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Nonlinear Analysis Using MSC.Nastran
January 2004
NAS103 Course Notes
Part Number: NA*V2004*Z*Z*Z*SM-NAS103-NT1
DISCLAIMER
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NAS103 Course Director:
Abdur.Razzaque@MSC.Software.com
DAY 1
INTRODUCTION
NONLINEAR ANALYSIS STRATEGY
GEOMETRIC NONLINEAR ANALYSIS
WORKSHOPS
DAY 2
BUCKLING ANALYSIS
MATERIAL NONLINEAR ANALYSIS
WORKSHOPS
COURSE OUTLINE
DAY 3
NONLINEAR ELEMENTS
NONLINEAR TRANSIENT ANALYSIS
WORKSHOPS
DAY 4
NONLINEAR ANALYSIS WITH SUPERELEMENTS
SPECIAL TOPICS
NONLINEAR ANALYSIS WITH SOL 600
WORKSHOPS
S1-1 NAS 103, Section 1, December 2003
SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION
S1-2 NAS 103, Section 1, December 2003
S1-3 NAS 103, Section 1, December 2003
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Purpose 1-4
Review Of Finite Element Analysis 1-5
Linear Versus Nonlinear Structural Analysis 1-8
Nonlinear Analysis Capabilities 1-11
Basic Of A Nonlinear Solution Strategy 1-15
User Inter Face For Nonlinear Analysis 1-18
Summary 1-20
S1-4 NAS 103, Section 1, December 2003
PURPOSE
To understand the following:
Differences between linear and nonlinear analysis.
Different types of nonlinearity.
Nonlinear analysis capabilities available in MSC.NASTRAN.
Basics of a nonlinear solution strategy.
Basic user interface for nonlinear analysis.
S1-5 NAS 103, Section 1, December 2003
REVIEW OF FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS
A solution must satisfy:
1. Kinematics
e
U
=
bg
T
be
T T
g
U
g
U
=
eg
T
e
U
Element
Deformation
Displacement
Transformation
Matrix
Global
Degrees of
Freedom
S1-6 NAS 103, Section 1, December 2003
REVIEW OF FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS
2. Element Compatibility and Constitute Relationships
a)
b)

=
B
e
U
Element
Strains
Strain Deformation
Matrix
Element
Deformations
=
D
Element
Stresses
Stress-Strain
Relationship
Element
Strains
V

T
B
D B dV ee
K =
Element
Stiffness
e
F =
ee
K

=
V
T
e
dV B U
Element
Forces
Element
Stiffness
Element
Deformations
S1-7 NAS 103, Section 1, December 2003
REVIEW OF FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS
3. Equilibrium
4. Boundary Conditions
P
=
T
eg
T
e
F
External Load
Vector
Force Transformation
Matrix
Element
Forces
=
g
U Single and multipoint constraints
S1-8 NAS 103, Section 1, December 2003
LINEAR VERSUS NONLINEAR STRUCTURAL
ANALYSIS
Linear Analysis
Kinematic relationship is linear, and displacements are small.
Element compatibility and constitutive relationships are linear, and the
stiffness matrix does not change. There is no yielding, and the strains
are small.
The equilibrium is satisfied in undeformed configuration.
Boundary conditions do not change.
The force transformation matrix is the transpose of the displacement
transformation matrix.
It follows that:
Loads are independent of deformation.
Displacements are directly proportional to the loads.
Results for different loads can be superimposed.
S1-9 NAS 103, Section 1, December 2003
LINEAR VERSUS NONLINEAR STRUCTURAL
ANALYSIS
Nonlinear Analysis
Geometric nonlinear analysis:
The kinematic relationship is nonlinear. The displacements and rotations are
large. Equilibrium is satisfied in deformed configuration.
Follower forces:
Loads are a function of displacements.
Large strain analysis:
The element strains are nonlinear function of element deformations.
Material nonlinear analysis:
Element constitutive relationship is nonlinear. Element may yield.
Element forces are no longer equal to stiffness times displacements (K
ee

U
e
).
Buckling analysis:
Force transformation matrix is not the transpose of displacement
transformation matrix. The equilibrium is satisfied in the perturbed
configuration.
S1-10 NAS 103, Section 1, December 2003
LINEAR VERSUS NONLINEAR STRUCTURAL
ANALYSIS
Contact (interface) analysis:
Gap closure and opening, and relative sliding of different components.
Boundary conditions may change.
It follows that:
Displacements are not directly proportional to the loads.
Results for different loads cannot be superimposed.
S1-11 NAS 103, Section 1, December 2003
NONLINEAR ANALYSIS CAPABILITIES
Geometric Nonlinearity
Large displacements and rotations, i.e., the displacement transformation
matrix is no longer constant.
Both compatibility and equilibrium are satisfied in a deformed
configuration.
Effects of initial stress (geometric or differential stiffness) are included.
The follower force effect can be included
Examples: cable net, thin shells, tires, water hose, etc.
User interface: PARAM,LGDISP
Follower Forces: FORCE1, FORCE2, MOMENT1,
MOMENT2, PLOAD, PLOAD2,
PLOAD4, PLOADX1, and
RFORCE
S1-12 NAS 103, Section 1, December 2003
NONLINEAR ANALYSIS CAPABILITIES
Material Nonlinearity
Element stiffness matrix is not constant.
Two reasons for variable stiffness matrix:
1. Stress-strain relationship is nonlinear (i.e., matrix D changes), but strains are
small (i.e., matrix B is linear).
Example: Yielding structure (nonlinear elastic or plastic), creep
User Interface: MATS1 and CREEP Bulk Data entries
2. Strains are large (i.e., strain deformation matrix B is nonlinear). In general,
stress-strain relationships and displacement transformation relationships are
also nonlinear.
Example: Rubber materials
User Interface: MATHP, PLPLANE, and PLSOLID Bulk Data entries
Temperature-Dependent Material Properties
Linear elastic materials (MATT1, MATT2, and MATT9).
Nonlinear elastic materials (MATS1, TABELS1, and TABLEST).
Note: Nonlinear elastic composite materials cannot be temperature
dependent.
S1-13 NAS 103, Section 1, December 2003
NONLINEAR ANALYSIS CAPABILITIES
Buckling Analysis
Force transformation matrix is no longer a transpose of the
displacement transformation matrix. Equilibrium is satisfied in the
perturbed configuration.
Example: Linear or nonlinear buckling
User Interface: EIGB Bulk Data entry.
METHOD Case Control command.
SOL 105 (linear buckling).
PARAM, BUCKLE in SOL 106 (nonlinear buckling).
Contact (Interface) Analysis
Treated by gap and 3-D slideline contact.
Example: O-rings, rubber springs in the auto and aerospace
industry, auto or bicycle brakes, and rubber seals in
disc brakes, etc.
User Interface: CGAP, PGAP, BCONP, BLSEG, BFRIC, BWIDTH,
BOUTPUT Bulk Data entries.
S1-14 NAS 103, Section 1, December 2003
NONLINEAR ANALYSIS CAPABILITIES
Boundary Changes
User Interface: SPC, SPCD, and MPC Bulk Data entries and Case
Control commands.
Note: All different types of nonlinearities can be
combined together.
S1-15 NAS 103, Section 1, December 2003
BASICS OF A NONLINEAR SOLUTION
STRATEGY
A strategy is required to solve nonlinear problems.
A nonlinear strategy:
Advances in increments (example: two load increments).
Requires iterations for each increment (example: 5 iterations for the first
increment).
A solution is obtained when the convergence criteria is satisfied
(example: negligibly small unbalanced load).
S1-16 NAS 103, Section 1, December 2003
BASICS OF A NONLINEAR SOLUTION
STRATEGY
Example:
Displacement, u
Unbalanced
Loads
P
r
e
d
i
c
t
o
r
I
t
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
s
P
2
P
1
P
P
u
1
u
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
Load, P
Predictor
Iterations
S1-17 NAS 103, Section 1, December 2003
BASICS OF A NONLINEAR SOLUTION
STRATEGY
In MSC.NASTRAN
A number of different advancing schemes are available.
A number of different iteration schemes are available.
A number of different convergence criteria are available.
User interface:
NLPARM Solution strategy for nonlinear static analysis.
SPCD, SPC Displacement increments for nonlinear static
analysis.
NLPCI Arc length increments for nonlinear static analysis.
TSTEPNL Solution strategy for nonlinear transient analysis.
S1-18 NAS 103, Section 1, December 2003
USER INTERFACE FOR NONLINEAR
ANALYSIS
Compatible with linear analysis
Analysis types
Nonlinear static analysis: SOL 106
Quasi-static (creep) analysis: SOL 106
Linear buckling analysis: SOL 105
Nonlinear buckling analysis: SOL 106 (PARAM,BUCKLE)
Nonlinear transient response analysis: SOL 129
Subcase structure
Allows changes in loads, boundary conditions, and methods.
Allows changes in output requests.
S1-19 NAS 103, Section 1, December 2003
USER INTERFACE FOR NONLINEAR
ANALYSIS
Bulk Data classification
Geometric data
Element data
Material data
Boundary conditions
Loads and enforced motion Selectable in Subcases
Solution strategy
S1-20 NAS 103, Section 1, December 2003
SUMMARY
In nonlinear analysis:
Any one or more of the following relationship may be nonlinear:
Kinematics
Element compatibility
Constitutive relationship
Equilibrium
Loads may be functions of displacements
Opening and closing of different components
Boundary conditions may change
Nonlinear Solution Sequences:
SOL 106: Nonlinear static analysis (geometric, material, large
strain, buckling, surface contact, and constraint
changes).
SOL 129: Nonlinear transient analysis (geometric, material,
large strain, and surface contact). No constraint
changes are allowed.
S1-21 NAS 103, Section 1, December 2003
SUMMARY
Basic User Interface:
Solution strategy:
Solution strategy nonlinear static analysis. NLPARM
Arc length increments for nonlinear static analysis. NLPCI
Solution strategy nonlinear transient analysis. TSTEPNL
Displacement-increment analysis. SPCD, SPC
Nonlinear materials:
Nonlinear elastic and plastic. MATS1
Creep materials. CREEP
Hyper elastic (rubber-like) materials. MATHP
Temperature-dependent elastic materials. MATT1, MATT2, MATT9
Temperature-dependent
nonlinear elastic materials. TABLEST, TABLES1
S1-22 NAS 103, Section 1, December 2003
SUMMARY
Geometric nonlinear: PARAM, LGDISP.
Follower forces: FORCE1, FORCE2, MOMENT1,
MOMENT2, PLOAD, PLOAD2,
PLOADX1, and RFORCE.
Nonlinear buckling analysis: PARAM, BUCKLE, in SOL 106.
Contact (interface): gap and 3-D slideline contact.
Boundary changes: SPC, SPCD, and MPC.
S2-1 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
SECTION 2
NONLINEAR STATIC ANALYSIS
STRATEGIES
S2-2 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
S2-3 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Overview Of Nonlinear Analysis Methods 2-5
MSC.Nastran Nonlinear Static Analysis Flowchart (Simplified) 2-7
Classical (Standard) Newton-Raphson (NR) Method 2-8
Summary Of Basic Tasks In Nonlinear Analysis 2-13
Nonlinear Analysis Strategies In MSC.Nastran 2-14
Advancing Schemes In MSC.Nastran 2-15
Stiffness Update Schemes In MSC.Nastran 2-30
One-dimensional Example For Different Stiffness Update
Schemes 2-35
Displacement Prediction Schemes 2-38
Line Search 2-39
Convergence Criteria 2-44
S2-4 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Special Logics 2-50
Restarts 2-53
Output For Solution Strategies 2-61
Result Output 2-66
Some Heuristic Observations 2-67
Hints And Recommendations 2-68
NLPARM Bulk Data Entry 2-69
Summary 2-70
Workshop Problems 2-73
Solution For Workshop Problem One 2-76
Solution For Workshop Problem Two 2-77
S2-5 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
OVERVIEW OF NONLINEAR ANALYSIS
METHODS
Concept
where Steps 1 through 5 = advancing (predicting) phase.
Steps 6 through 9 = correcting (iterating) phase.
P
1
need not equal P
2
.
K
0
need not equal K
1
.
2. K0 - Estimate of
Tangent Stiffness
6. K
1
- Estimate
of Tangent
Stiffness
5. R1 - Unbalanced
Load
4. F
1
- Element
Force
8. F
2
- Element
Force
9. R2 - Unbalanced
Load
Displacement, u
7. U1 - Displacement
Correction
1. Load
Increment
P1
P
2
P
2
P
1
Load, P
3. U
0
- Displacement
Predictions
S2-6 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
OVERVIEW OF NONLINEAR ANALYSIS
METHODS
Algorithm
1. Determine an increment (e.g., load, displacement, or arc length) to move forward
on the equilibrium path.
2. Determine an estimate of a tangent stiffness matrix.
3. Determine the displacement increment to move forward, generally by solving
equilibrium equations.
4. Calculate the element resisting forces.
5. Calculate the unbalanced load and check for convergence. If converged, go to
Step 1.
If not converged, continue as follows:
6. Determine an estimate of tangent stiffness matrix.
7. Determine the displacement increment due to the unbalanced load.
8. Calculate the element resisting forces.
9. Calculate the unbalanced load and check for convergence. If converged, go to
Step 1. If not converged, go to Step 6.
Steps 1 through 5 are called the advancing phase or predicting
phase.
Steps 6 through 9 are called the correcting phase or iterating phase.
S2-7 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
MSC.NASTRAN NONLINEAR STATIC
ANALYSIS FLOWCHART (SIMPLIFIED)
START with a converged solution u
0
and a corresponding load P
0
Load step loop l = 1, l step
Determine new load
Start with converged deformation
Iteration loop i = 1, i max
Calculate internal forces
Calculate residual force:
Update
Solve equilibrium eqn:
Update deformations
and satisfy boundary conditions
Check convergence Converged
Continue iteration loop
Divergence occurred
Reset load step counter
and try smaller load step
or quit
Continue load step loop
STOP
Yes
No
l l l
P P P + =
1
1
0

=
l l
u u
) (
1 1
=
i
l
i
u F F
1 1
=
i
l
i
F P R
1 i
K
1 1 1
=
i i i
R u K
1 1
+ =
i i
l
i
l
u u u
1 = l l
S2-8 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
CLASSICAL (STANDARD) NEWTON-RAPHSON
(NR) METHOD
Advance forward by constant and positive load increments.
Tangent stiffness is formed at every iteration.
Displacement is predicted and corrected by solving equilibrium
equations.
S2-9 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
CLASSICAL (STANDARD) NEWTON-RAPHSON
(NR) METHOD
Mathematics
We want to solve:
Let u* be an approximation to the solution of R(u) = 0.
Taylor Series
where
K is called the tangent stiffness matrix.
K may not relate to an equilibrium state.
For loads independent of displacement:
R(u) = P(u) F(u) = 0
Nonlinear Function of u
K
ij
R
i
u
j
-------- u* ( ) =
K
i j
F
i
u
j
-------- u* ( ) =
*) ( *) ( *) ( *) ( *) ( *) ( ) ( u K u u u R u
u
R
u u u R u R
T
=

+ = &
S2-10 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
CLASSICAL (STANDARD) NEWTON-RAPHSON
(NR) METHOD
Algorithm
Solve:
Solve:
Solve:
until reaching convergence
Note: At each iteration, tangent K is computed from the current
element state.
K u
0
( )u
0
P F
0
R u
0
( ) = =
u
1
u
0
u
0
+ =
K u
1
( ) u
1
R u
1
( ) =
u
2
u
1
u
1
+ =
K u
2
( ) u
2
R u
2
( ) =
u
3
u
2
u
2
+ =
.
.
.
S2-11 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
CLASSICAL (STANDARD) NEWTON-RAPHSON
(NR) METHOD
Weaknesses
1. Constant predetermined positive load increments cannot trace the
unstable or post-buckling behavior.
Displacement
Load
Cannot trace
equilibrium
path between
A and B
A B
S2-12 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
CLASSICAL (STANDARD) NEWTON-RAPHSON
(NR) METHOD
2. No convergence if total applied load is greater than the structure
strength.
3. Computation of tangent stiffness at each iteration is expensive and
unnecessary when the solution is close to convergence.
4. Path-dependent state determination. Use of nonconverged reference
state may cause the inelastic material response to differ from the true
response.
5. Special logic is necessary if solution does not converge.
No Solution
Displacement
P
P
4
P
3
P
2
P
1
S2-13 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
SUMMARY OF BASIC TASKS IN NONLINEAR
ANALYSIS
1. Determination of an increment to advance forward on
the equilibrium path.
2. Determination of an estimate of tangent stiffness matrix.
3. Prediction of the displacement for the increment.
4. Determination of the element state: deformation,
resisting forces, etc.
5. Convergence check. Calculation of unbalanced forces
and satisfaction of convergence criteria.
S2-14 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
NONLINEAR ANALYSIS STRATEGIES IN
MSC.NASTRAN
Different schemes are available for advancing forward on
the equilibrium path.
Different schemes are available for estimating the
tangent stiffness.
Different schemes are available for predicting the
displacement increment.
Different convergence criteria are available.
Note: Users can select different solution strategies based on
different combination of schemes selected for different tasks
S2-15 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
ADVANCING SCHEMES IN MSC.NASTRAN
Constant load increments
Constant displacement increments
Arc-length increments
S2-16 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
ADVANCING SCHEMES IN MSC.NASTRAN
Constant Load Increment
Field Contents
ID Identification number. (Integer > 0).
NINC Number of increments. (0 < Integer < 1000).
Example:
SUBCASE = 10
NLPARM = 10
LOAD = 10
BEGIN BULK
NLPARM,10,5
FORCE,10,1,,100.,1.,0.,0.
FORCE,10,3,,300.,0.,1.,0.
MOMENT,10,6,,100.,0.,0.,1.
.
.
NINC ID NLPARM
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
.
.
S2-17 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
ADVANCING SCHEMES IN MSC.NASTRAN
Displacement Increment
Specify constant displacement for selected degrees of freedom.
Generally, specify displacement increment for one degree of freedom.
May specify displacement increment for a set of degrees of freedom for
a rigid body movement.
Need to have some idea of the problem to avoid specifying an
inconsistent displacement increment.
The value of displacement is a measure from the undeformed position.
Displacement is processed incrementally in the subcase.
F
Displacement Increment
Subcase 1
(Inc = 1)
Subcase 2
(Inc = 4)
S2-18 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
ADVANCING SCHEMES IN MSC.NASTRAN
May need tighter tolerances than the default for convergence criteria.
May be used in combination with load increment.
Cannot be used in combination with arc-length increments.
Specified in the Bulk Data entry SPCD or SPC.
If specified in Bulk Data entry SPCD:
Selected by LOAD in Case Control.
SPCD cannot be combined in the Bulk Data LOAD.
The degree of freedom with the SPCD should be defined in the
S-set (SPC).
Appropriate S-set should be selected in the subcase.
S2-19 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
ADVANCING SCHEMES IN MSC.NASTRAN
ID SLINE2U,V68
TIME 300 $ FOR VAX
SOL 106
CEND
$
TITLE = SLINE2U: SYMMETRIC ELASTIC PUNCH WITH FRICTION
$
BOUTPUT = ALL
DISP = ALL
SUBCASE 1 $ VERTICAL LOAD
NLPARM = 420
LOAD = 1
$
SUBCASE 2
NLPARM = 120 $ DISPLACEMENT TO THE RIGHT
LOAD = 2
SPC = 20
$
BEGIN BULK
$PARAM,POST,0
$
$ GEOMETRY
$
GRID,100,,0.,0.,0.,,123456 $
=,*1,,*(10.),== $
=9 $
.
.
$
$ LOAD FOR SUBCASE 2 : RIGHT HORIZONTAL DISPLACEMENT
$
FORCE,2,400,,-1000.,0.,1.,0.$
FORCE,2,401,,-2000.,0.,1.,0.$
FORCE,2,402,,-1000.,0.,1.,0.$
SPCD,2,302,1,44.,301,1,44.0
SPCD,2,300,1,44.0
SPC1,20,1,300,301,302
$
$ NONLINEAR SOLUTION STRATEGY: AUTO METHOD WITH DEFAULTS
$
NLPARM,420,44,,AUTO,,,PW,YES,+NLP42 $
+NLP42,,1.E-6,1.E-10 $
ENDDATA
Displacement Increment Example
Note: May need tighter tolerances for
convergence criteria.
Displacement Increment entries
Note: May need tighter tolerances
for convergence criteria
Case Control Commands for
S2-20 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
ADVANCING SCHEMES IN MSC.NASTRAN
Arc Length Increments - Concept
Crisfield Method:
Specify increments in terms of an arc in load-displacement space.
Crisfield Method Constant Load Increment
P P

i
= Initial Load Increment

c
= Converged Load Increment
u

c
l
2

2
u
T
u + =
P
i

i
P =

i

i 1
=
where = incremental load factor
= arc length
S2-21 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
ADVANCING SCHEMES IN MSC.NASTRAN
Load increment for a specified arc length is larger for a stiff structure
than for a flexible structure. It is the opposite for displacement
increment.
P
Stiff
Flexible

s
= Load Increment for
Stiff Structure

f
= Load Increment for
Flexible Structure
l
l

S2-22 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003


ADVANCING SCHEMES IN MSC.NASTRAN
Change of load for each arc-length incremental is variable.
Useful for following the equilibrium path in the unstable region as the
load increment can be negative.
u

