: on packed earth, ~n
or pale gray, splashed breaking through asphalt, in
wilh ocher, often parks. gardens. footpaths.
soiled wilh particles around trees in cities. In groups.
of earth. Gills pale sometimes fused together at
pink tllen lilac-gray the base of the stipe. Summer
alld final ly dark brown.
Stipe white. full. short and -
'. and autumn. Uncommon.

thICk, narrowing to a point at

the base, with two distinct
rings. the lOWe!" one wrapping
Field Mu shroom

DESCRIPTI ON: H: 1'/,·4 in (4-10 em),

13: 1'/,·4 in (4· 10 em).
Cap thick. globulose or hemispherical al .. AGARICUS XANTIIODERMA
ihl, be<omiflg almost flat toward the eM, Yellow-stllNngMushroom I'oIsoNous
smooth aod silky, often with white shreds.
the remainder of the veil, haflging 110m the
margin, white, slightly yellowing or turning Stipe shorl and full, Ixiule, slightly narrow-
brown, somi!times with small grayish or jog but rounded al the base, white, brown-
brownish flauened scales. Gills narrow and ing with age, fibrillose or sligh tly floccose
crowded, pale pink and gradually darkening beneath the ring. Ring thin and single, not
to take on a final brownish-black color. well developed and withering quickly to
leave only a slight trace. Flesh white, thick at
the center, thin at the edge, turning very
slightly pink when cut; pleasant odor and
mild flavor.

HABITAT: meadows grazed by canle,

shef!p, or horses, from late summer
to mid·fall, sometimes in spring;
often after showers following a
very hot summer. Very common and
found all over the world. Grows in groups
and may suddenly appear en masse from
one day 10 the next.


Tht common Fit ld Mllshroom J.ctllJ!ly

I-Dl811 lTV
conSilts of a number of difftrent fOrD1$
Very good to tal and can ~ caltn rlIIW m d va.rittitl, which vary nWnIy in tht
or cooked. The Field Mushroom is bett J.~J.ranct of the .umct of th~ CoIp.
uttn when the ''''p
i$ ~dostd,' while Som~ caps au cove~d in gtoI)', brown,
the gills a~ stiD pink. or ~Uow 6brib or 1b1101tl.
Cultivated Mu shroom

Cap hemisphefical at flfSl

WIth a flattened (erne.,
becomng depressed WIth
age. and undulatlll9 bor-
def. Surlace smooth and
fibrillose, 01' slightly scaly,
especially at the mal-
gin, pure while, browniro;!
slightly to the tOlJ(h.
Gis oowded and J'IOOOW,
pale plIlk. lhefl brown
and fmally bIaO:. Stipe
5hcJt. lady 1'lrl" in (410
7 em)). thicker or thinner
DESCRIPTION: H: 2-4 in (5-10 em), al the base, while, staining blown when
0: 2·4'/, in (5· 12 em). toochedring ascendant (not pendant), faint
and fugaceoos. striated on the uppef WI-
FDlB IiIT Y face. flesh firm and white, turning pink
when exposPd \0 the air, especially in the
Excellml nUn, mel un ev~n be uten base 01 the Sllpe. and bfowning WIth age;
nlW. The artl\d wlution of wild pleasant odoi and mild f1aYOf.
spfcilntllS bs contributtd 10 ilS
commcrcUI production. It WII first HABITAT: manured meadows and gardens.
cultivattd in mnft mort lI\,.n 300 parks, and on old (ompos!. SPlHlQ through
ynn Igo in old Slonc quarriel Ind fall. Not common in the wild bot occurring
disused mint workings around Paris, tllfougnout the nonhern hemisphere.
which i, why it it known in French as
"Ownpignon ck pm.," It is !lOW grown
aU ovcr the worid ud altboII,h il is 1M
most popWu mU$hmom in 1M Wn;I,
ItIt Padely 51n1w Mu.ihroom, ellten in
lOuthtut Milo, is the lII0I1 wickly • ACARICUS XANTHODERAfA
CUIri¥ilcd. Ydlow'SI.ollnLng Mushroom POISONOlr~


DESCRIPTION: ~lIow when loudled. then brown-

H: i/.-5In (7·13 em), ish. flesh thick and white, soon
0: t Ir4'/, in (6- 12 em), lIJrnlng yellow, especially al the base
The (ap is COWIe<! in dark of the stipe; odOf of phenol. mild flavor.
gray scales on a pale gray
background. the Scales are very HABITAT: groves. parks. gardens.
dense in Ihe (enter, mOl"e widely meadows, the edges of forests. Summet
spa<ed <lIthe edge, imitating the and autumn. Fairly common 10 uncommon.
plumage of the guinea·fowl. Gills Appears in large numbers locally,
crowded, white then pink, and
finally blackish-brown. Slipe
slightly swollen arid bulbous
at the base, becoming hollow
and brillle; whitish, staining

Brown-capped Agaric

DESCRIPTION: H: 2·4 in (5· 10 em), ring. Root,like filamenlS

13: 2-3'" in (5-8 em). (rhizomorphs) arf' wmf'-
Cap hemispherical th{'(l expanded, with trmf'S viSiblf' wheo t~
vermillion scales and fibrils on a pinkish mushroom is
background, reddish-brown althe (en- uprooted. F~sh
ler. Gills crowded, gray· pin~, lurning whilf', yellowing
dark brown. Stipe thickening inlO a mainly around
bulb al the ba~. pink above I~ the ba$l:' of the
ring, whi te below it, yellowing at stipe; odor of biltf'r almonds
Ihe base. Fragile, while, yellowing
HABITAT: undf'r decidLiOUS
Iref'S, in forllSls. parks. gardf'ns.
and hedgf'rows. Summef
through fall. Uncommon.
Prince Mus hrOQm

DESCRIPTION: H: 4-8 in (10-20 em),

0: 4·8 in (10-20 em).
Cap globulose or trapezoid, then expanded
or con~ex, fleshy, with russet O!' brown
scales on a pale!" background and shreds of
the veil hanging from the margin. Gills nar-
row and crowded, remaining pale pinkish·
gray fOf a long time, then Illrning purplish·
bmwo. Stipe \hkk (up 10 ,'/, in (4 em))
especially al the base, smooth above the
ring, with while or orange scal~ behlw iI,
~lIowing to the touch; ring large and
white floccose underneath. Flesh white, yel.

lowing in the cap and

reddening in the slipe;
strong odor of biller
almor.ds, mild flavor.

HABITAT: de<:iduous
or (ooiferous woods,
verges, parks. and grass-
land, somelimes in meadows.
Summer through fall. fairly
common and widespread.
Alben's Mushroom

DESCRIPTION: H: 2'1.-7 in (7-18 em). of the supt. Faint oc\oI of aniseed, becoming
0: 3'/.·8 In (8·20 em), an unpleasant ammoniacal odor when old.
Cap very fleshy, hemispheficai at first and
up 10 12 In (30 em) In diameter, while, yel- HABITAT: in pastures. on lawns. in parks.
lowing very slightly, becommg slightly ocher on non-aadic soil. Summer through early
WIth age. silky or ~ightly scaly. Gills pinkish- fall. Fairly common to fairly rare.
white, turning gray llIen chocolate bfown.
SlJpe very thick. 1'1. \0 2 in (3 10 5 em) in
diameter, slightly swollen in the middle or
toward the baS!, while I~ splashed WIth FIlIBIiITY
ocher and bfown, very 00wny below the
Good 10 UI, b\Jt mUSI be Ulm vtry
nng, especially In young spKrmerl1; ring
inegular afld downy, floccose undeflleath in
you"" Wbtn older, il tmds to 5mtU like
urine, hencr its othn I\iIIIlC, Ag.riCl11
young specJmens. Flesh thick, white, yellow- urillllMrlls-
ing very slightly, tlIming blown al the base
Brown Wood Mush room

DESCRIPTI ON: HABITAT: on the !iller 01

H: i l.-s In (7-13 em), conifers. especially spruce,
e: 2·4'/, in (5· 12 em). rarer in deciduous woods.
Cap conical then Hanening, Late summer through
00\ very thiel:., sprinkled with fall. Common. Found all
reddish-brown scales, that ale over the world.
fairly numerous and widely spaced,
on a whitish background, Gills flesh
pink, turning dark purplish·brown
when mature. Stipe slightly bulbous
and while. becoming hollow and red-
demng with age; ring membfanous
ample and white, Flesh white, quickly
wming red when cuI. especially in young
spe<imens. Pleasant odor and mild flavor.

Yeliow -sUlining Mushroom

DESCRI PTION: H: 2",-5 in (7-13 em).

€I: 2·4'11 in (5· 12 em).
The cap is trapezoidal In thi! young speci- All the edible mushroom" but
men, then convex \0 flallefled with a tsp<'cioilly:
smootll surface, silky while, becoming bright .. AGARICUS CAMPESTRIS
yellow when rubbed. The gills are narrow Field Mushloom EOIBI.E
and crowded, white at first, then turning ... AGARICVS A H.VENSIS
grayish·pink then purplish-brown. Stipe Horse Mushroom EOIBI.l
thick or slender and sinuous, with a small
fused with with the f ield Mushroom
SPFCIAI FFATURFS (.Agaricus campestris).

The YeUow-staining Mushroom has a

fairly characteristic odor of iodine or
phenol, ilnd is even more retognizable
by the pronounced yeUowing of the u p
and base of the stipe whn touched. The
varieey dtKribcd here iJ the classic cypc
and the most fnquently encountered,
recognizable by its while tolor.
Howevu, there are other varieties in
which the cap is gny, gray.brown, with
thin Kales, or . plit intO ~In.
AU art equaUy indigestible.

white bulb. turning yellow

when rubbed, especially al
Ihe bulb; thkk, membra-
nous, pendanl while ring.
The while flesh lurns yel-
low when cut especially
in Ihe bulb; unpleasant
odor of ioclirlE!, in~, or phenol.
HABITAT: in groups in fertilized
meadows. well·lil decidu· Slightly toxic. The odor, whkh is
ous or conrferous woods, unplea$ollnr when the mushroom is
sand on lawns. Summer picked, bccom« foul wllrn it is rooked.
through fall. Fairly (om- Although some people art able to eat
moo. this mushroom without the s~ghlcst
A slightly different form is problem, in most people it causes
found on lawns in North America, which is symptoms typical of mild food·
poisoning; vomiting, diarrl!u ,
called the Califomian Mushroom (.Agancus
headaches, etc.
califolnlCUs) The cap is fairly scaly,
browning in the cenler. It is often con·
Horse Mushroom

specimens. then pur-

plish-brown and final~
blackish. Stipe thick (3'1.-
6in x It.- I '/. in(8-1Sx 2-
3 em)), espe<i.lltt al the
base. be<oming hollow
with age, white, yellow·
ing \0 the toucher,
slightly floccose in
young specimens below
the ring. The white ring
is membranous and
double, the lower one
taking the !.hape 0/ a
gear-wheel Of slar, dear-
ly visible in the young
spe<imen. Flesh thick al
DESCRIPTION: H: 4·7 in (IO·18cm), the Cefllef, vtIite, yellowing slightly, especially
0: 4.6 in (10· 15 em), in the stipe. Fairly marked odof of aniseed and
Thid;, firm cap, hemisp/1elkal then expanding mild flavor.
to flat, with a margin thaI remains inrolled fOf
a long lime, Surface smooth, white and ~tiny. HABITAT: pastures, grassy clearings. parks.
oacking and b«oming stained wilh ochef, From lale summer to mid-fall, sometimes from
yellowing slighl to the touch. GilJs III!ry the sprill9. Uncommon to fairly common;
crowded, graykh pink, very pale in young widespread. found 00 fflfY (oo!inent.


.. A/UANITA PfiALLOIDES Very good 10 (aI, enn when I1IIW. To be

Death Cap DU.DlY talen young, prdcl1IIbly when the gills
.. AGARICUS XANTHODERMA atc still pale becaU$r the spottS MVt nOI
Ycllow-slallling Mushroom ~ matured yd.
Wood Mushroom

fairly bulbous. while or

~n~ish-vioIel above the ring,
white becoming stained with
lemon yelklYl below il. Ring
thin, ~ery full, floccose on
the underside. Flesh thi<k at
thE' center, thin al the edge,
while, turning yeHow when
WI, strong odor of

DESCRIPTI ON: H: 2'/.-S'" in (1-14 em), HAB ITAT:

e: 2·4'/, in (5·12 em), deciduous
Cap ovoid or conical. with a fla\lened then Of cooiferous
widely expaJ'lded lop, whilE! to cream, stain- woods. Summer
ing yellow when tOl.lChed, silky ()I' slight· through fall.
Iy fibrillose. Gills very C1owded, pale gray, common.
turning pink am! finally sepia. Stipe flexible,



Death Cap DEADLV
Spring Amanita Df.A[)lY
Destroying Angel DEADLY
Pointed-scal e Parasol Mushroom

H: 2'1.-4 f. in (7· 12 em),
0: 3'/,-5 in (8·13 em).
Cap (onicallhen coovex and
more or less umbonate, densely
COVf!red with cooical reddish-
Ixown scales, which are more
numerous at the cenler, show-
ing an ochraceous-gray back·
ground in between. Gills broad,
very oowded and forked. white
then cream. Stipe bewming
hollow with age, downy. thi!
same color as the cap. thicken-
ing ;010 a small bulb al the
base; ring futl, pendant, and

membranous. edged with mown Oakes.

Flesh Ihin 31 the edge 01 the cap, whitish;
odor strong and unpleasant; flavor faint
but also unpleasant.

HABITAT: found in fertilized soil,

such as copses. verges, as well as in
deeidl.lOU5 or coni ferous woods;
prefers nitrogen-rich, limestone soil.
Summer through fall. Common and

Chestnut Parasol Mushroom

DESCRIPTION: I-t: 1'/,.]'/> in (4·6 em),

0: 1/._ 1'" in (2·4 em),
(ap conical at first then fl auening and
umbonate, cheslnullo russet. Gills while,
slightly reddening. Stipe downy on the lower
half or two-thirds. reddisl1-brown; ring
absent or fainl. Flesh pale ocher, faint odof.

HABITAT: copses and deciduous forest$.

Summer through fall. Uncommon.

Stinking Parasol Mushroom

DESCRIPTION: H: , '/.·2'1, in (3- 6 em).

0: ',,-2 in (2·S em).
Cap conical at first, soon flanening, wilh a
marked cenual umbo and margin remaining
inrolled for a long time, sprinkled with red·
dish-orange concentric scales on a white
background. but uniform red on lhe umbo. fugaceous white ring. Flesh thin and
Gills wide, while, with toothed edges. Stipe whitish; sHong. unpleasant odor, flavOf mild
smooth, hollow, and briule, while or slightly but also unpleasant.
pink or reddish toward the base, with a
HABITAT: in medium to large groups. at
the edge of woods, on lawns, and in well·lit
conifefOus or de<iduoos woods. Summer
through fal!. Common and widespread.
Red-stemmed l'ar3so1 Mushroom

DESCRIPTION: H: 2'/,-411 in (6-12 an),

0: 2·4 in (~·10 em).
Cap hemispherical and umbonate.
tllen convex and umbonate, red-
dish ocher or reddish b!'own at the
center; elsewhere Ihe cream back-
ground Is punctuated with small beige to
reddish scales regularly spaced; the margin
is long imolled and fringed (remaining from
the hanging veil); The gills are wide and
whit!!. The stipe is full then ~Iow. thicken-
ing from top 10 bottom, with one Of two
oblique ridges in Ihe center, edged with
orange or reddiSh-brown, and arranged in ~'-__ ,illg rtiLli.h. cbJrqut
a ring which is sometimes broken; smooth
surface at the top. downy underneath; base
turning pink or red with age or from being
rubbed (not always noticeable). Flesh
white; stroog aoo unpleasant odor, mild
but very unpleasant !laVOI.

HABITAT: conifef5 or mixed and woods

(comlers and deciduous
trees), 00 limestone
or neutral ~il. Late
summer through
fall. Fairly (om-

Shield-shaped Paraso l Mushroom

DESCRIPTI ON: H: 2'1,..5 ill (6·13 em), toward the base, rigid
0: "/1")/. in (4·8 em). but hollow and brittle,
Cap hemispherical al first , then expanding the lower two thirds are
and umbonate, covered in beige or ocher covered in white woolly
scales on a cream background, paler on the flbefs; ring downy at first, fairly
frayed margin. The cenler is clearly marked full, but disappearing quite soon.
by a smooth redrli!.h-brown patch. Gills
crowded, while Of cream. Stipe swollen HABITAT: I.flder deOO.oos trees (oak,
~ a o:.nlIm. SI.mner \IJto;tl
SPECIAL HATURFS fall Failti commoo and widespread.
The Shield-shaped ral11sol
Mushroom (Lq;ow ,ulrH>wsI'Orll) is
similar bUI its woolly stem is yellowish.

False Brown Parasol Mushroom

DESCRIPTION: H: 2·n in (5·9 em), HABITAT: under deciduous trees, especially

e: ".-1 'I. in (2·3 em), in warm regions. Summef lhrough fall. Fairly
Cap conical for a long time, then becoming common .
convex and slightly umbonate, with dark
pinkish·mown or sepia scales on a pinkish·
white background. Gills white. Stipe long
and slender. pinkish·while 10 pinkish·mown;
ring fairly well developed, ridged, wf1ilish,
pinkish or grayish brown underneath. Flesh
Slightly pink. faint odor.
Red-brow n Paraso l Mushroom

DESCRIPTI ON: H: , '/._2'/. in (3-7 em), Lale summer through fall. Fairly raIl', but
0: ,'/.-2'1. in (3-7 em). may be relatively common in certain
Cap convex then expanded. covered in red- Mediterranean or Atlantic regioos,
dish or reddish-brown scales, sometimes
very densely. on a pale background tinged
with pink, darket' brown in the (enll'!'. Gills
crowded, while then $1ighlly yellow. Stipe SPECIAl FEATURES
shorl (2 in (5 em) maximum). while at the
top, also covered in russet or brown scales This is on~ of the gTOUp of small brown
on a pink background. Ring qUill' faint, Par.lSo] Mushrooms onu aU c.illcd
often a mere ridge on Ihe stipe. The while Lt/,;otll hd.'toIll. AU these mushrooms
flesh reddens slightly when cut; mild flavor. are lC$$ than 4 in (10 em) tall, and ar~
colored in shades of pink. Their ring is
HABITAT: lawns. gardens. verges, grassy faint or absent. Car~ should be taken to
dUtinguish them &om th~ edibk Parasol
woodland, beside hedgerows, on rich soil.
Mushrooms bceroust Ihey can caU5C
srriOU$, and n'en faul, poisoning. The
main difftrenu is th" they arc much
smaller than Ihe edible species.
The Off-white I'arasol



Death cap Df..... DlY
Spring Amanita Dv.IJI.Y
I)cstroying Angel Df.ADlY
5/It,r/l sI"li~g
DESCRIPTION: H: 2-4 in (5-10 em),
0: 2-4 in (5·10 em).
Cap hemispherical then convex, smooth,
while. and Silky. Gills remain while for
a long time, lurnir.g pink or gray-
ish-p1nk when old, Stipe whi te,
swollen at the base into a mall 91000-
lose bulb, with an underdeveloped ring,
which slides eaSily up and down Ihe stipe.
Flesh while and firm. thick in the cap; no
characteristic odor or flavor.

HABITAT: in meadows. park.s. gardens.

and by roadsidM. Summer through fall.
fairly common.

This mushroom is ont of ~ complu
Good 10 till, but th t risk of confusion group containing many spears and
with the dtlldJy sptciu of Amanjt~ is varirties which aK difficwt 10 idrnrify. It
K riOIlS. is said to be a roH« livr species.
Parasol Mu sh room

DESCRIPTI ON: H: 6·12 ill (15·30 em) (up

to 16 in (40 em)), 0: 4-12 in (10·30 em),
Cap ovoid al first, then e~panding and ... A1ACH.OLEPIOTA VENENATA
eventualty flal, oot almost always retaining VtnomouJ Parasol POISONOUS
a central umbo; while or cream back· All the little Parasol Mushrooms
ground l'mlrely co~efed with grayi$h !.(ales no WIer Ihn";n (10 ~m)
and broWll platelets. reddish-brown or must be avoided, n~ciaUy:
darker brown, fairly well spaced toward the ... LEPIOTA
edge, more crowded toward the center and BRUNNEOINCARNATA
uniformly reddish· brown. The gills are Scarlet-brown Parasol DEADI.Y
crowded and Vf!ry thick, fret! and elastic, ... LEPIOTA CRiSTATA
remaining white for a long lime, eVef1tually Crested LepiOta POISONOUS
darkening \0 dirty (Jearn. The stipe is .. LEPIOTA BRUNNEOLlLACINA
longer than the diameter 01 the cap, lIlac·brown rar~sol DEADLY
straight. thickening slightly toward the bo1- SPECIAL FEATURES
10m, fibrous and soon becoming hollow,
but alwa~ rigid. The surface is (overed The large Parasol Mushrooms is one of
the most populu of edible mushrooms,
with zigzag stria tions like a snakeskin, the
~c~use it is dt~ciou$, dislinctivt and so
pattern being larger toward the base. The u$)' 10 recognize. hs size mUM Ihat jt
ring is large and double, very thick and can bt spoiled even from a moving
woolly, and can be slid up and down the vrhiclt! The young, dOKd capped
stipe; the bulb is large sptcimcns art known as Drumsticks.
and while. The while
flesh is thin and soft;
faint odor but mild CIlp 0I"Oid in )'Cung ~pt(i"'rn
hazelnut flavor.

HABITAT: in small
groups in neglected
meadows and pas-
tures. fallow land,
among heather and
macken, althe edge
of wood!. Of
hedgerows, and in
~1I·1i1 deciduous
forests. tate summer
1hroogh fall. Very (om- . -r-- ~tiPf hclll1tl.,
mon and widespread.


Vtty good to u ,t.OnIy the ColIp is edible ,

the sti~ king 100 conaccous. Whcn
the up is txpandtd, the flesh trnds 10
b«ome MOI'C' cwtk In some pbcn, it
is then (ook~ in b.1ttt. or lmadcrumbs
Konrad 's Par/lsol Mushroom

DESCRIPTION: H: 4-5 in (10-13 em),

0; t,.-4", in (7-12 em).
Cap ovoid, then cooical. flanened in the
end, with a wide, shallow umbo; the center
is reddish-brown, wrth a Cfeam margin
covered in small brown spots.
Between them, a seriM of
large brown scales form
circles radiating from the
center, The gills are
large wide and whitish,
The hollow stipe is rather
bulbou$, smooth or finely striped
with reddish-brown, and has a thick,
sliding white ring, edged with gray on
the underside, The flesh is soft and pale.
reddening sHghtly when cut, e~ially in
the stipe; no panicular odor and fiaVOf.

HABITAT: singly or In groups at the edge

of forMt5- beside hedgerows. and In clear-
ings. Summer through fall. fairly common.


Thm an: KYCr.lI similar specits of ~

Parasol Mushrooms, including me Frilly
Parasol (lllarroltJ"'*' tX{oriatR), the
Umbonate: Par3WI (/tIlKroIqW Jrta5/OiJtIl),
the Crxcrw rara$Ol (AIIICrok/1ioIII rid:m),
and Kow's ransol (l.tjoioM konrtldU}, but
aD of thnn an: fdlbk.
Snu88)' Parasol Mushroo m

DESCRIPTION: H: 4'1,·8 in (12·20 em),

0: 21.,.6 in (6-' 5 an)
Cap globulose then remaifllng hemi-
spherical or COI1YeX 'Of a long [lilli!,
!\as no umbo. fringed marg,n, red
dish and smooth in the cenler,
covered in large brownish, well-
spaced brOWTlish scales. making it
look hirsute. Gills while or oeam,
reddening to the touch and when
mature Slip!! brittle, hollow and smooth,
'NhitiYi, reddish·brown to the touch and
wIth age, ring thick and sliding, wtutl! MId
sMggy; 'MY large marginate bulb, often
oblique due 10 cUlVawre of the stipe at the
base. Flesh lending to turn carrot or red-
dish when CUI, then turning brownistHed;
pleasant odor, mild flaVO!'.

HABITAT: In small groups in welH\

woods and ~a'i~ under (olllfer5, fSj)e'
(ially spruce, Douglas fir. cypt'ps~ atld
beside hedgPS and in gardens, Summer
through fall. Fairly common arid
Good to tal. Somt minor probltm' Iuo~
~tn rtported but they OUt prob.1b1y due
10 conMion with olha, wry limibr POTE NTIAL CON FUS I ON
vantlits of p.1Insol mu,hroom, sU(h as
the 1Nmt",;CII vaneI)' or tht rectnlly .. LEPIOTA VE.NENATA
apdy.namtd 'potdes Lf/fiQI<I ''tll(",,'''. Venomou~ Parasol rOI>O~ous
Frilly I'ara, ol Mushroom

DESCRIPTION: H: 8·12 em, 0: 5·12 em.

Cap domed Qr conical, umbo small 01'
absent, almost entirely pale brown in the ... LEnOrA VENENATA
young specimen, subsequently cracking Venomous Puuoi POISONOUS
into large scales on a whitish background.
except a! the center whkh remains unl·
formly pale brown; the margin is shaggy. ring single, white but tinted With pale
GlI!s broad and whitish. Slipe smooth and mown atlhe edge, conical and ascendent,

wllile, no longer than the diameter of the then sliding along the stipe wilh c1gf. Flesh
cap, With a ba!>e swollen Into a WlaU bulb; white, ulKhanging; faint odor, mild ilavOf.

FDiBIlITY HABITAT: in groups In well-drained

Good 10 tiI.I, tboup tb~ 6brou.
meadows, pastures, and the edge of
Jhoukl ~ ~. Ofttll cOnNlfd
woods. Lale summer through fall. Com·
with Iht r amol Mushroom. mon in certain rtgions; widespread.
Hy Agari c

DESCRIPTION: H: 4-10 in (10·25 em),

G: ] 1,·8 in (8·20 em).
Cap globu!ose al first
and entirely covered
with a white
membrane, then
flallening com-
pletely, bfighl
red dotted With
wt'lite Of yellow-
ish-white pus-
tules wnich in the
younger specimens
cover most of the suriacE!.
They become more spread out with
age and can easily be detached. They
lend \0 disappear with age, and the
color turns paler. and may even become
pale orange. The gills ale crowded, free
and broad, while or cream. The stipe is


Hunlcrs of the Ctp or Penny Bun

Mushroom (8oIt1US l4ft/is) lind thai the
Fly Apric libs the umt habiu! as their
favorite food. Thai is why, whtn
hunting for the ckliciOU$ boltlt, Ihey
Snl SW1 looking for pliicts in which the
Fly Apric grows, al it is so easy 10 spot
dUl to irs bright (olon.
white, very dowfly at fir~t. !.OIid then hoIk1N,
WIth a large. fTagile. pendant ring which turns
slight~ ~k:m and whose thick border may
be crenelated; the bulb is topped wnh two
or three floccose 01 warty ridges. The whne
flesh is yelk:m under the OJli(Ie, it has a
pIe~fll odor and mild f1aVCH.


Fly Ag... ric ~ takt on ~tn1 difftrrnl

fonns. The Illlrtoin v... ritl)' ill !alIer ..... d
h...s an o"""gc tlIIp devoid of pustul". II
prrfcn [OIIifnoll5 woods. Tht for-
IIilricl)' has iI u p wllich Vilri" in color
from yellow 10 brigllt orange, bu.t the
w;aru on the ''''p, ring, and slipe ... re
lemon yellow. This particular form ;,
found mostly in North Ameritlil. AU the
IIilricti" arr poiS(lnous.

TIt( formosa mntl)' h,TS ~~ms (SlN1trtimN TOXICITY

a!IStIll), /I ri"g. 11",1 II Shiv M,bifh arr ,!lI/(mc" The symptoms of poisoning appt'~t
rfl/co.a" thrct·qu~rttrs of an hour afttr ingestion,
through stomach upsets and
hallucinations, which may C;1U$C hilariry
or extreme depression. The Lapps of
Siberia have long exploited the
haUucinogcn propl'rUn of the
mushroom in thw re~gious riles. II
would appear dun most of the toxic
substances art contained in rht wIkle of
HABITAT: glom in groops Of rings. in
the (,lp. This would explain why, in
deciduous or coniferous fOlem, maiflly
some regions, the mushroom is petlcd
under birch and spruce; il is ohen to be befort uting. In the Middle Ages, il was
found on verges. on acid or siliceous soil. used as a oy-saUer, A f~w pieces of the
lale summer Ihroll9h fall. Very common cap w~rt so.:akrd in sugan:d milk 10
Mrywhere, espe<ially in lhe mountains and auract the mes which were thus killed,
grom in a wide variety of climates. hence the common name of the
Caesar's Mushroom

DESCRIPTION: H 4-7 in (10-

18 em), 0: 3",-7 in (8·18 em).
When very young. tile whole
mushroom is encased in a thick
white membrane. The cap is
globulose at fi~l, then hemi-
~ical aod evemually flat -
tened It IS thKk. wllh a clearly
striated margin, and a bfilliant
orange color, sHghl1y Viscid in
~I weather, smooth but some-
times a few shrem of Ille uni·
versal veil still cling 10 it. Gills
very thick, crowd@(! and broad,
pale yellow then deep gold.
Stipe \hkk ('I. \0 1 I. In (2 10
3 em)) bemming bulbous
loward the base, striated a~
the ring, and the same coo as
the gills. The ling is large and
yellow, often slJialed. The vo/va
is large, thick, and wtlile, flared
at the lOp. Flesh thick and
white, yellowing at the peflphery; pleasant
odor, mild rIavor.

HABITAT: de<:iduous f()fest$, especially oak

afld cheslnut, ()f1 add. W!II-drained soil.
From late summer through early fall. Fairly
common in southern Europe, and rarely
north of the 4soN latitude, though in warm u(tDmt, ~ whm raw. Vtry popuLIr
years ilglows as far north as sout~n Gef- in IWy.
many and 8e\gilJm.