1 2 3

l
1
2
3
u
l

Crisfield Method
Constant Load Increment

o
Circular
arc with
radius
Note:
S2-23 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
ADVANCING SCHEMES IN MSC.NASTRAN
Contribution of load and displacement to arc length is unit dependent.
Use a scale factor w to control the contribution of the load term, i.e., arc
length constraint becomes l
2
=
2

2
+ u
T
u.

u
u

Crisfield Method in Terms


of Combined Variables
Crisfield Method in Terms
of Displacements
w = 1
(SCALE)
Circle
l
w = 0
(SCALE)
Cylinder
l
S2-24 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
ADVANCING SCHEMES IN MSC.NASTRAN
Based on numerical experience, Crisfield recommends that the load
term not be included.
Becomes equivalent to displacement increment (Euclidian norm of
displacement increments), if the load term is not included.
Local nonlinearities tend to get diluted for large degrees of freedom.
Need to solve the quadratic equation to enforce the arc length
constraint.
Riks method avoids the solution of the quadratic equation by enforcing a
normal plane constraint.

1
2
3

0
u
S2-25 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
ADVANCING SCHEMES IN MSC.NASTRAN
Modified Riks method continues to change the normal plane constraint
with every iteration.

u
S2-26 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
ADVANCING SCHEMES IN MSC.NASTRAN
Arc Length Increment - User Interface
NLPCI combined with NLPARM
NLPCI Bulk Data entry
Example:
Field Contents
ID Identification number of an associated NLPARM entry.
(Integer > 0).
TYPE Constraint type. (Character: "CRIS", "RIKS", or "MRIKS";
Default = "CRIS").
MINALR Minimum allowable arc-length adjustment ratio between
increments for the adaptive arc-length method. (0.0 < Real <
1.0; Default = 0.25).
MXINC DESITER SCALE MAXALR MINALR TYPE ID NLPCL
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
10 12 1 1 CRIS 10 NLPCL
S2-27 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
ADVANCING SCHEMES IN MSC.NASTRAN
Field Contents
MAXALR Maximum allowable arc-length adjustment ratio between
increments for the adaptive arc-length method. (Real > 1.0;
Default = 4.0).
SCALE Scale factor (w) for controlling the loading contribution in the
arc-length constraint. (Real > 0.0; Default = 0.0)
DESITER Desired number of iterations for convergence to be used for
the adaptive arc-length adjustment. (Integer > 0; Default =
12).
MXINC Maximum number of controlled increment steps allowed
within a subcase. (Integer > 0; Default = 20).
S2-28 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
ADVANCING SCHEMES IN MSC.NASTRAN
NLPARM Bulk Data Entry
Field Contents
MAXR Maximum ratio for the adjusted arc-length increment relative
to the initial value. (1.0 MAXR 40.0; Default = 20.0).
Example:
NLPARM = 20
BEGIN BULK
NLPARM,20,10
NLPCI,20,CRIS,1.,1.,,,12,40
ENDDATA
MAXR
ID NLPARM
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
S2-29 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
ADVANCING SCHEMES IN MSC.NASTRAN
Option to specify either Crisfield, Riks, or modified Riks
methods.
Must be used in combination with a load increment,
Initial arc length is based on the load increment specified
in NLPARM Bulk Data entry.
Can vary arc length based on the number of iterations.
Recommendation: Use constant arc length increments.
Disallowed with displacement increments (SPCD).
Line search* is not operational with arc length
increments.
Not allowed for creep analysis*
*Note: Will be discussed later on.
S2-30 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
STIFFNESS UPDATE SCHEMES IN
MSC.NASTRAN
At every iteration (NR method)
At every k-th iteration (modified NR method)
Based on the rate of convergence. Logic is hardware
dependent. For the same problem, the solution path
may be different depending on the hardware.
On non-convergence or divergence
Quasi-Newton stiffness updates
MAXQN
MAXITER KSTEP KMETHOD ID NLPARM
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
S2-31 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
STIFFNESS UPDATE SCHEMES IN
MSC.NASTRAN
Field Contents
KMETHOD Method for controlling stiffness updates. (Character =
"AUTO", "ITER", or "SEMI"; Default = "AUTO").
KSTEP Number of iterations before the stiffness update for ITER
method. (Integer > 1; Default = 5).
MAXITER Limit on number of iterations for each load increment.
(Integer > 0; Default = 25).
MAXQN Maximum number of quasi-Newton correction vectors to be
saved on the database. (Integer > 0; Default = MAXITER).
S2-32 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
STIFFNESS UPDATE SCHEMES IN
MSC.NASTRAN
Quasi-Newton (QN) Stiffness Updates Concept
Full Newton-Raphson is very expensive.
Modified Newton-Raphson converges slowly, if at all.
Hence we seek a simple but efficient way to update (rather than recompute) the
stiffness, after each iteration.
Modified stiffness matrix should be a secant stiffness matrix for the
displacements calculated in the previous iterations.
Modified stiffness should preserve symmetry and be positive definite.
Displacement increment using modified stiffness should be inexpensive to
calculate.
S2-33 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
STIFFNESS UPDATE SCHEMES IN
MSC.NASTRAN
Consider a single degree of freedom
K
m
(Modified)
F,P
K
Spring in the Direction of
Unbalanced Force
u
i-1
u
i
P
Displacement
K K
t
R
i
= P F
i
R
i1
R
i
= F
i
F
i1
=
i
P F
i1
= R
i1

u
i1

Secant Stiffness K
m
R
i 1
R
i

u
i 1
------------------------- K
R
i
u
i 1
---------------- K K
s
= = = =
F
i1
S2-34 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
STIFFNESS UPDATE SCHEMES IN
MSC.NASTRAN
Multi-Degrees of Freedom
Define
Equivalent to adding flexibility in the direction of unbalanced force.
Modification satisfies the secant stiffness criteria, i.e.,
K U
i-1
= R
i
.
Modification preserves symmetry.
Inverse of modified stiffness is inexpensive to calculate.
K
m
K
R
i
R
i
T
R
i
T
u
i 1
----------------------- -; K
s
R
i
T
R
i
R
i
T
u
i 1
------------------------; u
s
R
i
R
i
T
R
i
( )
1 2
-------------------------- - = = =
Direction of
Unbalanced
Force
where = projection of R
i
along R
i
= projection of u
i-1
along R
i
(may be 0)
R
i
T
R
i
R
i
T
u
i 1
S2-35 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
ONE-DIMENSIONAL EXAMPLE FOR
DIFFERENT STIFFNESS UPDATE SCHEMES
F u ( ) P =
u
2
6u 8 = +
u
6
2
---
6
2
---
\ .
| |
2
8 =
u
1
2 =
u
2
4 =
1. 2. 3. 4.
U
Newton Method Illustrated
k = 2.5
P,F
P = 8
5
U
0
U
1
U
2
k = 4
F
1
F
0
F
2
Exact Solution
S2-36 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
ONE-DIMENSIONAL EXAMPLE FOR
DIFFERENT STIFFNESS UPDATE SCHEMES
Convergence Criteria: R < 0.01
Newton Method
Note: Quadratic rate of convergence
Modified Newton Method
Note: Linear rate of convergence.
Iteration Initial U Initial R K U Final U F Final R
1 1.0000 3.0000 4.0000 0.7500 1.7500 7.4375 0.5625
2 1.7500 0.5625 2.5000 0.2250 1.9750 7.9494 0.0506
3 1.9750 0.0506 2.0500 0.0247 1.9997 7.9994 0.0006
Iteration Initial U Initial R K U Final U F Final R
1 1.0000 3.0000 4.0000 0.7500 1.7500 7.4375 0.5625
2 1.7500 0.5625 4.0000 0.1406 1.8906 7.7692 0.2308
3 1.8906 0.2308 4.0000 0.0577 1.9483 7.8939 0.1061
4 1.9483 0.1061 4.0000 0.0265 1.9748 7.9490 0.0510
5 1.9748 0.0510 4.0000 0.0128 1.9876 7.9750 0.0250
6 1.9876 0.0250 4.0000 0.0063 1.9939 7.9878 0.0122
7 1.9939 0.0122 4.0000 0.0031 1.9970 7.9940 0.0060
S2-37 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
ONE-DIMENSIONAL EXAMPLE FOR
DIFFERENT STIFFNESS UPDATE SCHEMES
Modified Newton Method with QN Update
K
i
= K
i-1
- R
i-1
/U
i-1
Iteration Initial U Initial R K

U Final U F Final R
1 1.0000 3.0000 4.0000 0.75 1.75 7.4375 0.5625
2 1.7500 0.5625 3.2500 0.1731 1.9231 7.8403 0.1597
3 1.9231 0.1597 2.3274 0.0686 1.9917 7.9833 0.0167
4 1.9917 0.0167 2.0840 0.008 1.9997 7.9994 0.0006
S2-38 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
DISPLACEMENT PREDICTION SCHEMES
Solution of equilibrium equation
Line search method
S2-39 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
LINE SEARCH
Concept
Improves displacement increment calculated from the equilibrium
equation.
Displacement increment calculated from the equilibrium equation is not
necessarily the best estimate of the equilibrium state.
Seek a multiple of displacement increment (a) that minimizes a measure
of work done by unbalanced forces.
Applicable for each iteration.
Effective when the modified Newton method is used.
Effective for contact problems.
Phase 1: Seek upper and lower values of a that bound zero unbalance.
Calculate a measure of external work done by unbalanced loads for the
beginning of iteration (
0
= 0) and for the calculated displacement increment
(
1
= 1).
If the unbalances at
0
and
1
are of opposite signs, the zero is bounded and
then go to phase 2.
If the zero is not bounded, keep doubling U until the zero is bounded or the
number of line searches allowed is performed.
S2-40 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
LINE SEARCH
Phase 2: Find a to minimize the unbalance.
Let
k
and
k 1
be the scalar multiplies that bound the zero unbalance.
Based on the values of
k
and
k 1
, linearly interpolate to get a new value
of .
Evaluate the new unbalance at new a and keep interpolating between the
two a with opposite signs until the unbalance is less than the specified
proportion of
or
the number of line searches allowed is performed.
E
n
( ) LSTOL E
0
( ) <
S2-41 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
LINE SEARCH
User Interface
Field Contents
MAXLS Maximum number of line searches allowed for each iteration.
(Integer > 0; Default = 4)
LSTOL Line search tolerance. (0.01 Real 0.9; Default = 0.5)
LSTOL MAXLS
ID NLPARM
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
S2-42 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
LINE SEARCH
Implementation
Search for the local minimum point in
where feasible direction
Limit consecutive searches based on error:
where i = iteration counter
k = line search counter
Divergence if E
k
1 for 1 = >
E
k
u
i 1
R
k
i
u
i 1
R
i 1
------------------------------ =
u
i
u
i 1
u
i 1
+ =
u
i 1
K
1
R
i 1
=
S2-43 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
LINE SEARCH
Linear interpolation if

LSTOL
LSTOL
+1

1
E
No Line
Search
Divergence
Doubling Scheme
Line Search

E
k
LSTOL <

k 1 +

k

k

k 1
E
k
E
k 1

--------------------------E
k
=
S2-44 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
CONVERGENCE CRITERIA
Criteria should:
Be satisfied for the linear case at all times.
Be independent of structural units.
Be reliable and consistent; no cancellation errors.
Be independent of structural characteristics.
Be applicable to all loading cases
Have smooth transition after K updates and loading changes.
Be dimensionless.
Three criteria:
Load (E
p
)
Work (E
w
)
Displacement (E
u
)
P = 0; P = 0 (creep)
S2-45 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
CONVERGENCE CRITERIA
Load Criteria
Where
Note: If no loads are applied in more than two consecutive
subcases (creep) P
g
- i
= 0, apply a dummy load.
R
l
i
1
L
--- ABS
l
1 =
L

u
l
i
R
l
( ) =
p
l
i
1
G
---- ABS
g 1 =
G

u
g
i
p
g
*
( ) =
p
g
*
)
`

p { } p { } + =
Increment for
(From Previous Subcase)
Moment or Load Sensitive
Nonmoment Load Sensitive
E
p
i
R
l
i
p
g
i
----------
R
P
------ R
u
=
S2-46 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
CONVERGENCE CRITERIA
Work Criteria
Where
Note: If no loads are applied in more than two consecutive
subcases (creep) P
g
- i
= 0, apply a dummy load.
Line
Search
E
w
i
R
l
i
)
`

u
l
i 1
)
`

p
g
i
------------------------------------------------- =
R
l
i
)
`

U
l
i 1
)
`

1
L
--- ABS
l 1 =
L

R
l
i
U
l
i 1
( ) =
S2-47 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
CONVERGENCE CRITERIA
Displacement Criteria
Where
ITER,1 method E
u
i
is not effective.
E
u
i
q
i
1 q
i

-------------
u
l
i 1
u
l
i
-------------------- - =
u
l
i 1
=
1
L
--- ABS K
ll
u
l
i
( )
l
1 =
L


q
i
=
2
3
---
u
l
i 1
u
l
i 1
-------------------- -
1
3
---q
i 1
+

q
i
= MAX q
i
.99 ; | | 1 <
u
l
i 1
=

L
--- ABS Kl l u
l
i 1
( )
l
1 =
L

S2-48 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003


CONVERGENCE CRITERIA
Convergence tolerances:
Loose tolerances cause inaccuracy and difficulties in subsequent steps.
Tight tolerances cause a waste of computing resources.
Realistic E
u
< 10
3
, E
p
< 10
3
and E
w
< 10
-7
S2-49 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
CONVERGENCE CRITERIA
User Interface
Tested at every iteration after the line search
Field Contents
CONV Flags to select convergence criteria. (Character: U, P,
W, or any combination; Default = PW).
EPSU Error tolerance for displacement (U) criterion. (Real > 0.0;
Default = 1.0 E
-3
).
EPSP Error tolerance for load (P) criterion. (Real > 0.0; Default =
1.0E
-3
).
EPSW Error tolerance for work (W) criterion. (Real > 0.0; Default =
1.0E
-7
).
EPSW EPSP EPSU
CONV ID NLPARM
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
S2-50 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
SPECIAL LOGICS
Bisection Algorithm
Overcomes divergent problems due to nonlinearity.
Activated when divergence occurs.
Activated when MAXITER is reached.
Activated when excessive is detected.
Activated when an excessive rotation increment is detected.
Bisection continues until solution converges or MAXBIS is reached.
Activated with line search condition (see page 2-48).
S2-51 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
SPECIAL LOGICS
If MAXBIS is reached, reiteration procedure is activated
to select the best attainable solution.
User Interface
Field Contents
FSTRESS Fraction of effective stress () used to limit the sub-increment
size in the material routines. (0.0 < Real < 1.0; Default = 0.2).
MAXBIS Maximum number of bisections allowed for each load
increment. (-10 MAXBIS 10; Default = 5).
RTOLB Maximum value of incremental rotation (in degrees) allowed
per iteration to activate bisection. (Real > 2.0; Default = 20.0).
RTOLB MAXBIS
FSTRESS
ID NLPARM
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
S2-52 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
SPECIAL LOGICS
Time Expiration Criteria
5% of time reserved for data recovery.
Analysis is stopped to allow for data recovery.
Can restart.
S2-53 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
RESTARTS
Need to save database.
Cold-starts are from a stress-free state with no
displacements or rotations.
Must define database that stores all pertinent
information.
Changes in grid points, elements, or material properties
define a new problem.
Can restart from any converged solution.
Can restart into: (a) nonlinear static, (b) nonlinear
transient, and (c) normal mode solution sequence.
S2-54 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
RESTARTS
Restarting Into Nonlinear Static Analysis
Requires two parameters:
PARAM,LOOPID, Converged solution to start from.
PARAM,SUBID,m Subcase to start into.
Note: SUBID is not the same as SUBCASE ID. SUBID is the subcase
sequence number.
S2-55 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
RESTARTS
Can restart into the same subcase or a new subcase.
Must restart into a new subcase for follower forces and
temperature loads.
Follower loads are interpolated between A and B. Make a new subcase
between A' and B.
Restart cases
Next load step. (If follower forces are present, problems may result.)
Next or new subcase (skip load steps).
Data recovery (skip iteration).
A
B
SC3
SC2
SC1
A'
S2-56 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
RESTARTS
Example
Cold start
Database Version 1
1. Restart into same subcase (next load step)
LOOPID = 8
SUBID = 2
Same NLPARM specification
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5
0
0
4
.25
8
.50
12
.75
P
1
=16
1.0
20
1.50
P
2
=24
2.0
25
2.20
26
2.4
27
2.60
28
2.80
P
3
=29
3.0
Applying 16
1 2 3
LF = 1/4 LF = 1/8 LF = 1/5
INC
LOAD
LOADSTEP
Applyi ng 16 + 8 Applying 24 + 5
Subcase
Restart Here
S2-57 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
RESTARTS
Database Version 2
2. Restart into new subcase before SUBID 3
LOOPID = 8
SUBID = 3
NLPARM specification with 4 increments
INC
LOAD 0 16 20 22 24 29
LOADSTEP 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.0 1.5 1.25 1.5 2.0 3.0
LOOPID 4 8 16 21
Restart
S2-58 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
RESTARTS
Database Version 3
3. Restart into new subcase after SUBID 3
LOOPID = 8
SUBID = 4
NLPARM specification with 4 increments
INC
LOAD 0 16 20 22 24 29
LOADSTEP 1.0 1.5 2.5 3.0 4.0
LOOPID 4 8 12 17
Restart
S2-59 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
RESTARTS
Database Version 4
4. Restart for data recovery
PARAM,LOOPID,n (data recovery for LOOPID 1 through n)
PARAM,SUBID,m (m is the next subcase sequence number)
INC
LOAD 0 16 20 24
LOADSTEP 1.0 1.5 3.5 4.0
LOOPID 4 8 12
Restart
S2-60 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
RESTARTS
Restarting Into Nonlinear Transient Analysis
Requires one parameter
PARAM,SLOOPID,LOOPID
See page 7-67 for more details
Restarting into Normal Mode Solution Sequences
Requires one parameter
PARAM,NMLOOP,LOOPID
See page 9-2 for more details
Note: Results may not be accurate if the follower force effects were
included in the nonlinear static analysis.
S2-61 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
OUTPUT FOR SOLUTION STRATEGIES
Standard Output
EUI Normalized error in the displacement.
EPI Normalized error in the load vector.
EWI Normalized error in the energy.
LAMBDA Rate of convergence is
i
. Solution is diverging if

i
1.0.,
1
= 0.1
DLMAG Absolute norm of the load error vector.
FACTOR Scale factor a for line search method.
E-First Initial error E1 before line search begins.

i
1
2
---
E
p
i
E
p
i 1
-------------
i 1
*
+
\ .
|
|
| |
=
i
*
mi n
i
.7

i
10
----- - + .99 , , =
DLMAG R
i
=
S2-62 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
OUTPUT FOR SOLUTION STRATEGIES
E-FINAL Final error Ei after line search terminates.
N-QNV Number of quasi-Newton correction vectors to be used in the
current iteration.
N-LS Number of line searches performed.
ENIC Expected number of iterations for convergence.
NDV Number of occurrences of probable divergence during the
iteration.
MDV Number of occurrences of bisection conditions due to
excessive increments in stress and rotations.
N
i
EPSP E
p
i

i
*
log
------------------------- log =
S2-63 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
OUTPUT FOR SOLUTION STRATEGIES
1 SLINE1U: UNSYMMETRIC RIGID PUNCH WITH FRICTION NOVEMBER 30, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 11/29/93 PAGE 9
0
0 N O N - L I N E A R I T E R A T I O N M O D U L E O U T P U T
STIFFNESS UPDATE TIME .89 SECONDS SUBCASE 1
ITERATION TIME .00 SECONDS LOAD FACTOR .250
- - - CONVERGENCE FACTORS - - - - - - LINE SEARCH DATA - - -
0ITERATION EUI EPI EWI LAMBDA DLMAG FACTOR E-FIRST E-FINAL NQNV NLS ENIC NDV MDV
1 9.9000E+01 1.7374E-05 1.7374E-05 1.0000E-01 1.2127E-04 1.0000E+00 3.5268E-07 3.5268E-07 0 0 0 1
2 1.8484E-07 9.0935E-11 7.1947E-17 5.0003E-02 2.6099E-09 1.0000E+00 2.9490E-06 2.9490E-06 0 0 0 0 1
0*** USER INFORMATION MESSAGE 6186,
*** SOLUTION HAS CONVERGED ***
SUBID 1 LOOPID 1 LOAD STEP .250 LOAD FACTOR .25000
^^^ DMAP INFORMATION MESSAGE 9005 (NLSTATIC) - THE SOLUTION FOR LOOPID= 1 IS SAVED FOR RESTART
Subcase
Sequence
Number
For Restart
Purpose
S2-64 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
OUTPUT FOR SOLUTION STRATEGIES
Diagnostic Output
DIAG 50 (NLPARM, NLPCI and SUBCASE data)
For every entry into NLITER module (AFTER STIFFNESS UPDATE)
N O N - L I N E A R I T E R A T I O N M O D U L E S O L U T I O N C O N T R O L D A T A
LOOP CONTROLS :
SUBCASE... 1 SUBCASE RECORD... 1 LARGE DISPLACEMENTS... NO
NLPARM DATA FOR SET : 110 MACHINE CHARACTERISTICS :
NUMBER OF LOAD INCREMENTS ... 1 PRESENT OPEN CORE .... 1607856 WORDS
INCREMENTAL TIME INTERVAL ... 0.0000E+00 MODULES WORK AREA ... 1601703 WORDS
MATRIX UPDATE OPTION ........ ITER MAXIMUM G-SET SIZE ... 160170 TERMS
MATRIX UPDATE INCREMENT ..... 1 ESTIMATION FOR NO SPILL ... 22 G-SET +
22 G-SET + 8 A-SET = 1601668
MAXIMUM ITERATIONS .......... 25
CONVERGENCE OPTIONS ......... PW
INTERMEDIATE OUTPUT ......... YES
- DISPLACEMENT ... 1.0E-03 DMAP CONTROL PARAMETERS FROM PREVIOUS
ITERATION:
TOLERANCE - RESIDUAL FORCE . 1.0E-03
- PLASTIC WORK ... 1.0E-07 CONVERGENCE ........ NO
DIVERGENCE LIMIT ............ 3 NEW SUBCASE ........ NO
MAXIMUM QUASI-NEWTON VECTORS 0 NEW MATRIX ......... YES
MAXIMUM LINE SEARCHES ....... 0 PREVIOUS ITERATIONS 1
ERROR TOLERANCE IN YF ....... 2.0E-01 STIFFNESS UPDATES .. 1
LINE SEARCH TOLERANCE ....... .500 DMAP LOOP NUMBER ... 1
MAX. NUMBER OF BISECTIONS ... 5
LIMIT TO ADJUSTMENT FACTOR .. 20.000
ROTATION LIMIT FOR BISECTION .200E+02
CONTROLLED INCREMENTS OPTION CRIS
MINIMUM ARC FACTOR .......... 1.000
MAXIMUM ARC FACTOR .......... 1.000
SCALE FACTOR FOR LOAD FACTOR 0.000E+00
DESIRED ITERATIONS .......... 12
MAX. NUMBER OF C. I. STEPS .. 20
0*** USER INFORMATION MESSAGE 6188
*** INITIAL ARC LENGTH IS 4.510799D-02
(Approximate)
NLPCI

N
L
P
A
R
M
S2-65 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
OUTPUT FOR SOLUTION STRATEGIES
DIAG 51
All the data needed to follow the solution process in detail
(displacement, nonlinear force, unbalanced load vector, etc.).
See Section 7.2.5 of the MSC.NASTRAN Handbook for Nonlinear
Analysis for details.
Should not be used. It produces enormous output.
Used by developers when debugging.
DIAG 35
Penalty values (gap and friction) for each slave node.
Updated coordinates for slide line nodes.
Detail status for each slide line element (forces, gaps, connectivity, etc.).
S2-66 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
RESULT OUTPUT
Results selected for output in the subcase. For example:
DISP, FORCE, STRESS, etc. are printed at every
INTOUT load step.
Format:
Example:
Field Contents
INTOUT Intermediate output flag. (Character = YES, NO, or
ALL; Default = NO).
INTOUT NLPARM
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
INTOUT 5 15 NLPARM
S2-67 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
SOME HEURISTIC OBSERVATIONS
Loose tolerances for convergence test cause difficulties
in later stages.
Sometimes quasi-Newton updates seem to have
adverse effects in creep analysis.
SEMI is a good conservative method if AUTO does not
work. If desperate, use ITER with KSTEP=1 to get
started.
A line search is comparable to an iteration in terms of
CPU. However, line searches may be required to get
around some difficulties in convergence.
S2-68 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
HINTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Identify the type of nonlinearity; if unsure, perform linear
analysis.
Localize nonlinear region; use super-elements and linear
elements for the linear region.
Nonlinear region usually needs a finer mesh.
Divide load history by subcases for convenience.
Loads should be subdivided, not to exceed 20 steps in
each subcase.
Select default values to start - NLPARM.
Choose GAP stiffness appropriately.
Need to understand the basic theory to use the nonlinear
material.
S2-69 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
NLPARM BULK DATA ENTRY
NLPARM with all its field is shown below
Parameters for Nonlinear Static Analysis Control
Defines a set of parameters for nonlinear static analysis
iteration strategy.
Format:
Example:
RTOLB MAXR MAXBIS
LSTOL FSTRESS MAXLS MAXQN MAXDIV EPSW EPSP EPSU
INTOUT CONV MAXITER KSTEP KMETHOD DT NINC ID NLPARM
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
5 15 NLPARM
S2-70 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
SUMMARY
Five tasks in a nonlinear solution strategy
Determine an increment to advance forward
Stiffness update
Displacement prediction
Element state update
Unbalance force and convergence check
Advancing schemes
Constant load increment
Displacement increment
Arc-length increment (Crisfield, Riks, and modified Riks)
S2-71 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
SUMMARY
Stiffness update
Every iteration (NR method)
Every k-th iteration
Based on the rate of convergence
On nonconvergence or divergence
QN updates - Modify the stiffness matrix by two rank one additions
Displacement prediction
Solution of equilibrium equations
Line Search - Scale the calculated displacements to reduce unbalance
loads
State determination
Update element state to calculate element forces
S2-72 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
SUMMARY
Convergence criteria
Displacement
Load
Energy
Special logics
Divergence
Bisection
Time expiration criteria
User interface
NLPARM (solution strategy)
SPCD and SPC (displacement increment)
NLPCI (arc-length increment)
S2-73 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
WORKSHOP PROBLEMS
Purpose
To demonstrate cold start and restart analysis procedures in SOL 106
Problem Description
For the structure below:
Y
P = 29.E3
CROD
CELAS1
K = 1.E3
A = .01
E = 1.E7
L = 10.0
X
3
1
2
S2-74 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
WORKSHOP PROBLEMS
1. Add Case Control commands and Bulk Data entries to:
a) Perform geometric nonlinear analysis.
b) Apply a load of 16 10
3
lbs in the first subcase in four increments.
c) Apply a load of 24 10
3
lbs in the second subcase in eight increments.
d) Apply a load of 29 10
3
lbs in the third subcase in five increments.
e) For the first subcase, print output at every load step.
f) For the second subcase, use only the work criteria for convergence,
and print output at every load step.
g) For the third subcase, request output at the end of the subcase only.
2. Restart the analysis from a load of 20 10
3
lbs. Add a
new subcase after the third subcase, and apply in it, a
load of 24 10
3
lbs, using 8 load steps. Also, print
output at all load steps in this new subcase, and the
next (original subcase 3).
S2-75 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
WORKSHOP PROBLEMS 1-2
Input File for Modification
ID CHAP2WS1, NAS103, Chap 2 $ Workshop 1
SOL 106 $ NONLIN
CEND
TITLE=SIMPLE ROD SPRING - RESTART WORKSHOP
SUBTITLE=GEOMETRIC NONLINEAR
ECHO=BOTH
DISP=ALL
OLOAD=ALL
$
SUBCASE 10 $LOAD=16.E03
LABEL=APPLY LOAD P IN X DIRECTION = 16E+03
SUBCASE 20 $ LOAD=24.E03
LABEL=APPLY LOAD P IN X DIRECTION = 24E+03
SUBCASE 30 $ LOAD=29.E03
LABEL=APPLY LOAD P IN X DIRECTION = 29E+03
BEGIN BULK
PARAM,POST,0
GRID 1 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 23456
GRID 3 0 0.0 10.0 0.0 123456
CROD 3 3 3 1
CELAS1 2 2 1 1 0
PROD 3 3 .01
PELAS 2 1.0E3
MAT1 3 1.0E7 0.1 12.9-6
FORCE 1 1 0 1.6E4 1.0
FORCE 2 1 0 2.4E4 1.0
FORCE 3 1 0 2.9E4 1.0
ENDDATA
S2-76 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
SOLUTION FOR WORKSHOP PROBLEM ONE
BEGIN BULK
PARAM,POST,0
GRID 1 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 23456
GRID 3 0 0.0 10.0 0.0 123456
CROD 3 3 3 1
CELAS1 2 2 1 1 0
PROD 3 3 .01
PELAS 2 1.0E3
MAT1 3 1.0E7 0.1 12.9-6
FORCE 1 1 0 1.6E4 1.0
FORCE 2 1 0 2.4E4 1.0
FORCE 3 1 0 2.9E4 1.0
PARAM, LGDISP, 1
NLPARM, 10, 4, , SEMI, , , , YES
NLPARM, 20, 8, , AUTO, , ,W, YES
NLPARM, 30, 5, , AUTO, , ,W, NO
ENDDATA
ID CHAP2WS1s, NAS103, Chap 2 $ Workshop 1
SOL 106 $ NONLIN
CEND
TITLE=SIMPLE ROD SPRING - RESTART WORKSHOP
SUBTITLE=GEOMETRIC NONLINEAR
ECHO=BOTH
DISP=ALL
OLOAD=ALL
$
SUBCASE 10 $LOAD=16.E03
LABEL=APPLY LOAD P IN X DIRECTION = 16E+03
LOAD=1
NLPARM=10
SUBCASE 20 $ LOAD=24.E03
LABEL=APPLY LOAD P IN X DIRECTION = 24E+03
LOAD=2
NLPARM=20
SUBCASE 30 $ LOAD=29.E03
LABEL=APPLY LOAD P IN X DIRECTION = 29E+03
LOAD=3
NLPARM=30
S2-77 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
SOLUTION FOR WORKSHOP PROBLEM TWO
RESTART, VERSION=1, KEEP
ASSIGN MASTER='chap2_ws_1s.MASTER'
ID CHAP2WS2s, NAS103, Chap 2 $ Workshop 2
SOL 106 $ NONLIN
CEND
TITLE=SIMPLE ROD SPRING - RESTART WORKSHOP
SUBTITLE=GEOMETRIC NONLINEAR
ECHO=BOTH
DISP=ALL
OLOAD=ALL
PARAM, LOOPID, 8
PARAM, SUBID, 3
SUBCASE 10 $LOAD=16.E03
LABEL=APPLY LOAD P IN X DIRECTION = 16E+03
LOAD=1
NLPARM=10
SUBCASE 20 $ LOAD=24.E03
LABEL=APPLY LOAD P IN X DIRECTION = 24E+03
LOAD=2
NLPARM=20
SUBCASE 21 $ LOAD=24.E03
LABEL=APPLY LOAD P IN X DIRECTION = 24E+03
LOAD=2
NLPARM=21
SUBCASE 30 $ LOAD=29.E03
LABEL=APPLY LOAD P IN X DIRECTION = 29E+03
LOAD=3
NLPARM=31
BEGIN BULK
NLPARM, 21, 8, , AUTO, , ,W, YES
NLPARM, 31, 10, , AUTO, , ,PW, YES
ENDDATA
S2-78 NAS 103, Section 2, December 2003
S3-1 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
SECTION 3
GEOMETRIC NONLINEAR ANALYSIS
S3-2 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
S3-3 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Geometric Nonlinear Analysis 3-4
Simple Geometric Nonlinear Example 3-10
Treatment Of Large Rotations 3-14
Follower Forces 3-20
Force1 Bulk Data Entry 3-21
Force2 Bulk Data Entry 3-22
Parameter K6ROT For QUAD4 And TRIA3 3-23
Example Problem One 3-25
Example Problem Two 3-29
Workshop Problem One 3-32
Workshop Problem Two 3-35
Solution For Workshop Problem One 3-37
Solution For Workshop Problem Two 3-40
S3-4 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
GEOMETRIC NONLINEAR ANALYSIS
Large displacements and large rotations
Element deformations are a nonlinear function of the grid point
displacements (nonlinear displacement transformation matrix).
Large displacements
Deflection of highly-loaded thin flat plates (geometric stiffening).
where u >> t
t
P
u
S3-5 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
GEOMETRIC NONLINEAR ANALYSIS
Large displacements and large rotations (Cont.)
Large rotation.
P
Elastic
S3-6 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
GEOMETRIC NONLINEAR ANALYSIS
Follower forces
Applied loads are functions of displacements.
Fluid pressure (changes in magnitude and direction).
Tire
S3-7 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
GEOMETRIC NONLINEAR ANALYSIS
Follower forces
Centrifugal force (proportional to distance from spin axis).
Temperature loads (change in direction).
RFORCE
mr
2
mr
2
S3-8 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
GEOMETRIC NONLINEAR ANALYSIS
Large strains
Element strains are nonlinear functions of element deformations.
Rubber Bearing (Hyper elastic Material)
S3-9 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
GEOMETRIC NONLINEAR ANALYSIS
User Interface
PARAM LGDISP
0 for no geometric nonlinearity (default).
1 for both nonlinear displacement transformation plus follower forces.
2 for nonlinear displacement transformation only.
Small or large strain depends on the element types.
S3-10 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
SIMPLE GEOMETRIC NONLINEAR EXAMPLE
Truss bar with a spring
Strain () in truss, for small
z
w
F
P
l ''

l
z'
l
2
/l
2
=(b
2
+(z+w)
2
)/(b
2
+z
2
)= 1 +2(zw+w
2
/2)/(b
2
+z
2
)
= 1 +2(zw+w
2
/2)/ l
2
= (1+ (zw+w
2
/2)/l
2
)
2
.
.
. l/l = 1+ (zw+w
2
/2)/l
2
.
.
. l/l 1 = (zw+w
2
/2)/ l
2
=

l '' l
l
-------------
zw
l
2
-------
1
2
---
w
2
l
2
------- +

=
S3-11 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
SIMPLE GEOMETRIC NONLINEAR EXAMPLE
Truss bar with a spring
Force in Truss (F)
z
w
F
P
l ''

l
z'
F EA =
E A
l
2
-------- z w
1
2
---w
2
+
\ .
| |
=
S3-12 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
SIMPLE GEOMETRIC NONLINEAR EXAMPLE
Equilibrium (deformed configuration)
Tangent stiffness
P F s i n K
s
w + =
F z w + ( )
l ' '
--------------------- = K
s
w +