Pan ther Ca p

DESCRI PTION: H: 3'/.-6 in (8-15 em), velges and decidu-

0: 211-4/, in (6·12 em). ous 'NOOds. more
Cap domed, tllen convex alld finally Oal, rarely under cooilefS.
with a finely striated bfown to gray-bfown Summer through
margin, shiny and dolled witlliittle white early fall.
flakes arranged in more 01' less concentric
circles. Gills uowded, broad and whill'.
Slipe pure white, fibrilw, WIth a floppy,
fug.Ke0u5 white ring toward the center
which !\as no striations on the upper Wf-
lace. The bulb is large and caf1 grow to 1'I:
in (4 em) in diameter, with a dearly marked
IIppe! ridge margillate bulb) lopped WIth a
helicoidailloccose ridge wmding once Of
.... "
twice around the Slipe. f~h while, thick .11 Uncommon
the center; !>light smell of radish, mild fIavoI. but fairly
HABITAT: grO'M in small groups on grass



The- 81uwr ED1IIU "-- - "',-
hlr.e P.nthtr Dp [oIBLf


A b ller v.rid)' (Vat. aj,~ti/lll") grows
Wldu mountain coniffn, of which the
ap, which is cborittr in color an "ttain a
diuMlu of 7 in (II em).
The 81ushe r

DESCRIPTION: H; 3/.·7 in (8·18 an), and pendant. wiated and perSistent. Flesh
0: l'/.·6In (8-15 an). wMe, ~ reddening when cut and when
Cap domed Ihefl convex. wnn a margin thaI damaged, reddish-brown undef the cutJdt;
is not 5111a1OO, beige through pale brown, odoiless but with mild flavor.
often shaded with dark l!d, COYeIed in small
whrlJsh pink or pale gray detachable Rakes.
which are usually vefy dense In young ~.
imens, more Wldely!opa(ed and more or less
concentJiC at later stages. Gills bmad and The Blushtr (A...,,,,i/II I'HKsce"f) is ~ vel)'
crowded, wtHte and spoued WIth pink, turn- v....iable sperits, I)f which 5tVenl
ing pink to the loocn. Stipe thick, becoming Vlrieti« are rfcogniud. The
hollow, thickening toward the base into a """IIIoJlli,lifurlll v";ety hu a pale sulfur-
bulb with a pomted end; while and striated yellow ring. All varieties retain the
future of reddening or blushing of tht
or smooth a~ the ring, plnl:ish while and
flnh when CUI, tUmagcd, or faten aw~y
Slightly downy under the ring, clearly
by inl«llal'\'ae.
marked with crimson on the bulb. Ring wide
HABITAT: singly or in
small groups at the
edge of well·lit
dedduous or conif·
erous forests. in
highland and low-
lands, on acid or
slightly calcareous
soil. Summer through
fall. Very common and

Poisonous raw, edible well cooked. The

fibrous II£m should bt disaorded.
False r 3nthcr Cap

DESCRIPTION: H: 3",-7 in (8· 18 em).

0: 2",_4'1/ in (7· 12 em), EDlBIl.ITY
The cap is glQbulose. then hemispherical Edible but not wonh caling, and should
and finally nat, spfinkled with pale gray M avoidrd anyway, dur to its clost
plaques against a blown or olive brown rrstmblance to the Panthtr Cap.
bac~ground. The stipe is thick, fi rm and full,
striated above the ring. and marked with
grayish zigzag bands below it; Ihe ring
lull and striated; the bulb is nOt very
marked. flesh white, thick althe
center; it has a faint odor of
radish and a mild navOf.

HABITAT: coniferous (~pe.

dally pine) or deciduous (espe-
cially oak). prel~ably 011 acid
soil. Summer through fall.
Widespread bul uncommon. moll!
frequently found at altitude.


This mushroom I"C$CIIlblrs both the

Plnth~r Cap ;md me Blll5hu but il dOl'll rOTFNTlAL CONFlJSION
nOI tum pink or crimson when d' • AMANITA PANTHE.RlNA
(I' t ul and thc~ IIC no clurly marlccd Panther cap P01SONOUS
ridgn ovcr the bulb. • AM ANITA RUBE.SCfNS
The Blusher EDlBI.E
Jonquil Amanita

DESCRIPTION: H: 2'lr 4/J in (6·12 em), HABITAT: coniferous 01 dKidU0U5 forests,

0: 2-4 In (5-10 em), ~ally pine and beech, 011 fairly acid soil.
Cap domed and soon flattening, no! very Spfing IhlOU9h fall. Fairly common in south
neshy, Wllh a fleshy, yel!ow-to-ocher cap and em parIS of the northern hemisphere.
sUiated margin, ohen decorated with a few
white plaqlleS 01 Hakes. Gills white. Sttpe
slightly thickened al the base, becoming hol- rOXI( lTV
low wilh itC}I!. v.iUte and floccose; ring while,
Somt COIIIMItr it poisonous, oWn
median and thin, undevelopPd and vef'J fuga- tcL'bIt.1M bet IhII il Iw JO 111m)'
ceous; the votva disappears fairly quidly, vwOons may IMM Wol ;1 is $imply ..
somelllT~ leaving a ridge above the buh Wititt)' of anothtt sp«ia. To M avoidtd.
Flesh while, pale yellow ooder the cutICle,
odorles.5 and with a mild fIawr.
Death Ca p

H: 3'lr 6'h in (9·1] em),
Cap ovoid or globulose.
l'nlirely (overed in a
white membrane, then
hemispheti!;al, aod
finally lIattened; color
fairly variable, rypically
yel!owish-grffil. bul also
bfownish'yellow, olive
brown, gfet'f1ish·bI'own,
and entirely pure while
In the alb.) varlely, with
fine, darker, radial fibril§
and sometimes the
remains of the while
veil. The wrface is Silky
when dry, !>lightly vis-
(OtIS in wet Wl'ather.
Gills crowded and
broad, while. tulning
cream with age. 511pe
elongated. firm, ~om ·
H19 more or less hollow,
slightly thickened toward
tile base, (O\'eted in hof-
Izontal, gray-green
zigzag bands on a while
background. NOfmally
very ample but capable
of disappearing and
appealS to be s!naled

on the upper surface, whilf'

Of Slightly greenish;
valva oitf'n large,
KIlled aM white, sur·
rounding a large bulb.
Flesh while, yellow undl'1 the {utlde; faint
odD( which is unpleasant in older spe<i-
mens, mild flavor. TOXICITY

1'hi$ mushroom is deadly

POTENTIAl CONFUSION arwIlIas been the uuse 01
more de. than all thr
.. RUSSVLA VIRESCENS othrr poisonous IiIIIgi PUI
Greeo Cra,kmg Russula ED1HI f logelhfr .
Wood Mushroom EDI8U
Prncnnous TrKholoma \:;0181.£

Thert is an mtirely white .... riety of the

Duth Up, which looks ...ery limilar 10
1M Spring ArnJniu clmribtd btlow.

HABITAT: forests and

plantations 01 varioos
de<iduous Uef!S
(oak, beech, hazel·
nut, birch, etc.)
and occMional1y
Linder conifef\
from midwmmer
thlough fall. Very
common, espe<ially in
the lowland!.. Found all
over the world.


The ArnJniw Ire rnpotUibie lOr more th.m 90'10 of flu.] poiloninp CI~ by
wild mIMI'OOIIII. The "riouinw of the poisonina: it in MCI relatioMhip with the
weichl of the victim. lbil is why children are the mOlt vulner. ble md whm whole
familie. are poisoned they art the first 10 suffer. About 1'I. 01. (50 g) of • <kadly . pean
of """,nil. is tnough to kill . n adull, .boot the weighl of" SINGLE MUSHROOM.
Symptoms do nOl lppcar until bttwttn six and 48 hours .fter ingestion. There is.
rlpid hlltt of digestive disorders with nlusta, shivering, vomiting, dWThu , and
JtomKh ~. The symptoms IDly IIJI _en! clioY'. " I!1edicaI rumination wiD reveal
more IItnou. cbmaf:~ prograaive dntruction 01 the lint.Treatment requirtl
hospiuJiution ~d may tvCn involve s1.iCh writ mtuurts u I Iivtr ITIrIspiant.
Although thac Iw betn sipiSunt progrHI in Ihe tre&tmtnl of poiJonings ClUiItd by
thellt m1.rShrooms, (.lIltS of death art Chltlndy rtported by the media in the fall, the
htisbt of the picking "ison, np«iaUy in Clltem Europe.

Fal se Dea th Cap

DESCRIPTION: H: 2'/.-5'/: in (7-14 em),

13: 2-4 in (5- \0 em).
Cap domed then flallening, lemon yellow
wilh whitish or ocher plaques. entirely
while in the alba varif!ty. Gills whi te or pale
yellow. Stipe slightty thickening toward the
base, pale yellow, with a wide. striated
ring. also yellow, and a large bulb (up to
1',. in (3 em) in diameter) marginate,
whitish, and more or ~s ........;;;:~~
(overed with frag- ~
ments of the yel-
low volvO'. The
flesh smells
cally of raw
potato or

HABITAT: under deciduous

lIees or cooilels., especially
on sandy, acid soil. lale
summer through fall. Very
,.""m", ",'~ "P

bulb glcbulcu: _ __
Not vcry good 10 till; it WlIS once
(o05Wkml toxic, throvgh confusion with
other .~du.
Spri"g Amanita

DESCRIPTlON:H: 2'/.·4 /. in (7·

11 (m), 0: , 'Ir 4'1. in (4· 12 em),
Cap OVOid or globulose. then hemi-
spherical, eventually fla ttening.
pule while, sometimes aeam or
beige, smooth, rarely COWIe<! In
debris of the white veil, mane, VIS'
cid when ~1. Gills white. Supe
smooth or my shghtly floccose,
while; ling while. pendan\ <md per-
Sistent, but often 10m. VoIva YOIu-
mi~ and widl>, also while. Flesh
while; odorless or Wllh a 1<1'nl,
rather unpleasant odor, mUd lIa\lOl'.

HABITAT: copses and airy forests

01deciduous 1Iees. espe<ially undef
oak, rarely under conifers: inditfer-
entlo soil type. Mainly found in the
sprifl9. but may be encountered In
!>Urnmet', and even early fall. Fairly
rare, and mainly found in southern
pailS 01 the northem henuspOtre.


Thil mUlhroom is iusl as dudly as Ih~
Wood MUihroom EDIBU
Duth Cap, but Ins WtU known MeolU"
it isleS! common, at lUll in Euro~. It is .. LEUCOACARICUS
mort fnqutnt in tht Unittd SUo,". LEUCOTIIITES
Off-whne r'ruo! Mushroom fJ)lRII
Destroying Angc:1

DESCRIPTION: H: 4-7 in (l0·

18 em). 0: 2-l/. in (5-8 em)_
Cap domed 11'1«1 conol, with a
wide umbo, ollen assymtuical or
inClined, pure while and silky, viS-
cid when weI. Gills bl'oad and
white WIth Kaly edges. Stipe
white, very downy, becoming hol-
low and Sluffed with (ouony
rlbefs in ok\ef specimens.. The ring
is very high upon the stipe, some-
times even anaclled \0 the gills.
but It disappears fairly sooo; the
bulb al the base is enveloped In a
while. sac-like vowa. The lIesh Is
while and Ihkl: al the center;
young s!l(!Cimens ha'X! a faint
odor which becomes unpleasant
in older ones. The lIa'o'Or is mild.

HABITAT: often undef conifers.

espe<ially spruc!, ~metimes
undef decidUOLtS uees well as
beech Of birch, on damp, acid SOi1.
From ~mmer IhlOiJgh early fall.
Fauly common in northern regions
aoo at altitude, raIl! elsewhere. POTFNTlAI C.ONHJSION
Wood Mushfoom EOIIU
OFf-wllllc Parasol EDlW
Ovoid Amanita

DESCRIPTION: H: 6-10 in (15·25 em), saody soil, in warm, sunny locations. Fairly
0: 4 /'·10 in (12-25 em). ComfTlOf1 in the Mediteffaneall region. rare
IvOry GlP vef'/ thid; and fleshy, remaifling elsewhere. Summer through fall.
ovoid fOf a long tUTle. smooth, sometimes
WIth a few thick scales and a shaggy mar-
g,n. Gills wtlitlsll, shilggy at the edge. Stipe
thick (up 10 2 in (5 em) wi~). white and I-I>IBILITY
floccose; ring very floccose, becoming NO! Vfl)' good to u.t; it musl bot Ulcn
det<lChed; ocher voIva wide and full. high Ofl young, U oldn sptrimcns prodlltf
the stipe, thick. flesh white and thid:; dis- naUSf ••
tinclM! odor, mild and pleasant in young
specimens, unpleasant in older ones.

HABITAT: under de6duous trees. e'SpeCia11y

oak, or under (ol'llfefs, ~ally pme, in
well-lit, grassy woods. on limestone and

DESCRIPTION: H:4·7 in (10·18 em). 0'

l /r4 in (4· 10 em).
Cap conical al fi~1 then expanding, always
fairly umbonate; margin covered in long,
deep s!Iiauons; gray to brun, maue, smooth,
and generally without while plaques. Gills
cra.vded, bfOad and whitt. Stipe long and
slender (up to 8 in (20 em)), be<oming hol-
low, thickening slightly toward the base
where it is about ~ in (1 em) in diameter;
pale gray, bare or slightly floccose, no ring.
bUI with a narrow, white volva aroon<! the
base, eXleoding 1'b. 10 2 in (3 10 5 em) up
the stipe. Flesh very thin under the cap mar-
glO; odorless but wllh a mild lIavol.

HABITAT: Deciduous forests, lOOfe rarely

undef conifers. Summer through fall. FaIrly
common and WIdespread.


The Grisettc is typical of I group of

mllShroomJ which have KVcral forms or
varieties, the difference being the
color of the ClIp. 1M commonest of
thtrQ is mf Tallt'llYCrist-ttl d (A",,, ..;r,,
fjd ..,,) which hu an oT3ngl or fawn cap.
The stipe and volva art srained
IIoith thf 5IJIIC color u me Clp. II gl'OWl
mainly wtdtr chestnut utes 011 acid
Poisonous rolW, good to U I when 5Oils. Anodlcr future of the Cristll" i,
cooked, but th~ Beth is Ihin lnd &..gilc. Ihat they have no ring.
Tawny Grise He

The Tawny Griseue has the same character· stipe are also
istics as the Griset1e, bot it differs in thaI sponed with
the cap is oral'lge or fawn, darker in the fawn or orange.
centef ,smooth and shiny. The voIva and
HABITAT: (\e(id .
UOlISor (ooifer'
ous woods. espe-
cially under
chestnut on acid
or slhce0u5 soil.
Appears in early
summer and lasts
through fall. Fairly

Saffron Griscnc

DESCRIPTION: band~ Large votva, wtme on

H: 4·8 in (10-20 em). the outside, pale yellow Inside.
0: 2'1,·4'/, in (6· 12 em). FleYl while, orange ur.def the
Cap I'IemlspOefi(al at flfst. then flat,; no pilllicu!al odor 01 navor.
ollen umbonate, WIth a de.lfly Striated
ITliIfgin; yellow·oraf"l9l! 10 reddish OIaf\9t'. HABITAT: mainly under
paler althe margin. Gills crowded and deciduous trees. often on grass
whitish. Stipe thickening slightly toward the verges on acid soil. Summer
base, bflUIe, bewrTllng hollow, the same through fall. Fairly (ommoo
cob as the cap and StIiped with flaky in ~Ihefly climates,
unusual elsewhere.
Gray Griseue

DESCRIPTION: H: 2'/,-4 1. In (6-12 eml. faifty frag-

0: 1'I,· rldn (4-7 an), ile. pale fPllO p<*
Cap deafty striated OYer aI m half !he area broMt. Flesh thick al
of the racius of the cap, aIM! tJO'Ml often WIth the Cl'IlIer only; cxb·
one (W f'M) metrbaroos shreds c:ilgIng to it,
!he remaI'6 01 the Yl'iI. Gis v.tlIte and otMded.
"" " ... edge It,. _ "'Ittly
"" ""'' ' '
10WiIfd the base, hollow, -Mlilt tIvough pale collifetS, espedally

!1a'f. marked with zigzag strialicns. VoIva lobed, spruce. On acid soil.
SUtTvnef ttvcujl fall.
Fair1ycommon inthe

mon in Iow-~ """""



Yellow -brown Gri ~ He

DESCRIPTION: deeply embedded in the

H: 4-6 in (10-15 em), soil. flesh white, thick in
0: 21,·41 In (6-12 em), the center, thin elsewhere,
Cap conical sooo expandon9. odorless and mild in flaVOl.
wuh a central umbo SUfroundfd by a
slight deprMsion, striated over coe HAB ITAT: coniferous forests.
third of the radius, yellow ocher espe<ially fir al'ld spruce, in the
then turning brCMll'lish-yellow. marked mountains. Rarer under de<iduous trees
WIth a dali:er cirde in !he Cef11er. arid in mIXed woods in tnt lowlands.
Gills blood, aowded and while. Summer through fall. Uncommon.
Stipe gradually thiCkening toward
the base, long aod hoIkm wl1l1 age

spotted Wl th!1ay on a pale back·
ground; while sheath·like volva,

in lhe cenlef. Gills free, aO'Nded and wide,

while at first. then pink. Sllpe solid, thicken·
ing toward the base-, with brown fibrils
against a pale background. easily se-parable
from the cap. Flesh Ihi<k and white. smelling
slightly of radish. mild flaYOf.

HABITAT: Singly 01 in smalilults on the (lit

side of logs, sawdust, rotting wood. decidu-
DESCRIPTION: H: 4-6 in (10-15 em). ous forests or in park!. From $piing thfOUgh
0: 2-6 in (5-15 em), fall Very frequent and wrdeipI'eitd
Cap conical 1hef1 f1anened. often wl\h a
shallow umbo; sil~. variable in colof. faWfl
through very dark gray-brown, oflefl darker

Admirablc Plutcus

DESCRIPTION: H: 1',.-2',.' in (3·6 cm).

0 ; ',1'" 1'J. in (,-] em).
Cap col'\yl!x then smooth and flat. except in
the center where II is ......unkled. orange-yel-
low 10 ocher, Gills broad, pale yellow then
pinkish. Stipe frag,le, smoolh al'ld yellow.

HABITAT: Singly or In groups on rOiling

wood. Summer Ihrough early fall. In North SPI (IAI FFATIJRl'S
America only.
The UO'Holored MUleus (Plurtus
kOlli"IIJ} il anolher ~Uow spedcl of
Pluleu, with a smooth cap and white
Pink-$porcd Criscnc

DESCR IPTION: H: 4·7 in (10.18 em), top, fibrillose and white, browmng at the
0: 2'/o-4/,in (1-12 ern). end, with a very I.1rge, very "agile whilt to
Cap ovoid then comcal, later convex or gray-brown vo","a. Flesh whitish, !offielling
expanded, white mouse-gray or gray-brown, faintly of radish, mild flavor..
smooth, Vliny wtlen dry and viscid wflen
damp. Gills crO'Nded, bfOad and bowed, free HABITAT: open spaces rich in organIC mal-
from the stipe, pinkiSh-white then rusty pink tl'f.on lOlling vegetatlOfl. Summer through
or pmkish-brown. Stem thmnll'19 toward the fall. !>OC11elrmes as late as De<embef. Fairly
common and widespread.
Anolhu species of VolvMiOI is rultiv,lIrd
throughout $Outht,UI Asi.l on VlIIrious
renuins or trops, KpttWIy rice.
M ille r


MiUer ofttn grows otIonpidc C~ or
Penny Bun Mushfoonu (&llluS fd~/iJ)
50 it is a good indiurIK of their
p~R n cc.

pletely while, velvety 0/ pruinose,

rarely pale gray-whitE!. Very decur-
rem gills, crowded, very supple
when pressed with the fingers, !asily
detachable WIth a flAgefnail, willie 01 pale
beige, be<omrng pinl: upon ~tunty, Stipe
soli and short, often (urved alld may some·
urnes be slightly swollen at the base. Flesh
thick in Ihe center, very thin at tile edge.
while. fragile and soft; very prOOOlJf)Ced
odof and flaVO!' 01 fresh flour, hence the
common name

HABITAT: In gfoops in well·lil coruferous

or deciduous woods.. Late summef through
lOlli, mainly on acid soil. Very common and
DESCRIPTION : H: 1',,·] '/, III (4·8 em). widesp!ead.
0: 1'/,-4 in (4· 10 em).
Cap COIM!X at fi~t WIth a IIghtJy inrolled
margin, then expanding wllh a Idrge umbo,
01depressed in the (enter. the margin
b«oming wNf and lOIn in place!>; com- ~ CLITOCYBE CANDICANS,
Good 10 U I, never w o rm-Ul t n ",lute Oltocybes wluch are rOI SONOU~
Shield-shaped Entoloma

DESCRIPTION: H 2'f,-4'J. In (6-11 (m), dark. gray-bfown when wet. Gills broad and
0: 1',.-4 in (3·10 an). well-spaced, white then dirty pink.. Stipe fib-
Cap (oni(al then convex, margin often rillose, whitish Of grayish. flesh wtute, lurn·
undulating and splrwng In piacM. flesh is ing gray when wei. Rancid odcw, flavor mild
film with a very pronounced umbo; the silky, and Ibuy.
fibrillose surface is beige through gray-
bfown aod very pale when dry, becoming HAB ITAT: in scattered groups under thorn
bu~ (hawthorn and blackthorn). hedger-
ows. In parb and on grau Yl!rges. SPllng-
lime. ComlTlOf1 and widespread.
uVld Enlolon\,l POISONClUS
Rcd-5t.llnlllgJnocybt rOl;oNOl~
wvid Entoloma

DESCRIPTION: H: 4 /.-8 in (12-20 em),

0: 1 J..6 in (8- 15 em).
Cap hemispl\eucal or conical, be<omill9 The Livid EntololTUl is responsible for
convex and !'lfnlUally lIattening, thick and many poisonings due 10 its r~5"mbJancc
lumpy, with a margin that remains inrolled 10 two edible specics, the Clouded
for a long lime, and is then flalteoed and Apric (Clirocrw I«'/tut..ris) and Millcr
sinuous. The stJ/fiJ(e is fibrillose and Silky, (ClilOjoi/is '>nil/II/liS). It rewmblrl thr
silvery-gray, ocher-gray, or gray-brown. The bur r in thr IIrong smtU of llour.
gills are very smuate, pale yellow lilefl
salmon pIIlk, Slip! thick, swollen at thf
base, rlblillose, aeamy-wtlnl!, graymg
WIth age. Flesh white, thickening in
the Cl'flter; odor and flavor of
freY! flOtH,

HABITAT: grows in rings or

small groups. Sometimes two or
three individuals ale fused 011 tile base.
found on grass Yefge5 and well-lit
deciduous woods. especially under oak,
beech, and ~Inul, on clay 0100 lime-
stooe soil. Late summer through early
fall Uncommon but WIdespread.

Ocelot Entoloma

DESCRIPTION H: 2-3/. in (5-8 em),

Il '/.·1 'Ii in (2-4 an).
Cap ctncaI then Ranened. Wldl a striated m.;r-
girl. ~ a re<kl6h-br0Ml, bectrnrg
ocher vhn dry, WIth a dirkef stain " the centet
Gis the same a:b as the cap, then samon-
pnk. SIIpI! bottle aOO I'dlow, I!~ al the
base. coYefed II Uule rbils on a dad: bad-
!1o.rd. Iljltly ~ v.n.te al the tql FIe5il
~yeIow, ro p.naAaf odor or fI.M:x.
HABITAT: under conifers, somelIlT~ undef
u~ on humid, acid SOIls, moor·
land and bes~ ~ Summer through lall.

Star-spored Entoloma

DESCRIPTION: H: 1J..] J. in (J.8 an), HABITAT: pastures and Jawns. very

o '/.· 1'I, in (2-4 em). wet clKiduous or corllferous
Cap conKa] then convex and umbonate. forests. marshy pinewoods,
dirty berge 'Nfl!!n dry, gray-brown and stri· especially in the moolllain!.
ated on lhe margin when wet. Gills beige Summer through fall. Com-
then pinkish. Stipe hollow and brittle, often mon and widespread.
slightly thickened at the base, strongly stri·
ated with silvery fibrils a9,lIn51 a beige then
brown background. flesh pale gril)', Wllh
fainl odor and flavor.
Stinking EnloJoma

DESCRIPTION: (10 em X0.6 em))

H: 3J..4 ~ in (8·12 em). expanding at tile bul·
0: 11.·2'1. In (J.7 em). boo§, gray·bfown base
Cap conical, then flat· sprinkled WIth white
tenlng with small powdef at tile top.
POinted umbo. silky Rancid odor of I!sh oil.
and reddish-bfown or Flesh gray or pale
dark bfown when brown, mild and
damp, becormng pa!el floury flavor.
when dry. WIth a sui-
ated margin. Gills HABITAT: In (onlfl'f-
broad. while to pale OIlS Ofmixed woods
brown. StJpe long ai'ld on li~lone soil
slender (4 in x 'I. in Spring. Fairly common.

Silky- n cm Entoloma

DESCRIPTION: H: 3'/.-6 in (8· 15 em). age, and wtlich is somellmes sUlo1tl'd, Gills
0: 1'Ir 4 In (4-10 em). creamy·wtllte then dark pmk. Stipe fr<lgiie,
Cap convex then expaoolng, dePfessed Of thmning shghtly toward the base and at
umbilicate in the center. beige in dry the top, smooth, sillcy, and whitish. Flesh
weather, turning gray·brown when wet, thin and white: no particular odor Of flavor.
with a margin that becomes uooulating WIth
HABITAT: in groups in deciduoos woods,
especially beech, somellmes undef corrifl'ls,
late summer through lall, frequent, but
COIn!TlOl'lef on hrghef ground, Widespread.
Silky Enlo loma

DESCRIPTION: H: 1'/,-4 in (4·10 em),

0: 'f.-] in (2-5 em).
Cap conical then convex with a small umbo,
margin with lon.g striations ~n wet, siltt
gray when dry, dark brown almost black
when we\. Gills sinuate, dirty white then
dirty pink. Stipe thin, hollow, and friable,
grayish with while fibrils Flesh gray; strong
odor and flavor of flour.

HABITAT: lawn$ and well·drained grass-

land, from lowland \0 highland, late sum-
mer through fall. Common.

Blue En toloma

DESCRIPTION: H: ,'/,-2'/. in (4-7 em),

0: '/,-l'/J in (1-4 em).
Cap CDflical then convex but very often
umbilicate or depressed in the center, fe lted
or fjbrmose, dark bille-gray or blue-black.
Gills very broad, pale blue then violet-
brown, with saw-toothed edg~ Stipe ~Iid
then hollow, smooth and silky, the same
color as the cap, felled with white mycelium
at the base.

HABITAT: In meadows. on lawns, at road·

sides and on verges. in highland and HJw·
land. late summer through fall. Uncommon.
DESCRIPTION: H: 2'/,-4'/. in (6-12 em),
0: 1",-3'1. in (3-8 em).
Cap bell-shaped, then convex, finally
expaoded, with or without a central umbo.
The margin be<omes sinuate and splil. Sur·
face fibrillose Of finely granulose, bright red·
dish-orange or reddish·brown. Gills widely
spa<ed on broad, yellow-orange then bright
red. Stipe sometimes slightly bent and nar-
rowing at the base, the same color as the
cap or paler, sometimes displaying yellow
filaments of the cortina. flesh golden; odor
of radish or potato, slightly acid lIavor.

HABITAT: de<iduous forests, espe<ially

oak, sometimes under conifers (pines). on
dry, add soil. In mO\Jntains and plains. From
late summer through fall. Generally
uncommon but may be abundant in some

This mll5hroom WM onc~ caUed tht
Mountain Cortinarius, because it was
thought that the name of the species
(/lTtllllHU5) came from · oros· muning TOXICITY
"mountain " in Greek. In fact, il is found
in the plaifl$ as well as in Ihe mountains. Deadly. The symploms of poisoning do
not manift'lll themsd~e$ until thtte days
The name is an allusion 10 a tropical
shrub tropical named Annatto (lli,nn after inge1uon, and in certain cases the
first symptoms do not appt'ar unUl twO
orr/II"",) whose $Ceds are exactly
weeks !<lter.
tht same color as this Cortinarius.

DESCRIPTION: H: 2'Ir 411 in (6·12 (m),

e: l /r H in (4-8 em).
Cooical or beIl·shaped cap exp<JIdiIg late!; ..... th
a IXlilted IJTbo, cbMTt orange brown, fa'Ml.
or re<tjslt Gis wdety spacEd. the same coklr
as the cap. StJpe /arty Ioog. tIlcIr.emg at the
base I:trt ttming i'lthe !JCU1d; noQish with a
fe.v faI'lt )doN cicLAar mats. Aesh ~ or
red, fiWll O!b d r.dsh ard mikl tliwoc
Ilumid and acid late summer through
mid-fall UllCommon.