F z w + ( )
l
--------------------- K
s
w +
Linear
Initial
Slope
Geometric
(Initial Stress or
Differential)
Spring
+ + +
K
t
dP
dw
-------
z w +
l
-------------
d
d
-- -
F
w
----
\ .
| |
F
l
--- K
s
+ + = =
EA
l
-------- =
z
l
--
\ .
| |
2
EA
l
3
-------- 2zw w
2
+ ( )
F
l
--- K
s
+ + +
z
w
F
P
l ''

l
z'
S3-13 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
SIMPLE GEOMETRIC NONLINEAR EXAMPLE
P, q
1
1
x
y
100.
14.
12.
10.
8.
6.
4.
2.
0
0
0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
q
.235
1.765 2.16
18.
16.
2
1. K
s
P
K
s
= 6.0
K
s
= 3.0
EA = 10
7
S3-14 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
TREATMENT OF LARGE ROTATIONS
Applicable to QUAD4, TRIA3, and BEAM.
Large rotations cannot be added vectorially.
Two approaches:
Gimbal angle approach.
Default or selected by PARAM,LANGLE,1.
Rotation vector approach (recommended).
Selected by PARAM,LANGLE,2.
User interface
PARAM LANGLE.
Specified in Bulk Data Section (cannot specify in the Case Control
Section).
Cannot be changed between subcases or restart.
S3-15 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
TREATMENT OF LARGE ROTATIONS
Gimbal Angle Approach - Concept
Rotation matrix is unique.
Several ways to go from one configuration to the other.
Orientation of a rigid body attached to the grid point is obtained by three
successive rotations.
First, rotation of magnitude z about the global z-axis.
Second, rotation of magnitude Y about the rotated y-axis.
Third, rotation of magnitude X about the doubly rotated x-axis.
Note: Above definition produces elegant mathematics, but is difficult to
visualize.
Above definition is equivalent to saying:
First, rotation of magnitude X about the global x-axis.
Second, rotation of magnitude Y about the global y-axis.
Third, rotation of magnitude z about the global z-axis.
Note: With this definition, the mathematics is not elegant.
S3-16 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
TREATMENT OF LARGE ROTATIONS
Gimbal Angle Approach - Theory
Consider the finite rotations (
X
,
Y
,
z
) of a vector in the global
coordinate system.
where
R
z
, R
y
, and R
x
rotate z-axis by
z
, rotated y-axis by
Y
, and doubly
rotated x-axis by
X
, respectively.
U
g
( )
rotated
R
z
| |
T
R
y
| |
T
R
x
| |
T
U
g
| | R
g
( ) | | U
g
{ } = =
R
x
1 0 0
0
x
cos
x
sin
0
x
sin
x
cos
=
R
y

y
cos 0
x
sin
0 1 0

x
sin 0
x
cos
=
R
z

y
cos
x
sin 0

x
sin
y
cos 0
0 0 1
=
S3-17 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
TREATMENT OF LARGE ROTATIONS
For small rotation ()
Addition of gimbal angles
Where () = incremental rotations in the global system
= incremental gimbal angle
R ( ) | | R
z
| |
T
R
y
| |
T
R
x
| |
T
1
z

y

z
1
x

y

x
1
=
R + ( ) | | R
g
( ) | | R
g
( ) | | =
S3-18 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
TREATMENT OF LARGE ROTATIONS
Gimbal Angle Increments
Mathematical singularity at
y
= 90.
This condition is usually caused by numerical ill-
conditioning.
Use auxiliary angles to avoid singularity.
Usual remedy is to use a smaller load increment.

x

y

z

x

z
cos + sin ( )
y
cos ( ) =

y

y

z

x
cos
z
sin =

z

z

z

z

x

z
cos + sin ( )
y
cos ( ) | |
y
sin + =
S3-19 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
TREATMENT OF LARGE ROTATIONS
Rotation Vector Approach (Version 67 plus)
Selected by PARAM,LANGLE,2 in the Bulk Data Section.
The rotation components at a grid point are interpreted as components
of a rotation vector.
Orientation of a rigid body attached to a grid point is obtained by rotating
the body by an amount of about a principal axis of rotation p.
Consistent with enforced nonzero rotations.
Principal Axis
Magnitude
V
P
g
3
g
1
g
2
V

R
?asterisk14?
V =

z
)


`


P
1
P
2
P
3
)


`



=
S3-20 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
FOLLOWER FORCES
Nodal forces change directions with displacements. Load vector
(P
a
) is a function of the displacement (U
a
).
Must specify PARAM,LGDISP,1.
Applicable to:
PLOAD, PLOAD2, and PLOAD4 on QUAD4, TRIA3, HEXA, and PENTA.
PLOADX1 on QUADX and TRIAX hyper elastic elements.
FORCE1, FORCE2, MOMENT1, MOMENT2 (directions dependent upon GRID
locations).
Temperature load.
Centrifugal force.
Corrective loads are computed based on the updated geometry.
Total loads are computed based on the updated geometry.
Note: Tangential stiffness does not include the follower force effect.
S3-21 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
FORCE1 BULK DATA ENTRY
FORCE1 Static Force, Alternate Form 1
Defines a static concentrated force by specification of a magnitude
and two grid points that determine the direction.
Format:
Example:
Field Contents
SID Load set identification number. (Integer > 0).
G Grid point identification number. (Integer > 0).
F Magnitude of the force. (Real).
G1, G2 Grid point identification numbers. (Integer > 0; G1 and G2 may not
be coincident).
G2 G1 F G SID FORCE1
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
13 16 -2.93 13 6 FORCE1
S3-22 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
FORCE2 BULK DATA ENTRY
FORCE2 Static Force, Alternate Form 2
Defines a static concentrated force by specification of a magnitude
and four grid points that determine the direction.
Format:
Example:
Field Contents
SID Load set identification number. (Integer > 0).
G Grid point identification number. (Integer > 0).
F Magnitude of the force. (Real).
Gi Grid point identification numbers. (Integer > 0; G1 and G2 may not
be coincident; G3 and G4 cannot be coincident).
G4 G3 G2 G1 F G SID FORCE2
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
13 17 13 16 -2.93 13 6 FORCE2
S3-23 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
PARAMETER K6ROT FOR QUAD4 AND TRIA3
Stiffness of the normal rotation (
z
) is not defined for the
usual shell element on the flat plane.
This DOF cannot be constrained in the geometric
nonlinear case.
K6ROT provides small stiffness to stabilize this DOF.
y
x
z

z
S3-24 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
PARAMETER K6ROT FOR QUAD4 AND TRIA3
Pseudo stiffness added to the relative rotation in the
element:

z
= rotation of a GRID from global displacement
; Rotation Measured in the Element
where G = Shear Modulus
S = weighting factor
Pass the constant strain patch test.
No effect on the rigid-body rotation.
Insensitive to the mesh size.
Default is K6ROT = 100. which is highly recommended.
Too large a value of K6ROT locks the varying strain by enforcing

z

z
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
y
u
x
v
z


2
1
ROT K S t G K
z z
6 * * * * 10 ) ( for
6
=

S3-25 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003


EXAMPLE PROBLEM ONE
Purpose
To illustrate geometric nonlinear analysis.
Problem Description
Perform large deformation analysis of a hemisphere with a hole at the
top and loaded with four concentrated forces acting on the equator at
90 intervals. The perimeter of the hole is constrained in z direction and
the equator is a free edge.
S3-26 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM ONE
Z
Y
X
Force

100.0
Thickness t=0.04
Radius R=10.00
Hole
Youngs modulus E=6.825e+7
Poissons ratio
0
18 =
30 . 0 =
S3-27 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM ONE
Solution
Model (symmetric) 1/4 hemisphere with a mesh of 16X16 Quad4
Displacement in force direction: Node 1 = 2.587 (4.688*)
Node 289 = 3.791 (4.688*)
* Linear Solution
Y
X
Z
S3-28 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM ONE
Undeformed Shape Deformed Shape
S3-29 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM TWO
Purpose
To illustrate geometric nonlinear analysis.
Problem Description
Calculate the deformation of a corrugated sheet of paper coming out of
a copy machine. The paper deforms under its own weight.
Solution
Perform a quasi-static analysis with a load of 2g to account for dynamic
effects.
Model half of the paper taking advantage of symmetry.
S3-30 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM TWO
Model for a Corrugated Sheet of Paper
Thickness 0.0027 in
Radius 6.0000 in
Angle 40.0
Length 8.0000 in
S3-31 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM TWO
Undeformed and Deformed Sheet of Paper for a 2G
Gravity Load
S3-32 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
WORKSHOP PROBLEM ONE
Purpose
To demonstrate the use of geometric nonlinear analysis.
Problem Description
Calculate the large deflection behavior of the cantilever beam for the
following four load cases:
1. P = 2000.
2. P = 4000.
3. P = 6000.
4. P = 8000.
Compare the results with the linear analysis.
S3-33 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
WORKSHOP PROBLEM ONE
Properties
L = 10
A = 1.
I = 1.e
2
E = 10.e
6
y
P
x
S3-34 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
WORKSHOP PROBLEM ONE
Input File for Modification
BEGIN BULK
$ GEOMETRY
GRID,1,,0.,0.,0.,,345
=,*(1),=,*(1.),==$
=(9)
GRID,100,,0.,0.,1.,,123456
$ CONNECTIVITY
CBEAM,101,1,1,2,100
=,*(1),=,*(1),*(1),==$
=(8)
$ PROPERTIES
PBEAM,1,1,1.,1.-2,1.-2
MAT1,1,10.E6,,.0
$ CONSTRAINTS
SPC,1,1,123456
$ LOADING
FORCE,11,11,,1.E4,0.,1.,0.
LOAD,200,.2,1.,11
LOAD,400,.4,1.,11
LOAD,600,.6,1.,11
LOAD,800,.8,1.,11
$ PARAMETERS
PARAM,POST,0
$ SOLUTION STRATEGY
ENDDATA
ID CHAP3W1, NAS103W $ AR (12/03)
SOL 106
TIME 10
CEND
TITLE=TRACE LARGE DEFLECTION OF A CANTILEVERED BEAM
SUBTITLE=Ref: BISSHOPP & DRUCKER; QAM 3(1):272-275; 1945
SPC=1
DISP=ALL
SPCF=ALL
$
SUBCASE 10
LOAD=200
$
SUBCASE 20
LOAD=400
$
SUBCASE 30
LOAD=600
$
SUBCASE 40
LOAD=800
S3-35 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
WORKSHOP PROBLEM TWO
Purpose
To demonstrate the use of geometric nonlinear analysis and arc length
increments.
Problem Description
Compute the load-deflection behavior of the three-rod structure shown
below.
Properties
3
2 1
P
5 5
5
3
4
y
EA
1
5.e5 =
EA
2
3.e6 =
P 4.e5 =
EA
2
EA
1

1
S3-36 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
WORKSHOP PROBLEM TWO
Input File for Modification
ID CHAP32W2, NAS103 Workshop 2 $ AR (12/03)
SOL 106
CEND
TITLE=GEOMETRIC NONLINEAR PROBLEM
SUBTITLE=Ref: POWELL & SIMONS, IJNME, 17:1455-1467, 1981
SPCF=ALL
SPC=12
LOAD=10
SUBCASE 10
BEGIN BULK
$ GEMOETRY
GRID,1,,0.0,0.
GRID,2,,5.,0.
GRID,3,,10.,3.
GRID,4,,10.,8.
GRDSET,,,,,,,3456
$ CONNECTIVITY
CONROD,1,1,2,10,.5
CONROD,2,2,3,11,1.
CONROD,3,3,4,11,1.
$ PROPERTIES
MAT1,10,1.E6
MAT1,11,3.E6
$ CONSTRAINTS
SPC1,12,1,3
SPC1,12,2,1,2
SPC1,12,12,4
$ LOADING
FORCE,10,1,,4.E5,1.,0.,0.
$ PARAMETERS
PARAM,POST,0
$ SOLUTION STRATEGY
ENDDATA
S3-37 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
SOLUTION FOR WORKSHOP PROBLEM ONE
ID CHAP3W1S, NAS103W $ AR (12/03)
SOL 106
TIME 10
CEND
TITLE=TRACE LARGE DEFLECTION OF A CANTILEVERED BEAM
SUBTITLE=Ref: BISSHOPP & DRUCKER; QAM 3(1):272-275; 1945
SPC=1
DISP=ALL
SPCF=ALL
NLPARM=10
$
SUBCASE 10
LOAD=200
$
SUBCASE 20
LOAD=400
$
SUBCASE 30
LOAD=600
$
SUBCASE 40
LOAD=800
BEGIN BULK
$ GEOMETRY
GRID,1,,0.,0.,0.,,345
=,*(1),=,*(1.),==$
=(9)
GRID,100,,0.,0.,1.,,123456
$ CONNECTIVITY
CBEAM,101,1,1,2,100
=,*(1),=,*(1),*(1),==$
=(8)
$ PROPERTIES
PBEAM,1,1,1.,1.-2,1.-2
MAT1,1,10.E6,,.0
$ CONSTRAINTS
SPC,1,1,123456
$ LOADING
FORCE,11,11,,1.E4,0.,1.,0.
LOAD,200,.2,1.,11
LOAD,400,.4,1.,11
LOAD,600,.6,1.,11
LOAD,800,.8,1.,11
$ PARAMETERS
PARAM,POST,0
$ SOLUTION STRATEGY
NLPARM,10,10
PARAM,LGDISP,1
ENDDATA
S3-38 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
SOLUTION FOR WORKSHOP PROBLEM ONE
P = 8000.
P = 6000.
P = 4000.
P = 2000.
P
X
Y
L

S3-39 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003


0
0
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Linear
Normalized Displacement
Normalized
Load,
L
L
-------------

L
---
SOLUTION FOR WORKSHOP PROBLEM ONE
S3-40 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
$ CONNECTIVITY
CONROD,1,1,2,10,.5
CONROD,2,2,3,11,1.
CONROD,3,3,4,11,1.
$ PROPERTIES
MAT1,10,1.E6
MAT1,11,3.E6
$ CONSTRAINTS
SPC1,12,1,3
SPC1,12,2,1,2
SPC1,12,12,4
$ LOADING
FORCE,10,1,,4.E5,1.,0.,0.
$ PARAMETERS
PARAM,POST,0
$ SOLUTION STRATEGY
NLPARM,10,40,,,,,,YES
NLPCI,10
PARAM,LGDISP,1
ENDDATA
ID CHAP32W2S, NAS103 Workshop 2 $ AR (12/03)
SOL 106
CEND
TITLE=GEOMETRIC NONLINEAR PROBLEM
SUBTITLE=Ref: POWELL & SIMONS, IJNME, 17:1455-1467, 1981
SPCF=ALL
SPC=12
LOAD=10
SUBCASE 10
NLPARM=10
BEGIN BULK
$ GEMOETRY
GRID,1,,0.0,0.
GRID,2,,5.,0.
GRID,3,,10.,3.
GRID,4,,10.,8.
GRDSET,,,,,,,3456
SOLUTION FOR WORKSHOP PROBLEM TWO
S3-41 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
SOLUTION FOR WORKSHOP PROBLEM TWO
S3-42 NAS 103, Section 3, December 2003
S4-1 NAS 103, Section 4, December 2003
SECTION 4
NONLINEAR BUCKLING ANALYSIS
S4-2 NAS 103, Section 4, December 2003
S4-3 NAS 103, Section 4, December 2003
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Instability Phenomena 4-4
Linear Versus Nonlinear Buckling 4-7
Nonlinear Buckling Analysis 4-9
Example Problem One 4-15
Example Problem Two 4-20
Workshop Problems 4-29
Solution For Workshop Problem One 4-32
Solution For Workshop Problem Two 4-34
Solution For Workshop Problem Three 4-35
Solution For Workshop Problem Four 4-37
S4-4 NAS 103, Section 4, December 2003
INSTABILITY PHENOMENA
Two Types:
1. Snap-through (limit point): The loss of stability occurs at a stationary
point (relative maximum) in the load-deflection space. The critical load
is termed a limit point. For loads beyond the limit point, the structure
snaps-through and assumes a completely different displaced
configuration.
P P
P
limit
S4-5 NAS 103, Section 4, December 2003
INSTABILITY PHENOMENA
Snap-Through of Shallow Shells
Shallow arch is symmetric; Deep arch is anti-symmetric.
Question of stable and unstable path.
Arc-length increments are good for snap-through problems.
P
S4-6 NAS 103, Section 4, December 2003
INSTABILITY PHENOMENA
2. Bifurcation buckling: The loss of stability occurs when two or more
equilibrium paths intersect in the load-deflection space. The point of
intersection is termed a bifurcation point. For loads beyond the
bifurcation point, the structure buckles.
Arc length increments may not pick a bifurcation buckling point.
P
P
crit
P

S4-7 NAS 103, Section 4, December 2003


LINEAR VERSUS NONLINEAR BUCKLING
Linear Buckling
Kinematic relationship is linear.
Constitutive relationship is linear.
Equilibrium is satisfied in perturbed configuration.
Geometric stiffness is assumed proportional to the load.
Use SOL 105.
Nonlinear Buckling
with
K K
d
+ | | { } 0 =
K
n
K + | | { } 0 { } =
Incremental Sti ffness
Actual Tangent Nonlinear
K K
n
K
n 1
= -
S4-8 NAS 103, Section 4, December 2003
LINEAR VERSUS NONLINEAR BUCKLING
Kinematic relationship is nonlinear.
Constitutive relationship may be nonlinear.
Geometric stiffness is assumed proportional to displacement increment.
Equilibrium is satisfied in perturbed configuration.
Use SOL 106.
S4-9 NAS 103, Section 4, December 2003
NONLINEAR BUCKLING ANALYSIS
Two ways to predict the limit load:
Arc length increments to trace the equilibrium path.
(may be expensive, and requires some idea of the limit load.)
PARAM,BUCKLE method.
One way to predict bifurcation buckling:
PARAM,BUCKLE method.
S4-10 NAS 103, Section 4, December 2003
NONLINEAR BUCKLING ANALYSIS
PARAM,BUCKLE Concept
Note:The error in U
cr
may be large, but the corresponding error in P
cr
is
small.
Limit Point or
Bifurcation



K
U
U
K
U
n 1
U
n
U U
cr
P
cr
P
n
P
n 1
P
P
Predicted by Analysis
K
U U
n 1
U
n
U
cr
U'
cr
S4-11 NAS 103, Section 4, December 2003
NONLINEAR BUCKLING ANALYSIS
PARAM,BUCKLE Theory
Eigenvalue problem:
with:
K
n
and K
n1
are evaluated at the known solution points in the vicinity of
instability
K
n
K + | | { } 0 { } =
F
cr
F u
n
( ) K u ( ) u d
u
n
u
cr

F
n
K
o

( )u d + = +
Incremental Stiffness
Actual Tangent Nonlinear
K K
n
K
n 1
= -
S4-12 NAS 103, Section 4, December 2003
NONLINEAR BUCKLING ANALYSIS
Critical displacement:
with:
Critical buckling load by matching virtual work
u
T
F
cr
= u
T
P
cr
with:
Resul t
New Assumpti on
Proport ional t o
Di spl acement
I ncrement
F
cr
P
cr
{ } P
n
{ } P { } + = =
P { } P
n
{ } P
n 1
{ } =

u { }
T
K
n
1
2
--- K + u { }
u { }
T
P { }
---------------------------------------------------------------------- =
u
cr
{ } u
n
{ } u { } + =
u { } u
n
{ } u
n 1
{ } =
-
S4-13 NAS 103, Section 4, December 2003
NONLINEAR BUCKLING ANALYSIS
Tangent stiffness is assumed to change linearly with
displacement.
Internal loads are quadratic functions of displacement.
Run SOL 106 for static analysis until a negative
determinant [K] is encountered.
Make a restart run for buckling analysis.
Use PARAM,BUCKLE,1.
Include the restart parameters.
Include PARAM,LGDISP,1.
Provide two small loading steps below the buckling point.
Specify KMETHOD = ITER or AUTO with KSTEP = 1 on the NLPARM
entry (if the number of iterations required to converge > 1).
Specify KMETHOD = ITER with KSTEP = 1 on the NLPARM entry (if
the number of iterations required to converge = 1).
Include EIGB via a METHOD command in the Case Control Section.
S4-14 NAS 103, Section 4, December 2003
NONLINEAR BUCKLING ANALYSIS
Make a restart run for buckling analysis. (Cont.)
Provide mode shape PLOT commands if desired.
Sometimes, a negative determinant of [K] may be encountered due to
numerical reasons.
A good idea may be to perform at least two buckling analyses with
different restarting points and compare the calculated buckling (limit)
load.
Look for sudden increase in displacement values to make sure that the
load is in the vicinity of a limit point.
S4-15 NAS 103, Section 4, December 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM ONE
Purpose
To illustrate the linear buckling capability
Problem Description
Calculate the buckling load of a axially loaded thin cylinder
Radius 100 in
Length 800 in
Thickness 0.25 in.
S4-16 NAS 103, Section 4, December 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM ONE
Solution
Use SOL 105.
Only one half of the cylinder is modeled due to symmetry.
64 QUAD4 elements in the circumferential direction and 40 QUAD4
elements in the longitudinal direction.
Note:
1. Could use cyclic symmetry to get buckling load.
2. Cannot plot buckling shape using cyclic symmetry for the full model.
S4-17 NAS 103, Section 4, December 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM ONE
Model
S4-18 NAS 103, Section 4, December 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM ONE
First Buckling Model
P
exact
= 41,700 pounds/in
2
Reference: Flgge, W., Stresses in Shells, 2
nd
Ed.,
Springer-Verlag New York, Heidelberg,Berlin,1973]
MSC.NASTRAN (Linear) = 0.999 * P
exact
(Linear)
MSC.NASTRAN (Nonlinear) = 0.984 * P
exact
(Linear)
First Buckling Mode Shape
S4-19 NAS 103, Section 4, December 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM ONE
Input File with Key Entries Only
INIT SCRATCH LOGICAL=(SCRATCH(50000)), SCR300=(SCR300(175000))
ASSIGN SCRATCH=/SCRATCH1/CCH/SCRATCH,TEMP,DELETE
ASSIGN SCR300=/SCRATCH1/CCH/SCR300,TEMP,DELETE
ID E41,NLCL $
SOL 105
TIME 1000
CEND
TITLE = Buckling of Cylinder
SUBTITLE = Problem from Dale Nielsen of THiokol
LABEL = DEFAULT SUBCASE STRUCTURE
DISP(plot) = ALL
SPC = 1
SUBCASE 1
LOAD = 1
SUBCASE 2
METHOD = 1
BEGIN BULK
PARAM POST 0
$
. . .
. . .
$
$ THIS SECTION CONTAINS THE PROPERTY AND MATERIAL BULK DATA ENTRIES
$
PSHELL 1 1 .25 1
$
MAT1 1 3.+7 .3
$
EIGRL 1 33.9 37. 60
ENDDATA
S4-20 NAS 103, Section 4, December 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM TWO
Purpose
To illustrate the nonlinear buckling capabilities.
Problem Description
Calculate the elastic-plastic buckling of a clamped spherical cap.
q
c
R
1
b
a
R
Geometry:
t 0.0251 in =
R 0.8251 in =
R
1
1.1506 =
a 0.267 in =
20
o
=
b 0.14328 in =
14.3065
o
=
c 0.32908 in =
37.7612
o
=
Z
Slope E
t
1.1 10
6
psi =
Kinematic
Strain Hardening:
Boundary Condition:
Periphery Clamped
Material:
7075T6 Aluminum

E 10.8 10
6
psi =
0.3 =
s
y
7.8 10
4
psi =
S4-21 NAS 103, Section 4, December 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM TWO
PLOAD2
Q
Grid 100
Grid 1000
z
y
x
Elastoplastic buckling of imperfect spherical shell, hydrostatic pressure applied,
periphery clamped, undeformed shape.
R
Shell Model (QUAD4, TRIA)

3500 < s
cr
< 3600
S4-22 NAS 103, Section 4, December 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM TWO
Results Based on Version 2001
11.56 13.600 3572 2.715
11.09 12.296 3550 2.688
10.60 10.977 6 3500 2.625 12
10.04 9.573 6 3400 2.5 11
9.65 8.613 4 3300 2.375 10
9.35 7.888 5 3200 2.25 9
9.11 7.276 4 3100 2.125 8 3
8.9 6.741 4 300 2 7
8.52 5.840 6 2800 1.8 6
8.25 5.174 5 2600 1.6 5
8.04 4.608 4 2400 1.4 4
7.88 4.142 3 2200 1.2 3 2
7.53 3.712 4 2000 1 2
3.53 1.739 4 1000 0.5 1 1
Principal Stress
Element 10 [10
4
psi]
Displacement -U
z
Grid 100 [10
-3
In]
No. Of
Iter.
Load
(psi)
Loop
Step
Loop
Id
Sub
Id
1
2
3
4
S4-23 NAS 103, Section 4, December 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM TWO
1. Upper fiber starts yielding
2. Upper and lower fibers yield
3. After LOOPID 12, the negative factor diagonal occurs the
first time
4. Last converged solution after several bisections
S4-24 NAS 103, Section 4, December 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM TWO
Results Based on Version 2001
.383 P
cr
P
n
= P 3500 .383 ( ) 100 ( ) 3538.3 = + = + =
10.59 10.968 5 3500 4 12
10.04 9.568 4 3400 3.5 11 4
Principal Stress
Element 10 [104 psi]
Displacement -U
z
Grid 100 [10
-3
In]
No. Of
Iter.
Load
(psi)
Loop
Step
Loop
Id
Sub
Id
Restart from LOOPID = 10
Finite Difference (Reference)
MSC/NASTRAN - Shell Model
3546.8
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0 .002 .004 .006 .008 .010 .012 .014
Central Deflection U
100
(in)
p
(
p
s
i
)
Load Versus Central Deflection
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
MSC/NASTRAN
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ +
+
S4-25 NAS 103, Section 4, December 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM TWO
Input File for Cold Start
ID SSBUK, NAS103 Example $ AR 12/03
SOL 106
TIME 30
CEND
TITLE=ELASTIC-PLASTIC BUCKLING OF IMPERFECT SPHERICAL SHELL
SUBTITLE=HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE APPLIED, PERIPHERY CLAMPED
LABEL=REF.: KAO; IJNME; 17:427-444 (1981)
ECHO=UNSORT
DISP(SORT2)=ALL
OLOAD=ALL
SPCF=ALL
STRESS(SORT2)=ALL
SPC=10
SUBCASE 1
LOAD=10
NLPARM=10
SUBCASE 2
LOAD=20
NLPARM=20
SUBCASE 3
LOAD=30
NLPARM=30
BEGIN BULK
$ DEFINE SPHERICAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS
CORD2S, 100, , 0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 1., +C2S1
+C2S1, 1., 0., 1.
CORD2S, 200, , 0., 0., -.32908,0., 0., 1., +C2S2
+C2S2, 1., 0, 1.
$ GEOMETRY
GRDSET, , , , , , 100, 345
S4-26 NAS 103, Section 4, December 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM TWO
GRID, 100, 200, 1.1506, 0., 0., 0, 12456
GRID, 101, 200, 1.1506, 0.715, -5.
GRID, 102, 200, 1.1506, 0.715, 5.
GRID, 103, 200, 1.1506, 1.43, -5.
GRID, 104, 200, 1.1506, 1.43, 5.
GRID, 105, 200, 1.1506, 2.145, -5.
GRID, 106, 200, 1.1506, 2.145, 5.
GRID, 107, 200, 1.1506, 2.86, -5.
GRID, 108, 200, 1.1506, 2.86, 5.
GRID, 109, 200, 1.1506, 3.575, -5.
GRID, 110, 200, 1.1506, 3.575, 5.
GRID, 111, 200, 1.1506, 4.29, -5.
GRID, 112, 200, 1.1506, 4.29, 5.
GRID, 113, 200, 1.1506, 5.005, -5.
GRID, 114, 200, 1.1506, 5.005, 5.
GRID, 115, 200, 1.1506, 5.72, -5.
GRID, 116, 200, 1.1506, 5.72, 5.
GRID, 117, 200, 1.1506, 6.435, -5.
GRID, 118, 200, 1.1506, 6.435, 5.
GRID, 119, 100, 0.8251, 10., -5.
GRID, 120, 100, 0.8251, 10., 5.
GRID, 121, 100, 0.8251, 11.48, -5.
GRID, 122, 100, 0.8251, 11.48, 5.
GRID, 123, 100, 0.8251, 12.96, -5.
GRID, 124, 100, 0.8251, 12.96, 5.
GRID, 125, 100, 0.8251, 14.44, -5.
GRID, 126, 100, 0.8251, 14.44, 5.
GRID, 127, 100, 0.8251, 15.92, -5.
GRID, 128, 100, 0.8251, 15.92, 5.
GRID, 129, 100, 0.8251, 17.40, -5.
GRID, 130, 100, 0.8251, 17.40, 5.
GRID, 131, 100, 0.8251, 18.8806, -5.
GRID, 132, 100, 0.8251, 18.8806, 5.
S4-27 NAS 103, Section 4, December 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM TWO
$ CONNECTIVITY
CTRIA3, 10, 2, 100, 101, 102
CQUAD4, 11, 2, 101, 103, 104, 102
CQUAD4, 12, 2, 103, 105, 106, 104
CQUAD4, 13, 2, 105, 107, 108, 106
CQUAD4, 14, 2, 107, 109, 110, 108
CQUAD4, 15, 2, 109, 111, 112, 110
CQUAD4, 16, 2, 111, 113, 114, 112
CQUAD4, 17, 2, 113, 115, 116, 114
CQUAD4, 18, 2, 115, 117, 118, 116
CQUAD4, 19, 2, 117, 119, 120, 118
CQUAD4, 20, 2, 119, 121, 122, 120
CQUAD4, 21, 2, 121, 123, 124, 122
CQUAD4, 22, 2, 123, 125, 126, 124
CQUAD4, 23, 2, 125, 127, 128, 126
CQUAD4, 24, 2, 127, 129, 130, 128
CQUAD4, 25, 2, 129, 131, 132, 130
$ ELEMENT PROPERTIES
PSHELL, 2, 1, 0.0251, 1
MAT1, 1, 10.8E6, , 0.3
MATS1, 1, , PLASTIC, 1.225E6, 1, 2, 7.8E4
$ BOUNDARY AND LOADING CONDITIONS
SPC1, 10, 123456, 131, 132
PLOAD2, 10, -2000., 10, THRU, 25
PLOAD2, 20, -3000., 10, THRU, 25
PLOAD2, 30, -3800., 10, THRU, 25
PLOAD2, 40, -3500., 10, THRU, 25
$ PARAMETERS
PARAM, LGDISP, 1
$ NONLINEAR SOLUTION CONTROL
NLPARM, 10, 2, , AUTO, , , UPW, YES
NLPARM, 20, 5, , AUTO, , , UPW, YES
NLPARM, 30, 8, , AUTO, , , UPW, YES
$
ENDDATA
S4-28 NAS 103, Section 4, December 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM TWO
Input File for Buckling Analysis
RESTART VERSION=last KEEP
ASSIGN MASTER = 'chap4_ex_2.MASTER'
ID SSBUKR,NAS103 Example $ AR 12/03
SOL 106 $
TIME 30 $
CEND
TITLE=ELASTIC-PLASTIC BUCKLING OF IMPERFECT SPHERICAL SHELL
SUBTITLE=HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE APPLIED, PERIPHERY CLAMPED
LABEL=REF.: KAO; IJNME; 17:427-444 (1981)
ECHO=UNSORT
DISP(SORT2)=ALL
OLOAD=ALL
SPCF=ALL
STRESS(SORT2)=ALL
SPC=10
METHOD=30
PARAM BUCKLE 1
PARAM SUBID 4
PARAM LOOPID 10
SUBCASE 1
LOAD=10
NLPARM=10
SUBCASE 2
LOAD=20
NLPARM=20
SUBCASE 3
LOAD=30
NLPARM=30
SUBCASE 4 $ ADDED FOR BUCKLING ANALYSIS
LOAD=40
NLPARM=40
BEGIN BULK
EIGB, 30, SINV, 0., 2., , 2, 2
NLPARM, 40, 2, , AUTO, 1, , , YES
$
ENDDATA
S4-29 NAS 103, Section 4, December 2003
WORKSHOP PROBLEMS
Purpose
To demonstrate use of (a) geometric nonlinear analysis, (b) linear and
nonlinear buckling analysis, and (c) arc length increments.
Problem Description
For the structure below, calculate:
100 = b
1 = z
F
l
P, w
EA = 10
7
K
s
S4-30 NAS 103, Section 4, December 2003
WORKSHOP PROBLEMS
1. Linear Buckling load without spring.
2. Nonlinear Static with Large Deflection
3. Nonlinear Buckling (PARAM, BUCKLE, 1)
4. Nonlinear Static with Arc Length Method
5. Repeat above with spring (for Ks = 3, and 6)
S4-31 NAS 103, Section 4, December 2003
WORKSHOP PROBLEMS 1-4
Input File for Modification
SOL 105
TIME 60
CEND
TITLE=SIMPLE ONE DOF GEOMETRIC NONLINEAR PROBLEM
SUBTITLE=SOLUTION SEQUENCE 105
LABEL=Ref: STRICKLIN & HAISLER; COMP. & STRUC.; 7:125-136 (1977)
ECHO=SORT
DISP(SORT2)=ALL
BEGIN BULK
PARAM, POST, 0
$ GEOMETRY
GRID, 1, , 0., 0., 0., , 123456
GRID, 2, , 100., 1., 0., , 13456
$ CONNECTIVITY
CROD, 10, 10, 1, 2
CELAS1, 20, 20, 2, 2, 0
$ PROPERTIES
PROD, 10, 1, .1
PELAS, 20, 3.
MAT1, 1, 10.E7
$ LOADS
FORCE, 6, 2, , 6., 0. -1., 0.
$
$ SOLUTION STRATEGY
$
ENDDATA
S4-32 NAS 103, Section 4, December 2003
SOLUTION FOR WORKSHOP PROBLEM ONE
1.
For
z l
Pb
z
l
l
b
l
P
l
z
l
F
K
l
z
l
EA
K
z
Pl
F
geometric
elastic
2
2
2 2
2
sin
P
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
=

9995 . 9
) 100 )( 005 . 100 (
1 10
2
7
2
2
2
2
2
2
=

=
=
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
lb
EAz
z l
b
l
z
l
EA
P
cr
S4-33 NAS 103, Section 4, December 2003
SOLUTION FOR WORKSHOP PROBLEM ONE
Linear Buckling Solution: Input File
SOL 105
TIME 60
CEND
TITLE=SIMPLE ONE DOF GEOMETRIC NONLINEAR PROBLEM
SUBTITLE=SOLUTION SEQUENCE 105
LABEL=Ref: STRICKLIN & HAISLER; COMP. & STRUC.; 7:125-136 (1977)
ECHO=SORT
DISP(SORT2)=ALL
SUBCASE 10
LOAD=6
SUBCASE 20
METHOD=30
BEGIN BULK
PARAM, POST, 0
$ GEOMETRY
GRID, 1, , 0., 0., 0., , 123456
GRID, 2, , 100., 1., 0., , 13456
$ CONNECTIVITY
CROD, 10, 10, 1, 2
$CELAS1, 20, 20, 2, 2, 0
$ PROPERTIES
PROD, 10, 1, .1
$PELAS, 20, 3.
MAT1, 1, 10.E7
$ LOADS
FORCE, 6, 2, , 6., 0. -1., 0.
$
$ SOLUTION STRATEGY
$
EIGB, 30, INV, 0., 3., 20, 2, 2
ENDDATA
S4-34 NAS 103, Section 4, December 2003
SOLUTION FOR WORKSHOP PROBLEM TWO
Nonlinear Solution for Problem 2: Input File
SOL 106
TIME 60
CEND
TITLE=SIMPLE ONE DOF GEOMETRIC NONLINEAR PROBLEM
LABEL=Ref: STRICKLIN & HAISLER; COMP. & STRUC.; 7:125-136
(1977)
ECHO=SORT
DISP(SORT2)=ALL
SUBCASE 10
LOAD=6
NLPARM=20
BEGIN BULK
PARAM, POST, 0
$ GEOMETRY
GRID, 1, , 0., 0., 0., , 123456
GRID, 2, , 100., 1., 0., , 13456
$ CONNECTIVITY
CROD, 10, 10, 1, 2
$CELAS1, 20, 20, 2, 2, 0
$ PROPERTIES
PROD, 10, 1, .1
$PELAS, 20, 3.
MAT1, 1, 10.E7
$ LOADS
FORCE, 6, 2, , 6., 0. -1., 0.
$
$ SOLUTION STRATEGY
$
PARAM, LGDISP, +1
NLPARM, 20, 10, , ITER, 5, 25, PW, ALL
$
ENDDATA
S4-35 NAS 103, Section 4, December 2003
SOLUTION FOR WORKSHOP PROBLEM THREE
RESTART,VERSION=1,KEEP
ASSIGN MASTER='chap4_ws_2s.MASTER'
TIME 60 $
SOL 106$
CEND
TITLE=SIMPLE ONE DOF GEOMETRIC NONLINEAR PROBLEM
LABEL=Ref: STRICKLIN & HAISLER; COMP. & STRUC.; 7:125-136 (1977)
ECHO=SORT
DISP(SORT2)=ALL
PARAM,LOOPID,3
PARAM,SUBID,2
METHOD,30
SUBCASE 10
LOAD=6
NLPARM=20
SUBCASE 20
LOAD=6
NLPARM=30
BEGIN BULK
PARAM, BUCKLE, 1
EIGB, 30, INV, 0., 3., 20, 2, 2
NLPARM, 30, 70, , ITER, 1, 25, PW, ALL
ENDDATA
S4-36 NAS 103, Section 4, December 2003
RESULTS FOR WORKSHOP PROBLEMS 1 - 3
Linear Buckling Vs. Nonlinear Buckling Solution:
3.436 16.900 3
1.924 9.999 0
Pcr (Nonlinear)
PARAM, BUCKLE, 1
Pcr (Linear)
SOL 105
K
s
N/A 25.601 6
S4-37 NAS 103, Section 4, December 2003
SOLUTION FOR WORKSHOP PROBLEM FOUR
Nonlinear Solution with Arc Length: Input File
SOL 106
TIME 60
CEND
TITLE=SIMPLE ONE DOF GEOMETRIC NONLINEAR PROBLE
LABEL=Ref: STRICKLIN & HAISLER; COMP. & STRUC.;
ECHO=SORT
DISP(SORT2)=ALL
SUBCASE 10
LOAD=15
NLPARM=20
BEGIN BULK
PARAM, POST, 0
$ GEOMETRY
GRID, 1, , 0., 0., 0., , 123456
GRID, 2, , 100., 1., 0., , 13456
$ CONNECTIVITY
CROD, 10, 10, 1, 2
$CELAS1, 20, 20, 2, 2, 0
$ PROPERTIES
PROD, 10, 1, .1
$PELAS, 20, 3.
MAT1, 1, 10.E7
$ LOADS
FORCE, 15, 2, , 15., 0. -1., 0.
$
$ SOLUTION STRATEGY
$
PARAM, LGDISP, +1
NLPARM, 20, 10, , ITER, 5, 25, PW, ALL
NLPCI, 20, CRIS, 1., 1., , , , 40
$
ENDDATA
S4-38 NAS 103, Section 4, December 2003
SOLUTION FOR WORKSHOP PROBLEM FOUR
S5-1 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
SECTION 5
MATERIAL NONLINEAR ANALYSIS
S5-2 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
S5-3 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Material Types in MSC.Nastran 5-5
Nonlinear Elasticity 5-11
Workshop Problem 1: Nonlinear Elastic Material 5-27
Hyperelasticity 5-33
Workshop Problem 2: Hyperelastic Material 5-45
Elastic-Plastic Material 5-53
Workshop Problem 3: Elastic-Plastic Material 5-73
Creep (Viscoelastic) Material 5-81
Workshop Problem 4: Creep Material 5-96
Workshop Problem 5: Temperature Dependent Mat. 5-105
Workshop Problem 6: Elastic-Pefectly Plastic Mat. 5-111
S5-4 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
S5-5 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
MATERIALS TYPES IN MSC.NASTRAN
Time and temperature independent
Linear elastic
Isotropic (MAT1)
Orthotropic (MAT3(axisym) or MAT8(shell))
Anisotropic (MAT2(shell) or MAT9(solid))
Nonlinear elastic
Isotropic (MAT1 and MATS1)