Stinking Cort inllrius

DESCRIPTION: H: l/.·41 in (8·12cml,

0: 2·4/. in (Soil un).
Cap _ " " """ _
less mixed ....,th tb. Wdet1 ~ ~te.
..."" "'"
sillcy bbsh·1iIac: V!iI thM city ........ te, more or

brqIl saffron gills, n.ming rust-<Clklred. Studt

_.... ..
stipe, tIickefwlg toward
the base, bulbous and
"'" ""
FI!sh the same CDb as the
gills.. darkef dart.ef In the stipe.
Tht ocb is In.I!>UaI but hard
10 define, though rather
SPH. IAL FEATURES ~L but sorneumes
frullY; biter 1IaYor.
The Camphor ConinariU$ {C1IIfi"lIrill~
(IIJf1/_alus) i. vcry .sim~r. lIS stronger HABITAT: deciduous
odor it fJltrcmdy unpkuant, and the or corull'l'OUS Iorem,
Htsh is tinted bllW: or violtt. Tht giI1s arc' usually i'I the IllOlI'ltainS.
~iokt prior to III.lIlurity. on acid soil. Su'nrrM!r thrOlJl'jl
mld-Ial. Common.
Abnormal Cortinarius

DESCRIPTION: H ]/,·4'/, in (8·12 em), violet toward the top. while Of reddish......t1ne
o l'J,.]'.10 111 (H em), !ow;vd the bottom. '!hefe are reddish ringS on
Cap COIWeX !hen expanded. WIth or WIthout it the stipe v.tJidI disawear with age. The IIWI
large umbo. with a regular then undulalrog Is whlttsh-viOlet 111 the cap. viOlet al the lOP of
margn gay.!oh-oche!. yt\Ic7N-brown, or red- the stipe; faint odor, mild 1Iavor.
dish, someumes viOlet on the margin, and
5pfinkled with brilliant specks hke miCa. Gills HABITAT: IfI groups in detiduoos fOf~ts
violet. soon turning rust-brown. Slipe ohen (bum) or beneath conifers (pinel. in the low-
rwiCe as long as the diamelef of the tap, lands ard highlands.. Late summer through
bending. thidefUAg toward the base, blue- fall. Very common.
Mauve- tinted Cortinariu 5

DESCRIPTION: H: i l.·5'/, in
(7-1 4 em), 0: l"r3',. in (4)8 em).
Cap campanulate then flattening,
often with a very large umbo,
pale lila< or pale ~iolet. covered in
a sil~y white veil al first, then «(N-
ered in si l~y fibrils, but never viscid. Gills vio-
let-gray then (wning reddish-brown. Stipe
fairly thick, very swollen al the baM!, often
slight bowed, the same color as the cap,with
a white cortina becoming rust-spoiled
toward tht! lOp. Flesh thick in the cenler of
the cap, thin at the edge. pale violet or
bluish, espe<ial~ al the top of the stipe;
odorless. mild fl avor.

HAB ITAT: often in

groups in deciduous
forests (oal:, beech,
chestnut). some·
times under conifer$.
Prefers acid soil!..
Summer through
fall. Very common.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -------------------------- - - - - - - -

Semi-sanguine Cortinarius

DESCRIPTION: H: 1-4 In (S-10 em). and flavor

0: l',.·2'I,in (3·7 em). of radish.
Cap campanula!!! then flauemng with a
small umbo, surface shiny and covered in HABITAT:
cinnamon or yellow-bmwo fibrillose granu- coniferous or mixed
lations, somelrmM darker in the center. lowland and moun·
Slipe long and flexible, pale yellow, with a tain forests. In the
few reddish fibrils. sometimes pinkisll- fall. (ommon.
orange at the base; thin, yellowish cortina.
Flesh golden yellow or ocher olive; odor

Cinnamon Cortinari us

DESCRIPTION: H: 2-4 in (5-10 em),

13: 1)\-21' in (J.6 ern,
Cap convex then flattened. often umbonate.
donamon·roIored, olive Of reddish-brO'Ml. Gills
yellow-orange, IIJming rust when mature. Slipe
flexible, thickening toward the bonom, hollow,
~Iow 10 reddish. scaly Icmard the txmom.
F~ lemon yellow; faint odor and bitter flavor.

HABITAT: in groups in cooiferous forests

(mainly spruce and pine), rat"l'I under deciduous
tr~ 00 acid and very humid, MIl boggy
ground. late surrroer throogh lall. fairly (om'
moo and widespread.
Red -banded Corti na ri us

DESCRIPTION: H: 4·6):; in (10-17 (m), roklred. Stipe firm, full, Wlth a large bulb,
0: (5-12 (m). ringed with brick-red. some~me oblique elr-
Cap flattened bell-shape, neYly, reddish and ell's. (oulna while, abuodanl but ephemeral
COYefed with very small, slightly darker sca!.s. Flesh pale brown, odor of radish, mild Of bit-
often beanng the remaInS of the red ~1 on ter flavor.
the margl1l. Beige gills soon be<oming rust·
HABITAT: In grCMJps under de<i<Iuous trees.
mainly birch on heathlaod and very acid and
humid soil, in highlands or Iowland~ lale
SlJrnmer through fall. Fairly common.
C urved Cortinarius

DESCRIPTION: H: H·S~ in HABITAT: deciduous

(8· 14 em), 0: 2-4 in (S-10 em). forests, mainly
Cap hemispheficalthen convex. bee(h. Summer tJwough
fleshy, wl!h line bfown or graYl~' fall. Very common.
bfown flbfils. sometimes $lightly viO·
leI. Gills thick and very widely
spaced, gray-violet then fUst Stipe
thickening al tile base, ohen curved. d insk sJrrnlh r-'wg
vioielloward the top. covered under· ~ nwg Itt'" II.( lop c(
fleath WIth a whitish meath the top of rl!t Ulrt
which is incurved to 101m a ioOIt of ring.
FIWI gray and thid: in the centef, violet at
the top of the SlIpe; Strong and unpleasant
odor and mild RaYOf.

Fawn Cortinarius

DESCRIPTION: H: 2 ~·4 " In (7-12 em), (apbfl4lapedthen~ng.wllhapomi·

0: 2-3;( in (5-8 em). nenl OOlbo;rod ll\ill'gi'llruwd lor a long
tiTle. yeIow ocher to re«ish-l:raMl, r.t:rlo5e.
Gills ~'!opiICed and wKIe. violet 011 first then
the same roIor as the cap. Stipe ochef, COYl'Ied
In rings 01 whrtiSh veil forming a wNte ring
aro.m the ITIIddIe 01 the stipe. Flesh ......tNtrsIt.
ooged WIth violet 011 the lop of the Sbp@;odorol
eanh or mold. mild flavor nming t:.tter altef a
few IIlOIllI!fIIS 01 dlewJ1g.

HABITAT: 1Il all types 01 forest and on all types

01 soil, in plains and mountair6. Summer
through fall. Common.
Straw Corti narius

DESCRIPTION: H: (4·8 em), thin, dark brown when wet,

e: (2·3 em). ocher in dry conditions, with a
Cap C(lmpanulate 01' coni· strong odor of geranium.
cal, then flattening, with
a large brownish-gray HABITAT: on mo!.S in coniferous Of
pointed umbo, be<om- mixed forests of birch and conifers. on
ing much paler when ~ry wet ground. Fall. Ul'lCommon to
dry, COVf!re<\ with fine fairly common.
poillted ....nite scales which
become scarcer with age. Gills
cream then turning brown.
Stipe long and sinuous, brownish-gray
striped with white, sometimes with ~ white
ring which is more Of less apparent Flesh

fl exible-stem Cortinariu5

DESCRIPTION: arranged in rings except at top. Flesh

H: I%·J:,4in (4-8 em), brown or violet-brown,
0: \':.·1'/.(2·4 cm). lilac at the top of the
Cap conkalthen flat- stipe; odorless and fla-
tened, with a poinlPd umbo vorless.
and slightly fibrillose sur face,
blackish-brown when weI. HABITAT: in small tufts or
paler in dry wealhet. The paler singly, under spruce, often
margin is covered wi th the in moss, alongside birches
remains of the white veil. Gills or in very humid soil. late
grayish to rust bfown wi th lilac summer and fall. Fairly fre-
highlights. Stipe thin, pale gray- quent in places.
brown, sometimes tinged with pale
lilac at the top, and carrying while flakes
Multirorm Coni nariu s

DESCRIPTION: H:2'I.-4 in (6· IOem). 0 :2· erw.g ., a more or less

4 in (5-10 em). marginate bu~ ~ 10
Cap fleshy, COIM?X f« a 00g time, then flat- HI in (2 \0 3 011)
tened, with a margin thaI remal/'lS nolled fa a in diametef. Flesh
00g time.VISCid at first. fc1'Ml ocher. re«lish- white. yellowing.
oc:hef, later darkeni1g to Striated faint in 'fO'JI9 specinens, bKcm-
with ~ fbiIs an:! with an op<qlE! Yl'ill'<tlich iN;! more or less fruity Of m ling
rna9.:s the «tr 01 the cap. Gils v.flnJsh or beq. of honey 'Nith age ood mild in
then rust-I:JO'Ml. Stipe ....nile 0' beige. ~
HABITAT: under decidllOUs or
This is a (oll«live sp« ies, consisting of coniferous trees in lowland or
several fonns and varieties. mountains. Summer and fall.
Blue Cortinarius

H: 2'.4 il1(7-10
0: 2 ... 4'. i'I{6-12 011),

Cap hemispherical, very
fleshy, gray· blue or gray-vio·
let, discolOfing in ochef
patches. and striated with
well-defined fibflls. Gills
crowded, blue-viole! then
more or less rust-colored, with
an irregular saw-toothed edge. Stipe fibfll· HABITAT: under
lose, the same color as the cap, with a various de<iduous tlees
very swollm bulb measuring up to 2/, in and on limestone soil.
(4 cm) in diameter. flesh pale blue-violet, Fall. Fairly common bul
pale ochef on the surfa<e; odorless. kKalized.

Purplish Cortinari us

DESCRIPTION: H: 2iH); in (6·12 em), HABITAT:

0 ; 2·6 in (5·15 em). under conifers
Cap hemispherical then expanded and and somellmM under
lumpy with undulating margin, fleshy, viscid, deciduous trees on
reddish·brown with margin Illat is some- limestone soil. Fall.
limt5 violet and fibrillose. Gills violet then fairly (ommon.
lust becoming violet when IUbbed, Stipe vio-
let, very fibrillose, even striated, turning
del'pe:r viOll't; bulb falrty large. VIOlet flesh,
the (olor intensifying when l'xposed to t~
air. faint odOf, mild flaVOf.
Many.colored Cortinari u5

- -,..
Cap convex soon llattening. pale lemon to yet.
k:m ~ doned Wlm red in the CeI'lll!!'. Gills

"'" ""'''~
or rust-wloled, Wlm saw-toothed ed:jes. Stipe
~ in (1 em) r1 <iamet~ 14l to 1;( to 2H'I (3:1
4 an) at the bull IMlite theo yeIkMo or ochef;
bulb v.tl1l1Sh and ITIaIglnate; COllII'I(I ocher and
abundant. Flesh v.tlite, lilac. at the top of the
~,almos\ oO::IrIe!.s and with a mild 1IaYor.

HABITAT: undef beeches, but SOITIe\llTleS i'I

DESCRIPTION: H: 1[·2:4 in (4·7 em), rrned woods on irnestone soil. Fall. fairly
0: 2·2:4 in (S·7 em)_ common.

Green·stemmed Conin:lrius

DESCRIPTION: H- 2·4',. In (5·12 ern). Cap convex, verv firm, Wlm an inrolled mar·
0; 2·4 in (5· 10 ern). gin, yellow orangeor fawn, With redd"M, well
·defmed fibnls. Gills pale blac at
first then rust·<olored. Slope short
and mid::. bluish or lilac. at the
top, yellowisl'!·white toward the
base, With a narrow, conical.
marginate bulb. Flesil firm and
v.tlltl!.h, bluISh at the top of the
Stipe; farn! odor and mrld flavor.

HABITAT: in groups or circle!. in

coniferous fOfes~ at all ailitudes
on limestone soil; summer
through early fal!. Common,

DESCRIPTION: H: 2~·4~ in (7-12 em),

0: 2'h-4 in (6- 10 em).
Cap convex then eKP¥lding, though the mar·
gin remains inroUed, viscid in wet weather. bfil·
liant sulfur yellow, reddening ffom the center.
Gills brig1t yellow, tIl!f1 arM!. Stipe ending in
a vel)' lafge yellow bulb, which later turns
broYm. Flesh pale violet at !he lOp of !he stJpe,
SI.ifls yeIow in the bull. v.fute 10 pale yellow
eIseoMlefe; plmanl ab. mild ftawr. HABITAT: beech fOIesl5 on limestone SOil.
fall. Fairly common.
Edibl~ ,
but therr is I KnoU5 rUk of
pOlrntial confusion with the II> CORTINA RIUS SPLENDENS
Ru plrndrnt Cortinarius whkh is dudly. Rc~pltndtn! Cortlllllrius D~AlJIY

Resplendent Cortinari us

DESCRIPTION: H: 2-4 in (5·10 em). colofed upon malUlity. Stipe has a large
e 1 H'ldn (4-7 em) margInate, wlfur yellow bulb, tinged with
Cap hke that of Ihr Elegant COftinarius but Mt toward the bottom, COflina lemon yeI.
more golden. Gills bright yellow then rust· low. The flesh is bright yellow all over and
unifOfm. Odorless, mUd flavor.

HABITAT: In small groups in de<iduous

forests. 00 limestone soil. f all. Url<ommon.
Reddish-olive Coninarius

DESCRIPTION: cortina; bulb marglRiite and

H: 2'/..-4YO in (612 em), leddening. Flesh firm and
o 2Y;·4~ in (7·12 em). thid:, Mly pm!:: in the
Cap IIemispheriCal bulb, purplish·'ItoIet; lain!
then convell, 'lisdd, odor and billef laSU!_
brownish-red or russet, ~igh!1y
violet Of olive al the edge. HABITAT: in small groups in
Gills very crowded, olivaceottS deciduous forMIs, especially
then cinnamon. Stipe yellow- oak and ~(h, on limestone
green, violet at the top, but often SOiL Fall. Fairly commoo.
el'Ulrely vioIi!l due \0 lhe abundan\

Glulinous Cortlnarius

DESCRIPTION: H: 2Y;·4~ in (7·12 em),

0: 3-8 em.
(ap convex tllPn eKpaAded, very viscid,
lemon to golden. Gills violet then orange to
cinnamon. Stipe elongated, thlCl::erung into a
bulb at the base, whitish, somelllTle5 bluish
at the lop. edged wnh filaments tinted
orange yellow. tilac flesh in young sped-
mens. turning whiush but often the top 01
the stipe retams ils violet color; famt odor,
not partICUlarly charactensuc. mild or b.lttf

HABITAT: In groups in de<iduous for-MtS
often with birch and bee<h and in mixed
fOlests in the plainS and mountains. Late
summer through fall. Common.
T,; vi~1 CortinllriUJ

DESCRIPTION: H: 3'.'-71' in (8- 14 em),

0: 1,/,.4 in (4·10 em),
Cap conical and convex then fianened and
more or less lumpy, very viscid, yellow ocher,
fawn or brownish-yellow. Gills grayish- oche!'
or grayish-viOlet, $00I'I turning rusty, hicldef1 at
first by a ....sed cOIlma Stipe very rigid and
very long. up to 6 in (IS em), INnner al the
base, very visOO, nnged with cilculaf ridges. HABITAT: in large groups in deciduous
flesh pal! veJIow, ocher brOMl in the Iowef woods (oa~ be«h, birch). Late wmmef
part of the SlIpe; odorless, mikl flavor. Ihroogh lall. Common.

Poison Pic

Slraw-<Olored, ocher or red, darl:er in the cen-

ler, §Igh&1 viscid when 'oWl Gills the same
color, weeping tlITj Bws II yooog specimens
which dry leaving a brfNKI maR. Stipe :4-h in
(1 10 2 an) in ciamete., !>lightly bullous and
flocco5e at the top. flesh thick and white;
IT(Ife Of less stroog CIder 01 radish. bitter taste

HABITAT: 111 ~oups in damp places If\ decid-

uous or cOfIiferous forest$. Summer through
fall. Very common.

DESCRIPTION: H. 2·4 in (5-10 on),

0: 2·4 in (5·10 em),
Cap convex then llattening. margI'I remaining
"oiled fOf a long bme, often LITIbonate,
Brown-ce ntered Hcbeloma

DESCRIPTION: H: 2·4 in (S-IO em).

0: 1"A·2% in (3-7 em).
Cap convex then flattened often umbonate,
$lightly viscid in wei .....eall\er, typically two-
colored. The centl.'f is reddi$h-brO'M1 arod the
outer part paler due \0 the presence of the
remains of the whitish veil (cortma). Gills pale,
subsequently turning brown. Stipe whitish,
latl.'f reddish-brown al the baw. with a flbril- HABITAT: in groups on lawns, in parh. In
w annular ZOIle al the base. Flesh white, grassy clearings in deciduous or «()(literou!>
ochef 10 brown at the baw of the stipe: forests, mainly in the mountains. lale sum-
strong odor of radiVi, biner flallOl, mer through fall. Fairly common,

Mustard Hebeloma

DESCRIPTION: (he base and

H: 4-8 in (10·20 em), becoming hoi·
e: 2'/.·6 in (1·15 cm). low. flesh whitish; a
Cap convex then expanded. red- cone of libels descends
dish-ocher IOOX \0 pale brown, paler from the center 01 the cap
<lt lhe margin. Gills befge or adler, into the top 01 the hollow
then rust bra-NIL Stipe whitish and stipe; ocb of radish. very
long, up \0 8 in (20 em), swollen at peppery taste.

SPECIAL FEATURES HABITAT: in large groups undef

bee<h. oak. or hornbeam. or in parh
Looks li ke Poi$on Pie (IItbflomR Summet and lall. Common.
r rustj/iHi(ormr) but larger. The cone
of fibers visible at the top of tht
stipe in vertical section,
is vt ry dininctivc in this species.
Rooting He beJoma

DESCRIPTION: H; 21'·8 in (7·20 em). roots into the soil. flesh white
e:2-4% in (S·ll em). with a very Stfong odor of bit-
Cap convex, fleshy, visrous. reddish ocher . ter almonds, mild flavor.
slightly scaly. Gills crowded, pale al first then
browning rapidly. Stipe ~ to 1 in (1 to 2.5 em) HABITAT: deOOlIOOS
thic~ INith a scaly, .....tlite ring aocl powdery at forests, mainly beech.
the lop. the same coo iK the cap and coy- Summer through fall.
efed with scales belatv the ring, swoHen at Fairly common.
the base 001with a thick pseodorrhiza ....tlid1


Yell ow is h NaucQ ria

DESCRIPTION: H: 2-3'0' in (5-8 em), ing, yellowish-red or dirty ocher when dry,
0: IH.4. in (1-3 em). reddish-brown when wei, darker in the cen-
Cap convex then flat, sometimes umbonate, ter. Gills crO\Yded, ocher al first then taking
the margin becoming striated then urldulat- on a dark brown coloralion. Stipe long and
slender (about n;·x 'A. in
(7 x OJ em)), the same
color as cap, but darken-
ing from the base with
age, and covered with
very fine down at the top.
The small bulb is paler at
the base. Flesh odorless.
slightly bitter.

HABITAT; in large groups

011 mo!.S in damp shady
areas with alder or willow
on ri~er banks. Summer
through fall. Common.
Bitterswee t lnocybe

H: 1'10·2 injlS cm),
0: %2 in (2·5 em),
Cap (onvex. eventually flat·
tened, nol fleshy fibrillose and
scaly, yellow ochef or laWfl, at first
<overed with a while cortina. Gills lony ring. Flesh pale brown; faint odm
ocher then brown. Stipe cylindri(al and mole 01 less biller flavor.
and Ylorl, the same (00 as the tap,
and IiI«! It, octasioflillly bealing the HABITAT: in thinly wooded areas,
remains of a <O(tina when young, bare ground, fallow land, afld laWflS.
and sometimes a faint (0' Summer through fall. Common.


Hoar·frost Inocybe

DESCRIPTION: H: 1\(· 2'/0 in (3·7 cm), ocher, and the margin crads deeply with
D: lH 'IO in (3·8 (m), age, Gills crowded, yellow·green or yellow·
Cap conical, then more expanded with a gray, then turning brown, with white edges.
large pornted umbo; the surfa<e is ~ry fib· Stipe paler, stained with ocher at the base,
rillose. (ra(ked, straw colmed, pale yellow m pruinose or slightly s<aly at the top. White
flesh, with a faint but unpleasant odOf. mild.
slightly biller flavor.

HABITAT: deciduous forests, sometimes of

conifers, especially on grass ~rges 0( forest
(Iearings, on well·drained sandy or limestone
soil. Summer through fall. Common.


Red-Stain ing Inocybe
This mushroom can he identified by the
way ('\'cry part of il turns red cithu 10
DESCRIPTION: H: 2·3'h in (5·9 em), the touch or naturaU), with age. It is
0: 1',<:-2 ".' in(3-8cm), vcry poisonous and has ullSed dUlhJ.
Cap conical, umbonate arrd fibrillose, ~lit­
ting at the margin,
whitish to straw·col-
ored, reddening to
the touch and with
age. Gills pale, then
brown, reddening
when damaged Of
rubbed. Stipe sturdy,
'II to %in(l to2.5cm)
in diameter, white
and red. Flesh white,
reddening in the
stipe when CU I, and
mild flavor.

HABITAT: in well-lit
woods, footpaths.
clearings. and parks. late spring through
early fall. Uncommon to lairty common POTFNTIAL CONFUSION
depending on Ihe year
and the location. .. CA LOCY8E CAAJBOSA
51 CWIj!C'S Mushroom EOIBLE
Sprmg Emolomas EDIBl.I:

Spotted lnocybe

right to the centef. Spotted with white in ~ng

spedmens.. Gills turning oIive-gray . Stipe thick·
ening at the base. sometimes bulbous and fib-
rillose, white bul reddish in the center. brcmn·
ing wim age and from the top. Flesh has a
specifK: cxb" thai is hard to define.

HABITAT: under deciduous trees (horn-

beam, beech) on damp, limestone soil, on
DESCRIPTI ON: H: 1'II-3'.1i In (4-8 cm), paths and in a~ glO'les. fall. Fairly common.
0: 1'':-2'11 in (3·8 em)
Cap cooical then flaner, WIth pointed umbo.
and reddish-brown fibrils ()1 a oeam bad::.
ground, deeply oacked in pla<es, sometimes

Crimped Inocybe

DESCRIPTION: H: 2-3'11 in (5·8 cm),

0: 2·3'.1i in (5-8 cm).
Cap campanulate or coovex, dark brown,
covered in upturned dark scales, gills broad,
whitish but soon lurning reddish·brown,
stipe often lWiste<J, dark bfown like the cap,
covered in ere<t scales, ohen with dark·blue
base. FI<!sh white but pink when cut, blue·
green in the base 01 the stipe; odor unpleas-
ant, mild flavor.

HAB ITAT: under de<idoous or coniferous

trees. often birch or spruce on very damp
soil. Summer and fall. UncomrTlO/'l.

Green-capIXd ln ocybe

DESCRIPTION: H: 3'-'-5'1: in (8-13 (m),

0: 1110-2%in (4-7 em).
Bell-shaped then flattened, umbonate, fibril ·
lose cap. cream at first tt-..!n turning brown,
with a pale green umbo. Gills white, turning
gray. Stipe long, the base swollen into a bulb,
white al iirst, then striated with brown fjbri~.
very strong, unusual fruity odor, mild f1aVOf.

HABITAT: singly in deciduous forests 0f1

limestone or non-acid soil. late summer
through fall. Fairly common. SPf.CIAL FEATURES
The odor i5 5imilar to that of Corydalis
a spring Bower from which it has
receivrd its botanial tpithcl.

Dwarf Inocybc

DES CRIPTI ON: mens, with a few reddish fibrillose fiI·

H: 110 in (2·5 em), aments. Flesh lila<-colored at the top
0: 'h- l'-' in (1 -3 em), of the stipe; odor unplea!>ant.
Cap very fibrillose Of
streaky with a wide umbo, HABITAT: under dedduous trees or
brownish, with a filac margin. spfuce on very humid soil. Summer
Gills pale gray then gray- through fall. Common.
brown. Stipe plumose at the
extremity, especially in young
specimens, with a small bulb
at the base, ochef OJ violet
al Ihe lop in young spe<:i-
Torn-cap ln ocybc

DESCRIPTION: H: 1~ -2'-' in (1I·6 em),

0: %-1'h in (2-/1 em).
Cap conical, fl~jllose and dov.ny, 'Nith an
iflrolled, split margin. reddisld:rown 01 grayish-
brO'M'l. sometimes gayish·yellow. Gills rust-co!-
Ofed, with v.t1ite edges. StipeatnJI '" in (4 mm)
wide, $lightly bulb0u5. devoid of down, with a
cortina in the )OOO!l !.p@dmen, odlet bIad:en-
log al the base. FIWI pale in the cap, darker in HABITAT: moorland, on bare soil
the stipe; mild fla..I:lr. unpleasant odor. beside paths. on sandy, poor soil. Fall. Fairly

Gooey's lnocybe

DESCRIPTION: H: 1 %·2~ In (/I-7 em),

0: 1'-1'rS in (2-4 (m).
Cap conical then flattening IYilh a central
umbo, fibrillose or streaky. often spHt along the
margin, cream or beige. l)e(omif"lg reddfsh·
orange. Gills the same shade as the cap, Stipe
with marginate bulb. while then striated WIth
red. Bulb remaining ....nile. flesh while, redclefl·
ing in contact wIll the air; strong and unpleas-
ant odor. acrid taste.

HABITAT: deciduous forests. mat\ty beech. 00

limestooe soil. FaR. Fairtj ccmmon WI the south.
Common White Inocy bc

DESCRIPTION: H: l Id '/. in (306 em).

0 : 'lr 2'h in (1 -4 on).
Cap conical and poinl~ then flanen·
ing with a prominent umbo and
smooth, while, silky surface, sometimes
CCIIIlft£lll lflliu ~iscid al first and ocher on the umbo. Gills
IrIOCJw, lilacina crowded and swollen, cream or pale gray,
,-an'c'l" then brownish-ocher. Stipe long and slen·
der, swollen into a small bulb at the base.
At first covered with a lar!je tortilla, then
fibrillose and wi th a downy lop. Flesh white
or <ream, unpleasant odor aod mikl flavor
or slightly acrid flavor.

HABITAT: de<:iduous forests, especially (I(l

SPECIAL n .ATURF.S clay and limestOlW soil. Summer through
fall. very common.
This sptcies contains many "arietiu, the
commonest of which i5 the lilllciwa
varifly, which is purple cxctpr for the
umbo, which remains ocher.
Scar-spored Inocybc

DESCRIPTION: H: 2'/.-4 in (6·10 em), HABITAT: under

a:I'I.-2'/. in (3-6 em). dedduous trees.
Cap conical then flatlened and umbon- I! appears to
ate, split up \0 the umbo, reddish Of show it preler-
reddish-brown, bul with white flesh ence for hazelnut
showing through the cracks. Gills dirty and beech. fall. Very
beige then cinnamon. Stipe slender, common.
entirelv pruinose and striated, reddish,
orange or brownisll-red, ending
abruptly a1 thl' base in it flauened
white, turnip-shaped bulb. Flesh pale
reddisll, in the stipe; no particu-
lar odor.

bulb ~'hi't and


Wrinkled Razites

DESCRIPTION: H: 3"::.6 in (8-15 em), da.Yn 1'I)0J09 specinens arxI this persisl5 in the
0: 2'/'·4'/.in (6·12 em). center 01 the cap in mattxe spedmens. Gills pale
Cap gioIJUose then camp<wuAate, very IWrj in men ocher, with ragged edges. Stipe wlbous or
the centet; ....,th a wrinkled or Unpy M.xe. ttxkeoed at the base. f~ slightt,o 00wny
except in the centel; ~ange or ocher; the abcM! the striated arxI persiste!ll ring. Flesh
striace is oovered 'Ni!h a v..tlfte or bIuish.....tUte v.tVtish; pleasant 000r ard mild /Iayor,

HABITAT; in ~ in coni:ferous woods (pine.

Good to ral bUI onu worm ·ralrn. 5pIlKe) or deOOJous woods (oak., beech) on
Thr fibrous sopt' should br disc"nkd. acid or sandy soil. late summer through fall.
Fairly common in mid·mountain.

Penetrating Gymnopilus

DESCRIPTION: H: 2'-'"4 in (7-10 em), the (1tUld: also on the cooes. SUnmer ttw.ql
0: 1'''·2% in (3-7 em), fall. Vefy amron.
Cap COIM'X then ~ r~ yeikm-
cxange to rust, paler at the eOJe. Gis yeik:HJ then
brc.v.nistHlrar. S~ thickenirg from top to
Ixmom, .....tIitish to yebN with c:Iarm fiOOIs, arxJ
base OM'I'ed i'1 v.t.ite ibMl; small. fragile, faint
mg. Flesh wtlitish. 00criess.n:l very D'ner.
HABITAT: ':i'gty IX in tufts on rotti'g t:.anches
a twigs of conifers, scmetrnes pooiatj 00ried i'1
Fiery Agaric

DESCRIPTION: H: 4·7" in (10-18 an),

0: 2-6 in (5-15 on).
Cap COO'o'eX, aange-yeiow to fawn. With fed·
ti!.h fibrils. Gils !.i'wte. tQ;;It yebY, then
f\/SHoIored, brOWl'WlgIO the 1OI.dI. Stipe thick.
'Nidef al the base, With a ~ Mg.
IUS! to yeIbN; flesh did: and fim. v.fIittsh 10
HABITAT: 11 smailufts
or snjy, at the base

""" """Irees,
cII!cdJous 01
pale yellow, faint odor and bitter 1LMlr. fare!' on cavffn. Sum-
TOXI( lTV ""....",.
Poiwnous and h~ucinogtnj(.
Su,pcClcd of bring responsible for fOmr
srrious caStS of poisoning.

Soft Crepidotus

DESCRIPTION: 0: ~2" in (2-7 em),

Cap bell-shaped 01 expanded into shell·
~ or kidney-~pe, whitish to beige
whefl dJ)'. ocher to brownish-glay when
damp. Surface coYe\'ed wuh a very viscid
detachable film. Gills crowded, whitish then
brown, radiatil"lg from the point of attach·
ment. Slip! a~1 or very W>rt and !;lIefal
Flesh ge\atlflOOS.