S5-6 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004


MATERIALS TYPES IN MSC.NASTRAN
(Cont.)
Time and temperature independent (continued)
Hyperelastic
Isotropic (MATHP)

1 2 3 4 5 6
(stretch)
Uniaxial Tension

1 2 3 4 5
(stretch)
PureShear
S5-7 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
MATERIALS TYPES IN MSC.NASTRAN
(Cont.)
Time and temperature independent (continued)
Elastic-plastic
Isotropic (MAT1, MATS1)
Anisotropic (MAT2(shell) or MAT9(solid), and MATS1)

Perfectly Plastic Linear Strain Hardening

S5-8 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004


MATERIALS TYPES IN MSC.NASTRAN
(Cont.)
Temperature dependent
Linear elastic
Isotropic (MAT1, MATT1)
Orthotropic (MAT3(axisym) and MATT3)
Anisotropic (MAT2(shell) and MATT2, or
MAT9(solid) and MATT9)
Nonlinear elastic
Isotropic (MAT1 and MATT1 and MATS1)

T
2
T
1

T
2
T
1
S5-9 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
MATERIALS TYPES IN MSC.NASTRAN
(Cont.)
Time dependent
Viscoelastic
Isotropic (MAT1 and CREEP)
Anisotropic (MAT2(shell) or MAT9(solid),
and CREEP)
Slightly anisotropic only

t (time)

0
t
1

t (time)

0
t
1
Creep Recovery
S5-10 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
S5-11 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
NONLINEAR ELASTICITY
Applications
Plastics
Metals
Example data
The data is from uniaxial
tests
S5-12 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
NONLINEAR ELASTICITY (Cont.)
Limitations in MSC.Nastran
Small strain
Isotropic materials only
No time dependence no creep
Can use beam element, but not recommended to use offset
vectors, in solution sequences that use differential stiffness,
because the vectors do not change angle(orientation)
User interface
MAT1 used to specify E, G, ,
1 used to specify temperature dependence of E, G, ,
S1 used, along with table TABLES1 or TABLEST
(temperature dependence), to specify stress versus strain (from
uniaxial test)
S5-13 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
NONLINEAR ELASTICITY (Cont.)
MATS1 bulk data entry
S5-14 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
NONLINEAR ELASTICITY (Cont.)
MATS1 bulk data entry (continued)
S5-15 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
NONLINEAR ELASTICITY (Cont.)
MATS1 bulk data entry (continued)
S5-16 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
NONLINEAR ELASTICITY (Cont.)
MATS1 bulk data entry
(continued)
S5-17 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
NONLINEAR ELASTICITY (Cont.)
MATS1 bulk data entry
(continued)
S5-18 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
NONLINEAR ELASTICITY (Cont.)
MATS1 bulk data entry (continued)
S5-19 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
NONLINEAR ELASTICITY (Cont.)
TABLES1 bulk data entry
S5-20 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
NONLINEAR ELASTICITY (Cont.)
TABLES1 bulk data entry (continued)
S5-21 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
NONLINEAR ELASTICITY (Cont.)
TABLES1 bulk data
entry (continued)
S5-22 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
NONLINEAR ELASTICITY (Cont.)
TABLES1 bulk data
entry (continued)
1
E

Loading
Unloading
Must supply first &
third quadrant data
Uniaxial stress versus
strain data curve
S5-23 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
NONLINEAR ELASTICITY, RELATION
BETWEEN UNIAXIAL AND MULTIAXIAL
Following are remarks on stress and strain data from a
uniaxial test, and how it relates to the multiaxial stress
and strain state as simulated by MSC.Nastran
As previously mentioned, the stress and strain data
used for the TABLES1 entry is from a uniaxial test(s)
The simulation by MSC.Nastran is not uniaxial, but
multiaxial
How does MSC.Nastran use the uniaxial data ?
S5-24 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
A stress and strain, called equivalent stress () and
strain (), is defined so that it is comparable to that of a
uniaxial stress and strain from tests
Calculate equivalent strain () from a multiaxial stress
({}) and strain ({}) state by assuming that the work
done by the corresponding stress states is equal
NONLINEAR ELASTICITY, RELATION
BETWEEN UNIAXIAL AND MULTIAXIAL
(Cont.)
} {d d

> < =
= function({})
S5-25 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
Using the uniaxial stress versus strain data and the
equivalent strain (), calculate the equivalent stress ()
NONLINEAR ELASTICITY, RELATION
BETWEEN UNIAXIAL AND MULTIAXIAL
(Cont.)
Uniaxial stress versus
strain data curve

S5-26 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004


Using the calculated equivalent stress () and strain (),
calculate the new multiaxial stress state ({}) and a new
nonlinear constitutive tangential matrix ([D
ne
])
where E is the elastic modulus from the MAT1 entry
NONLINEAR ELASTICITY, RELATION
BETWEEN UNIAXIAL AND MULTIAXIAL
(Cont.)
| | } { D
E

} {
current e new
=
}) { , ], D function([ ] [D
e ne
=
S5-27 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
There are two topologically identical models, each
consisting of a single CROD element. They have
different stress versus strain characteristics, and
different loading magnitude.
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 1: NONLINEAR
ELASTIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES
CROD
All DOF
fixed
Only DOF in
direction of
force is free
force
Cross-sectional
area = 1.0
S5-28 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
The two models
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 1: NONLINEAR
ELASTIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES
0.001 0.002 0.003
-0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.004
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
-10.0
-20.0

/1000
Uniaxial data
0.002 0.004 0.006
-0.002 -0.004 -0.006 -0.008
50.0
100.0
150.0
200.0
-50.0
-100.0

/1000
Uniaxial data
0.008
-150.0
CROD
100 in
Fixed 1 DOF
f
f =
20000 loading
-6667 unloading
CROD
100 in
Fixed 1 DOF
f
f =
200000 loading
-100000 unloading
S5-29 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
Include in model
SOL 106
A subcase for loading, and a subcase for unloading
The bulk data entry NLPARM, and corresponding case control entry
Material entries for linear and nonlinear elastic properties
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 1: NONLINEAR
ELASTIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES
S5-30 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 1: NONLINEAR
ELASTIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Input File for Modification
S5-31 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 1: NONLINEAR
ELASTIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Solution File
S5-32 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 1: NONLINEAR
ELASTIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Solution File (continued)
S5-33 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
HYPERELASTICITY
Definition
Materials that exhibit elastic behavior through large strains
Described using a scalar strain energy function
Derivative of strain energy function with respect to a strain component
determines the corresponding stress component
Application of model to actual materials
Rubber material: O-rings, bushings, gaskets, seals, boots, tires
Plastic
Glass
Solid propellant
Other elastomers
S5-34 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
HYPERELASTICITY (Cont.)
Sample of data
S5-35 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
HYPERELASTICITY (Cont.)
Limitations of MSC.Nastran
Fully incompressible material ( = 0.5) not currently implemented
Acceptable for nearly incompressible materials, e.g. = 0.4995
S5-36 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
HYPERELASTICITY (Cont.)
Comments on formulation of constitutive material
properties
where
S = second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor; symmetric stress with respect
to undeformed state
C = right Cauchy-Green strain tensor
W = elastic strain energy function; generalized Mooney-Rivlin model
C
W
2 S

=

+ =
ND
i
2i
0 v i
j
2
i
1
NA
j i,
ij
)) T (T 1 (J D 3) (I 3) (I A W
S5-37 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
HYPERELASTICITY (Cont.)
The coefficients A
ij
and D
i
are determined using
experimental data
A
ij
= coefficients accounting for distortion
D
i
= coefficients accounting for volumetric change
Tests performed are
Distortional deformation
Uniaxial tension/compression
Equibiaxial tension
Simple shear
Pure shear
Volumetric deformation
Pure volumetric compaction
S5-38 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
HYPERELASTICITY (Cont.)
Number of experimental data points needed for desired
order of W polynomial (accuracy of data fit)
Distortional portion of W polynomial
20 Above & A
50
, A
41
, A
32
, A
23
, A
14
, A
05
5
14 Above & A
40
, A
31
, A
22
, A
13
, A
04
4
9 Above & A
30
, A
21
, A
12
, A
03
3
5 Above & A
20
, A
11
, A
02
2
2 A
10
, A
01
(Mooney-Rivlin) 1
Minimum Number of
Experimental Points
Material Constants NA
S5-39 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
HYPERELASTICITY (Cont.)
Number of experimental data points needed for desired
order of W polynomial (accuracy of data fit) (continued)
Volumetric portion of W polynomial
5 D1, D2, D3, D4, D5 5
4 D1, D2, D3, D4 4
3 D1, D2, D3 3
2 D1, D2 2
1 D1 1
Minimum Number of
Experimental Points
Material Constants ND
S5-40 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
HYPERELASTICITY (Cont.)
Number of experimental data points needed for desired
order of W polynomial (accuracy of data fit) (continued)
Must use at least one tension and one shear test to characterize the
material
The total number of experimental points must be greater than the
number of A
ij
parameters
For calculating A
ij
, full incompressibility is assumed if ND > 1, or the D
1
field is blank and no volumetric compaction experimental data is
provided
For calculating A
ij
, compressibility is taken into account if only D
1
is
specified
S5-41 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
User interface
MATHP is used to supply or reference the material related data
Either the coefficients Aij and Di are to be specified, or data such as
stress versus stretch is to be referenced
If experimental data is supplied, the value of the coefficients are
estimated using least squares fitting of the data with polynomials
The coefficients are what is used by MSC.Nastran for the simulation
of the constitutive properties
he experimental stress versus stretch, etc. data is supplied using
TABLES1 entries
HYPERELASTICITY (Cont.)
S5-42 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
MATHP bulk data entry
HYPERELASTICITY (Cont.)
S5-43 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
MATHP bulk data entry (continued)
HYPERELASTICITY (Cont.)
S5-44 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
MATHP bulk data entry
(continued)
HYPERELASTICITY (Cont.)
S5-45 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 2:
HYPERELASTIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES
The use of hyperelastic materials is demonstrated using
a model with a single hexahedral element. The element
is to deform with the interior angles remaining at 90
degrees, and with the deformation in only one direction.
S5-46 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 2:
HYPERELASTIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES
The needed information for the creation of the model is
1x1x1 single hexahedral element
Constrain the eight GRIDs to allow enforced motion in only the X-
direction as follows
Constrain one GRIDs all six D-of-Fs, e.g. GRID, 1, ,123456
Constrain the other three GRIDs, of the element face containing the GRID
just constrained and normal to the X-direction, from motion in the X-
direction, but allowing motion due to the Poisson effect
Constrain the remaining four GRIDs like the first four GRIDs, but allowing
motion in the X-direction
Using nine(9) MPCs constrain the hexahedral element to keep a
rectangular-box shape (all interior angles are 90 degrees), e.g.
-1.0 1 7 1.0 1 6 100 MPC
-1.0 1 7 1.0 1 3 100 MPC
-1.0 1 7 1.0 1 2 100 MPC
A2 C2 G2 A1 C1 G1 SID MPC
2
3
7
6
X
1
S5-47 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
The needed information for the creation of the model is
(continued)
Force the element face (using its GRIDs), that is allowed to have
motion in the X-direction at all four of its GRIDs, 6.0 units of
displacement, e.g. SPCD, 1000, 7, 1, 6.0
Hyperelastic material properties referencing experimental data, e.g.
TAB1
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 2:
HYPERELASTIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES

TABD TAB4 TAB3 TAB2 TAB1
GE TREF AV RHO D1 A01 A10 MID MATHP
S5-48 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
The needed information for the creation of the model is
(continued)
Experimental data
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 2:
HYPERELASTIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES
S5-49 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
The needed information for the creation of the model is
(continued)
SOL 106
PARAM, LGDISP, 1
The bulk data entry NLPARM, and corresponding case control entry
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 2:
HYPERELASTIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES
S5-50 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 2:
HYPERELASTIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Input File for Modification
S5-51 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 2:
HYPERELASTIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Solution File
S5-52 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 2:
HYPERELASTIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Solution File (continued)
S5-53 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
ELASTIC-PLASTIC MATERIAL
Examples of elastic-plastic material
The simple example shows that upon unloading
the path followed is not the path taken during
loading. The slopes are equal, but the paths are
offset from each other.
Another simple example

Linear Strain Hardening

Idealization
for Nastran
Y
A
B
C

Data
Y
A
B C
Perfectly Plastic,
Uniaxial Stress-
Strain
S5-54 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
ELASTIC-PLASTIC MATERIAL (Cont.)
Modeling of material yielding
Yield criterion
Defines the initiation of inelastic response of the material
A descriptive statement that defines conditions under which yielding will
begin
yield function f(
ij
,Y)

ij
is multi-axial stress state
Y is yield strength in uniaxial tension/compression
Yield criterion satisfied when f(
ij
,Y) = 0
If f(
ij
,Y) < 0 the response is elastic
If f(
ij
,Y) > 0 the response is plastic
Example

e
= function(
ij
) (effective stress, scalar)
f(
ij
,Y) =
e
Y
Note: there is a strain,
e
, that corresponds to
e
S5-55 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
ELASTIC-PLASTIC MATERIAL (Cont.)
Modeling of material yielding (continued)
Hardening
The way the yield surface changes due to inelastic response
Isotropic yield surface expands uniformly
Kinematic yield surface translates w/o distortion
Combined combination of isotropic and kinematic
Plastic flow direction
Governs the plastic flow after yielding
Incremental stress versus incremental strain
Plasticity is path dependent
There is not a unique relationship between stress and strain
There is a unique relationship between infinitesimal increments of stress
and strain
S5-56 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
ELASTIC-PLASTIC MATERIAL (Cont.)
Yield criterion
Tresca (maximun shear stress)
Used to model metals with crystals having slip planes (resistance to
shear force is relatively small), such as brittle and some ductile metals
Yielding begins when the maximum shear stress at a point equals the
maximum shear stress at yield in uniaxial tension/compression
where
i
are the principal stresses
Y
3 2
=
Y
1 3
=
Y
2 1
=
S5-57 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
ELASTIC-PLASTIC MATERIAL (Cont.)
Yield criterion (continued)
von Mises (distortional strain energy density)
Used to model metals with crystals having slip planes, such as ductile
metals
Yielding begins when the distortional strain energy density at a point
equals the distortional strain energy density at yield in uniaxial
tension/compression
2 2
1 3
2
3 2
2
2 1 ij
Y
3
1
] ) ( ) ( ) [(
6
1
Y) , f( + + =
S5-58 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
ELASTIC-PLASTIC MATERIAL (Cont.)
Yield criterion (continued)
Mohr-Coulomb
Used to model cohesive materials such as rock or concrete
Generalization of the Tresca criterion that includes the influence of
hydrostatic stress
where c and are coefficients for the cohesion and angle of internal
friction, respectively
2ccos )sin ( Y) , f(
3 1 3 1 ij
+ + =
S5-59 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
ELASTIC-PLASTIC MATERIAL (Cont.)
Yield criterion (continued)
Drucker-Prager
Used to model cohesive materials such as sand or concrete
Generalization of von Mises criterion that includes the influence of
hydrostatic stress
where and K are coefficients that are dependent on the cohesion and
the angle of internal friction
K J I Y) , f(
2 1 ij
+ =
S5-60 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
ELASTIC-PLASTIC MATERIAL (Cont.)
Hardening, work
Isotropic hardening
Yield surface becomes larger by expanding uniformly about the origin in
stress space; it retains its shape.
Effective plastic strain is used as the measure of hardening
The effective strain,
e
, is used as a measure of the size of the yield
surface
The Bauschinger effect is not taken into account

3
Initial yield surface
Yield surface after
plastic deformation
O
Incremental loading
increases size of surface

1
S5-61 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
ELASTIC-PLASTIC MATERIAL (Cont.)
Hardening, work (continued)
Kinematic hardening
Yield surface translates keeping its shape and size
Translate the yield surface in a direction normal to the yield surface
The location of the current center of the yield surface (o) relative to the
origin of the principal strain coordinate system (o) is used as the
measure of hardening
The Bauschinger effect is accounted for
Physically reasonable results only for bilinear stress/strain relationship