HABITAT: in imbriCated or tiered groups on

dead wood, SlUmps or fallen branches of
variOus dr<iduous !fees.. Pfesent all yeal
fOUnd. Very common.
Variable C repido tu s

DESCRIPTION: 0: '.'-1\0\ in (O.S-3 em).

Cap pure white and kKloey-shaped, felted;
upper surface oh~ anached to the support. so
that the fungus has its gills uppeonosl. The
gills radiate from the point of anachmenl and
change from cream to pinkish-red, and finally
to cinnamon. The stipe is abseil!. The flesh is
thin.white. and odorless. This species is inedi-
ble mainly due to its small size.

HABITAT: in tiered groups Of aligned along Very common in the fall, though il occasion-
branches and twigs of deciduous tretS, espe- ally perslsls throughout the year.
cially in mushwood or in maS5ed branches.

Smooth Calerina

DESCRIPTION: H: ~- 1 * in (2-4 em), ocher in dry weather, tlXJ'ling red:lish-b'own in

0: "'-~ in (0.5- 1 em). the wet. The gills can be seen through the
Cap remaining (OO\Ielt for a k:log time, yellow transparent cap. due to the thinness of the
flesh. Gills spaced, ocher yellow. Stipe pale yel-
low with silky white fibrils, a maximum of :a: in
(2 mm) thide. F~ very thin.

HABITAT: On mossy lawns. Summer through

fall, Very common.

Mushrooms of the Galcrina genus are
difficult, if not impossible, to idtnrify
with the naked eyt.
Marginate Galera

Cap hemis!flerical then eoovex, smooth. ~

yelloN ....t.en tty, brownish-c<her 'Net
with a dearly Slriated margin. Gills aeam then
cilnarroo. Stipe slender. often thid.ened al the
base. ocher QIilY,radiated with Dngitudinal fitr
n!s, arK! with a small riN;I mat d~ with
age. Flesh ~Iing stroogtv of 1Iour.

HABITAT: often in large groups on the

dead wood of conifers. sometimes on decid·
uous trees. summer through fall. Common.

DESCRIPTION: H: 1%-3'.4 in (4-8 eml.

0: ~-2%in (2-7 em).

Autumn Galera

DESCRIPTION: H: 1'1,.3'.4 in (H em)

0: %-2'' \ in (H em).
Very similar to the Marginate Galela
described above, different mainly in thaI ill
cap is viscid.

HABITAT: on the dead branches of

coniferous or decidl.lOus Ire(!s. t ate
summer through fall. Uncommon.
Verdigris Agaric

DESCRIPTION: Ofgtlnk malter,

H: 211-4 in (6·10 em), where animals
Q: l \OAin(J.8cm). have been and
Cap coovex Ihen in well-fertilized
~oded, very viscid, paS\Ufes. Summer
green or blue-green, through
with shreds of white, espe- fall. Very com-
dally around the edge. Wilh moo
age, the shreds lend to disappear and ami widespread.
the cap takes on a pale )'1!lIow to yellow-
ocher tint. The gills are whitish at first,
then violet, bul the edge remains white,
The white or blue-green stipe has mlKh
denser while shreds Ihan those 01 the cap.
1\ has a membranous riog. which SOOI1 '\ .,,,,,,,h I"","~' nilS
turns violet-brown from the spores. White
my<elial cOfds are visible al the base of the
stipe when it is uprooted, flesh while,
bluish at the base of the stipe; practically
odorless and mild in tlavor.

HABITAT: in groups in dedduou5 r - - "')~tlitll cords

and coniferous forests on soil rich in


Th~ Blue .... garic (SIrof,llIIrill clltrNka) is

similar but the ring is much less marked, TOXICITY
even in young specimens, and is often
absrnt. The Gills do not have a white Suspemd of being poisonous. This
edge when malurie, and the cap is less mushroom was long considered edible
scaly. but poor, bUI il would be wise to avoid
eating il.
Scaly Cap

DESCRIPTION: H:2A-4h in (6· 12 em).

!il:ll.-2'J, in (3-6 em).
Cap hemispherical men COlWeX, sligltly viscid.
yelloY.ish-red or fol'Ml, with COOO!Iltric ...mitish
scales on the margin in )OOIlg spedmens. Gills
broad pale gr~. then prC9~ tUfning via-
\et~ray 'Nith white edges. Stipe IoN;! and sIen-
da hoIk:7.v and r9d. white WIth a shaggy, stri-
ated ring. edged with white scales ltIder the
ring. at)ainst a brO'Ml backgroond. flesh pale
and SI'I'lE!!ling of humus; mik! f\ao.n,

HABITAT: on debris in decidL()US fOf~ts or on

leaves. Fall. Fairly common.

Crowned Stropharia

Cap hemlsphencal then convex and

fleshy, pale to bright yellow or ochef,
silky In dry weathei, viscous 'Nhefl
wet, margin sometimes sca~. Gills
pale brO'Ml at first then violet brown.
edges remaining white. Stipe sturdy,
'Nith a white, striated ring, IUlning
brownish·black., Flesh thick and
white; slight or:k:lr, mild flavor.

HABITAT: dry meadows. grazing

land, flE!lds. roadsides, clearings and
DESCRIPTION: H : l ~-2 in (3-5 cm). 13:1.'- edges of forests. Suml11E!f through fall. Fairly
2'.' in (3-6 em). common and widespread,
Round Cap

DESCRIPTION: H: 1%·4 in (4·10 em),

0: ~ 1\( in (2·4 em).
Hemispherical then concave cap, straw<Olored
or yellow ocher. viscid 'Nhen wet. shiny and
silky when dry. Gills Vf!fY broad, pale gray then
violet gray, with a wtlite edge. Stipe sIeocier
and long, hollow. rigid and brittle, slighl~
swollen at the base or ending in oil bulb. vkdd,
pale yellow with a f~eous ring quite !em on
the stipe which tums brown when ~es fall
00 it. lNhitish fJesh, thin in the cap; ododess,
mild flavor.
horse-manure in pastures. late spring
HABITAT: on cattle dung, and especially through fall. (ommon and widespread.


DESCRIPTI ON: H: 2%·8 in (6·20 em),

0: 2-4 in (5-10 em).
Cap hemispherical then convex. typically
brick red at first, paler later, with a margin
that is always paler and edgfd with white
scales in young specimens. Gills crowrled,
wtlitish·yellow then violet-gray. Yellow stipe,
reddening at the base and with fine scales.
Flesh pale yellow. reddening in the stipe;
more or less biuer ffavor.

HABITAT: in thick tufl5 00 old stumps of

dedduous or cooiferous trees. Fall. Fairly

DESCRIPTION: H :2)1-511 in (6-t3 em),

0: %-2% in (2·7 em).
Cap globulose, soon be<oming convex, then .. K UEJ-INERO /llYCES
smooth and expanded, lemon yellow wilh a /II UTA B/U S
rust·colored (enter; the margin is thin and at Changmg Pholiota Emllu
first bears the remains of the yeUow (Oflina
in the form of small shreds. later, il becomes
smooth and turns pale yellowish·gref!n.
Gills are very narrow and crowded, lemon
yellow bul eventually grayish-green or gray·
i!.h·violet. Stipe long and flexible, yl'lIow at
the top. reddish or browllish at the bottom.
When spor!'!i are emined, a grayish ring
appears morl! or less distinctly on the upper
part of the stipe. Flesh thin, bfight yellow,
reddish at the base of the
stipe; fungal odor, very
biller flavor.

HABITAT: Generally in very crowded tufts

on dead stlJmps of deciduous or coniferous
trees. as well as on the rDOls; sometimes
srng~ or in small tufts of IWO or three spec-
SPECIAL FEATURES imens, Spring through ear~ winter. Very
common and widespread.
Sulfur Tun is onr of the commoneJt
mu, hrooms, appearing wi lh the firsl
rains of Ihc fall and Lasting unlil the firsl

Conifer Sulfu r Tuft

DESCRIPTION: H: n-s'-' in (6-1] em),

0: lH'/. in (3-6 em).
Thi~ hypholoma pos!.e§se5 lhe same charac-
teristics as Sulfur Tuft. The difference is
mamly in lhe gills which are pale gray ailirsl
before bKoming glayish-violet.They are
never IInted yellow or green, aocl the lIavor
is mild
F[) IBILITY HABITAT: in IUfts on conifer stumps. maillly
pine Spring through fall emd in mild wmlefs.
Not vny lood 10 tal ;and it is ~i$lIblt Fairly common. especially in the mountains.
10 noid it d~ 10 Iht possibility of
COIIN,ion with Sulfur Tuft.

Long-.temOled Hypholoma

DESCRIPTION: H 2-4'" in (5· 12 on). thin, wh,tlsh·yellow:

0: '6-Ydn (1-2 an). faint fungal odor,
Cap convex or campanula!e. then yOOOth mild for !.lIghtly billet
and ltauened,lhe margIn slightly Wlated
when weI. pale ocher or yellow, greenish In ""'"
HABITAT: grows in
wei wealller, ochef brown in dry weather
Gills pale yellowi!J1 then brown-viOlet wilh dense dumps on
while edges. Stipe thin and very slender, up moss or sphagnum
to 6 in (\S em) Ior.g and ~ in (2 mm) Wide, moss on very damp
flexible. the color of Ihe cap or paler, with a ground. Summer
redd,sh·brown or orange base. Covered in through lall. Fairly
white venical fibrils. sometllTle5 arranged in common.
bands giving it a stripy appearance, the
lower end covered in while down. Flesh
Coprophilou, Psilocybe

DESCRIPTION: H: 1.'-2110 in (3-4 em), (Ill' tIC,," ro (1lM"II

O. '''· 1 in (\ -2.5 em).
Cap hemlspllellcal or campanu·
late, ohen umbonate, ()(hel or
leddish·fawn, covered in a vis-
cous, elastic and detachable film.
Gills crowded and broad, pale gray
then VIOlet-brown. Stipe often flexible,
elastIC and hollow, the same color as
the cap. Flesh thin, ocher, with faint
odor and Iloury taste.

HABITAT: on cattle dung In pastures in

summer and fall. ~alrty
common in some
parts, and Ihe most
widespfead member bnN'~lfh ,.jill" gil/$
of the Psilocybe genus
in North America.



F,lIlY Rlna Champ.gnon EDIBLE

libcrly Cap!

H: 2-41' in (5·12 an),
0; h-I' in (1-2 em),
Cap conical 10
jXWlted.lJTlbonate. 001
expanding, brownish-
yellow or oIM-gray.
suaw or cream when
dry, covered with a
viscid film, and with
a Slrjaled margin.
Gills gray then dart:
purpiistHMown wllh
wnlte edg~ Stipe
very 1009 and slen-
def (2·4'; x 'f.. in 2-
4)1;In (5-12 em x
0.2 em), Ihe s.a~
color as the cap,
sometllnes !JIaOed
WIth blue-green at
the base. Flesh pale,
brownish when W(!I
Slight odof of radish,
mild flavor.

SPEC I A L FFATIJRI S HABITAT: in groups in damp meadows, at

I~ on fairly acid soil. late SUIMIeI
Most haUucinogrnic mushroom. of through late fall Uncommon.
5jKciu rtbtcd to libtrty ups "rC' to bt
found in the tropics, in p!.cu such.,
Muico, when they arc' uud in rC'ligious
rile, by the native people•.
Changing Pholiota

'. -
DESCRIPTION: H: 1'1/.41/. in (4· 12 em),
0. , '/•• 3'1. in (3·8 em).
Cap convex then Ilanened, often umbonate,
.,' W• . ",',.••

!>mOOth surface; reddlSh·blown when wet.


Th! cap bec:omes hooey·colof~ in dry
wt'atl\ef, except in the center which is a dif-
ferent (olor. Very fine, transparent margin,
~,~ '
through which the gills show. Gills slightly
decurrent, yellowish, then lusHolored. Stipe "'" '
often curved, striated above the ling, else-
where covered in pointed S(a~ or small
uptumed scales. betge then turned Ixown . ....: ~
~~ .
with the spores; faint reddlsh·brown ring.
FIMh aeam, soft in the cap. very fiblous in
ttle stipe; odOf plNsanl, mild flaVOI.

~~ .
','f ' - ~' • .\ !.

HABITAT: In thick. dense tults on old
slumps or dead de<iduous trees, especially
bee<h, lart! on conifer!.. Spring through fall.
Very very common.


Good to UI, pluwlf nF"nu. The II> GALfRINA AfA RGINATA

fibrous ,ti~ .hould be diKardfd. M.uglnllte Galenna DW)lY
Alder Pholiota

DESCRIPTION: H: H-6 in (8·15 eml.

0: LH.4. in (3·8 em),
Cap COI'NeX then eKf)anded, smooth. brilianl
arxJ viscid, ~ighl ~Iow then red:lish In the
center. WIth it few slYeds OIl the margin. Gills
pille yeIow beaming rust brown. SIlpe IMIdu-
Iallll9. fib<J11ose, pale ~11ow then reddish-
brO'Ml from the base. Flesh yeUaw in the cap,
rust al the base of the stipe; strong. pleawrt, SPH IA1 I EATlIRI 5
am aromatil:: ~ rrWId Of slit;tltly blltff fIao.u.
StvmJ spWrs of Pbolil)U I~ oicdiutrd
HABITAT: in lults on dead or dying alder, to particular gencra of tne, for t'lLlmplr,
somelilTle$ on birdIes, in damp places. SUm- 1'II00iolll SIllkitolir only grows on "illow,
mer through fall. Uncommon.

Clutinous PholioUl

DESCRIPTION: H: 2~-1I% in (6-12 em), ered in the)O\J'lg spec-

0: U.-3.4 f1 (4-8 an), Imen With oole scales.
Cap hemisphericallhen expanding, very vis- 'MIlle flesh, russet aI the
Cid in wei weather. yellow, beige, Of reddiSh, base d the Sflle; riel f\ao.u
with a few white shreds at the edge of the
margin on yoong specimens. Gills whitish- HAB ITAT: !lOONS in small
yellow, then odlef through 1161 blown. Stipe !JCK.fIS ex only on t:ulfd
...rolle, reddish toward the base, densely COY- branches oYId I'oY9S II b!s(s
01 deOOJous trees. ~
sri CIAL fI ATt IRES beedl ex cooifers; ~
in \h@ ~ fal, ewn
'I'M Sticky PboIiota (1'ItoI;. p_..-),
is sma1kr and found in mo~ ~n late II the ~ Farij
5Jmts i the cap is .:bIrker. ""'''''''''.
Shaggy l'holiota

DESCRIPTION: H: 4/·8 in (12-20 em), aging trees. sometimes on the Slumps of

0: 24 III (5-10 em). deciduous and COfll/efOUS 1Jees. fall through
Cap hernis;lheOcal or campanulall! at first. eally winlet'. Failfv common,
then CCIO'Il'X and Hauening, with an inrolled
margin, totally WYefed in reddish scales 'Mth
upturned tiPS against a yellow badgroood,
densef in !he Cefller. Gilts aowded, paler
then darker yellow. Stipe king, nanO'Nef
toward the base, coriaceous and §(.ltv
like the cap except at the top which is
)'fIbN and smooth. fle!.h thid: and libfous,
yellow, vneUiog of celery-rool, mild flavor.

HABITAT: in large tufts. on the lcoB 01

M ilk-white Co nexybe

DESCRIPTION: H: 2·4 in (S·10 em), Cap shaped hke the linger of a glove. bell-
0; I·" in (12 em). shaped or conical, often POInted,wlth a sui·
ated margin, slightly viscid when wet.
whitish or oeam-colored, becommg pale
ocher With age. Gills crO'Nded and broad,
pale ocher then bright lust-red. Stipe 1loI·
low, 'I.- 1:4 in (2 or ] mm) thiCk, thidPnrJ'IQ at
the base or WIth a small bulb, while and
linely striated, slightly powdery at the top.
Flesh very thin, fragile and whi te WIth a
faim odor and bitter afterta\t@.

HABITAT: lawns and roadsides. Summef

through fall. Fairly common and widespread
Poplar Pholjou


H: 3\/,.6 In (8-15 on), stumps or at the base of
0: 2-4 in (5·10 an), lfee UIJf1I:: along the line
C." - . . . """ of the tap-OOts. mainly
concao.1!, flanened ., older on popular but !lOme-
specimens. mane hazel· times on Other species 01
rn.JI to chemul color, deciduous trees such as
turning cream WIth age. at the elder and MIl the
first at the edge. 1hr cen- oak. late spring throoo;,i1
ter often femaflS darker; lall, may appeal" seyeral
the surfiKe is slightly wrirr times in one year on the
~Ied or LW'Idulating at the same stump if Ihe
edge. and has a tendency weather is mild and
to oad: in the centef of damp. It is aw.vmth-Icw-
the cap. G,lIs crowded, iog speoes. fairly com-
pale. then dnnalTlOrKoI- mon in soothem regions,
ored. with wtuU! edges. much rarer In the north,
Stipe long and flexible. fibrous, pale in color, WKiesplead, Highly pOred in southern France
IlrownrY:I when the spores are deposited; ling and Italy,
implanted t.jI on the stipe. \WII dMIoped,
and fleshy. Flesh white, except at the base of
the stipe wilerI.' 1\ is brown, pleasant odor and II!f1iruL/,/"
,\-_ _C"OKi n~&

Tht Popllr Pboliou hilS long bern

rulti'llIltG on I Jinllil WIlt in Italy, on
thin slicn or split lop of popll.r. 1t UJ1
now Itt g'own on an lIrtilicw lubsUlItr
like the OyIIH Mushroom or tht Very good to cat, with linn, crunchy
Cwti...,ttd Mushroom. Brsh tasting of hudnut.

DESCRIPTION: H: 2"·4',4, in (7·11 em),

0: 2~ in (6-10 em).
Cap CO"CiM!, becornirg 11m' (J less flattened.
fleshy, oearTrf ....t'II\!! or pale yelloN, ~tty VIS-
00. sIiriltly ....mkled or oackilg with age. W15

"" ""'" "" "'" """". "" """"'"

IwJby as it ages, wNte fa' lag tine, Il.rrW'g

InwlIroo1Ih1! bottom. Rflg ()'! the I4JPI!I' p.Yt
oIlh1! ~ bJt not ~ consistent and disap- 'MY soon. flesh II'Md;, lim and ....nil!; M()5 and IIYees at the base d!hl! ~ ., nwd·
"""" """ _ t;n" fIouy ..... OM and at roadside5. 00 I'O'I-acidic soiI.E¥tf
SI.IT'III1eI' tIv't:Juril wt 1aI. l.OOlmmon rut
HABITAT: ., troops, YI:r;h, or fused t(XJether II

GraS! "grocybc

DESCRIPTION : H: 1\4·2 in (3-5 em), bowed, beige then brown With a while
O: )I- l )lin (24 cm). edge. Stipe whitish, solid then hollow, WIth·
Cap hemispherical then (onY!~, yellow OUt a ring Flesh pale, slightly biller or mild
ochef, smooth. Gills WIdely spaced afld and floury flavor.

HABITAT: grassland and lawns. Summef

. - ~ (
and early fall. fairly common in places.
. '\ ·1" ~


The Hemispherical Agrocybc (AgrO()'bf,

"IfIiMlritlllliri$} is simibt', but has a
viscid up. Somf mycologisu consider
thtm to be VilrirMs of I single '!'fein,

. ,. . .
Early PhoJi o ta

DESCRIPTION: H: H·4%in (8·12 em).

0: y..21' in (2-7 an). •
Cap hemlspherKaiItlen ~. smooth, rus·
sel to brown in ~ weather, pale broYm.
beige or dan: yellow dtJ'ing dry spell$. Gills
whitISh then brOM'l. Stipe long. thickening
and sometimes bulbous at the base. '~:~:'~:~;:~'~~t~r~
~ woods. or in parks.
whitish, Wllh a ring very high up. whict1 Lale spring thlOugh early summer. Com·
disappears quite soon, whitish but mon and widespread.
soon turning brown I:rt betng CfN·
ered WIth $pOfes. flfsh whitISh.
brownish ochef brown at
!he base of the S\4lf. odor
and flavor of b.

Harvest Paneoius

DESCRIPTI ON: H: 2h-3A in (4·8 em). flesh thin and

0: %.\',4, in (2·3 an). brown; fruity
Cap hemispherical, soon flanening, red- odor, pleas-
dish-blown, paling \0 pinkish·beige as it ant, and
dries. often with a darker margin. Gills mild flavor,
widely spaced, swollen, pale brown then
purplish·brown, with a white edge. Stipe HABITAT: in
hollow, smooth, shiny and silky. pruinose the grass. on lawns.
at the tOp. whitish, except 0111 the base on fairly rid! soil. SUm-
which is reddish-brown-with whilt! fibrils. mer through early fall.
Common and
Sheathed Paneolus

DESCRIPTION: H: 4·6 in (10·15 un), paler patches. finally completely black,

0: \1,·1 \!. in (2·4 em). except on the edge wllkh is white. Stipe
Cap ovoid then hemispherical 01 ogival. long and slender, up to 5 in (15 em (long
dark gray-brown, becoming pale gray and only 'Ii in (2 mm) wide, and Ihe same
when drying, smooth, with a dentale mar- color as Ihe cap, pruinose along the upper
gin al lus\ hung with !>mall white shr!ds. half, especially at the lOp. Flesh thin, pale
Gills gray then shaded with darker and 9ray; odof famt, mild lIavor.

HABITAT: on or near callie dung, wt!1I·

fertilized meadows, and where animals
have been. Early summer through fall.
fauly common and widespread

Copro philolls r ancolus

DESCRIPTION:H: H in (5·15 em). edges. 51ipe thin, perpendicular and slightly

0: 'A-2 in (2-5 em. bulbous. rigid and brittle, short or very looQ.
Cap campanulate or ogival, not expanding, smooth, with a linle white ring in the middle
whitish through grayish·ocher, with a darker or upper third which blackens with age.
center, surface smooth but wrinkled, shiny Flesh white, thick in Ihl' center of the cap,
and silky in dry weather, viscid when wet. thin elsewhere; faint odor, mild flavor.
Gills soon be<:om1n9 dark gray, with white
HABITAT: on cow-pats or horse-dung in
pastures, from tate spring through fall. Quill'
(ommon and widespread.
Blackening Russula

DESCRIPTION: H: l/r 4 in (4· 10 em). gray with age. Stipe tough, shart and
in (1·20 an).
(I 2 ~· 8 thick, about 2 in (5 em) in diameter, wnlte
Cap convex and vt'ry then darkening like me rest 01 the mush·
walled at firs\.. soon ........_ _ room_ F~ firm, thick, wnlte but
bKomlng depressed in reddening before turning
the center, and with a bIad: when CUt, flaVO!'
margin tMI is inrolled mild, acrrd In the
for a long time, whiti~h
or grayi~h from the out- odorless. or
Sf\.. soon be<omlng dark lalntly
gray or marbled with gray· frullYodor.
brOY/R Gills WIdely spaced
aM thick. with numerous HABITAT:
fragile gills of varying grows under
lengths. white but redden- either dedduoos or
Ing then blackening to cOf1llerous trees. on low and high ground.
the touch and turning Summer through lall. Very common.
Crowded -gill Russula

DESCRIPTION: H: 2-4 in (5-10 em),

0: 1:,{-]% in (l9 em).
Cap convex, becoming quite deeply
depressed with a very inrolled margin, often
lobed with age, velvety. whili~h, be<oming
tinged with ocher from the cen ter. Gills Vf!ry
crowded, thin and narrow, of unequal
lengths. pale cream then dark cream. Stipe
shorl. 2 in (5 em) maximum, full, pale then
tuming brown 01 red. Flesh tough and
while, faintly and slowly reddening when
cut. then turning gray, navol mild or acrid. trees, 00 acidic !.Oil.Summer through fall.
HABITAT: under deciduous or coniferous

Milk-whitt Russ ula

ae.YIl bearril;I «her a reckish. Gis 'I«'f !hid

.., ""'" """
""'""" "'" "'" ,..
ti1~ ~ Stipe 5hcrt Flesh v.tite.lI'dIirq-
~ acrkl, <Xb fRity, beccm-
i"g.1Ia\o' mid
i"g ~1 il dder spe<Inens.

HABITAT: I.I'def decrl.oos or a:rVIeroos trees in

~ d Earlj ~ t!vco:jl fat Very
DESCRIPnON: H: 11'-4 n (4· 10 em),
0: Hi in (S-IS 011).
cap ~ that 01 a mirK~ first ((lI"M'.l; V~ry ivrragr edibility, fbvor rather
then funneI~. ~9n long rE!l'nailing unpluSMl l
iYoIIed. often ~Ied oMth earth. creamy white
Common Yello w Russula

DESCRIPTION: H: 2"'·4 in (6-10 on), low under Ihe WIlde, very fragile There is
0: lJ'-4in(4·10cm). no odor and tile flavor is faintly acrid, but
Cap COIlVeII alfirst, then flattening and inconsistent.
bKoming undulated and slightly
depfessed; the cutICle is ~h <100 shiny, HABITAT: In large groups under
easily detachable from half or two-thirds of de<iduous or cOI'Iiferous trees, ComlTlOllef
the cap, firslluminous lemon ~lIow. Ihen in pine woods on sandy Of .Kidic soil.
becoming tinted wlIh ocher or olive late SlA'M1eI
With age. The oowded gills all! .",,-~,.,....-'-~~:;o:... through
Sinuated or swollen and adhere fall. Com-
10 the stipe. They are while at moo.
first but are eventually tinted
pale yellow. The stipe Is more or
less cylindrical, often Ihldened al
the base, solid then spongy. rough
Of striated. II is while in young specimens.
graying progresSiYtIy. The flesh is .....tIlle, ye- -/-_ _ _ Ufpt dllt

DESCRIPTION: H: 2-4/, in (5-12 an),

13: 2-4,4 in (5-12 an).
Cap conve~ then WIth a shallow depresslOll
in the center, bright yellow all over and
shiny, slightly viscid in damp weather. Gills
'Nhite then dirty ocher, graying to the touch.
Stipe pure wtme ~igh'ly sUiated length-
wiS!!, graying with age. Flesh white tenchng
to gray a few minutes alief culling.

HABITAT: deoduous trees in marshy

ground (mainly birch and alder), SOITIftlrnes
among sphagnum moss. Mainly in IIOI1hern
regions. Fairly common.

Gcranium-.ccntecl Russ ula

DESCRIPTION: H: 2K-3Y. in (4-8 an),

o 2-4 In (5-10 em).
Cap convex but soon HanerW1g. no!
v«y depressed. lawn orange or ocher
il the cent@!" and often pale ocher at
the edge. Gills the same color as the cap
but paler. Stipe the same color as the gills,
often swollen toward the cent@!" or at the
base. Flesh white and firm, odor fruity
smelling 01 stewed apple, flavor acrid.

HABITAT: under beech, some~mes uncIef

COI'IllefS (spruce), in the plains and mountains
fall. Common.
Stinking Russula

DESCRIPTION: H: 3~·6 in (8·15 em),

0: 3'J..7'/.in (8·18 an).
Cap globulose in young ~imens. then
f1anening and becoming depressed, viscid,
WIth a deeply and extensively striated ochef
10 reddish margin, more or less spotted wnh
darker red, thin, undulating margin, de1!ply
fluted. Gills spaced and Ihkk, whitish thefl
rMdish, exuding drops of liquid in young
!opKlmens. StJpe robust, lough, narrowing al
the lop. some1imes bulbous, while then dot-
ted WIth red, full at first, then containing
uregular cavities. F~ firm and reddis/1, HABITAT: deciduous and coniferous
wongly rill'l(id odor, flaYOl' very acrid. woods. Summer through fall.Common.

Seeeh Russula

DESCRIPTION: H: 2:.'·4 In (6-10 an), then graying at tile base. FIe9l tough, thid:.
o 1!1i·4rn(4· 10cm). and wtHie, pwlkish under tile
Cap tonCave al first. wllh an cuticle, !>lightly frlif!y or
inrolled margin, then honey odor, flavor very
be<oming depressed in iKrid.
Ihe center; cuticle
detachable oYef a tlllfd HABITAT:
of thl! radiUS 01 the cap Mainly in bI!Kh
al most, scarlet discol- forests, SOOII!lImes
OIlng In patches. Pale, undi!f oak, on lather
crO'Mled gills. whitish acidiC SOil. In plams and
Wllh a bluish'green tinge in young moontains. fall. Common.
spe<;lJnen~ Stipe firm and ~lid, may
be thkkened at the base, wtlite
Black-and-purple Russula

DESCRIPTION: H: 1%-2% in (4-7 em), depressed in the centet; fIestr,o and shif'T1.moo
G: 2/-4 in (6-10 em), in wet weather. dark PIJ1)Ie aIroosl bIad in the
Cap con~x then flallened and slightly center; discolomg with age. marg;" not striated,
urdulatirv;J. Gills v.+aite ex aeam,
crowded. Stipe shrtt and cylinOOcaI•
....rute often 1T\iICUIa1ed wilt1 ocher.
~rY;i with age. Flesh ~ firm.
I'Jtitish. sligltly acrid. Cl!b faint aoo

HABITAT: ....::\ef detiiJous trees

(man 001:) or pine trees. on g;assy
pa~ in 1'dk1M. Stmner and fall.

Fragile Russula

DESCRI PTION : H: I'A-2% in (3-7 em), viscid when wet, Vf!ry variable in color, dirty
0: %-2 in (2·5 em), pink, purple, or violet with a darker center,
Cap convex then flattened 01 depressed, but the colors soon fade and the shade of
the cap often tends toward greenish as
il getS older. Gills white 01 Cfeam, with
toothed edges. Stipe while, fragile.
sometimes swollen at the base. flesh
white. fairly firm, ~ry buttle in the stipe,
very acrid. fla'lOJ, !ruity odor.

HABITAT: in groups in d~iduous

woods among birch, oak, etc., and more
rarely under COnifers. Late summer
through fall. Very commoo.
Olive Russula

DESCRIPTION: H: 2:6-6 in (1-15 (In), HABITAT: under deciduous trees (beech, oak,
0: 3',(-7'1. in (8·18 an.) etc.) or I.I1der trees in plains and
One of the largest 1US5(J1as. Cap hemispherical moontains up to 6SOOO fI (2000 m) (spu;:e,
then f1auened 'Nith a margin thaI remains f~). Summer through fall. (ommon, except
irtolled II)' a Ioog time, sometimes with a shaI- in northern Europe.
k7.Y depres.slon at the erv:I.lhe surface Is rough,
malte, ....,Ih ttny (oocentoc 'NIi1ll:1es; the rob" is
YefI/ variable, rargio;J frOOl olive geell shaded TOXIC ITY
with purple, rpf. and broY.on. Cuticle sepalabie
This Russula has been l'fsponsible for
1M'! one third of the radius of the cap. Gills
minor poisonings, especially in Itlly.
aCM'ded, bunel-oolored then orange. Stipe very
Once considered edible, it is now
thid 2-4'hx:4·1%- (S-12x2-4), white, o~en Jxolicved to be wise to refrain from
tinged with pink. Sometimes the pU1k is con- eating it.
filled to ude at the lop of the stipe. Flesh very
flf1l1 and v.tiile, IIaYor mik!.
Vinous Russula

DESCRIPTION: H: 2'.-'·4 \'1 in (6-12 em).

0: 21(·4 in (6- 10 em).
Cap (on~ex, soon eKj)anded and depressed
in the center, fleshy, purplish·red or darl:
burgundy, often darker in the center. Cuticle
separable OVl'r two lhirds of the radius of
the tap. Gills (learn or pale ocher, blacken-
ing on the margin. Stipe white, sometimes HABITAT: un~r coniferous trees, espe-
splashed with yellow toward the base, cially spruce, on damp or marshy ground, in
blackening with age. Flesh white. reddening the mountains. Summer through fall. Not
then blackening In the air, With a mild flavor. very common.

Entire Russula

DESCRIPTION: H: 2-4'. s in (5·12 em), wi th yellow or red. Flesh while and very
0: 2-4\'1 in (5·12 em). firm, mild flavor.
Cap hemispherical 011 first, almost globu-
lose, then expanded or evell depressed a1 HABITAT: in large groups in coniferous
the end, shiny. viscous in we! weather, of I()(ests in the mountains. Summer through
variable color but generally brownish early fall. Very common.
sometimes mixed with viole!, purple, yel-
low, or green. Gills thicK and well spaced.
friable. white then bright yellow. Stipe up
!O I/. in (3 em) thick. white then splashed


Fairly good to rat. Not to be confu~d

wilh Ihf Bay R... ssula (Rllss,'!" b"dia)
which becomes extremely ~crid after
bdng chcww for .. few momfnts.
Marsh Russ ula

DESCRI PTION: H: H in (5· 15 em),

0: 2-6 in (5-15 (m).
Cap convex then flattened, undulating or
deformed, depressed. firm and shiny, sli!tlt~
viscid in wet weathe~ bIoo:I red to pink&Hed,
or orange-red. Cuticle sepa!"abie 0YeI' naif or
three-qoarters of the radius 01 the cap. Gills
cream thef1 ocher, tinted with red on the mar-
gin. Stipe thickening toward the base or centef,
white or pink-tinted then lTMXe or less grayish.

HABITAT: on high. marshy ground, under

corlif~s.espe<ial!y ~PJuce. SumnlE!J and lall.
Fairly common in its habitat.


Dead-leaf Russula

DESCRIPTIO N: H: 2)\·4Y< in (6-12 em), with pinkish red,

0: 2)1·4~ in (6- 12 em). staining D"~
Cap convex then !lanened and slightly to the touch.
depressed i'l the center, margo IIYOIIed for a F~firm.
bN;J time, very dark reddlSh-!)JrpIe. <XheI or wh~e.
~ with a dalt.ened center v.tIich can become brrINning
<iscoIored, rutide separable OYer a qJarter at
most of the Jadius of the cap. Gills cr~ turn-
ing ochef. Sl~ 1" in (3 an) thid:. M Il' tinted
rubbed; 000r of
shelffish. espeQally i1
old ~mens.

Quir~ good to eat, but with a rather HABITAT: (onilers (pinel, on

un~ppclizing odor. acidic or siliceous soil. Late su:nmer
through fall. Very common.
Charcoal Burner

H: 21'-4% in (6·12 em.)
0: 2-6 in (5·15 em),
Cap hemi~rkal then HABITAT: under de<iduoos
flattened and slightly tfees (beech, oak, birch),
depressed in the center; sometimes under conifers.
tough, ohen violet in Summer through fa ll. Very
young !.pe(imens. later common.
becoming shaded wilh variety
of (0101"5- pink, purple, gray, and
green-and cO'Iered ill radiating fibrils,
Stipe whit!!, sometimes tinted pink. narrower
at the base, Gills thick and white, flexible
and nO! briule, crushing to pulp unde; the
pressure of a finger, of a greasy consistency
to the touch. Flesh whitish, graying wtlen
exposed to the air, pink under the cutkle;
mild hazelnut or slightly auid HallQr.
Gills M"bilr Imd


Good to eat \\;Ih I fb\'or lib hazelnut

The Charcoal Burner is one of the rasti.
« I ru$SuLu. Allhough it cannot be con·
fuscd casily with a poisonolls sptdu, it
is sometimes hud to differentiate it
from other ru$5I1IaS btcallSt of the nllm·
bcr of colors that the cap can adopt. The
btSI lesl is 10 crush tht giUs with a fingtt,
10 He if they feel grusy to Ihe louch.
Edible Russu la

DESCRIPTION: rust. Flesh white and firm.

H: 2lf,-S~ in (7-1) an), Odor faint. not typical and
0: 2·4 in (5-10 em). mild hazelnut Havor.
Cap color very vari-
able, I:A.rt often viIoos pA: HABITAT: de<iduous or conifer-
or reddish-brown and ous woods. on acidic, well·dralned
sPOl1ed with red marks. The cuti- soil, in the plains and mountains. late
cle ohen seems to be too short spring through fall. Very common.
and does not entirely (over the
margin of the cap. Gills very
forked near the stipe, white
spotted with small patches
ci rust IYith age. S~ v.tme and
very firm, sometimes tinted with pink or

Grl! cn Cracking Russula

DESCRIPTION: H: 2·4~ in (5·12 em), crowded, creamy wtlite. Stipe thO: aro..t 2 in
0: 2~·6 in (6-15 em). (5 em) in clametl'l) v.tIite. SOO'Ieomes sliljltly
Cap gklbuklse or stained with red at the base. Flesh thid 3"Id
f1anl'Oed and
""very I~ white, 3"Id with a mild hazelnut ~
cxb faint. \qlIeasant in the end.
firm, often irr~
lumpy, the margin HABITAT: deOOJous woocIs (ook, beech, chest·
always craded, nUl, birch). Fairly common in the waHlIE!I
fk>ury, the cuticle regions. Iale SUfMlE!l throocj1 fall.
splits into scales
I'.tlich can take on a
variety of colors. Very good to cat, ~f:n raw, but the AtSh
such as brown, i5 oftrn worm·tatrn.
ocher, aro:j rust. Gills
Pretty Russula

DESCRIPTION: H: 214-4 in (4-10 em). (3 em). The flesh of the cap. like Ihal of the
0:2~H~ in (4·12 em), slipe. is exuemely lough and compaC1; it is
Cap identical to thai 01 other russulas, first white. graying Slightly when broken, but
convex then expanded and sometimes pink under the cuticle. The odor and flavor
slightly depressed; the cuticle cannol be are quill.' dearly minty. 5(!veral varielles of
separated from the ftesh and it is velvety. this sp«ies are recognized.
malle and bright red, often discolored into
pink or even yellow in places. Gills HABITAT: mainly under beeches. as well s
crowded, white then cream, !oOmetimes other deciduous trees, on any type of soil.
with a pink edge. Slipe often thicker at the Summer through fall. Common.
base where it can reach a diameter of 1'" in
Pink Ru ssula

DESCRIPTION: H: 1}l.·4!' in (4· swoHen at the base and

12 em), 0: 1'.'·4 in (4· 10 em), ohell narrowing just
Cap con~ex then Battened under the gills. Flestl
and slighlly depressed in film and white. flavor
the cen ter, pink or red. mild alld odorless.
fairly pale. ohen ocher in
the center. Gills white aod HABITAT: under decidu·
deeply forked, crowded or ous trees (beech, oak,
spaced. Stipe white and Ilornbeam, etc.) or
firm, pruir.ose at the top, conifers, in weH·
drained soil. Slimmer
through early fall.
Fairly common.

Turco's Russula

H: 1'.'·4'1. in (4·8 em),
0: 1)\·4 in (4·10 em).
Cap convex, soon
expanding with a cen·
tral depression; ~ery
matte in dry weather to
very ~iscid depending
on th humidity. remain·
ing slightly ~iscid in the
central depressioo which
is amethyst in color. often
Wl ttl a darker circle
around the center. Gills
cream then fairly rapidly ocher. Stipe pure Flesh white. Iodine odor. especially notice-
white. sometimes sl~htly pin~ In places. able at the base of the sUpe. Fla~or mild.

HABITAT: under pines or other conifers, in

Not "fry good to cat and thr bur of thr lowlands or highlands. Summer Ihrough fall.
stipe should be diK.lrd~d. Fairly common.


Sanguine Ru ssula

DESCRIPTION: H :1%·4 in (4- .,.........~ HABITAT: under pines in

10 cm), 11,1; -4 in (4-10 cm). • the mountains. up to
Cap fleshy, convex al the tree line. and
first and expandmg also in the low-
without becoming lands. Summer
depressed. or only through fall. Com-
Vf.ry slightly. The
thin margin
remains inrolled
for a long time,
the carmine cu tiCle
pales or discolors into
cream or pink scales. It looks
finely granulose and dry but is
slightly viscid when II rainio The
gills are crowded. slightly decur-
rent. cream to pale ocher, The stipe
is cylindrical or slightly spindle-
shaped. full and firm. whi te or
tinted with the same color as the
cap, or faintly yellow. but graying upon
malllrity. The Oesh is thick. firm and 5ri/lt iIkD 5Minrd
whi te. red urxler the cuticle, and with a ~'ith
bitter, acrid flavor
DESCRIPTIO N: H: 2-4'hin (5- 12 em).
13: 1%·4 In (4· 10 em).
Cap convex then flauened and slightly
depressed, sometimes umbonate. violet,
dark purple, or (Iimson lake. sometimes
yellowish ocher or green. Gills cream at
first then rapidly turning lemoo yellow
and finally golden yellow. Stipe pruioose or
powdery, usually purple, lilac, or violet, frUitY, tasle very
palef than the cap, ocher althe base, iKrid. Flesh compact
somewnes entirely white. Odc:w sllQhtly and v!IY firm, white
or lemon, pinkish
SI'I (11\1 HI\TURES under the cullde.
MycoloJisb likntify this 'peatS without
HABITAT: in large
difficulry, due to the brillwlI
coloration it adopb in the prut'ncc of colonies exclusively
ammonia vapor. under pine trees, in
lowland, on sandy soil.
Fall. Very common.
auele!'! Russu la

DESCRIPTION: H: 211O·4 in (6·10 un), and regular, oimson lake and very pruinose,
0: ' '''·Hin(Hcm). white at the very bottom. Flesh while and
Cap (onvt'l then depressed, slightly viscid, purplish-pink on the surface, thick and Ixll-
shiny, pinkish purple Of crifTOOll lake, WIth iI tie. strong odor of apple or stewl!d apple,
dalkel' ernie!' 01' sometimes greenish like the acrid !laVOl.
edge, paling 10 dirty odlef sale with age;
cutICle separable rNef ill least half the HABITAT: spruce, l'SpeCially on limestone
radius. Gills cream, faintly greenim. Stipe 2· soil. lale summer through early fall. Very
3l1Oinxlil-%in{~·8cm x 1-2 em). Fauly soft common ill the mountains.
Peppery Milk-cap

DESCRIPTION: H: 3'4·7J. in (8-18 em), wMe or cream. Slipe rathef

0: 2-6 In (5-15 em). short. nanO'Ning at the base,
Cap lightly dep-es~ in the center with a FJesh thick and wtlite,
tightly ir1folled margin, becoming funnel· becoming slightly gteenish·
shaped, matte creamy wtlite, becoming stained yellow when bro-
WIth r!d. <>iUs very thin,crowded and narrow, ken. AlxJndant
milk whiCh is
II)JBILITY also ....tllte, tool-
Not v~ ,ood to Ut, btUust ir is mucb ng pale green
in one or two ~ very PI!JlIlI!IY fLMlr.
100 ~. bltr\ IU' and boiltd in
nSltm Europt and RlI$sUo. Dmd and
powdmd it ill/Std u a substitllir for HABITAT: In groups or ,ides in damp
,.,.,.... detib:Ius or mixed woOOs. St.mner and fan.
e"""", .
Fleecy Milk-cap

DESCRIPTION: H. 4·8 in (10-20 em),

0; 4·10 In (10·25 em).
Similar 10 the P!ppery Milk-cap.
abow, but often larger. wlIh a
YelYety surface to the cap
and less crowded gills.

HABITAT: under
de<idllOus trees,
mainly at the edges,
in highland and low-
lands" Fall. very

Woolly Mil k.cap

DESCRIPTION: H: 2·4 in (5-10 em),

0: 2-4 in (S- IOem).
Cap hghtly depressed In the center flom it
young age, but very imolled OIl the edge.
pinkish-orange (l( pale orange, often with a
few darkel', concentric circles. and covered
in a 'NOOtly fleece in young ~mens.. Gills
aeamy pink. Stipe till! same color as the HABITAT: deciduous
gills, sometimes slightly PItied. Flesh firm woodl, especially under
and while, milk whIle WIth a very acrid birch. SumrTlff Ihroogh fall.
flavor. Quite common.

Burning Milk.cap

DESCRIPTION: H:2'.'·4% in (6·12 em). HABITAT: groups of varying sizes In

0:2-4 in (5-10 em). hazelnut groves, more rarely under other
Cap convex Of flattened. sooo becoming deciduous trees. late summer through
depressed and funnek,haped with a thrn, fall. Common.
wavy margin, almos\lobed. Grayi$h,
shaded WIth betge, ocher, Of green,
slightly viscid, somelJIIll'S with a few
concentric Circles. Gills slightly
dec:unent, wIdely spaced, first
(Jearn then rapidly turning lurninoos
Ofa~ ocher. Stipe cylindrical or
tapering al lhe base, while \0 gray-
ish, smooth or ~ightly striated. Flesh
whrte, containing an abundant
whi te mill: which turns yeliow-olNe
upon drying. More or less frUity
odor, but veI'f pefSistent, acrid na-
vor, espedally in the mill:.
Pale M ilk-cap

DESCRIPTION: H: 2-4 in (5-10 em), Cap flattened ....;th irrolle<! margin, becoming
0: 2·6 in (5·15 em). depressed falltj lale, Vi!.od, piIlkIsh cream,
beige, or ~ almost Lnform or
WIth darkeI patches. Gils ~tIy
deo.nent. aCl'MEd and of lflI!QUaI
lengths. white then beige Cf yellow-
ish. Slape shott. while. stained with
led, F~ white, then rl'ddisll in the
s!lpe. with willie. lIldI¥lging milk;
fI.wor mild or !Jigltly acrid.

HABITAT: mainly under be«h.

late SUTWTIeI' tlvrujl Iali. Qulle

Beech Milk-cap

DESCRIPTION: H: llOt( in (3-7 em).

0: l Pk2'~in(l6cm).
Cap convex then flattening raptdly in the
center, not very depressed but slightly
umbonate, malte brown. Gills cleam Ihell
reddish ocher. Stipe of len curved at the
ba~, the same color as the cap but paler al
the lop. Flesh pale reddish, Wlt/l very abon-
dam whue milk, the IlaYOf being mild al
first. then iKlld.

HABITAT: espe<ially undef bee<h, on clay

soil. Summer through fall. QUile common.
Ugly Milk.cap

DESCRIPTION: H: 2-4 in (5· 10 em),

'" 2·8 ill (5·20 em).
Cap convex. then wlIh a wide, shallow
depression, vi!.Cid in the center, dark
olive-lMawn Of gray-brown, margm
inrolled for a long lime and hairy in
yoong specimens. Gills crowded, cream,
browning al the edge and where damaged. HABITAT:
Stipe sl'lort and thick about 1~ in (3 em), under birch
paler than the cap, with many small ClfCII- and In mixed
I,ll pilS. FIHh whiti!>h to brown, milk woods contain-
while and abundan1. be<omll'lg gray- ing birch on acidi<: SOil, in lowlands and
green as it dnes. Milk and fI~ laste very highlands..
aend. late sumlT\ef through fall. Common.

Cray Milk.cap

DESCRIPTION: H: 2·4 in (5·10 em),

0: 2-H in (5-8 em),
Cap Battened WIth an InroUed margin, thin,
lillef be<oming depressed in the center and
With an undulating gray bei~ or gray Violet
margin. Gills cream theo orange, graying
with age. Sllpe sometimes thicker at the
base, whitish Of grayish. Flesh whitish to
pale led, milk white gradually turning gray-
green as it dries, acrid fla'o'Of.

HABITAT: damp birch woods or pine

woods, even on peaty soil. late summer
through fall. QUite (ommon.
Slimy Milk.cap

DESCRIPTION: H: 2~·4 ~ in (4·12 em),

0: n-I! in (4-10 em).
Cap (O!M!X or ilal1ened thefl depressed,
very viscid when young, bfown or gray- UIf""" U.,1t
green,WlIII small slightly <larkef patches on ."tid L---P'
the edge. Gills white then staining in a few
minutes \0 gray-green to the touch. Stipe 'A
to Jr:in (1 10 2 em) Ihkk, viscid, sllghlly paler HABITAT: only under
th'lIl lhe cap. Flesh wh itish,willl abundant, beech. Summer
while, gradually turning oIivaceous as it through fall. Commoo.
dries. and wllh an acrid lIaVOf.


Comm on Milk-cap

0: 2.4-8 in (6·20 em).

'" '"" "'" """. -
DESCRIPTION: H: 2/.·7'/.ln (6· 18 em),

~""""' ........
dish brown or grao,;sh-odlef, sometimes discol-
ored. Gills s1igh&j decl.lTen~ oeam then ocher. sligltly viscid, the same color as the cap.
Flesh rompact. pako. tttltaining an alu'ldant
amotXIt 0( mi whim when II mes 00 the gil!..
tI.rns gayish-green, mild then aaid

HABITAT: lRlef conifers and birches, mainly

in the ITIOlKItains in damp places. Fairly

Orspilt iu slightly xrid afttlt.1S1r, thr

Common Millt.ap is sought afttr in C~·
tain (Ounlri" in rastern Europt.

Bleeding Milk.eap

HABITAT: under various

~es of pine (Scots pine,
Austrian, Aleppo pine). Fall.
(ommon in southern
regions. especially on lime-
stone soil, but il can also
be found in certain areas of
northern Europe.

H: 2·4 in (5·10 tIT1),
0: 2·4'h in (5- 12 em).
Cap not so bright as
that of the Saffron
Milk-<ap and not
marked with concentric runti~ dark
circles. Gills ocher or red· /mJIo." w'h(~ rubbrd
dish, but dark, staining
bmwnish·violet when
rubbed. Stipe pruinose, pinkish·
orange, Pitted with darker red depres-
sions. which have a tendency to turn green
like the fest 01the mushroom. Flesh
releases a dark red milk, which gradually
turns greenish.
Saffron Milk-cap

DESCRIPTION: H: 1/,.4 in (4-10 em). EIlIB ILITY

0: 2_4'1. in (5-12 (m),
Good 10 ur, especially when young ,
Cap ~ or flattened, v.i!h Vf!fY inrolled when the edge of the (ap is very much
margin, !)e(omir);j deprl'Ssed in the center;
curved downward, bur not as tasty as
then the margin turns upward and the mush- the Bleeding p.
room becomes funnel ·!.haped. Bright orange,
sometimes splashed green as ~ ages. with
lTlOfe or less marked (Of'l(e!ltOC dldes. Gills
crowded and slight~ de<urrenl orange,
splashed with tx"ight green where damaged.
Stipe fairly thick and hollow, also <range, do!-
led with small darl:er pits. Flesh thick and firm
in young specimens, pale
yellow to orange al
the edge, gradu-
ally becOO1iog car-
rot ·coIored when
exposed to the aif and exuding a
bright orange milk when broken. Odor
fruity and f\avof slightly acrid.

HABITAT: in large gr~ exdusively

in cooiferous 'NOOds (pine) 00 fNef'/
type of soil, with a preference for
acidic soils. Fall.


SpnKe Milk-up EI)18U
Salmon Mllk.cap EOl81.[
Spruce M ilk.cap

DESCRIPTION: HABITAT: ooly in spruce

H: 2-4 in (5-10 on), forests. mainly in the moun-
o 1K-4'hin(4·12cm). tains. fal l.
II looks like the true deli· Common.
Cious milk-<ap, the SaHron
Milk-cap, HOW-ev(!r, it
turns gr~fleIlTIOfe
qUICkly and more uni-
formly. The ~11pt! IS not
pitted and has a while Edible, but 'o\ith a ~p­
mark under the gills. The pery taste. It is h~r·
flesh turns darker red when vcsted and catrn al a
exposed to the al~ and the "delicious milk'Gp,'
flaYor is CKrid.

Red Milk.cap

DESCRIPTION: H: 11'·]:.1 in (4·8 em). COOling. Gills

0: 1',,·4 in (3-10 em.) 0""",,,.
Cap convex, soon expanding and becooltng d,,,,,,,,,
sf9JtIy depl'essed, 'NIth a small 00Ib0 II the OMTl then red-
tenter of the dep'essiOn: untfron reddish- denng. Stipe
chestnut or brick-red color. In yoong speci- s/iI;t1lly paler than
mens. the margin is CO'Iefed with a down- the cap and white
al the base. Flesh
HllBILITY wlVte: ai:uldanl \'AllIe milk With a YefY acrid
IIa-.o , burning the hps .mel' a few ~ords.
This mushroom, whKh tm" horribly
acrid, is catfn in cerUin countriu after
HABITAT: coniferous woods (espe<ial~ pinel
bdng spcriaUy prepared 10 remove the
wont of the flIlit. 00 acidic or siliceous soil. Sonvnef through
fall. Very common.
Coconut Milk-ca p

DESCRIPTION: H: lA-n. in (3-7 em),

0: ',(·2 in (2·5 em),
Cap convex, then slightly dep!"essed,
sometimes With a small central umbo, vel·
vety surface, beige to grayislHed, some·
times timed reddlsh-pinl: or pinkish-
violet Gills de<ulfent and crowded.
cream \0 orange, lat~ daruilIng,
F~ pale russet White milk nol very
abundant. mild or not very peppery !\a.
VO! and characteristic coconut odor.

HABITAT: in groups undef birch or alder,

on very damp, acidic soil. Summef through
lale fall. Quile common.

Blond Milk.cap

DESCRIPTION: H: J'.4,·4'h In (8·12 em).

0 : 2·6 in (5·15 em),
Cap fIe!.hy, convex or flattened With an
inrolled margin, then depressed into a cup-
SMpe, SOJn(!times with a small umbo, with a
finely granulose .md downy SUficlCl', brOWfl-
ish-yellow or dark red, Gills decurrent, cream
in young ~lmefK, but darkening to odIef
wi th age. Stipe more 01 less uniform or
thickening at the base, reddish orange, pru-
lnose and often velvety at the Iowef end.
Flesh pale, d,lfkt! al the ~, aoo redden-
IrIg -MIen exposed to the .-. Not very aIlu:1- !.phagrun moss on acidic soil. Late SU'l'IffieI'
dant rr.1k, transparent, wnh a rriId IIaYor and ttwouril M1y Ial. COIMIOI'l ill the mountains.
ocIor of roast chicOfy or cele!y.

HAB ITAT: in birch woods or sproo!, ....tIere

there are bilbenies and blueberries, bradell,
and heathef. It can also be found among

Oak Milk-up

DESC RIPTI ON: H: lJ'-4 in (4·10 em), but darker at the base. The whilish flesh
o 1 ~·4 in(4- IO em). turns r!d whtn exposed to the all and con-
Cap convex at first wah wolled, even mar- tains a cream-colored milk which hardly
gin, then slight~ deples~ and undulating, (i'laJ'l9l'S color. II i1 not very aoondant. with
the surface looking as if It werl' eowred in a mild. 001 slightty bitter flavor and II smells
hoar-frost, reddish sprinkled With darker of wood-lice.
patches Of with one Of tWO darker circles
Gills evenly spa<ed and slightly de<Ulrent, HABITAT: only under oak !rees and usually
paler and stained rust·brown where dam- on acid soil. Late sumrTll'f through fall.
aged. The stipe is the same color as the cap, Very common.
Yellow Milk.up

DESCRIPTION: H: 2-4 in (5-10 an).

0: 1~3'.4 in (4-8 em).
Cap flattened or COI1Yel, slightly deprMSed
In the center, ptnkish-orange or pale orange,
marked....,th patches or concentrIC cirdes of
a darker color. Gills Cfowded, «earn then
orange. Stipe UneYefl and Plui~_ Flesh
turning bright yellow when broken, abun-
dant milk turning ~Iful yellow in ~s lhan HABITAT:
a minute after breakifl9. Very acrid. flavor. -= .....
(ook, beech, chest-

..... """'"
nut) and IW.ed

thou(;l fa". Common.

Abundant Milk-cu"

DESCRIPTION: H2-6 in (5· 15 em), 13:2-6 Cap coovex then depres.sed in the cent« mar-
in (5-15 em), grl rernainrY:I Irvcaed, WIth a rifle ~ 01
smoo!h SlIface. U"llfoon cok:It apicol, or,yge.
Of liI'Ml <range. somefuIes cIart2r in the (ernet'.
GIs cream then splashed with broMl-
ish«her. Stipe the same coItt as the
cap. yebYish at the tql. Flesh fim
and v.hte, ~ exposed
to ail. nIIk ab..ndant and wtvte. wrth a
miklllawr D.rt ~ odoc

HABITAT: deddoous woods (beech)

(J IJIdef wnifers. Soowner and early
fal. Quill! rommon.

FaWl'l M ilk-up

DESCRIPTION: H: 2~4 in (7-10 em,) below the gills. Flesh pale WIth a stroog and
0: 2:.'-3~ in (6·9 em) unpleasant fUbbefy odor, flavor mild but
Cap becoming deeply depressed. often WIth rather unpleasant. milk white, ul1(lIa09ll'l9.
a tiny central umbo, smooth Of slightly gran- mild or slightly acrid.
uiose, reddish to OIange·!awn. Fairly bright,
gradually becoming palf!f al the margin, HABITAT: under deciduous trees or In
which ;s pale orange. Gills fairly oowded, mixed woods. on slightly calcareous soil.
bKoming more separated as the cap late summef thfOOgh fall. Uncorrvnon 10
becomes depr~. oum to pale ytllow fairly common.
the reddISh rellectlOOS, reddening woth age.
Stipe the ~me color Of paler than the cap.
but reddish-brONn toward the base, coomed
In striations, which are more accentuated
Birch Milk-cap

DESCRIPTION: H: IA-]1S in (4·8 em), abundant, white, yellowing in less than a

o JI,·2 in (2-5 em), minute II isolated from the fleVI, flavor mild
Cap Wl'inkled, espedally in the (ef'ltef, often then slightly acrid
umbonate, pale reddish ocher. dafker in the
cefltel'. Gills aeam then orange. Stipe very HABITAT: deciduous Of conifel'OlrS woods.
bllttJe. the same colOl as the cap. Milk fairly Summer and fall. Common.
Hepatic Milk-cap

DESCRIPTION: H: 2-4 in (5-10 em), HABITAT: In ~t.rde.- ~ onvery acidic

0: 1'A- 2'.4 In (3-6 em). soil. Fall. Common.
Cap corTv'eX or flatlened. then
dep-essed, Ir,.e,--coIored or chest-
nul with it hint of ~ mane,
sometimes I.IT'b:mte ard slightly
furrowed 00 the m.:.-9n. Gills
sIqlt~ dea.rren~ cxher with 1**.
ish tints. Stipe the same coItY as
the cap or redd"ISh-QOMl. Flesh
awn to pale red; milk ab.nianl
teroing lOyellow, mtW'e iltensely ff
~ is isolated from the mushroom.
fIaoJor acrid an:j binef.

Smoky Milk·cap

DESCRIPTION : H:2-4 in (5·10 em), depressed, IlOt very fleshy, velvety brown,
0:1 \4·]A in (J.8 em), gray·ocher, brown-ocher, cafe-au-Iair. Gills
Cap convex or flattened then slightly only slightly decurrent if at all, cream then
pinkish ocher, reddening when rubbed.
Stipe while. later laking on the same (01·
oration as the cap. Flesh while becoming
salmon pink in a few minutes when cut,
milk abundant and white, reddening very
slowly bUI remaining while il isolated hom
the mushroom. Flavor mild or acrid.

HABITAT: under deciduous trees (oak,

beech, etc.) or under spruce. Summer
through fall. Fairly common.
Pine-cone Solele, Old Man of the Wood~

DESCRIPTION: H: 4-1'/. in (10-18 em),

0: 2)1-4)1 In (7-12 em).
Cap hemispherical then flanffied,
covered In large triangular,
partially detached, grayish-
black or brownish-black
scales on a palei' back-
ground; shaggy margin.
Pores largt', grayish, redden-
ing to the tOUCh, then bIaden-
11'19 Wlth age, Stipe gray-brown,
woolly Irke the cap, excppt al the
lop whlth is $ITIOOth and has a fainl ring.
Flesh soft and white, turning dirty red in
contact wllh the air, then blackening, no
pankular odOI or flavor,
Lr.f! Kllks
HABfTAT: beech forests, sometimes also allJ gral,!t£.d'1111101
under cooifefs, usually Singly. late summer
IhfOUgh early fall. Uncommon.


Susp«led of bring poi$Onous_

Somt !>fople (onlidtr il edible when
young, bul of no grt.1 interest, .nd
when oldtr it il tOO fibrous. In North
Amerita, some tases of poisoning
been reported, but they may have btcn
due to similar l!>fcits found then. It is
tht only bolttt in Eur~ with this
strlngc shaggy apptlfllnct.
Bitter BoJele

H: 4-7;4 in O~18 on),
0: Hin(SolScm).
Cap hemiSphefiCal
then convex Of flat·
tened, thick, )"liow-
brown, pale brown,
or ochraceoos-olive,
velwty texture, often
aacknJ II '*Y ~thet
Pcwes lather WIde
and angular, whiush
tllen pale pink with
age, turning r~iSh
brown to the touch.
Stipe bulbous, Ihen
elongated and swoIlefl
althe base, aeam through ocher, deco- HABITAT; undef deciduous 01 coniferous
rated wllh a network of lafge, prominent trees. pine and spruce on acidic. well-
red filaments.. fle'sh soft in the cap and drail'led soil. Summer through fall. Fairly
fibrous in the Stipe, white, possibly turning common in places.
slight red when e~ 10 the air. PItas-
ant odOI bullJSUalty very billef lIiIVOf. F()IBILITY

[nedible , The bittern ns, which it f~int

ron NTiAl CONfllSION in the raw mll5hroom bttomu milch
grtaler during cookiDg, ..rodering
thi$ $~dn incdibk. One Biner Boltlr
Ctp El If
mlonll a colltttion of Ups of !Ny
.. BOLfTUS AESTIVAUS Boleln, which il is nsily confu~d with
Summu BoI~!e fnllll f will nail! a whole dish and rnU;e il
.. BOLETUS BADIUS inedible.
s,y Bolete E[)I8l~
Holl ow-stemmed Bolclc

(5-10 em), 0: 2-4~ 10 (5·12 em),
Cap conical and conve)(. then
flattened and umbonate, or on
the othel' hand, may be depressed
in the (!fllef, yellow-cwange to red-
dl~·brown. M:lfillose or slightly scaly and
velvety, WIth a paler margin fl'tainil"lg I "iI'.""""
shreds of the origInal veil. Tubes curved.
decurrent to 1M ring, pale yellow then
olive. Pores very wide C~.-:i. in (J.4 mm).
smaller at the edge, radially elongated, yel-
low then oIiYi'! green, stipe t.oIlow (espe-
dally in the lower part), yellow above the
ring. the $arne (O~f a~ the cap below il,
with a while, scaly ring
Flesh solt and thick,
yeIlOWl5h-white and
nOt changing (olor,
No Ular<t(letiSlie
odor and flavor.

under The larch, In
the mountains. Sum-
mef through fall
fairly ra,,~.
Peppery Bolcte

DESCRIPTION: H: 2-4 in (5-10 un), larch,

0: 1'-2'.4 in (2·6 em). spruce, firl.
Cap convex at first then llanmed. thick in the or de<iduous Iroo
cenl~ cor.per<Cllclred. 00nam0n, or reddIsh- (birch, oak) especially in
broMl; \leNety but viscid in weI weather. Pores the mountains. Summef
wide and angulat, the same coIof as the cap. through fall. Fairly
then rust or reddish. Stipe often CuMlg. sIen· common.
del; tapefing s!ight~ al the base, ~Ikm 10
reddish. bright yeUow a1 the base. Flesh soon
becoming soft aoo spoogy. rAnk lOOef the
cutide, pale yellow in the cap. ~Ief yellow Inedible, much too peppery. U$Cd if a
in the base 01 the stipe. Very peppery iIavof. condiment in Germany and eastern
HABITAT: mainly under conifers (pine,


_ _.

DESCRIPTION: H: 4-7 '/. in (10-18 em),
0: 4·8 in (10-20 em). .___ f.i:
Cap very thid, whiti!Jl gray or beige,
sometimes shaded ocher or pale brown,

surfacE! velvety at first tllen 1TIQ(l' or less , . ~'

cracked. Pores small, bright yellow then .

brownish-green, turning blue when
touched. Stipe very thid, globulose or
,., ,
ovoid at first, the base ending in a point,
the same color as the (ap but bright lemon
yellow at the top, covered in reti<:ulation of
variable (olor, more apparent toward the HABITAT: under decidl.lOUS Irees. in parks
top, Flesh pale, turning blue when CUI, or woods, mostly on dry, limestone soil
buller flavor, Summer through fal l. Ur.common.
Scarlet-stemmed Bolete

Pores small, yellow, turning green to the

tOllCh and upon maturity. Stipe cylindrical
or swollen, bright red, except at the top
which is yellow; decorated with a tight retic-
ulation which is very apparent. whitish at
the top of the stipe aud dalker toward the
base. Flesh firm. creamy white or pale yel -
low, turning faintly blue when exposed to
the air: odorless biller lIavor.

DESCRIPTION: H: 4-6 in (10-15 cm). HABITAT: deciduous woods (oak, chest-

0: 2~-6 in (7-15 em). nut, etc.) or under conifers, on dry, acidic
Cap hemispherical then convex, pale, soil. Summer through fall. Fairly common or
whitish-beige or cafe-au-/ait, and ~elvety. rarer, depending on the region .

Al'l'cndicul att Bolt te

DESCRIPTION: H: ]A·6 in (8-

15 cm), 0: 34-6 in (8-15 em). dirty ocher at the
Cap hemispherical or convex. base. Flesh pale
brO'tYOrsh'yellow, ocher brown, or )'l'11ow. may turn
brO'tYOish-or.lngl'. witfl Vl'f'/ thin blue when l'1.posed
crazing. f'oIes Vl'f'/ small, bright \0 the air, but pinkish
yellow, faint~ turning blue to the or brownish red in the
touch; tubes yellow, tuming blue immediately lowe! part of the stipe: fla-
if touched. Stipe tflick and swollen, coming to vor mild, pleasant fungal
a rounded point at the base, lemon yellow to odo<.

HABITAT: southerly. under deciduous

trees. on clay and limestone soil. Summer
through early fall. Uncommon.

Cc p, Penny Bun Mush room

DESCRIPTION: H: 4-10 in (11).. 25 em), 0:

2-8 in (5·20 an), ron NTIAl CONFlISION
Cap hemispllerical then convex, fleshy, quile to 1"YLOI'IL US FELLEUS
variable In color, but typically reddish-brown Buttr Bolele
or hazelnut, paler al th edge, with a margin • 80LETUS SATANAS
outlined in white; $/TlOOth, vis6d in wet Sign', Bole!e POISONOVS
weather. The while pores lurn yellow quite
qukkly and ewnwaHy become olive green.
They do nollurn blue to the touch. The stipe ing more cylindriCal as it grows and CoYefed
is futl, very swollen or ovoid at firs!, becom- wilh a fine, white reticulation which is more
obvious al the lop. though 11 is
sometime partial. Flesh white,
pinkish ullder the cutICle, firm, solt-
enlng considerably with age; fla-
vor mild, pleasant odor.

HABITAT: sometimes singly, but

usually in large colonies in conifer-
005 woods (~e, Scots pine, lir)
and in plantations and forl.'SlS of
de<iduous trees (oal:, ~tnut);
oommoner in mixed woods, !Sp!-
dally on hills or ill mid-mounlaln
On acidic, well-drained soil. late
summer through fall. Very com-
mon and widespread.
Summer Bo lel..,

YDESCRIPTION: H: 3'-'-8 in (8·20 em),

0: 2-6 in (5·15 em).
Cap Ilemispherical then convex.uniform in .. TYLOPILUS FELLEUS
color, orange-brown or pale fawn, with a Smer Bolete
dry. almost velvety, cuticie, often finely

F.D1BILITY cracked, and not viscid when weI. POfes

white, lending lalef to yellow then olive-
Vtry good to tal, but often wonn.talen, gref!n. Slipe solid and firm, slightly swollen,
~nd leu highly prind than the Ccp. tinged with ocher or brownish·orange, with
a clearly·marked reticulation O'Ier Ihe upper
hall of the stipe. Flesh
firm, soon becoming
soft while under the
(utide; pleasant odO!".
sweet, mild lIavor.

HABITAT: wf'II·lit
woods and the edges
of deciduous woods
(oak, l>eech, chestnut,
etc). May through early
fall in lowlands and
highlands. (ommon
and widespread.
Black- headed Bo lclc

often reveal the I'ftlite flesh under-

neath, Pores milk-white at first,
bulbous stipe narrowing 31 the
lOp, ocher or rusty brown
with a faint reticulation.
wtlite then turning brown.
flesh very firm, while, ew1
undef the culkle, pleasant
odor, mild flavor..

HABITAT: well-li t fOfestS, verges,

and only uOOer deciduous
trees. especially oak. Summer
stpitl- through early fall. Fairly com-
'O/OffJ mon in southern Europe, and
l't/''t/)',a" on Fraoce's Atlantic coast
but in warm ~aJs it can be
found further north.

H: 4-6 in (10·15 em),
13: 2·1'/. in (5-18 em).
Cap hemispherical and fleshy, firm in
young specimens, sepia. chocolate, 01
almost black in color, matte and velvety,
sometimes becoming marbled or veined SPFCIAI 1'1 ATl IRFS
with ocher or brick-red tints. Animal biles
Several other species or boltle which arc
mistaktn for the bLKk·htadtd boltlt
btaollSt the color of thtir tapS lI1.Iy vary
Delicious, some even prefer il 10 the ccp, and Ncomc ~ry dark. This is the cue,
bu t the firth softens conlidm.bty with for instance with Pine Boletes and Ceps
age, so ollly young 5~cimen$ arc good. that grow under chtstnut lrtts.
Pine Bo l c t(~

DESCRIPTION: H: 10·}0 an, 0: 6-18 un. or mahogany at the bottom, with fine
Cap very fleshy and hemispherical, smooth while reticulation at the lop. Flesh compact
but ohen slightly lumpy. pinkish-red, red - and white, reddish·brown under Ihe cuticle;
dish·brown, or mal\ogany. and maue. PoI"es odOf slightly resinous, mild lIavOf.
white at firSl, then yellow·green. Stipe very
swollen,while 011 the top. but tinted ~r HABITAT: oiten singly in forests 01 (ooifers,
mainly Scots pine. as well
as spruce. fir and mixed
forest. usually on high
ground. on add or sandy
soil. Summer through fall.
Fairly common in the
sooth, rarer in the nOrlh;

Devil's Bolete

DESCRIPTION: H: 8 in (10·20 em,) TOXICITY

0: 4·10 in (10·25 em),
Poisonous, especially when raw; caus~s
Cap hemispherical, !hen convex and undu-
gastro·tnlenlis attacks which manjf~51
lating. very fleshy. dirty while, ash gray, some hour.! lalcr by \iol~nl and l"C'ptalcd
cream, pale brO'Nfl or olive, graying with ~omiring.
age. Pores bright yellow at first then rapidly
turning Ofange Of brkk·red, paler al Ihe
margin, tending to turn blue-black when
looched; tubes ~lIow then oli~·green . .. BOLETUS EDULlS
stipe very swollen and shon, extending Cep EDIBU
~ter, yellow at the top and often at the .. BOLETUS ERYTHROPVS
base as Wfil, red in the middle. with an Red-stemmed Solttt Elll8U
orange or red reticulation over the whole of

SPECI AL FEATURES the top. Flesh white Of pale yellow, turning

faintly blue when exposed to the air; faint
Many red-pored boleu:s 1ft mort or less odor. becoming tTIOfe unpleasant with ~,
poisonous, induding the Red_st~mm~d mild flavor.
Bolete which is only edible if weU
cooked. Funhcrmorc, rrulny of these
HABITAT: clearings, verges and Wfll-lil
boletes aff hard to identify. For this ua-
deciduous woods (mostly oak and beech).
son, it is a good idea to avoid taring any
on limestone soil. Fairly common in the
boletes with red pores.
south. rarer in the north, and in warm, sun-
lit places. Reoccurs in the same places. Fall.
Red -s temmed Bole te

Oftrn misWm! for the Ikvil's Boltte.
The fIt5h of many boICles, including the
edible ones, I\Im5 blue when expostd to
;ur, a phenomenon of oxidation. The Red .
Sltmrntd Boktt is edible and good 10 tal,
wilike the DMl '$ Bokle (Boltrus 5<!ta.... s)
which is poisonous whether nw or

Flesh firm, bright yellow

but turning dark blue
a few seconds alter it
DESCRIPTION: H: ]'.4-B in (B· is CUI, evenlually fad-
20 em). 0: 2'H% in (l-IB em). ing 10 the original yel·
Cap hemi~herkal thef1 eonvex and low color; untypical
flanened, dar k chestnut, sometimes odor, mild flaVOf.
reddish-brown or oHvaceous ocher,
typical~ velvety. Pores small and da rk HABITAT: verges. clear-
red, turning more orange with age, yel- ings. and well·lit forests
Iow·orange on the margin, becoming of deciduous trees. rarer
dark blue immediately when touched. uoder conifers; on acidic,
Stipe cyliodrieal or olten slVOllen at the well·drained soil, in highlands
base. not reticulated but densely covered and lowlaods. Common aod
With little bright red spots. aHgned more or widespread.
less vertically, against a yellow background.

Dcvil's Bolete POISONOUS

Lurid Bolctc

DESCRl PTlON: H 4-8 in (10·20 em). brightly blue when cut. The tubes and
0: H-7;4in (8-18 em). flesh of the cap ale separated by a red
Cap hemlsp/lellcallhen convex, variable in line; plea!>ant odOf and mild f1aYOf.
color, ocher, yellow-brown, orange-brown,
or oli~, with a velvety surface. Tubes yel- HABITAT: well·lil mixed or dec:idllOUs
low tlltn green, turniflQ blue when cut. I()(MIS on limestone. soil in early summer
PoI'es yellow, soon I!.nning reddi~·orange, through fall. Fairly common and
bullUfnrng blue to tt1f, touch. Club·shaped WIdespread.
S\lpe. yellow al the lop,
elsewhele. purpliSh-red al the base of the E DIBILITY
Stipe, COYt'fed In a tICk, elongated blood·
led rellcuiallOO, Flesh firm at fi~t, yellow Considtred 10 bt ,-try good 10 t.ll , bur
in the cap and the lop of the stipe. dark lIYy ~Vt cauHd some intes.tinal UpHU .
red in the base of the Sllpe, IUrning
I'owdcry Bolctc

DESCRIPTI ON: base. ~Icm on! IXM'derY on top.

H: 2-4~ in (5- 12 em), striated or p.rnctuated With red
0: '*-4 in (4-10 em), toward the bottOOl. Flesh
Cap hemispherical then eon- ~, nstantly tLming
vex. flattened at the center Of briiflt bkJe v.Ml rut. then
slightly depressed. velvety. very bladening: pleasant odor
variable in color from caf(!-au-
lait. ocher. chocolate brtmn,
redd~ Of pink. becomirg
"" """.
5taifll'd blue-black to the touch. oraMro.JS~ ~
Pores bright yellow. then forest paths, in parks on!
d~ ILIri1] dak 1:tJ!'....t.en ~ PrefetS lfnesIone
,,,",,,,,,. d, Stmmer tIvooj1 fall.
stipe thinnirg tov.ard the

"arllSi tic Bolctc
DESCRIPTION: H: 1.H~ 11 (4-8cm). cifrinum). II grows in gr~ 01two or wee at
0: 1)1-4 11 (2-5 cm), the base of the Eanh-b.1llon very hunid soils.
Cap I'oembpherical then eonvex, siicjnly veIYety St.mmer throucjl fall. Fairly f<lfe but wKlespread.
on! oadlog: on the suface, ocher
yellow to bro'MlIsh-olive. Pores
ame art! angola( ocher yellow .
tlJr'lIO'!! rust colored. but nol blue-
irI;I. S~ smoolh aOO fbillose,
otten Cl.I\Ied al the base. reddish-
brCWl or ~1oN- brOM'l.FIesh thid
and pale. not reddenirg v.Ml
rut; flavor mild. DOOr pleasant.

HAMAT: Parasitic on the Com-

mon Eanhball (Scleroderma
Red-cr,'lcking Bolcte

DESCRIPTI ON: H: 2-4 in (5· 10 em). HABITAT: singly or in large 9fOOPS In

0:2-4 111 (5·10 em). deciduous or coniferous woods, on acidic or
Cap Ilemisphefical !hen (OIM!K, Vill)'lng in siliceous soil. Summer through lall. Very
color from grayish-yellow through brown- common and widespfead
ish-green, reddistHlrown. yelwty at fi~l.
!hen U;dlng 10 IMal reddish flesh . Biles
of small animals are also edged with led
Pores large. angular. re110w I~n olive-
green, tuming falOlly blue to lhe touch.
Stipe often sinuous. fairly {hin, may be
expanded or thrnnlng at the base, yellow at
the top. more 01' less striated with red else-
where. Flesh !.Oft, ~mon rellow, pinkish-red
under the wIKle, tuming faintly blue when
cut pleasant odor and flavor.
Downy Bolett

DESCRIPTION: H 21(.6 in (7-15 em) HABI TAT: woods and bOI'!:lefs of decidLlOllS
o 2-6~ in (5-12 em), woods. soften WIth the Red-
01 conif('fOUS

Cap hemispherical then (0I'IVex, cracking Bolete. on non-ukareous soil.
1dJ(, ocher olIVe, and with the texture of Summef through fa!1. Fairly common and
chamois leather. Pores wilW, espe<ially near
the stipe, IIregular and arlQular, golden yel-
low, ewntually IUfning green, and faintly
blue to the touch. Stipe often curved, tllin or
sturdy, thickemng at the base, can be as SPfCIAL FEATURFS
long as 6 m (15 em), yetiow, covered In
Sp«ies vcry similar to tht Rrd'crackinl
coarse reddish-brown striauom which
Bolf tt (,\'tlllCo"'''J (/'rJ'St"'trort) and ~
sometimes combme In lO a vagl.le nelwOrk Bolt te (XtrorOHl~J badill~), of which
al the lop. Flesh thick,whi te Of pale yellow, th~ft art various intermediate fOfrlls.
nOl lurnlng blue; pleasant odOl. mild flavor.

Bay Bo le te
b,1J' b/ll'ol'll cap
DESCRIPTION: H: 2',H% in (6- 12 em),
0: 2-6 in (5·15 em),
Cap fleshy, hemispherical then flattened .
~iscid in damp weather, velvety in dry
weather, uniform in (olor, bay (chestnut) to
reddish-blown. Pores lemon yellow then
olive, instantly staining dark blue-green
when touched. Stipe irregular. thickened or
thinning, narrowet or otherwise althe base,
ocher or reddish-brown all over, but slri-
,ned vertically with reddish·brown and not
lellculaled. Flesh thick, soh in the cap.
whitish-yellow, turning fainlly blue when
cut. pleasant fungal odor, mild flavor.

HABITAT: mainly in cooilerous forests.

sometimes under de<iduous trees (oak,
bee<:h, chestnut), or in c~fts in
stumps; on acid soil. Occa-
sionally in summer, but
mainly in lall. Very (om-
mon, widMpread through- /",tS )'(II",,~ luming bluiik-
out the temperate north- grttll 10 lilt IOIIrb
em hemi~phere.

Vcry good 10 tat and nrely worm-caten, The Bily Bolete is one of the few bolctes
ol1cn growing in large oumbe:rs. The whkh ~ not form mytorrhiu with
tough 5tipt' should be: discarded. tru roolS.
O range Bo!ete


13: 4·8 in (10·20 em).
Cap globulose or hemispherical al first, Of the rough.stemmed bolcrcs, the Mn
barely wider than the stipe, then expanding to rat arc those spccit'll whose c~ps arc
and enlarging until it is convex, with a vel- rinrcd with orange or reddish-brown.
Vf!ty cuticle which ~rlaps the margin, and However, the Resh of aU the boktn in
is uniformly reddish-orange. ~melimes rhis group turns black when cooked.
brownish-orange. f'ofes small, while, turn·

ing gray-brown With age. Stipe

lough, slightly swollen toward
the base, covered in small rusty
or reddish -brown, granulose
scales. Flesh thick, firm in the
stipe. softening With age In
the tap. whitish when cut,
luming dlny pink and fina lly
violet-black; pleasant odor mild
and pleasant tlavor.

HABITAT: under birch, aspen,

and poplar 0fI damp, clay soil.
Summer through fall. Fairly
common in the northern hemi·

Good ro fir wh~n young.
O ak B.olete

DESCRI PTION: H: 6)\·8 in (12·20 em,

0: 2/,·6% in (6- 18 em).
Cap hemispherical then convex, velvety This specks is often (onn.sed with the
when dry, soft finely cracked on the mar- OrarlSt Bolele which groW5 under decid·
gin. brick-red or brownish-orange, brown- UOU$, waltr. loving trees such as aspen
ing with age. Pores fine, whitish, pa~ and poplar.
ocher subsequently, slightly browning 10
the tooch. Stipe slightly thidened at the
base, white, covered in small red-
dish scales which later lurns
brown, lIesh firm then
spongy, white, turning
pink or gray w~n CUI,
sometimes blue-green at
the base of the stipe;
plea~nl odor, mild fla-

HABITAT: under oak, chestnut, and
occasionally under beech. Summer through
fall. Url(ommon.

Stlllls mLlrwiNg
Iht~ lummg b",,"'IJ
Brown Birch Bolclc

DESCRI PTION : H: 4·10 in (10·25 cm). Cap ~mi·

0: 2·6 in (5·15 em). spherical
then convex.
hazelnut. gray·
brown or brownish·
yellow. slightly vel·
vety when dry. viscid
when wet. Pores
white at first. then
turning gray.
browning to the
touch. Stipe long.
widening from
top to bottom.
whitish but cOV1!red with
linle grayish·black. crowdPd spots. Flesh
soft in the cap. fibrous in the stipe. white.
not blackening: odor pleasant. flavor mild.

HABITAT: under birch and in mixed

woods containing birch. on damp. acidIC
soil. Summer through fall. Very common.


This is a collective ,pecies, a group of

whkh Ihe various varieties art some·
times hard 10 diSlinguish. and which
were once (DUefted under the bo\.i'lnicaJ
name of Bo/rlus Slfl/>(r.
Horn beam Bolc~e

DESCRIPTION: H: 4-7l'in (10·18 em),

0: 2-4 in (S·IO em).
Cap hemi~pherical then convex, pitted,
!>Ometimes cracking in dry weather and

wilh age. fairly soh, hazelnut or brownish-

yellow, shaded ocher or fawn. Pores small
and white. then dirty yellow and evenlllally
1A1,lulIlll)\ turning gray. Slipe slender toward the lOp.
"n(H~g ill be<oming progressively wider toward the
dT)' ,,"(mJr(r base and very scaly, The li11le gray scales
*,hi. /
1I1I"~rd Iht 10/',
covering a paler backgrOiJnd all' aligned
vertically, giving the stipe a striated look.
..ilk. ICI<'tI.J Flesh firm in the stipe, soft in the cap; while
Ihi h,Ist when CUI but instantly changing 10 dark
pink then \0 violet-black. Odor faint but
pleasant, flavor mild, slightly acidic.

HABITAT: under hornbeam, hazelnut or

oak, on cool, shady soi\. On highland or
lowland. Summer through fall. (ommon.

Ediblt but mediocre, the soft Huh black-

tn, when cooked.
Poplar Solete

DESCRIPTION: 'NOIk, and very densely doned with fine

H: (12- bfown scales. fle!>h fifm and while, rf<!-
18 an). 0: 3';4.-6 denir-.g at the top 01 the stipe when CUt,
in (8-15 cm). tUTnir-.g blue allhe bottom, and finally
Cap hemi~ical then blademng.
convex, lumpy, slightly
viscid when damp, oad::- HABITAT: under poplar or aspen, in
ing slightly ~th age, gray forllSts, beside waterways. Fall. Uncommoo.
-bfown or reddi!Jl-bfown
PorllS cream thefl gray.
Stipe swollef1 in the mid-
dle or atlhe base, grayiSh-
mUle,covered in folds
which fOfm a sort of nel-

American Rolell~

DESCRIPTION: H: 1 ~-4 in (4-10 (m), led 011 lhe lOP, the spots darkening Wllh
o , ,(·4 in (3·10 an). age. flesh yeIlOW1!>h, IUTning reddl!Jl-bfown
Cap convex. WIth an iruoUed margm {eN' when WI
tied in yellowrsh, VIscid hairs. 81111ianl yel-
low, SPOiled or slriped with red. Pofes wide HABITAT: only under pines. Summel and
and ar.gular, even elor.galed, yellow Ihen early fall, Very {ommoo in NOfth America.
ocher, (overed in young specimens with a
yetiowi!>h veil, whidlleaves no lir-.g sifl{e it
is nol alla<1\ed 10 the Sllpe_ Slipe Ihin lor a
80Iete (less than 'h in (1 em)), yellow, spot-
Bovin e Bo lctc

DESCRIPTION: H: 2%-3% in (4·8 em), and elastic, whi tish'yeliow; Pleasant

0: 2-4 in (5·10 em), odor, mild flavor.
Cap convex then flauened and lumpy.
thick at the cent!'r, wi th a thin margin, HABITAT: in groups, only under pines. in
ocher or orange, shiny, viscid in damp IClem or heaths on acidic !>Oil, on high.
weather. Pores large. especially close \0 land or lowland. lale summer through
Ihe slipI'. elongated and more or less fall. Found all over the world.
aligned with the stipe, composite
(divided into several compartments), yel.
low-green, browning 10 the lauch. Stipe
slender, ohen flexed, ()(her, covered in
reddish fibrils as It ages and sometimes
with pink filaments of reddish-orange
mycelium attached to the basl'. Flesh soft
Speckled Bolete

DESCRIPTION: H: 2',.,41,. in (6·12 em), 0:

2'1.-6 in (6-15 em).
Cap hemispherical then flattened with a
thin margin, ~lIow ocher, orange, or brown-
ish'yellow, later turning olivaceous. Vel\lf!ty
al first then finely granulose. slightly viscid
in wet weather. Pofes small and angUlar.
yellowish then brownish·green, turning

1'hi$ and 1M Sp«kkcI Bokte arc the only
specia of SuJ/us growing IIndu piM
wbo5c Mipt has no ring or granulation.

faintly blue to the touch'stipe long

and sturdy, yellowish. Flesh fi rm,
rapidl y sohening, pale yellow,
faintly blueing, when CUI; faint odOf
of bleach, mild but unpleasam flavor.

HAB ITAT: coni ferous woods. es~ia l ly

pine, in the mountains, mainly on acidic Of
sandy soil. late summer through lall.
Yellow Pine BolclO!

DESCRIPTION: H: 3:4-5 in (8·15 on), dish or brownish granutatioM. Flesh thICk,

0: 2·4~ in (5-12 em). while or yellow, unchanging wtlen cut.
Cap hemispherical or cooical\hef1 convex, Spicy odor and navor.
yellowish-orange to reddish-brown, unl·
form, very viSCid when ~I, silq and HABITAT: in groups, only tinder pines
maue in dry weathef, With it cullde that (5<015 pint', Ausuian pine, Aleppo pine,
ow/taps the rrargin and is easily detach- etc.), often in the
able. Pores small, SU(ces~1y pa~ yel· grass and prefefs
low, bright yellow, and finally red- lirTleStOl'lf soil. In
dish, exuding milky drops in looNIand and high-
young spe<i~m. Stipe solid land.lale summer
and firm, while or pale yel· tITou;1I fal.1/efy CClITI'I'Ol
low. the lop uudes the along the European Atlantic:
!.ame milky drops as the coast, less so elswhere.
pores. later presentlll9 red
1-- """"II~' .""hl


Good 10 UI, although it rnldl 10 M indi-

gntiblt. The: viKid, bittn- C\loclc must
M diJankd btJorr pnpuatioa.
Slippery Jack

DESCRIPTION: H: 2 ~· 7 /. in (7-13 em),

o 2·611 In (5· 12 em).
Cap con~x. expaoorng very late, very
viscid and stkky, mostly chocolate
brown in color, SOrl1ellmes reddish·
brown Of ocher, wuh \hln, darker stripes;
tiny shreds of the white veil are attached
to the margin, and the cuticle 1$ easily sep-
arable. Pores Wlall and rounded, lemon yt'I.
low, IUfnlng green with age. Stipe lailly
short, thid:: and sturdy, sometimes bent

cytil'ldllcal and
slightly thickened at the
base, firm and fibrous,
white to yellow, with
tiny reddish granula-
II00S al t~ top. and
with 11 WIde membra-
nous nng. white thef1
vioIet·brown. Flesh
thiek, film at fi~1 then
bKomll'lg wit, wtll\lsh
to pale yellow, and yel -
lower ill the ba!.e of
the stipe; pleasant
odof, mild flavor.
Good 10 U f, Ind considtrtd 10 be tht HABITAT: in groups, only under pines,
bot" of th~ S~j//"s, ali long as Ih( slimy, mainly Scots pin!.', in the grass, at road
bitter cuhck is fiQI discarded, and only sides, and beside ditches. Fall. Commoo
younl sp«lmrnl I~ n l t n. throughout the Nonhe!n Hemisphere.
especially in w.vmer parts.

La rch Softie

DESCRIPTION: H 2)1-6 in (6-15 em). HABITAT: ooly lim larch in parks and
0: 2·4 In (5·10 em). plantations, in avenues among Ihe grass,
Cap IlemisphelH:al then (on~x Of flattened, sometimes qUite far from the trei!,in high.
might lemon yellow to orange-yellow. very lands and lowlands. Summer through fall.
shiny and viscid. Pores hidden by a wool~ Fairly common.
white veil ill young spec.imerl§, lemon yel-
low, tuming reddish Of pinkish gray 10 the
tooch. Stipe ohef! slightly iwollen al the
base, uniform yellow below the ling and
with reddish velllS above it. The ring is
whUish and woolly, forming a ridge. FIMh
pale ~Iow In the cap, blIght yellow in the Ediblt but m~diocrr. The ,limy cuticle
Stipe. velOed with VIOlet when (ut; pleasant should lit discarded,
odor and flaV()(.
Slippery Larch Solcle

DESCRIPTION; H: 2t1i-6 in (7-15 em). HA8ITAT: only under larch, whethel wild
0: 2-4 in (5·10 em), Of cultIVated, in la.vIands and highlafldi.
Cap hemispheocal then convex Of flattened, Prefers liml'stone soil. Early summer
extremely viscid, surface slightly wrinkled, lhrough fall. (ommoner in the mountains.
beige then gray-brown. turning greenish-
gray With age; the edge sometimes retains
the remainsol thewtlitrsh vtil in the fOfrn of
wall shreds. The pores are large, irregular.
pale. then turntng brown or grayish-gret'f1.
The Sllpe is whitish or )'fllowish above the
ring. dirty red or brown below it; thto ring is
wide and white al first. then flattened
against the stem i!fld browning. The flesh is
Edible but very poor rating, as the fltsh
soh, whitish, turning gray or brown in i. soh and spongy-
places when cut. The odor is faint and flavor
Glutinous Gomphid iu$

completely separable from the cap. Gills

broad, widely 5pilCed, dl!ru'renl, IllQII! or
Ie!.s fab!d, of a vmy consistency• ....tut1Sh
!hen blackish. 'M'/ easily separated from the
rest 01 the cap. S~ not very thid:. at the
base. wry 'Iiscid, white exCfPI at the base
....nidi is lemon yellow and with a small riN;I
01 brown scales. Flesh thick. only a1 the center
of the cap, while, bright yellow at the base of
the Stipe; odorless, mikl i'l1\a<.<J.

HABITAT: anfl!fOUS for~ (!opIUCe II the

rr(JU'Itairts, pines in the k7N1ands) especiaIy
at the edge 01 the woods. Surmer tht'ourjl
fall. Fairty common and WIdespread.

DESCRIPTION: H: 2)1·5)1 in (1-13 an).

0: 2-4 in (5·10 (m).
Cap conical and umbonate, then WIth a
flattened lop. becoming hmel-shaped 'Mth
age. co.oered WIth a thick, geiatll'lOUS film; the
margill remains inrolkd for a long time arid
is attached to the stipE! by a glutinous 'Jf!il ill
young specimens, whrll is cafe-au-lal/, rpJ-
viole\, then rEddish./lftM/f1 in color, staining
black when touched. The cuticle is easily

Good 10 ut, ;as IofIJ as the visrid (\Icicle: )"Bo.- {/all'"
/Nut of 1M Ibllt
is fe_cd, but the 8rsh bUickcns dur-
ing cooking_
Coppery Gomphidius

Flesh (lange-yellow With

a tendency to redden.
odorless and With a mild

HABITAT: under
conifers" IIf!fY chen pines.
larer I.I'Idtr ~t; s0me-
times even around indi-
viOJaI tree. It ~
or meadows. late sum-
mer thlOugh fall. fairly
o:mna'l and wdespread.

DESCRIPTION: H: 2'H in (7-1S (m),

0: 2-4 in (S-10 (m).
Cap (ol1lcal, sometlfnes becoming umbon-
att, the margrn remarnll"lg inrolled, VI!.Cid,
copptf-colored, reddish-brown or dart. red,
palei' as it ages. Gills 'o'tfY WIdely spaced and
de<urrtnt, U$ity detachable from !he rest of
the cap, re!ldi!oh-ocher then dark brown
with age. Stipe often Ioog, gerreralty thinner
at tht lop Of bottom and swollen toward tht
middle, marked with reddish lOOes Of (OV-
ered With small scales flattened against it.

Edible but medioc:re, nOI IlS popullr as

the GlurinO\l$ Gomphidiu:s.
Brown Roll-rim

DESCRIPTION: H: 2}l.·4% in (6-12 (m),

0: 2·6 in (5-15 em),
Cap convex at first biJt soon becoming
depressed in the center, !.Omelimes
umbonate, with a margin which remains
inrolled for a long time, more or less
fluted; surface velvety or cracked in dry
weather, viscid in weI weather, cinnamoo
or brownish·ocher, Gills very crowded,
narrow, and d«urr£'nl, V1!ry forked, beige
then rust, gradually turning brown 10 the
touch, until they become dark brown some
minutes laler. Stipe (enlral or slightly
excentric, fibriilose, of the same color
as the cap, staining blown when
touched. Flesh thick and soh,
pale )'1!lIow or pale brown,
browning when exposed to trees, l'SpeCially birch,
the air as well as when bUI also chestnut, poplar.
rubbed. Fruity odor, slightly or under (ooifers in the
bitter flaVl)(. mountains. in parks. on
lawns. on the ground Q(
HABITAT: under deciduous on old, rotting stumps. on
damp, acidic soil. from early
summer through late fall.
Extremely common and widespread.

The Brown Roll-rim LlS('d to be consid·
ered edible, but it has causcd " riou'
caKS of poisoning, somc of them fatal. It
is mort poisonous when rilW.
Slack-stemmed Roll-rim

DESCRIPTION: H: 2:4·7V, in (6-18 an), brownish·black down.F1esh soft and

0: 4-10 In (10-25 em), to pale yellow, brown in the
spcJfI9y• ....tI'le
Cap CorM!X then funnel-shaped, kidney- or Stipe; odofless. IIavof molt Of less biller.
WlI-shaped, !he margin remaining inrolled
for a long 11ITIe, brOWflish-oc:h!r or brown- HABITAT: in tufts Ofl (ooifef stumps or
ish-yellow,veNety then ITIOft or ~s rMUred. lOOts. Suml'Oef thlough tafly fall.
Gills oowded, dKurren~ branched, bonded Uncommon.
tagelhe!' at the base, eMily separable 'rom
the rest of the cap. oeam 10 yellow, brown-
ing to the touch. Stipe ~hol'l and thick,
often excenlric. covered with a very dense
Deceiving Funnel-cap

DESCRIPTION: H: 3)!·71' in (8· 18 (m,

0: 2~-6 in (6-15 on).
Cap slightly COI'M!X ill rust, wllh vert
inrolled margin, then c\epfessed in the
center but relair»ng its Rolled ITIafg"'.
Surface smooth and matte, may
bea:lrroe V'tfY slightly scaly al the center.
egg·~Uow to Ofangt'-yeUow Of apricot
G!IIs very crC7Mled, thin, decufrenl, of
the same coler as the tap. Stipe pale
yellow. splndle·shaped, ending In a
pomt althe base and fused \'11th the
Slipes of olber speamens. from whICh
it is easily separable. flesh firm, fiblou5 in
the stipe; fairly strOllg and unpleasant
odor, similar 10 that produced by the
Clouded Agaric (Clitocybe nebu/gns).

HABITAT: forms dense and voluminous

Ilk on old logs 01 various decidUCIUS trees.
espe<ially oal::. Ohen grows on roots or
buned stumps. Summer throogh lall.
Uncommon, probably originalM from
North America, but also found in Europe.


Chantertllc Eol.8u
False Chanlerelle EDlBU
Jilek O'Lantern

DESCRIPTION: H: 2H in (7-15 em), cap, Stipe long. undulating. ahen uc!!n·

0: 2'h·4)/, in (6· 12 em), Iric, striated, the same color a~ the cap,
Cap (OI'IvtlI then bec:olmng depressed in the stained brownisll·gray. f lesh very fibrous,
center, and finally funnel'shaped but bright yellow.
retaining a more or less inrolled margin,
yt!lIow orange to brownish-orange. Sl'Iiny, HABITAT: in tufls at the base of tree Hun~
~ery decurrent gills, yellow-orange. thin, on the branches of dedduous trees or on
and crowded, easily separable from the the ground, 910WIIlg on buried roots. Summer
throogh fall. Ottile common in the south.
r O Tf NTIAl (O N llISIO N

ChamcrtJle EDlBl[
FJJse Chantcrcllc

DESCRIPTI ON: H: 1/.-2'11 in (3-6 em), HABITAT: i1 ~ In conifE!f005 fore5ts, ~

0: 1'/.·2'/'ln (3·7 em), dally pine, sometimes 5pIUCf. on the ~o.n.1 cr
Cap COO'o'eX but SOO'l depressed ~ the cen~ on very rotten. burled tr.nhes. late !ol.mI'l1eI
margin nolled for it krIg time. f1.n'IeI.~ tI1roucjl fal. Common and widesplead.
.., .,.. .". .,.,'" ........,'"
owge to ~ scme\Il'IES d."Itb!r in
the center. GIs 00Mi!d. deamnt. very fat2d. I'DlBILlTY
r~ StIpe thin iWld ~ at the
Wrongly accllnd of bring poisonoul. In
base. smooth and o:riaa'Ot.t5, beooming hobv, fact, it is quilt good to ut though tht
da!k ~red at the base; chtI~ flaccid ard n"h is r.nhtr !JOft.
elastic, no partICUlar cdof 0' ~.
Sessile Ea rth SUlr

0: 1/'-2 10 (3-5 em),
The Sessile Eanh SIal' (on~15 01
an OUlef segmented part and a
~fI(al (ermal pari. The outef
part consim of SIX to nifW!
smooth lJIangular segments,
aeamy-whlll! 10 ocher in color. In
wei 'ffl!alher they are stJelched
out parallel to the earth and in
dry weather they are incurved,
raising the central part up from
rtle ground. The sphefkal center
is the same color as the seg-
ments. or slightly dal~er, grayish
ocher, Their consistency Is similar
to that of wasps' nests or parch-
ment. The lOp is pelforaled with
a little hole with an Irregular,
loothed edge. The flesh Is coria-
ceous and has flO pankular odor.

HABITAT: Ohen in coionie\ on

moss or needles in (oorfefous or
mixed forest s. Summef and early
fall, Widespread.
, -------

Triple Earth Star

DESCRIPTION: H: %-2 in (2-S em). 0: 1~- itself under-

2 in (l-S em) ((~), 2%-(6-12 em) (open). neath the
In its young state, the lungus is ovoid fungus.
and subterranean. II develops in a spher- becoming
ical form in two parts, an external part split CfOSS-
which splits into five 10 seven segmenls, wise.The
(ream then turning gray. about '10 in central part
(0.5 em) thick, which expands and wraps is globulose and opens a1 the tOp in a
liny slar-shaped opening, surrounded by
sri C IAL fI ATURF.S a white circle, from which the spores afe
GUSlrrs art strange fungi whose
oolanitllJ namt means Mu.rth SGr.' HABITAT: DeCldllOus or coniferous forests,
parks. Fall. Uncommon.

Hygrometric Earth Star

DESCRIPTION: 0: %· 4 in (2·10 em). acXic soil. late sunmer throur/l early faO, but
The furqJS consists of I'MI ~ !he cenual may persist for several months in the (ty stale.
gIobulose part aboot I in (2.5 em) 11 ~er Widespread but uncommon.
v.t1k:h ioI pale rpf, aod pierted at!he top with
a small aifce. and !he OOlef p.:rt v.t.k:h ioI brtl'Ml
10 ~ ~ a six 10 ten txanched star
(sometimes there are even rnCife branchesl, The
tTcInches ere fused at !he base, and !he SlKface
is crad.ed.1Nhen !he air becomes tOO dry, the
tTcInches fad back into the eenlet; endosilY!! the
globe. Flesh brO'Ml at mall.xiry.

HABITAT: clearings. hedgerows, decidUOlli

(oak) Of cOfliferoos ipne) vee. on sandy, rather
Stump Puffball

DESCRIPTION: H: 1'1\-3'11 in (3-8 em),

0: (1-4 (rn.)
Pear-shaped fungus, consisting of a
round, head, swollen al the top. in which
a pore opens at maturity, and Ihere is a
large stipe which narrows toward the
bOllom which is no longer Ihan Ihe cap.
It is creamy-white, later turning brown
and covered in short. fragile spines. The
base of the stipe is extended by long
white, downy filaments which dig inlo
worm-eaten wood. The flesh is white,
turning olive green, except Ihe lower part sometimes half-buried. Fall throu9h early
of the cap which remains while, Unpleas- winter. fairly common.
ant odor, mild flavor.

HABITAT: In tufts on old logs and Ihe

ronen wood of various deciduous trees,

Common Puffball

DESCRIPTION: H: 1%·3'" in (4·9 em),

0: 11'·214 i in (l-6 em).
More or less pear-shaped, creamy white
arid covered in liule papillae of differ-
ent sizes looking like tiny pearls.
cream then ocher and finally olive-
Drown when the wrface is smooth.
The top opens at a perforallon situated
on one protuberance in the center of the
cap. The stipe is largely splayed in a reverse
cooe shape. and cootains sevefal folds. The brown, and lending \0 gf~nish·brown,
flesh is while al first, be<oming yellowish. eventually turning brown and powdery.

HABITAT: In ~nse clumps in de<iduous or

Edible when young and tht f1e$1r. is $till coniferous foresls. more rarely in meadows.
whilt but mediocre.
Summer through fall. Very common and

Spiny Puffball

DESCRIPTION: H: 1;4.·2'..' in (H cm), pore in the top v.+Iidl enables the sr.cres to be
0 : 1'A·2 in (]·5 em), released .. The flesh is white ar;j firm at fllSt,
Globe-shaped and carried on avery shon stem
tNrvlPJ loward the ba5e.ermre/y retXlish- """ ,........., """'""", "" '""" poMIoy,
brtwn and w.oered with soft spines about '.4 in
(0.50 em) long. in g~ of three or flU, The HABITAT: Bee<:h forests on limestone
spines IMOtua~ fall oft leaving a !.Oil. Fall. Uncommon.
retic.ulated SlKfoce.1here is
Leade n l'uflball

DESCRIPTION: a: IPA in (1·4 em), powdery when

Spherical and devoid of a stipe. The exter- ma1Ure.
nal envelope is thick and pure white, and
peels iNlay to reveal aoothef interior cover- HABITAT: in
ing that is lead gray, with a pore in the top. small groups
Flesh white then brown, and be<oming in meadows,
pastures. and
SI'FCIAL FF.ATURfS roadsides. Summer
through fall. Fairly com-
The I.udcn PuffbaUis only attached to
the soil weakly, and when mature the
lint puff of wind an 'MT)' the whole
fn,iting.body far away, thus enabling ;1
10 diumlinalc its spores.

5.''cd Puffball

DESC RIPTI ON: H: 2·4% in (5-12 em), top tape!"ing at the base; it dOl!s not de<ay
0: 2·6 in (S· 15 (m). and can remain in the same place for sev-
Fungus pear-shaped al first, wilh a white eral months with the base of the cap at
globuloS!! top, covered in small the top. !.haped like a small ClIp. The flesh
pyramid-shaped warlS is white and spongy. eventually turning yel·
which turn into a lowi!.h·greef1, and final ly olive· brown.
lorna, leaving only
their polygonal base HABITAT: Lawns and Ofchards. especially
behind.The fungus in the mountains. Summer through early
then turns gray- fall. Fairly common.
brown and the cap
splits along its who~
diameter. The bottom is
barely wider than the
Pes tl e Puffball

DESCRIPTION: H: 21'·7:' In (7·18 em). HABITAT:

0: 2·4 in (5-10 em). in meadows.
Fungus comislll'lg altwo parts. The upper well-lit woods
part is globulose. fi~1 wl'ule then!oOOfl turn- 01 deciduous or
ing ocheI, and the Ia.w part is IN! SIIpE!. The coniferous trees
upper part IS sooo (OYefed with linle soft, and parks. Summer
pointed warlS whi<h 'aU off rather quickly. through fall. Ull(om-
The fungus splits aooss the WIdth when mon \0 common,
mall/re, to release the spores. The stipe is
!\all the width of the lIEoad and represeflts
hall the heigh t of the lungm,11 is wrinkled,
folded, granulose, lim wMe then ocher.

Giant Puffball

DESCRIPTION: 0 : 6-6 in (1$-40 em). HABITAT: singly or in groups, In parks.

Large round white shape, apparently rest- on lawns, beside hedgerows, olten on
ing on tile 9101.100. smooth but lumpy. pit· nitrogenous soils. Summer through fall.
ted with shallow depressions, matt. later Uncommon and grows agam in the same
stained Wi th ocher, ~elvety to the touch, places each ~ear.
like chamois leather. Flesh white, soh to
spongy, yt!lIowing, then turning olive-
brown. Faint odor. mild, plea!>ant lIavor.
Mcadow I,,,,f!ball

DESCRI PTION: 0: ~-2 in ~2-5 em). HA BITAT: meadows. roadsides. lawns,

Globulose, slightly flattened at the top. heaths. Summer throogh fall. Common.
white then ocher, linally pale brown upon
malurity. The surface is (overed in tiny $111,1/1 11',117$ btaJmt ,krl1(hfJ.
warlS which evenwally disappear. The top ~ 'm~lin8 ~ >mQOf' 5111<1«(.
tears into ooe large openir.g through which
the spores ts(ape in the form of a gray
dust. The sope is very short or absent.
flesh whIte and spongy rn your.g
~irnens then oIive·brown afld
powdery. II seen in vertKal section, •
the upper, fertile pan can be seen to
be separated from the Iowef sterile

part by means of a membrane.


Common Eanhball

DESCRIPTION : H: 1'.'-31' in (3-8 em), woods, on acidic soil. 5umlTlef through fall.
13: 1"'·4'A in (3·11 em), Very common and widespread.
Globular fungus, "aliened allhe
lOp, with a leathery envelope,
pale yeHow or Q(ange-yellow
and covered in ~mall scales.
Stem very shan, whitish,
with rool-like filaments al
the bottom which anchor the
lungus to Ii'll' soil. flesh firm,
dirty white becoming blad.ish
and powdery upon maturity;
strong. unpleasant odol.

HABITAT: in groups 00 bare groond among

felled limber or on pathways. on moors.
verges. or well-hi deciduous or coniferous


The Desh of the Common urth~
looks similar 10 thai of the B("(k Trufflc;
il ....1 m IlS bern used fraudulently \0
imitate a truffle in certain foodstuffs,
alltgtdly cont.Jining Blick Truffles.
Bird', Nest Fungus

DESCRIPTION: H: '.6-" in (1-1.5 em), HABITAT: in colonies consisting of large

0: ~.'h In (O.S-l em), numbers of Individuals on partklily burled
Vase or cup·shaped fungus. the top cov- branches and !Wigs in damp woOOs. Sumrrtef
ered at first by a small white membrane through fall. Fairly common and widespread.
that breah open 10 reveallinle white
Ientil·YIaped grains thallu!ns Ixown when
mature, arranged in !he bol1om. The outer
surface is brown and CoYeIed in sliff hairs;
the inl'lef surface is gray and bare but sui·
aled wl!h veftical grooves.

S I' I (IA I II ATl 'RFS .,ooirlI_ WU proItr/S

lilt link ' tf!l}"
The sporu .rt dinnnilUlltd by the rJin, Iw{ort "'<flJln'ry
whOM: drops detach the Iittk gnins
containing the sports and dil~ them,


Orange Bird ', Nes t Fungus

DESCRIPTION: H: '''·\{ in (0.5- 1 em).

0: ~-~ in (0.5-1 em).
The fruiting-body is egg-shaped in the
young state, looking like the Bird's Nest
Fungus, but Ihe Interior wall of Ihe "nest"
is smooth, not striated and pale ocher in
color. The protective membrane (OV1!(ing
young specimeflS is also ocher or orange,
turning paler. The lilUe grains (peridioles)
inside are attached to the wall by short stalk.
species of rotten wood in forestsan par~s. in
HABITAT: grows in groups on various summer and fall. Fairly common.

The Stinkho m

DESCRIPTION: H: 4·9 in (10·23 em), the membrane covering the egg, The
e: 1-2 in (3-5 ern). strong, putrid adO!' can be detected from
When very young, this fungus has several yards away, and IS a magnet for
Ihe shape of egg about 2 in (5 em) flies which feed on the muCliS of the cap
in diameter, with while filaments and thus disperse the spores.
01 m)'{eliurn a\ the base. The egg
develops very rapidly and gives rise HABITAT: in dispersed groups in decidu-
to a cap and stipe. The cap is cOlli· ous or coniferous forests. Summer through
cal, viscid at first and olive-green, fall. Very common.
The viscosity disappears. afld
the surface becomes fDl811ITY
white, pitied and
If th e . ticky m.:IU is n movfli, the tg,
porous. with sort
which dots nOI have the naulluting
01 valva at the , meU, em 1M- taten, but is n tht r
base, which is mediocre.
the remains of
Dog Stinkhom

DESCRIPTI ON: H: 3:4-6 in (8· 1~ an).

E!: 'J,.~ in (1-1.5 em).
The Dog Stinkhorn looks like a smaller version
of the Stinkhorn and it develops in the same
~. It is more !JenOer and CUNed, and the cap
is the ~me width CIS the ~tipe. 'MIen the grem-
ish mucus of the cap disappears. the under·
neath is seen to be honeycombed and red. The
stem is tinged wijth pink. The !oIlle1l is no! as
strong as that of the Stinkhom but it is also

HABITAT: in groups in cIeciduous and coollet'-

ous forests. often near rotting stumps. Summer
thfOOgh fall. Uocommoo but tending to 5pl'ead.

Red Cage Fungus

DESCRIPTI ON: H: 3'H .in (8·12 em),

e; 2-3'h in (5-9 em).
Slarlir.g from a whitish 01 yellowish egg. a
loond, tanked fruil-body emerges. It is coral·
col()(ed on the ou!5lde, the inside being (rN-
ere<! in a greeflM slime. The odor of the
mature fungus is that of roning flesh.

HABITAT: if1 decidllOllS or coniferous woods,

parb, ar.d gardens. From early summer
through fall. In warm 01 lempefale zooes.
Rather rare bul found all over the world.
Red Tentacle Fu ngus

DESCRIPTION: 0: 4·7'/.. 10 (10-18 em).

The egg is whitish-gray \0 pmki!>h. II breaks
open [0 reveal four to eight (oral-red
branches, stained with bla(~, elecl al first
aod }Dilled at the bollom, which opel'! like
the petals of a flower. The smell becomM
nauseating when the fungus IS mature.

HAB ITAT: ~sturts. grass vtrges,

hedgerows, dealings, under
deciduous Of corlllel'OUS UteS.
late §piing IhlO09h lall. Rare
through fairly common, dis-
tubuted all over I~ WOIId
ard tending \0 spread.


The Red Tcnlilclc Fungi'S is a native of

"ustraw or Ncw·Zrilind. It appt'urd
in Europe forthdint time- in 1914, in
the VOJlltl moun rains of France. It was
almost crruinly inlmductd, rithcr on
raw wool, or on impontd ilnno1tIltllll.
Adnate (g ills or tubes): welded to persists only in the form of filaments
the stipe along the entire width of the on the cap and stipe.
mushroom. Cuticle: coating of the upper surface
Appendiculate: margin of a cap to of the cap (may be viscid, smooth, or
which Iragmenu of veil adhere. fibrillose).
Armilla: (overil'l9 which may be scaly
and which covers the stipe of certain Decurrent (gills): which run down
species, except in the upper part. the supe.
Deliquescent: liquifying when
Basidiomycete: the biggest group of mature.
macrofungi, so·called because the
spores ale carried on dub-shaped pro- Fibrillose: covered in fine filaments or
trusions called basidia. fibrils.
Basi diospore: spore of a basid· Fold, vein : sort of false gill under the
iomycete. cap of certain mushrooms, especially
Bulb: swollen base of the stipe of cer- Canlherellus alld Craterel/us.
tain fungi. Free (gills): not attached to the stipe.
Fugaceous: disappearing mOfe or less
(ampanulate: bell-shaped, describing rapidly with age (a ring or (Oflina, for
the ihape of the cap. example).
Cerebriform: convoluted like a brain.
The cap in species of Gyromitra (Brain Gelatinous: having the consistency of
Fungi) is cerebriform. gelatin.
Cortina: partial veil consisting of Gill: leaf-shaped appendage bearing
very fine filaments covering the gills the basidiospores on the underside of
in a young specimen. As the mush- the cap of mushrooms of the basid·
room grows, the conina tears and iomy<es family.

Globulose: spherical or almost spheri- between the mycelium of a mushroom

cal (as in the puffballs). and the roots of a higher plant (usually
a tree).
Humicolous: growing on humus.
Hygrophanous: changing color and Ostiole: small orifice from which
appearance depending on the degree spores can escape.
of atmospheric humidity.
Hymenium: the part of the Partial veil: envelope covering the
sporophore or fruiting-body on which gills of a young fungus (which may per-
the spores are borne (gills, tubes, etc). sist in the form of a ring).
Pileus: word sometimes used to
Inrolled (margin): rolled up at the denote the cap of a fungus.
edge (cap). Pore: opening at the bottom of a tube
(of a bolete, for example).
latex: liquid in the flesh of certain Pruinose: covered with bloom like a
fungi. plum.
lignicololous: growing on wood. Pubescent: covered in fine hairs.

Margin: edge of cap or gills. Reticulation: network of raised fila-

Marginate: bulb with a clear ridge ments on the stipe of certain boletes.
around the top. Rhizomorph, pseudorrhyza: Long
Milk: liquid exuded from the flesh of root-like filaments of mycelium.
certain mushroms. See latex. Ring: ring-shaped membrane around
Mycelium: network of underground the center or top of certain mushrooms
filaments which are the vegetative part Rooting: said of a stipe which extends
of the fungus. deep into the soil by becoming thinner.
Mycorrhiza: close association the equivalent of a seed.

Sinuate (gills): with a dentation Universal veil: envelope covering the
before they are attached to the stipe. whole of a young mushroom, some-
Spines: needle-shaped points, mainly times persisting in the form of a volva
under the cap of the Hedgehog Mush- at the base of the stipe or as scales on
rooms (Hydnum). the cap.
Sporophore: visible part of the mush-
room, also known as the fruiting body. Volva: envelope covering the base of
Spore: reproductive element in fungi, the stipe of certain mushrooms, a rem-
Squamose: scaly. nant of the veil which covered the
Stipe: stem of the mushroom. young fungus.
Symbiotic: said of a fungus that forms
a relationship with a higher plant, from Waterlogged: gorged with water.
which both derive benefit.

Terricolous: growing on the ground

(as opposed to lignicolous).
Tube: collection of small cylinders
attached to the underside of certain
fungi (such as boletes), through which
spores are ejected at the bottom in an
opening called a pore.

Umbilicate: with a clearly marked

central narrow, ring-like depression.
Umbo: central mound protruding from
the cap.
Umbonate: having an umbo.
Unequal: said of gills which are inter-
spersed with gills of a shorter length.


The figures in Roman letters refer to running text; the numbers in bold refers to pages on which the
subject is treated more generally. Names in Roman letters are the common name, .names in iitalics are
the botanical or scientific name.

A praeclaresquamosus, muscaria, 211

193 ovoidea, 226
Acorn Elf Cup,40 si/vaticus, 196 pantherina, 215
Agaric silvico/a, 199 phalloides, 220
Brown-capped Agaric, urinascens, 195 rubescens, 216
193 xanthoderma, 196 spissa, 218
Clouded, 129 Agrocybe submenbranacea,
Club-footed,128 aegerita, 279 229
Clumped, 182 cy/indracea, 279 unbrino/utea, 229
Cone-capped, 180 dura, 280 vaginata, 227
Fiery, 266 mo/esta, 280 verna, 224
Fly, 211 pedlades, 280 virosa, 225
Inside Out, 130 praecox, 281 Amanita, 219
Monk's Head, 129 semiorbicu/aris, 280 Ovoid,226
Satin-stemmed, 183 Agrocybe Spring, 224
Striated, 126 Grass, 280 Amethyst Deceiver, 135
Two-colored, 127 Tough,280 Aniseed Mushroom, 128
Verdigris, 269 A/batrellus Aphyllophorales,
Agaricales, 178-229 ovinus, 85, 87 64-105
Agaricus A/euria aurantia, 43 Armillaria, 17
a/bertii, 195 A/nico/a me/inoides, 257 Bulbous-stemmed
arvensis, 198 Amanita Darkening,134
augustus, 194 battarae, 229 Armillaria
bisporus, 192 caesarea, 214 mellea, 133
bitorquis, 190 citrina, 223 ostoyae, 134
californicus, 197 crocea, 228 Artist's Fungus, 79
campestris, 191, 197 fu/va, 228 Ascocoryne, Fleshy, 37
macrosporus, 195 gemmata, 219 Ascocotyne sarcoides, 37
porphyria, 193 junquil/ea, 219 Ascomycetes, 32-57
Asterophora Devil's, 326, 328 radicans, 321
Iycoperdoides, 154 Downy, 332 satanas, 326
Astraeus hygrometricus, Hornbeam, 337 scaber, 336
355 Hollow-stemmed, Bovista plumbea, 358
Auricularia 320 Bracket Fungus, Fir, 80
auricula judae, 61 Larch, 343 Bracket Fungus,
mesenterica, 60 Lurid,329 Variable, 80
Auriscalpium vulgare, Oak,335 Brain Fungus
88 Orange, 334 Black, 47
Parasitic, 330 Common, 46
B Peppery, 321 Cup-shaped,46
Pine, 326 Elastic, 47
Bachelor's Button, 37 Poplar, 338 Gray, 60
Baeospora myosura, Powdery, 330 Yellow, 62
162 Red-cracking, 331 Branch-gilled Fungus,
Beefsteak Fungus, 78 Red-stemmed, 328 160
Bird's Nest Fungus, 362 Rooting, 321 Brick Cap, 271
Orange, 363 Scarlet -stemmed, Bulb, 10, 11
Bisporella citrina, 39 322 Bulgaria inquinans, 37
Bisporelle , Yellow, 39 Slippery Larch, 344 Bulgaria truncata, 37
Bjerkandera adusta, 74 Speckled, 340 Bulgaria, Truncated, 37
Black Elf Cup, 45 Summer, 324
Bladder Elf Cup, 44 Yellow Pine, 341 C
Blewit, 132 Boletales, 316-351
Blue-green Wood Boletinus cavipes, 320 Caesar's Mushroom, 214
Cup, 38 Boletus Cage Fungus, Red, 364
Blusher, The, 216-217 aereus, 325 Calocera vicosa, 63
Blushing Bracket, 74 aestivalis, 324 Calocybe
Bolete albidus, 321 carnea, 154
American, 338 appendiculatus, 322 gambosa, 153
Appendiculate, 322 calopus, 322 Caloporus ovinus, 85
Bay, 333 edulis, 323 Calvatia
Bitter, 319 erythropus, 328 excipuliformis, 359
Black-headed, 325 luridus, 329 utriformis, 358
Bovine, 339 pinophilus, 326 Camarophyllus pratensis,
Brown Birch, 336 pulverulentus, 330 108

Candlesnuff Fungus, 34 Clavaria dryophi/a, 166

Cantharellus fragi/is, 98 fusipes, 167
cibarius, 92 kunzei, 102 kuehneriana, 168
cibarius var vermicu/aris, 98 macu/ata, 168
amethysteus, 93 Clavariade/phus peronata, 169
cibarius var pisti/aris, 104 Co/tricia perennis, 71
bic%r, 93 truncatus, 104, 105 Coltricia, Persistant, 71
friesii, 93 Clavu/ina Common Brain
/utescens, 94 cinerea, 99 Fungus, 46
tubaeformis, 95 cristata, 99 Conocybe, Milk-white
Cap, 10, 11 Clavu/inopsis he/vola, 278
margin of-, 10, 11 105 Conocybe /actea, 278
Catathe/asma Clitocybe Consumption, 21
ventricosa, 134 Cup-shaped,l22 Coprinus
imperia/is, 134 Funnel-shaped,126 atramentarius, 187
Cauliflower Fungus, 103 Hoary, 124 comatus, 188
Cep White, 123 disseminatus, 184
Cha/ciporus piperatus, Clitocybe domesticus, 184
321 candicans, 123 /agopus, 186
Chanterelle, 92 cerrussata, 124 micaceus, 185
False, 351 c/avipes, 128 niveus, 185
Gray, 94 dea/bata, 125 picaceus, 186
Tubular, 94, 95 decembris, 127 p/icati/is, 190
Yellowing, 94 geotropa, 129 Coral Fungus,
Charcoal Burner, 295 gibba, 126 Beautiful, 101
Ch/orociboria nebu/aris, 129 Erect, 101
aeruginascens, 38 odora, 128 Fiery, 100
Ch/orosp/enium phyllophi/a, 124 Flaccid, 100
aeruginascens, 38 rivu/osa, 125 Kunze's, 102
Chondrostereum vibecina, 126 Pale, 62
purpureum, 69 Clitopi/us prunu/us, White, 89
Chroogomphus ruti/us, 234 Cordyceps, 17
346 Collybia Club-shaped, 34
Clathrus butyracea, 164 Cordyceps
archeri, 365 conf/uens, 165 ophiog/ossoides, 34
ruber, 364 distorta, 166 Corio/us versicolor, 76
Cortinarius glaucopus, 252 Cuphophyl/us
Abnormal, 244 hinnuleus, 248 pratensis, 108
Annatto, 242 multiformis, 250 virgineus, 108
Blue, 251 orel/anus, 242 Cyathus striatus, 362
Cinnamon, 96, 246 paleaceus, 249 Cystoderma
Curved,248 purpurascens, 251 amianthinum, 156
Elegant, 253 rubel/us, 243 Cystolepiota aspera,
Fawn, 248 rufoolivaceus, 254 200
Flexible-stem, 249 semisanguineus,
Glutinous, 254 246 D
Green-stemmed, 252 speciosissimus, 243
Many-colored, 252 splendens, 253 Oaedaleopsis
Mauve-tinted, 245 torvus, 248 confragosa, 74
Multiform, 250 traganus, 243 Death Cap, 220-222
Red-banded, 247 trivialis, 255 Death Cap, False, 223
Purplish, 251 Craterel/us Deceiver, 136
Reddish-olive, 254 cornucopioides, 90 Destroying Angel, 225
Resplendent, 253 Crepidotus Dry Rot, 66
Semi-sanguine, 246 Soft, 266 Dryad's Saddle, 81
Stinking, 243 Variable, 267 Oumontinia tuberosa,
Straw, 249 Crepidotus 36
Suspect, 243 mollis, 266
Trivial, 255 variabilis, 267 E
Cortinariales, 240-283 Crinipel/is stipitarius,
Cortinarius 161 Ear-jack Fungus, 45
alboviolaceus, 245 Crown Elf Cap, 42 Ear-pick Fungus, 88
anomalus, 244 Crucible Elf Cup, 41 Earthball, Common, 361
armil/atus, 247 Crucibulum Earth-fan, 84
caerulescens, 251 crucibuliforme, 363 Earth-star,
calochrous, 252 laeve, 363 Hygrometric, 355
camphoratus, 243 vulgare, 363 Sessile, 354
cinnamomeus, 96, Crumble Tuft, 181 Triple, 355
246 Cultivated Mushroom, Ecology, 16
e/egantissimus, 192 Elfin Saddle, 47
253 Cup-shaped Brain Entoloma
fiexipes, 249 Fungus, 46 cetratum, 237

clypeatum, 235 Field Mushroom, 191 Gomphidius

conferendum, 237 Fir Bracket Fungus, 80 Coppery, 346
hirtipes, 238 Fistulina hepatica, 78 Glutinous, 345
lividum, 236 Flammulina velutipes, Gomphidius
rhodopolium, 238 157 glutinosus, 345
sericeum, 239 Flesh-colored viscidus, 346
serrulatum, 239 Mushroom, 154 Gomphus floccosus, 98
Entolomatales, 230-239 Fly Agaric, 211 Gomphus, Scaly, 98
Entoloma Fomes fomentarius, 78 Gray Brain Fungus, 60
Blue, 239 Fomitopsis pinicola, 82 Grisette, 227
Livid, 236 Fruiting body, 13 Gray, 229
Ocelot, 237 Funnel-cap, Deceiviing, Pink-spored, 233
Shield-shaped, 235 349 Saffron, 228
Silky, 239 Tawny, 228
Silky-stem, 238 G Yellow-brown, 229
Stinking, 238 Gymnopilus
Star-spored, 237 Galerina Penetrating, 265
Exidia Autumn, 268 Gymnopilus
glandulosa, 60 Marginate, 268 penetrans, 265
truncata, 60 Smooth,267 spectabilis, 266
Galerina Gyromitra
F autumnalis, 268 esculenta, 48
laevis, 267 gigas, 49
False Death Cap, 223 marginata, 268 infula, 49
False Morel, 48 Ganoderma
False Panther Cap, 218 aplanatum, 79 H
Fairies' Bonnets, 184 lipsiense, 79
Fairy Club, lucidum, 79 Hapalopilus,
Ash-gray, 99 Gasteromycetes, Reddening, 73
Crested, 99 352-365 Hapalopilus rutilans, 73
Fragile, 98 Geastrum Hare's Foot Ink-cap,186
Giant, 104 sessile, 354 Hebeloma
Truncated, 105 triplex, 355 crustuliniforme, 255
Yellow, 105 Gerronema ericetorum, mesophaeum, 256
Fairy Ring 121 radicosum, 257
Champignon, 159 Gills, 10 sinapizans, 256
Hebeloma eburneus, 112 Inocybe
Brown-centered, 256 hypothejus, 112 Bittersweet 258
Mustard, 256 marzuolus, 113 Crimped, 260
Rooting, 257 niveus, 108 Common White, 263
Hedgehog obrusseus, 110 Dwarf,261
Mushroom, 86 olivaceoalbus, 114 Green-capped, 261
Wood Hedgehog, 86 pudorinus, 115 Godey's, 262
Helvella russula, 116 Hoar-frost, 258
acetabulum, 46 Hymenochaete, Red-staining, 259
crispa, 46 Tobacco Brown, 68 Spotted, 260
elastica, 47 Hymenochaete Star-spored, 264
lacunosa, 47 mougeotii, 68 Torn-cap, 262
Hericium rubiginosa, 68 Inocybe
c1athroides, 89 tabacina, 68 asterospora, 264
coralloides, 89 Hyphae, 12 calamistrata, 260
ramosum, 89 Hypholoma corydalina, 261
Hirschioporus abietinus, capnoides, 273 dulcamara, 258
80 elongatum, 273 fastigiata, 258
Hoof Fungus, 78 fasciculare, 272 geophylla, 263
Honey Fungus, 133 sublateritium, 271 godeyi,262
Horn of Plenty, 90 Hypholoma lacera, 262
Humaria hemisphaerica, Long-stemmed, 273 maculata, 260
40 Hypoxylon, patouillardii, 259
Hydnum Strawberry, 35 pusio, 261
auriscalpium, 88 Hypoxylon fragiforme, 35 rimosa, 258
repandum, 86 Inonotus hispidus, 83
rufescens, 86 Irpex paradoxa, 83
Hygrocybe Ivory Mushroom, 125
chlorophana, 110 Identification key, 26
coccinea, 110 Ink-cap
miniata, 111 Common, 187 J
psittacina, 109 Domesticated, 184
Hygrophoropsis Glistening, 185 Jack O'Lantern, 350
aurantiaca, 351 Pleated,190 Jelly Tongue, 63
Hygrophorus Shaggy, 188 Jew's Ear 61
cossus, 111 Snow White, 185 Juicy Elf Cup, 44

K Langermania gigantea, gi/va, 130

359 inversa, 130
Kuehneromyces Lawyer's Wig, 188 /uscina, 130
mutabi/is, 276 Leccinum nuda, 131
aurantiacum, 334 panaeo/us, 130
L carpinum, 337 personata, 132
duriuscu/um, 338 saeva, 132
Laccaria quercinum, 335 sordida, 132
amethystea, 135 scabrum, 336 Lesser Blue-foot, 132
/accata, 136 Lentinus Leucoagaricus
Lacquered Bracket, 79 Spiral, 119 /eucothites, 205
Lactarius Striped, 119 quietus, 311
b/ennius, 306 Lentinus Liberty Cap, 275
chrysorrheus, 312 coch/eatus, 119 Little Wheel Fungus,160
de/iciosus, 308 tigrinus, 119 Lycoperdon
deterrimus, 309 Lenzite, Birch, 77 echinatum, 357
fuliginosus, 315 Lenzites betulina, 77 perla tum, 356
fu/vissimus, 313 Leotia /ubrica, 39 pyriforme, 356
g/yciosmus, 31 0 Lepiota Lyophyllum
he/vus, 310 brunneoincarnata, aggregatum, 152
hepaticus, 315 204 connatum, 152
necator, 305 castanea, 201 decastes, 152
pallidus, 304 clypeo/aria, 203 Lyophylum,
piperatus, 302 cristata, 201 Gray-capped, 152
p/umbeus, 305 excoriata, 21 0 Tufted, 152
pyroga/us, 303 he/veo/a, 204
quietus, 311 ignivo/vata, 202 M
rufus, 309 mastoidea, 208
sanguifluus, 307 pseudohe/veo/a, Macro/epiota
subdu/cis, 304 203 excoriata, 21 0
tabidus, 314 rickenii, 208 konradii, 208
torminosus, 303 venenata, 209 procera, 206
trivia/is, 306 ventriosospora, rhacodes, 209
vellereus, 302 203 Magpie Cap, 186
vietus, 305 Lepista Magpie Mushroom, 186
vo/emus, 312 flaccida, 130 Marasmius
Garlic-scented, 158 Fleecy, 302 mycorrhizal, 17
Hairy, 161 Gray, 305 parasitic, 16
Perforating, 163 Hepatic,315 Prince, 194
Marasmius Oak,311 saprophytic, 16
alliaceus, 158 Pale, 304 Scaly, 193
androsaceus, 158 Peppery, 302 Wood, 199
oreades, 159 Red,309 Yellow-staining, 196
rameaJis, 160 Saffron,308 Mushrooms
rotula, 160 Slimy, 306 and man, 19
Megacollybia platyphylla, Smoky, 315 Mutinus caninus, 364
164 Spruce, 309 Mycelium, 12, 14
Melanoleuca Ugly, 305 Mycena
Black-and-White, 151 Woolly, 303 crocata, 170, 171
Distinctive, 151 Yellow, 312 epipterygia, 169
Short-stemmed, 150 Miller, 234 filopes, 175
Melanoleuca Mitrophora semilibera, galericulata, 173
brevipes, 150 52 galopus, 172
cognata, 151 Morchella haematopus, 171
melaleuca, 151 elata, 53 inclinata, 172
verrucipes, 150 esculenta, 54 iodolens, 174
Melanopus squamosus, rotunda, 55 leptocephala, 174
81 Morel,54 leucogafa, 172
Meripilus giganteus, 82 Blonde, 55 metata, 174
Merulius tremellosus, 67 False, 48-49 olivaceomarginata,
Micromphale perforans, Glove-finger, 50 176
163 Miniature, 52 polygramma, 173,
Milk-cap, Tall,53 175
Abundant, 312 Mushroom pura, l77
Beech,304 Albert's, 195 rosea, l77
Birch,314 Anatomy of a -, 10 sanguinolenta, 171
Bleeding, 307 Brown Wood, 196 seynesii, 176
Blond,310 Cooking, 24 vitilis, 175
Burning, 303 Cultivated,14, 192 Mycena
Coconut, 310 Guinea-fowl,193 Bleeding, 171
Common, 306 Horse, 198 Conical, 174
Fawn, 313 Life cycle, 13 De Seynes, 176

Fern, 169 121 206, 207

Helmeted, 173 Ompha/otus Chestnut, 201
Inclined, 172 illudens, 349 False Brown, 203
Milk-drop,172 o/earius, 350 Frilly, 210
Olive-edged, 176 Orange Peel Fungus, 43 Konrad's, 208
Orange-milk, 170 Otidea onotica, 45 Pointed-seal, 200
Pure, 177 Oudemansiella Red-brown, 204
Red-milk,171 mucida, 155 Red-stemmed, 202
Striped-stem, 173 radicata, 156 Shaggy, 209
Strong-stemmed, 175 Oyster Mushroom, 118 Shield-shaped, 203
Thin-capped,174 Branched,116 Stinking, 201
Eryngo, 117 Paxillus
N atrotomentosus, 348
invo/utus, 347
Naucoria escharoides, P Penny Bun Mushroom,
257 323
Naucoria, Yellowish, 257 Pale Bachelor's Button, Peziza
Nectria cinnabarina, 34 38 badia, 45
Nectria Panaeo/us succosa, 44
Scarlet, 34 foenisecii, 281 vesicu/osa, 44
Neobu/garia pura, 38 semiovatus, 283 Phaeo/us
Nyctalis, sphinctrinus, 282 ruti/ans, 73
Parasitic, 155 Panellus, Winter,120 schweinitzii, 72
Star-bearing, 154 Panellus Phallus impudicus, 363
Nycta/is serotinus, 120 Phlebia,
asterophora, 154 stipticus, 120 Many-capped, 67
parasitica, 155 Paneolus Ph/ebia radiata, 67
Coprophilous, 283 Pho/iota
0 Harvest, 281 alnico/a, 277
Sheathed, 282 gummosa, 277
Old Man of the Panther Cap, 215 /enta, 277
Woods,318 Panther Cap, False,218 sa/icieo/a, 277
Omphalia Parasol, squarrosa, 278
Bell, 163 Off-white, 205 Pholiota
Moss,121 Saffron, 156 Alder, 277
Ompha/ina ericetorum, Parasol Mushroom Changing, 276
Early, 281 Variable, 80 Ptychoverpa bohemica,
Glutinous, 277 Po/yporus 51
Poplar, 279 adustus, 74 Puffball,
Shaggy, 278 badius, 81 Common, 356
Phragmobasidiomycetes, durus, 81 Giant, 359
58-63 giganteus, 82 Leaden, 358
Picking, 21, 22 leptocephalus, 80 Meadow, 360
Pine-cone Bolete, 318 picipes, 81 Pestle, 359
Piptoporus betulinus, 73 squamosus, 81 Saddle,shaped, 358
Pleurotus varius, 80 Spiny, 357
cornucopiae, 116 Porcelain Mushroom, Stump,356
eryngii, 117 155 Pustularia catinus, 41
ostreatus, 118 Poria versipora, 83
Plicaturopsis crispa, 84 Primordium, 14
Plums and Custard, 137 Psathyrella R
Pluteus candolleana, 181
Admirable, 232 conopilus, 180 Ramaria
Fawn, 232 lacrymabunda, 182 araiospora, 100
Lion, 232 multipedata, 182 fiaccida, 100
Pluteus piluliformis, 183 formosa, 101
admirabilis, 232 spadiceogrisea, 183 stricta, 101
cervinus, 232 Psathyrella Ramariopsis kunzei,
leoninus, 232 Gray-brown, 183 102
Poison Pie, 255 Pseudociitocybe Ring, 10
Polypore cyathiformis, 122 Roll-rim,
Bay, 81 Pseudocraterellus Black-stemmed, 348
Birch, 20, 73 cinereus, 91 Brown, 347
Bulbous, 75 sinuosus, 91 Rooting Shank, 156
Burnt, 74 Pseudohydnum Round Cap, 271
Giant, 82 ge/atinosum, 63 Rozites caperata, 264
Many-zoned, 20, 76 Psilocybe Rozites, Wrinkled, 264
Marginate, 82 coprophila, 274 Russula
Schweinitz's,72 semilanceata, 275 atropurpurea, 291
Sheep, 85, 87 squamosa, 270 aurora, 298
Shaggy, 83 Psilocybe, 20 badia, 293
Shriveled, 84 Coprophilous, 274 ciaroflava, 289

cyanoxantha, 295 Edible, 296 Scleroderma

de/ica, 287 Entire, 293 aurantium, 361
densifo/ia, 287 Fragile, 291 citrinum, 361
drymeia, 300 Geranium-scented, Sclerotinia, Tuberous, 36
erythropoda, 294 289 Sclerotinia tuberosa, 36
fagetico/a, 290 Green-cracking, 296 Scutel/inia scutel/ata, 40
fel/ea, 289 Marsh,294 Scutiger ovinus, 85
foetens, 290 Milk-white, 287 Serpu/a /acrymans, 66
fragi/is, 291 Olive, 292 Shield-shaped Elf Cup,
integra, 293 Pink,298 40
krombho/zii,291 Pretty, 297 Sidewalk Mushroom,
/epida, 297 Quelet's, 301 190
nigricans, 154, 286 Sanguine, 299 Silver-leaf Fungus, 69
ochro/euca, 288 Sardonyx, 300 Slippery Jack, 342
o/ivacea, 292 Stinking, 290 Sparassis brevipes, 103
pa/udosa, 294 Turco's, 298 Sparassis crispa, 103
que/etii, 301 Vinous, 293 Spindle-shank, 167
rosea, 298 Spores, 13
sanguinaria, 299 Sporophore, 13
sanguinea, 299 St George's Mushroom,
sardonia, 300 153
turci, 298 5 Stagshorn Fungus,
vesca, 296 Yellow, 63
vinosa, 293 Sarcoscypha coccinea, Stereum
virescens, 296 42 Hairy, 70
xerampe/ina, 294 Sarcosphaera crassa, 42 Rough, 70
Russulales, 284-315 Scaly Cap, 270 Stereum
Russula Scarlet Elf Cup, 42 hirsutum, 70
Beech, 290 Schizophyllum, rugosum, 70
Black-and-Purple, Common, 67 Stinkhorn, 363
291 Schizophyl/um Dog, 364
Blackening, 286 communis, 67 Stipe, 10
Bright Yellow, 289 Schizopora paradoxa, Shape of -, 11
Common Yellow, 288 83 Surface of -, 11
Crowded-gill, 287 Schizopore, Variable, Strobi/omyces
Dead-leaf, 294 83 strobilaceus, 318
Strobilurus Clustered, 165 scioides, 147
esculentus, 161 Edible, 161 sulphureum, 146
tenacellus, 162 Mouse-tail, 162 terreum, 146
Stropharia Oak,166 tigrinum, 144
Blue, 269 Red-stemmed, 168 usta/e, 141
Crowned, 270 Shredded, 164 ustaloides, 141
Stropharia Spotted, 168 vaccinum, 142
aeruginosa, 269 Tenacious, 162 virga tum, 147
caerulea, 269 Twisted, 166 Tricholoma
coronilla, 270 Tramete Acrid, 147
semiglobata, 271 Hairy, 77 Bitter, 141
squamosa, 270 Trametes Brindle, 142
Styptic Mushroom, 120 gibbosa, 75 Burning, 148
Suillus hirsuta, 77 Cloudy, 130
americanus, 338 rubescens, 74 Dirty, 146
bov;nus, 339 versicolor, 76 Dove-like, 138
granulatus, 341 Tremella mesenterica, Elegant, 137
grevillei, 343 62 Fawn, 140
luteus, 342 Tremellodendron Pretentious, 143
variegatus, 340 pallidum, 62 Saddle-shaped, 145
viscidus, 344 Trichaptum abietinum, Scaly, 148
Sulfur Tuft, 272 80 Soap-scented, 149
Conifer, 273 Tricholoma Sulfur, 146
aestuans, 148 Tiger, 144
T album, 139 White, 139
atrosquamosum, 148 Tricholomatales,
Tarzetta auratum, 145 106-177
catinus, 41 columbetta, 138 Tricho/omopsis
cupularis, 41 equestre, 145 decora, 137
Thelephora terrestris, fulvum, 140 fiammula, 137
84 lascivum, 139 ornata, 137
Tentacle Fungus,Red, pardinum, 144 rutilans, 137
365 portentosum, 143 Truffle
Tinder Fungus, 78 pseudoalbum, 139 Black, 56
Tough-shank pseudonictitans, 140 Burgundy, 57
Buttery, 164 saponaceum, 149 Perigord, 56

Tuber Russula, 116

me/anosporum, 56 Scarlet, 110
uncinatum, 57 Snow-white, 108
Ty/opi/us felleus, 319 Stinking, 111
Vermillion, 111
Yellow-gilled, 112
u Weeping Widow, 182
Witch's Butter, 60
Ungu/ina Wood Blewit, 14, 16, 131
betu/ina, 73 Wood Woolly-foot, 169
marginata, 82
Ustu/ina deusta, 36 x
Ustulina, Burnt, 36
badius, 333
v chrysenteron, 331
parasiticus, 330
Vascellum pratense, 360 subtomentosus,
Velvet Shank, 157 332
Verpa conica, 50 Xerompha/ina
Bohemian, 51 campanella, 163
Vo/variella g/oiocepha/a, Xy/aria hypoxy/on, 35
Volva,ll y

Yellow Nail Fungus, 39

Ivory, 111, 112
Lemon, 110
March, 113
Meadow, 108
Modest, 115
Olive, 114
Parrot, 109

Anagnostidis/NATURE: 276 r, 322 t, 332 - Berthoule/NATURE: 15 - A. Bidaud: 41, 62 b, 68, 83 b, 89,

98 t, 100 t, 102, 127 b, 134 b, 148 t, 163 b, 184 b, 213, 232 b, 256 t, 262 b, 270 b, 278 b, 338 b, 363 t-
R.-J. Bouteville: 57, 66, 114, 121, 150 b, 150 t, 151 t, 152 t, 155 t, 161 t, 170 b, 170 t, 181 b, 190, 195,
200 t, 203 b, 232 t, 237 b, 237 t, 243 t, 249 b, 257 b, 258 tr, 260 b, 260 t, 270 t, 271 t, 273 b, 274, 280 b,
280 t, 290 t, 291 b, 293 t, 294 t, 305 b, 315 t, 319, 329, 344, 355 t - Chanu/NATURE: 163 t, 168 t, 177 t,
271 b, 312 b, 359 t - Chaumeton-Lanceau/NATURE : 258 b - Chaumeton/NATURE : 18,35 b, 37 t, 38 t,
42 b, 44 t, 48,51 1,53 b, 64-65, 69 b, 75, 81 b, 100 b, 103, 105 t, 106-107, 110 t, 111 t, 113. 115, 117,
119 t, 120 t, 125, 128 t, 137 t, 139, 140, 143 t, 144, 145, 146 b, 149, 152 m, 154 t, 155 b, 162t, 171 t,
174 b, 175, 185 t, 201 t, 210, 214, 234, 240-241, 252 b, 252 t, 253 b, 253 t, 254 b, 261 t, 263 b, 266 b,
267 b, 267 t, 273 t, 282, 284-285, 286 b, 287 b, 292, 298 b, 301, 303 b, 304 t, 306 t, 310 b,
314, 326, 330 t 331, 337 tr, 340 bl, 341 bl, 342 t, 343, 348, 352-353 - M. Dupic : 186 t, 262 t-
R. Durand/JACANA : 194 t - Grospas/NATURE : 12, 16 I, 34 t 36 t, 37 b, 38 b, 39 b, 40 b, 40 t, 44 b, 45 t,
46 b, 60 b, 61 b, 62 t, 67 b, 71, 74 b, 74 t, 78 b, 81 t, 82 t, 85, 88, 95, 98 b, 99 t, 105 b, 126, 127 t, 128 b,
134 t, 142, 146 t, 160 b, 165 t, 171 b, 172 b, 178 -179,189 r, 200 b, 201 b, 218, 225, 228 t, 230-231, 236,
239 b, 244, 247, 265 t, 268 b, 289 t, 302 b, 309 t, 311, 313, 315 b, 316-317, 318, 321 b, 323, 327, 330 b,
334,3361,337 bl, 340 tr, 342 b, 347 t, 355 b, 356 t, 357, 361 b, 362 - Guillot/NATURE: 50 b - J. Guim-
berteau: 72, 167 I, 339, 346 t - Houdou/NATURE: 32-33, 47 b, 90,104,156 b, 172 t, 176 b, 191, 192,
196 b, 199 t, 219, 226, 227 b, 268 t, 275, 277 t, 288 t, 291 t, 349, 359 b, 361 t, 364 t - Lamaison/NATURE:
16 r, 42 t, 108, 116 b, 185 b, 233, 283 - Lamothe/NATURE: 164 1- Y. Lanceau: 46 t, 49, 53 t, 54, 56, 83 t,
86,87,92,109b,l10b,l12b,l16t,l19b,141,161 b,162 b,165b,176t,180,182b,187t,190,193b,
193 t, 194 b, 204, 221 t, 238 t, 245 b, 258 11, 264, 294 b, 297, 299, 300 t, 307 b, 310 t, 320,322 b, 338 t,
350, 364 b - Lanceau/NATURE: 17, 20 b, 35 t, 43 b, 47 t, 58-59, 60 t, 67 t, 70 t, 73 t, 120 b, 122t, 124 b,
132 b, 147, 151 b, 158 b, 160 t, 182 t, 184 t, 186 b, 217 b, 220, 224, 227 t, 235, 238 b, 246 b, 255 b, 255 t,
259 b, 259 t, 276 I, 287 t, 293 b, 302 t, 304 b, 351, 365 b - Laval/NATURE: 206, 216, 307 t -
Mayet/NATURE: 212 b, 300 b - J. Montegut: 123,239 t, 324 - C. Nardin/JACANA : 36 b - NATURE:
148 b, 250 t - PoleseINATURE: 13, 14,21,22,23 b, 23 t, 24-25, 25 t, 34 b, 39 t, 43 t, 45 b, 50 t, 51 r, 51 m,
52 r, 52 I, 52 mb, 55, 61 t, 63 b, 63 t, 69 t, 70 b, 73 mr, 73 ml, 76 t, 77 b, 77 t, 77 m, 78 t, 79 b, 79 t, 80 b,
80 t, 82 b, 84 b, 84 t, 91 b, 91 t, 93 r, 931, 94 bl, 94 tr, 94 tl, 96 b, 96 t, 97, 99 b, 101 b, 101 t, 109 t, 111 b,
112 t, 118, 122 bl, 122 m, 124 t, 129 b, 129 t, 130 b, 130 t, 131 br, 131 bl, 131 t, 131 m, 132 t, 133 t, 133 m,
135 r, 135 m, 136, 137 b, 138 r, 1381, 138 m, 139, 143 b, 152 br, 152 bl, 153 b, 154 b, 1561. 157 b, 157 t,
158 t, 159 r, 1591, 164 I, 166 b, 166 t, 167 r, 168 b, 169 b, 169 t, 173 b, 173 t, 174 t, 177 b, 181 t, 183 br, 183
bl, 183 t, 187 b, 188 t, 189 b, 189 ml, 196 r, 196 tm, 197 r, 197 m, 198, 198 t, 199 m, 202 r, 2021, 203 t, 205,
207 r, 207 I, 207 m, 208 b, 208 t, 209, 211 b, 211 t, 212 t, 215 r, 215 I, 217 r, 217 t, 221 b, 222 t, 222 m,
223 r, 2231, 228 b, 229 b, 229 t, 242, 243 t, 245 t, 246 t, 249 t, 250 b, 251 b, 254 t, 256 mr, 256 ml, 257 t,
261 b, 263 t, 265 b, 266 t, 269, 272 r, 272 I, 272 m, 277 b, 278 t, 279 b, 279 t, 281 b, 281 t, 286 t 288 b,
289 b, 290 b, 295 b, 295 t, 296 t, 303 t, 305 t, 306 t, 308 b, 308 t, 308 m, 309 b, 312 t, 321 t, 325, 328 t,
328 m, 333 b, 333 t, 335, 336 tr, 341 r, 341 m, 345 b, 345 t, 346 b, 347 b, 347 m, 349, 356 b, 358 b, 358 t,
360 b, 360 t, 363 b, 365 m - Sauer/NATURE: 19 I, 76 m, 188 b, 354.

The photographs on pages 6 to 20 are mostly taken from photographs appearing elsewhere in the book.