3
Initial yield surface
Yield surface after
plastic deformation
O

1
O
S5-62 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
ELASTIC-PLASTIC MATERIAL (Cont.)
Hardening, work (continued)
Combined hardening
Combination of isotropic and kinematic hardening
The Bauschinger effect is accounted for

a
2
Y

Kinematic
Combined
Isotropic
S5-63 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
ELASTIC-PLASTIC MATERIAL (Cont.)
Plastic flow direction
MSC.Nastran uses associated flow rule to determine the plastic
flow direction
Uses plastic potential function equals the yield function

1
and
1
axes coincide
Plastic strain increment is calculated as follows
Where
Plastic strain increment is in direction normal to yield surface
ij
P
ij

f
d

=
P
ij

is plastic strain
is a scalar factor used to relate incremental strains to finite stress
f is the yield function; f(
ij
,Y) = 0 is the yield surface.
S5-64 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
ELASTIC-PLASTIC MATERIAL (Cont.)
Incremental stress versus incremental strain
Plasticity is path dependent
There is not a unique relationship between stress and strain
There is a unique relationship between infinitesimal increments of
stress and strain
For incremental stress/strain relationship the strain increment is
divided into an elastic and plastic increment

P
is the plastic strain

E
is the elastic strain
S5-65 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
ELASTIC-PLASTIC MATERIAL (Cont.)
Incremental stress versus incremental strain
(continued)
Relationship between differential increments of stress and plastic
strain
0 d

f
d

f
P
ij
P
ij
ij
ij
=

S5-66 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004


ELASTIC-PLASTIC MATERIAL (Cont.)
User interface
MAT1 used to specify E, G, ,
S1 used, along with table TABLES1, to specify stress
versus strain (from uniaxial test), and yield criteria, hardening
rule, etc.
S5-67 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
MATS1 bulk data entry
ELASTIC-PLASTIC MATERIAL (Cont.)
S5-68 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
MATS1 bulk data entry (continued)
ELASTIC-PLASTIC MATERIAL (Cont.)
S5-69 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
MATS1 bulk data entry (continued)
ELASTIC-PLASTIC MATERIAL (Cont.)
S5-70 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
MATS1 bulk data entry (continued)
ELASTIC-PLASTIC MATERIAL (Cont.)
S5-71 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
MATS1 bulk data entry
(continued)
ELASTIC-PLASTIC MATERIAL (Cont.)
S5-72 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
MATS1 bulk data entry (continued)
ELASTIC-PLASTIC MATERIAL (Cont.)
S5-73 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 3: ELASTIC-
PLASTIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES
The use of elastic-plastic material is demonstrated using
a model of a rectangular plate loaded in tension in one
direction.
X
Y
L
W
T = plate thickness
P
S5-74 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 3: ELASTIC-
PLASTIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES
850.0
Y
(psi)
3.0e+4 E
T
(psi)
0.25
3.0e+6 E (psi)
0.1 T (in.)
10.0 W (in.)
50.0 L (in.)
Value Para-
meter
Elastic-plastic model
von Mises yield criterion
Isotropic hardening
0.0
950.0
1000.0
800.0
Applied
Load, P
(lbf)
S5-75 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 3: ELASTIC-
PLASTIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Include in model
SOL 106
Two subcases for loading, and two subcases for unloading, e.g.
SUBCASE 2
SUBTITLE = PLASTIC LOAD TO 1000 lbf
LOAD = 2
NLPARM = 2
Use 1, 8, 5, and 2 increments for the NLPARM bulk data entries, for the
four subcases, e.g.
Case control
SUBCASE 2
NLPARM = 2
Bulk data
NLPARM, 2, 8,, AUTO,,,P
S5-76 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 3: ELASTIC-
PLASTIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Input File for Modification
S5-77 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 3: ELASTIC-
PLASTIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Input File for Modification (continued)
S5-78 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 3: ELASTIC-
PLASTIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Solution File
S5-79 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 3: ELASTIC-
PLASTIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Solution File (continued)
S5-80 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
S5-81 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
CREEP (VISCOELASTIC) MATERIAL
This is for the class of materials that are viscoelastic
(creeping). The application of a constant load causes a
deformation that consists of an elastic and possibly
plastic part, and a viscous part. The elastic part may
occur instantaneously (no mass), and the viscous part
may occur slowly over time.
Types of creep material behavior
Creep, compliance
Constant stress,
0
, with strain, , increasing over time
O
A
B
C
time

OA instantaneous elastic response


AB delayed elastic effect
BC viscous flow over time
S5-82 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
CREEP (VISCOELASTIC) MATERIAL
(Cont.)
Types of creep material behavior (continued)
Creep, compliance (continued)
Creep, three stage, with constant stress,
0
e elastic deformation lr load removed, then
p plastic deformation different path
Primary deformation rate decreases with time er elastic recovery
Secondary constant minimum creep rate r rupture
Tertiary rapid increase of creep rate sc secondary creep
O
time

e
p
Primary Secondary Tertiary
lr
r
er
sc
p
S5-83 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
CREEP (VISCOELASTIC) MATERIAL
(Cont.)
Types of creep material behavior (continued)
Creep, compliance (continued)
Sample of materials
Asphalt pavment
Solid propellant in rocket motors
High polymer plastics
Creep, relaxation
Constant strain,
0
, with stress, , decreasing over time
O
time

A
B
OA instantaneous elastic response
AB viscous flow over time
S5-84 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
CREEP (VISCOELASTIC) MATERIAL
(Cont.)
Types of creep material behavior (continued)
Creep, relaxation (continued)
Sample of materials
Prestress tendons in prestressed concrete
Prestress bolts at high temperatures that clamp rigid flanges of a machine
S5-85 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
CREEP (VISCOELASTIC) MATERIAL
(Cont.)
Creep analysis capability in MSC.Nastran
Linear elastic isotropic, and elastic-plastic isotropic materials only
Anisotropic, nonlinear elastic, and hyperelastic materials cannot be
modeled
The creep law can be temperature dependent
Primary and secondary creep modeling only; tertiary creep cannot be
modeled
Primary creep model uses Kelvin model
Secondary creep model uses Maxwell model
For deviatoric stresses only
k
e
k
p
k
s
c
s
c
p

Kelvin
Maxwell
Elastic
S5-86 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
User interface
MAT1 used to specify E, G, ,
CREEP is used to specify T
0
, K
p
, C
p
, C
s
, TABLES1, etc.
TABLES1 is used to specify the creep
S1 is used if there is plastic deformation
CREEP (VISCOELASTIC) MATERIAL
(Cont.)
S5-87 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
CREEP bulk data entry
CREEP (VISCOELASTIC) MATERIAL
(Cont.)
S5-88 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
CREEP bulk data entry (continued)
CREEP (VISCOELASTIC) MATERIAL
(Cont.)
S5-89 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
CREEP bulk data entry (continued)
CREEP (VISCOELASTIC) MATERIAL
(Cont.)
S5-90 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
CREEP bulk data entry (continued)
CREEP (VISCOELASTIC) MATERIAL
(Cont.)
S5-91 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
CREEP bulk data entry (continued)
CREEP (VISCOELASTIC) MATERIAL
(Cont.)
S5-92 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
CREEP bulk data entry (continued)
CREEP (VISCOELASTIC) MATERIAL
(Cont.)
S5-93 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
CREEP bulk data entry (continued)
CREEP (VISCOELASTIC) MATERIAL
(Cont.)
S5-94 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
CREEP bulk data entry (continued)
CREEP (VISCOELASTIC) MATERIAL
(Cont.)
S5-95 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
CREEP bulk data entry (continued)
CREEP (VISCOELASTIC) MATERIAL
(Cont.)
S5-96 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 4: CREEP
MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Calculate the creep strain in a cylindrical bar that is
subjected to axial step loads/stresses.
Cross-sectional
area = 1.0
E = 21.8e+6
= 0.32
CROD
All DOF
fixed
Only DOF in
direction of
force is free
Force
10.0 in
S5-97 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 4: CREEP
MATERIAL PROPERTIES
t g e f
t r c
) ( ] 1 )[ (
) (


+ =

000208 . 0 4
10 476 . 3 ) ( e f

=
094 . 2 5
) 1000 / ( 10 991 . 3 ) (

= r

000743 . 0 11
10 02 . 1 ) ( e g

=
where
0 100 200 300 400 500
1.00e4
1.25e4
1.50e4
1.70e4
Time (hour)
Force (lbf)
Applied Force, Force
S5-98 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 4: CREEP
MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Include in model
SOL 106
Five subcase pairs (total of 10 subcases), with the first subcase in a
pair for elastic loading and the second subcase in the pair for creep
loading, e.g.
SUBCASE 2O
SUBTITLE = ELASTIC
LOAD = 2 $ load = 1.25e4
NLPARM = 10 $ control of elastic solution
SUBCASE 21
SUBTITLE = CREEP
LOAD = 2 $ load = 1.25e4
NLPARM = 20 $ control of creep solution
S5-99 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 4: CREEP
MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Include in model (continued)
For the bulk data it is necessary to specify the loading over time,
definition of the creep model, control of the elastic solution, and control
of the creep solution, e.g.
FORCE, 2, 2, , 1.25E4, 1.0, 0.0, 0.0
CREEP, 1,
FORM = CRLAW
TYPE = 222
NLPARM, 10, 1
NLPARM, 20, 5, 20, , , , , YES
Note: total creep time = NINC * DT
S5-100 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 4: CREEP
MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Input File for Modification
S5-101 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 4: CREEP
MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Input File for Modification (continued)
S5-102 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 4: CREEP
MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Solution File
S5-103 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 4: CREEP
MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Solution File (continued)
S5-104 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
S5-105 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 5:
TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT MATERIAL
PROPERTIES
Specify temperature dependent material properties, and
see that the strains in the output file (.f06) are
mechanical strains (only).
The model is a single hexahedral element
The loading is uniaxial tension
Temperature change from 100
0
F to 200
0
F
S5-106 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
The needed information for the creation of the model is
1x1x1 single hexahedral element; units are inch.
Constrain the eight GRIDs to allow enforced motion in only the X-
direction as follows
Constrain the four GRIDs, in the plane X=0 (Y-Z plane), all six D-of-Fs, e.g.
GRID, 1, ,123456
Constrain the other four GRIDs, in the plane X=1, D-of-Fs 3456, e.g.
GRID, 2, , 3456
Elastic modulus, E, is 8.0e6, 100
0
F ; and 4.0e6, 200
0
F.
Poissons ratio, , is 0.3 at all temperatures
Thermal expansion coefficient is 1.0e-5 at all temperatures
Applied load is 10,000 lbf
Initial and final temperature is 100
0
F and 200
0
F, respectively
The model has zero stress at the initial temperature
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 5:
TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT MATERIAL
PROPERTIES
S5-107 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 5:
TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT MATERIAL
PROPERTIES
The needed information for the creation of the model is
(continued)
SOL 106
The case control section is used to select the initial temperature,
followed by two subcases, the latter of which is used to select the final
temperature
Case control
TEMP (INIT) = 10
SUBCASE 1
LOAD = 1
NLPARM = 1
SUBCASE 2
LOAD = 1
NLPARM = 2
TEMP (LOAD) = 20
S5-108 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
The needed information for the creation of the model is
(continued)
The bulk data section is used to specify the initial and final temperature,
and the control of the nonlinear process
Bulk data
$ INITIAL TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION
TEMPD, 10, 100.0
$ FINAL TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION
TEMPD, 20, 200.0
NLPARM, 1, 1
NLPARM, 2, 5
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 5:
TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT MATERIAL
PROPERTIES
S5-109 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 5:
TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT MATERIAL
PROPERTIES
Nastran input file, with entries to be included
S5-110 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 5:
TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT MATERIAL
PROPERTIES
Nastran input file, complete
S5-111 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 6: ELASTIC-
PERFECTLY PLASTIC MATERIAL
PROPERTIES
Model is seven member truss, constrained from out of
plane motion
Use CROD elements
Material is elastic-perfectly plastic
Apply (enforced) displacements
Compute limit load for structure
2h
2h

y1

y1

y2

y2

y2

y2

y2
F
F
2h = 10.0
A = 1.0
F = all 6 DOF fixed
E = 2.0e5
E
T
= 0.0

y1
= 100.0

y2
= 300.0
= 0.05
S5-112 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 6: ELASTIC-
PERFECTLY PLASTIC MATERIAL
PROPERTIES
Include in model
SOL 106
Case control
NLPARM = 1
Bulk data
Two entries for elastic-perfectly plastic properties
NLPARM, 1, 20, , , , , ,YES
S5-113 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 6: ELASTIC-
PERFECTLY PLASTIC MATERIAL
PROPERTIES
Input File for Modification
S5-114 NAS103, Section 5, February 2004
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 6: ELASTIC-
PERFECTLY PLASTIC MATERIAL
PROPERTIES
Solution File
S6-1 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
SECTION 6
NONLINEAR ELEMENTS
S6-2 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
S6-3 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Types Of Nonlinear Elements 6-6
Small Versus Large Strain 6-7
Small Strain Elements 6-10
Corotational Formulation 6-14
One-dimensional Small Strain Element Library 6-16
Rod, Conrod, Tube (Small Strain) 6-17
Beam (Small Strain) 6-20
Two-dimensional Small Strain Element Library 6-30
Nonlinear Shell And Plate Elements 6-31
Output For Shell And Plate Elements 6-36
Three-dimensional Small Strain Element Library 6-38
Solid Elements 6-39
Large Strain Elements 6-43
Hyperelastic Elements 6-44
S6-4 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Total Lagrangian Formulation 6-47
Volumetric Locking 6-49
Output For Hyperelastic Elements 6-51
Hyperelastic Element Limitations 6-54
Planar Hyperelastic Elements 6-55
Solid Hyperelastic Elements 6-60
Contact (Interface) Elements 6-64
Gap Element 6-65
3-D Slideline Contact 6-80
BCONP Bulk Data Entry 6-89
BLSEG Bulk Data Entry 6-92
BFRIC Bulk Data Entry 6-95
BWIDTH Bulk Data Entry 6-96
BOUTPUT Bulk Data Entry 6-99
S6-5 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
BOUTPUT Case Control Command 6-100
PARAM ADPCON 6-102
Summary 6-103
Large Strain (Hyperelastic) Physical Elements 6-109
Example Problem One 6-117
Example Problem Two 6-122
Example Problem Three 6-124
Workshop Problem One 6-127
Solution To Workshop Problem One 6-130
S6-6 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
TYPES OF NONLINEAR ELEMENTS
Physical elements
Small strain (ROD, BEAM, QUAD4, TRIA3, HEXA, PENTA, TETRA).
Large strain (QUAD4, QUAD8, QUAD, QUADX, TRIA3, TRIA6, TRIAX,
HEXA, PENTA, TETRA).
Contact (interface) elements
GAP
3-D slideline.
S6-7 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
SMALL VERSUS LARGE STRAIN
Longitudinal strain:
Shear strain:
Small strain does not include the quadratic terms in the
square brackets.

x
u
x
------
1
2
---
u
x
------
\ .
| |
2
v
x
------
\ .
| |
2
w
x
-------
\ .
| |
2
+ + + =

y
v
y
------
1
2
---
u
y
------
\ .
| |
2
v
y
------
\ .
| |
2
w
y
-------
\ .
| |
2
+ + + =
+ + + | + =
y
w
x
w
y
v
x
v
y
u
x
u
x
v
y
u
xy

|
S6-8 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
SMALL VERSUS LARGE STRAIN
Large strain-displacement matrix (B) is nonlinear.
For large strains, different definitions of stress and strain
are available.
Must use conjugate stress-strain definition.
All strain definitions give the same result for small strains
(<10%).
Small (infinitesimal) strain:
Large (logarithmic) strain:

l
l
0
----- =

l d
l
---- ln
l
l
0
---- =

ln 1

+
( )
for

= <<
S6-9 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
SMALL VERSUS LARGE STRAIN
At 10% stretch
Acceptable for engineering accuracy with a discrepancy
of 0.47%.
At 100% stretch
Not acceptable for engineering accuracy.
In metal forming problems, stretch could be more than
100%, and large strain capability is required.
In most structural problems, small strain is adequate.
Large strain (> 10%) may be acceptable if it is highly
localized, i.e., small compared to the total strain energy.
0.1 = ( ): ln 1.1 0.0953 = =
1.0 = ( ): ln 2 0.693 = =
S6-10 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
SMALL STRAIN ELEMENTS
General
May have large displacements and rotations (geometric nonlinear).
May have nonlinear material constitutive relationship.
Elastic (isotropic, orthotropic, anisotropic)
Nonlinear elastic (isotropic, anisotropic)
Elastic-plastic (isotropic, anisotropic)
Temperature-dependent (Elastic: isotropic, orthotropic, anisotropic;
Nonlinear elastic: isotropic)
Creep
Equilibrium is satisfied in deformed configuration.
Based on corotational formulation - A set of corotational axes that
continuously rotates with the element.
Use engineering strain, which is the strain in the element once the
element is rigidly rotated back to its original position.
S6-11 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
SMALL STRAIN ELEMENTS
Displacement of an element is split into:
Rigid body motion
Element net deformation
Good for large global displacements and large global
rotations with small element strains.
Converges faster with fine meshes than in coarse
meshes.
Stiffness matrix is divided into material and geometric
parts.
Geometric part is included by PARAM,LGDISP.
Nonlinear material is included by MATS1, MATTi (1, 2,
9), or CREEP.
S6-12 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
SMALL STRAIN ELEMENTS
Two types of OUTPUT FORMAT:
NONLINEAR - STRESS in subcase
LINEAR - FORCE in subcase
Strains in linear solution sequences are total strains
including thermal strains.
Strains in nonlinear solution sequences are the
mechanical strains, i.e., do not include thermal strains.
Output may be requested in SORT1 or SORT2.
SORT2 is applicable to linear format only.
S6-13 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
SMALL STRAIN ELEMENTS
Summary:
Displacement transformation matrix may be nonlinear.
Equilibrium is satisfied in deformed configuration.
Stress strain relationship may be nonlinear.
Strain displacement matrix is linear.
Small Strain Elements
PSOLID CHEXA 8-node Hexa
PSOLID CPENTA 6-node Penta
PSOLID CTETRA 4-10 node Tetra
PSHELL CQUAD4, CQUAD8 4/8 node Shell
MATi
MATS1
MATTi
CREEP
PSHELL CTRIA3, CTRIA6 3/6 node Shell
PBEAM CBEAM 2-node Beam
PROD CROD 2-node Rod
Materials Property Connectivity Element
S6-14 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
COROTATIONAL FORMULATION
Concept
Applicable to small strain elements.
Consider a grid point Q.
x X u + =
x
0
X
0
u
0
+ =
Undeformed Element
Deformed Element
e
1
X
e
e
2
X
0
b
2
b
1
Q'
O' d
1
x
e
u
x
x
0
X
d
2
w
d
u
Q
O
u
0
S6-15 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
COROTATIONAL FORMULATION
Undeformed and deformed grid point position with respect to element
origin.
X
e
= X-X
0
x
e
= x-x
0
Total grid point displacement with respect to element origin
u
e
=x
e
-X
e
u
e
=u-u
0
where X = undeformed position of grid point Q
x = deformed position of grid point Q
u = displacement of grid point Q
X
e
= undeformed position of grid point Q w.r.t. element origin
x
e
= deformed position of grid point Q w.r.t. deformed elem. origin
u
e
= total displacement of grid point Q w.r.t. deformed elem. origin
Net deformation of grid point Q
U
d ( )
x
e
d ( )
X
e
e ( )
=
Deformed
System
Deformed
System
Undeformed
System
S6-16 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
ONE-DIMENSIONAL SMALL STRAIN ELEMENT
LIBRARY
ROD, CONROD, TUBE
BEAM
GA
GB
S6-17 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
ROD, CONROD, TUBE (SMALL STRAIN)
Connected by two grid points.
Force components: axial force P
torque T
Displacement components: ui
i
Straight, prismatic member.
Nonlinear capabilities:
Geometric nonlinear
Only axial component may be material nonlinear
Small strain only
MATTI PTUBE CTUBE
Yes MATS1 CONROD
MATi PROD CROD
Geometric
Nonlinearity
Material Property Connectivity
S6-18 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
ROD, CONROD, TUBE (SMALL STRAIN)
Nonlinear Output Format
NONLINEAR ELEMENT PROBLEM: NLELI65 FEBRUARY 20, 1986 MSC/NASTRAN 11/27/85 PAGE 33
INELASTIC LOADING
CHECK OUTPUT FORMATS FOR NONLINEAR ELEMENTS SUBCASE 2
LOAD STEP = 2.00000E+00
N O N L I N E A R S T R E S S E S I N R O D E L E M E N T S ( C R O D )
ELEMENT AXIAL STRESS EQUIVALENT TOTAL STRAIN EFF. STRAIN EFF. CREEP LIN.
TORSIONAL
ID STRESS PLASTIC/NLELAST STRAIN STRESS
8900 4.500000E+04 4.500000E+04 3.000000E-03 1.500000E-03 0.0 0.0
S6-19 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
ROD, CONROD, TUBE (SMALL STRAIN)
Linear Output Format
NONLINEAR ELEMENT PROBLEM : NLELI65 FEBRUARY 20, 1986 MSC/NASTRAN 11/27/85 PAGE 52
INELASTIC LOADING
CHECK OUTPUT FORMATS FOR NONLINEAR ELEMENTS NONLINEAR
SUBCASE 2
LOAD STEP = 2.00000E+00
S T R E S S E S I N R O D E L E M E N T S ( C R O D )
ELEMENT AXIAL SAFETY TORSIONAL SAFETY ELEMENT AXIAL SAFETY TORSIONAL
SAFETY
ID. STRESS MARGIN STRESS MARGIN ID. STRESS MARGIN STRESS
MARGIN
8900 4.500000E+04 0.0
S6-20 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
BEAM (SMALL STRAIN)
Connected by two grid points
Element Coordinate System
Orientation of cross-sectional bending properties are defined by the third
grid point or orientation vector v.
Additional degrees of freedom must be defined for the warping variables
(optional).
(0,0,0)
z
nb
Plane 2
Shear Center
Nonstructural Mass
Center of Gravity
Neutral Axis
Grid Point
GA
Plane 1
y
elem
z
na
y
na
y
ma z
elem
x
elem
(x
b
,0,0)
y
nb
z
mb
ymb
zma
Grid Point
GB
I
1
= I
zz
I
2
= I
yy
x x v
w
a
Offset
w
b
Offset
v
M
yy
z
I
yy
-------------
M
zz
y
I
zz
-------------
S6-21 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
BEAM (SMALL STRAIN)
Force components: Axial force P
Total torque T
Warping torque Tw
Bending moments in planes 1 and 2 (Mi)
Shears in planes 1 and 2 (Vi)
Displacement components: ui
i
/ scalar point
Nonlinear capabilities
Geometric nonlinear
Material nonlinear hinge at each end couples axial and bending components.
Small strain only
d dx ( )
i
CREEP
MATTi
MATSi PBCOMP
Yes
MATi PBEAM CBEAM
Geometric Nonlinearity Material Property Connectivity
S6-22 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
BEAM (SMALL STRAIN)
Notes: 1. BAR is not a nonlinear element.
2. Any kind of nonlinearity specified for BAR is ignored.
Plastic Hinges for the Beam Element
Rationale:
If work-hardening is negligible, a plastic hinge appears in a frame at the point
where the bending moment is maximum.
The ratio of the collapse moment to the moment at first yield ranges
from 1.0 to 2.0 for practical sections.
For a prismatic beam element with end loads only, the bending moment
is maximum at one end.
P
Plastic Zone
S6-23 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
BEAM (SMALL STRAIN)
MAT1 MATS1 Plastic
Will only yield at grid point.
Plasticity is simulated by eight plastic rods that support extension and
bending about two axes (y and z).
Taper is allowed.
l/8
Potential Plastic
Zones
A B
l
l/8
S6-24 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
BEAM (SMALL STRAIN)
Arrangement of Equivalent Plastic Rods for Beam Ends
(radius of the gyration of the area)
Matching moments of inertia (I1,I2) and the cross-sectional area.
K
y
l
zz
A
-------- K
z
;
I
yy
A
--------- = =
Centroid
of Section
y
y and z are principal axes.
Locations are
determined by
I
1
and I
2
.
z
0 2
l
K
z
, ( )
2 K
y
0 , ( )
K
y
K
z
, ( )
K
y
K
z
, ( ) K
y
K
z
, ( )
S6-25 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
BEAM (SMALL STRAIN)
Accuracy in Calculation of Ultimate Moment in Yielded
State
Let
Calculated Ultimate Moment
Theoretical Ultimate Moment
----------------------------------------------------------------------- =
Moment Axis
Any multiple of 45
0
from y-axis
0.9481

Moment Axis
y or z 0.9856

t
z
y
z
y
S6-26 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
BEAM (SMALL STRAIN)
ht
w
wt
f
for y-axis for z- axis
0 0.8536
0.9856
0.5 0.8826 1.102
1.0 0.9031 1.207
2.0 0.9295 1.394
0.9856

h/w for y-axis for z- axis
0.0 0.8536
0.9856
0.5 0.9031 0.9543
1.0 0.9295 0.9295
2.0 0.9543 0.9031
0.9856 0.8536

z
y
t
w
t << h,w
h
t
f
z
y
w
t
w
t
f
, t
w
<< h,w
h
S6-27 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
BEAM (SMALL STRAIN)
Limitations of Nonlinear Beam Elements
The material is assumed to be elastic-perfectly plastic. Work hardening
can cause errors since results depend on beam length.
Any material nonlinearity other than elastic-perfectly plastic will yield
incorrect answers.
Treatment for torsion, warping, and transverse shear is linear.
Pin-flags are not allowed for material nonlinear analysis, i.e., they
cannot be used with MATS1, MATT1, or CREEP Bulk Data entries.
However, pin-flags can be used for geometric nonlinear analysis.
Offsets are not allowed for geometric nonlinear analysis.
Linear or nonlinear buckling analysis with offsets may give wrong
results.
No distributed loads (PLOAD1) are allowed.
S6-28 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
BEAM (SMALL STRAIN)
Nonlinear Output Format
N O N L I N E A R O U T P U T F O R B E A M
NONLINEAR ELEMENT PROBLEM: NLELI65 FEBRUARY 20, 1986 MSC/NASTRAN 11/27/85
PAGE 30
INELASTIC LOADING
CHECK OUTPUT FORMATS FOR NONLINEAR ELEMENTS
SUBCASE 2
LOAD STEP = 2.00000E+00
N O N L I N E A R S T R E S S E S I N B E A M E L E M E N T S ( C B E A M )
ELEMENT GRID POINT STRESS EQUIVALENT TOTAL STRAIN EFF. STRAIN EFF.
CREEP
ID ID STRESS PLASTIC/NLELAST
STRAIN
9400 9401 C -4.973799E-14 0.0 -1.657933E-21 0.0 0.0
D 3.000000E+04 3.000000E+04 1.046283E-03 4.628333E-05 0.0
E -4.973799E-14 0.0 -1.657933E-21 0.0 0.0
F -3.000000E+04 3.000000E+04 -1.046283E-03 4.628333E-05 0.0
9402 C 7.105427E-15 0.0 2.368476E-22 0.0 0.0
D -1.153490E-12 0.0 -3.844965E-20 0.0 0.0
E 7.105427E-15 0.0 2.368476E-22 0.0 0.0
F 1.167700E-12 0.0 3.892335E-20 0.0 0.0
S6-29 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
BEAM (SMALL STRAIN)
Linear Output Format
NONLINEAR ELEMENT PROBLEM: NLELI65 FEBRUARY 20, 1986 MSC/NASTRAN
11/27/85 PAGE 48
INELASTIC LOADING
CHECK OUTPUT FORMATS FOR NONLINEAR ELEMENTS NONLINEAR
SUBCASE 2
LOAD STEP = 2.00000E+00
S T R E S S E S I N B E A M E L E M E N T S ( C B E A M )
STAT DIST/
ELEMENT-ID GRID LENGTH SXC SXD SXE SXF S-MAX S-MIN
M.S.-T M.S.-C
9400 9401 0.000 -4.973799E-14 3.000000E+04 -4.973799E-14 -3.000000E+04 3.000000E+04 -3.000000E+04
9402 1.000 7.105427E-15 -1.153490E-12 7.105427E-15 1.167700E-12 1.167700E-12 -1.153490E-12
S6-30 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
TWO-DIMENSIONAL SMALL STRAIN ELEMENT
LIBRARY
TRIA3 (3 nodes) TRIA6 (6 nodes)
QUAD4 (4 nodes) QUAD8 (8 nodes)
T3
Q4
T6
Q8
S6-31 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
NONLINEAR SHELL AND PLATE ELEMENTS
QUAD4 and TRIA3
Isoparametric elements: QUAD4 and TRIA3.
Membrane and plate bending applicable to nonlinear material.
Transverse shear (Mindlin) remains linear.
Simulate thick or thin curved shell.
QUAD4 is preferred. TRIA3 is too stiff in membrane.
Each connecting node has 6 DOFs. Stiffness is not defined for rotation
about the normal to the plane. Therefore, use K6ROT.
Midplane offset may be used for geometric nonlinear only.
Pass constant stress patch test.
No shear locking, no spurious modes.
Poissons ratio locking exists, especially in plane strain.
Use of offsets will cause incorrect results in buckling analysis and
differential stiffness.
S6-32 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
NONLINEAR SHELL AND PLATE ELEMENTS
QUAD4: Connected by four grid points. The orientation of the normal to
the surface is defined by the connectivity.
TRIA3: Connected by three grid points. The orientation of the normal
to the surface is defined by the connectivity.
Force components: Membrane forces F
x
, F
y
, F
xy
Bending moments M
x
, M
y
, M
xy
Transverse shear forces Q
x
, Q
y
Stress components:
x
,
y
,
xy
(at center)
Displacement components: u
i

x
,
y
(no rotation normal to element)
S6-33 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
NONLINEAR SHELL AND PLATE ELEMENTS
QUAD8 and TRIA6
Isoparametric elements: QUAD8 and TRIA6.
Membrane and plate bending applicable to nonlinear material.
Transverse shear (Mindlin) remains linear.
Simulate thick or thin curved shell.
Each connecting node has 6 DOFs. Stiffness is not defined for rotation
about the normal to the plane. Therefore, use K6ROT.
Midplane offset may be used for geometric nonlinear only.
Pass constant stress patch test.
Use of offsets will cause incorrect results in buckling analysis and
differential stiffness.
S6-34 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
NONLINEAR SHELL AND PLATE ELEMENTS
QUAD8: Connected by eight grid points. The orientation of the normal to
the surface is defined by the connectivity.
TRIA6: Connected by three grid points. The orientation of the normal
to the surface is defined by the connectivity.
Force components: Membrane forces F
x
, F
y
, F
xy
Bending moments M
x
, M
y
, M
xy
Transverse shear forces Q
x
, Q
y
Stress components:
x
,
y
,
xy
(at center)
Displacement components: u
i

x
,
y
(no rotation normal to element)
S6-35 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
NONLINEAR SHELL AND PLATE ELEMENTS
Nonlinear capabilities:
Geometric nonlinear
Material nonlinear for membrane and bending components
CREEP CTRIA6
MATTi CQUAD8
MATS1 CTRIA3
Yes MATi PSHELL CQUAD4
Geometric
Nonlinearity
Material Property Connectivity
S6-36 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
OUTPUT FOR SHELL AND PLATE ELEMENTS
Nonlinear Format
NONLINEAR ELEMENT PROBLEM: NLELI65 FEBRUARY 20, 1986 MSC/NASTRAN 11/27/85
PAGE 34
INELASTIC LOADING
CHECK OUTPUT FORMATS FOR NONLINEAR ELEMENTS
SUBCASE 2
LOAD STEP = 2.00000E+00
N O N L I N E A R S T R E S S E S I N T R I A N G U L A R E L E M E N T S ( T R I A 3 )
ELEMENT FIBRE STRESSES/ TOTAL STRAINS EQUIVALENT EFF. STRAIN EFF.
CREEP
ID DISTANCE X Y Z XY STRESS PLASTIC/NLELAST
STRAIN
8800 -5.000000E-02 4.504111E+04 1.015688E+02 -6.266323E-14 4.499041E+04 1.499041E-03 0.0
2.993653E-03 -8.078549E-04 0.0
5.000000E-02 4.504111E+04 1.015688E+02 -6.266323E-14 4.499041E+04 1.499041E-03 0.0
2.993653E-03 -8.078549E-04 0.0
8801 -5.000000E-02 2.257134E+04 2.257134E+04 -2.246977E+04 4.499041E+04 1.499041E-03 0.0
1.092899E-03 1.092899E-03 -3.801508E-03
5.000000E-02 2.257134E+04 2.257134E+04 -2.246977E+04 4.499041E+04 1.499041E-03 0.0
1.092899E-03 1.092899E-03 -3.801508E-03
S6-37 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
OUTPUT FOR SHELL AND PLATE ELEMENTS
Linear Format
NONLINEAR ELEMENT PROBLEM: NLELI65 FEBRUARY 20, 1986 MSC/NASTRAN
11/27/85 PAGE 53
INELASTIC LOADING
CHECK OUTPUT FORMATS FOR NONLINEAR ELEMENTS NONLINEAR
SUBCASE 2
LOAD STEP = 2.00000E+00
S T R E S S E S I N T R I A N G U L A R E L E M E N T S ( T R I A 3 )
ELEMENT FIBRE STRESSES IN ELEMENT COORD SYSTEM PRINCIPAL STRESSES (ZERO SHEAR)
ID. DISTANCE NORMAL-X NORMAL-Y SHEAR-XY ANGLE MAJOR MINOR
VON MISES
8800 -5.000000E-02 4.504111E+04 1.015688E+02 -6.266323E-14 0.0000 4.504111E+04 1.015688E+02
4.499041E+04
5.000000E-02 4.504111E+04 1.015688E+02 -6.266323E-14 0.0000 4.504111E+04 1.015688E+02
4.499041E+04
8801 -5.000000E-02 2.257134E+04 2.257134E+04 -2.246977E+04 -45.0000 4.504111E+04 1.015688E+02
4.499041E+04
5.000000E-02 2.257134E+04 2.257134E+04 -2.246977E+04 -45.0000 4.504111E+04 1.015688E+02
4.499041E+04
S6-38 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
THREE-DIMENSIONAL SMALL STRAIN
ELEMENT LIBRARY
PENTA (6 nodes)
HEXA (8 nodes)
TETRA (4 or 10 nodes)
Note:
For HEXA & PENTA:
All edge nodes must be
deleted for nonlinear
analysis.
S6-39 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
SOLID ELEMENTS
HEXA: Connected by eight grid points.
PENTA: Connected by six grid points.
TETRA: Connected by four (or ten) grid points.
Stress components:
x
,
y
,
z

xy
,
yz
,
zx
(at center and corner points)
Displacement components: u
i
Nonlinear capabilities:
Geometric nonlinear
Material nonlinear
CREEP
MATTi CTETRA
Yes MATS1 PSOLID CPENTA
MATi CHEXA
Geometric Nonlinearity Material Property Connectivity
S6-40 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
SOLID ELEMENTS
Note: 1. HEXA20 and PENTA15 are not nonlinear elements.
2. Any kind of nonlinearity specified for HEXA20 and
PENTA15 is ignored.
Uses the strain function formulation that improves accuracy as
Poissons ratio approaches one-half. Internal degrees of freedom are
introduced to approximate quadratic shape function (for HEXA and
PENTA only).
S6-41 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
SOLID ELEMENTS
Nonlinear Output Format
1 ELASTIC-PLASTIC BUCKLING OF IMPERFECT SPHERICAL SHELL N10657 DECEMBER 2, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 12/ 1/93 PAGE 177
HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE APPLIED,PERIPHERY CLAMPED
0 SUBCASE 3
LOAD STEP = 3.00000E+00
N O N L I N E A R S T R E S S E S I N H E X A H E D R O N S O L I D E L E M E N T S ( H E X A )
ELEMENT GRID/ POINT STRESSES/ TOTAL STRAINS EQUIVALENT EFF. STRAIN EFF. CREEP
ID GAUSS ID X Y Z XY YZ ZX STRESS PLAS/NLELAS STRAIN
0 11 GRID CENTER 5.8398E+04 4.4519E+04 -2.0017E+04 -3.0549E-08 3.1213E-08 3.7113E+02 7.8000E+04 2.3300E-02 .0
2.6695E-03 5.3108E-04 -1.3093E-04 -6.1377E-15 7.6010E-15 1.4537E-03
101 -1.6090E+05 -4.6212E+04 4.0530E+04 -1.8137E-07 7.5895E-08 -9.9750E+02 6.4259E+04 9.9663E-02 .0
-9.1663E-02 -1.6827E-02 1.0228E-01 1.5330E-14 5.2356E-15 1.4537E-03
103 -1.3510E+05 -1.5007E+05 -3.2840E+04 -2.0672E-07 -1.3284E-08 -1.0080E+02 2.4847E+04 7.8079E-02 .0
-5.1229E-02 -4.3337E-02 8.2691E-02 1.5330E-14 9.9665E-15 1.4537E-03
104 -1.3510E+05 -1.5007E+05 -3.2840E+04 -2.0672E-07 -1.3284E-08 -1.0080E+02 2.4847E+04 7.8079E-02 .0
-5.1229E-02 -4.3337E-02 8.2691E-02 1.5330E-14 9.9665E-15 1.4537E-03
102 -1.6090E+05 -4.6212E+04 4.0530E+04 -1.8137E-07 7.5895E-08 -9.9750E+02 6.4259E+04 9.9663E-02 .0
-9.1663E-02 -1.6827E-02 1.0228E-01 1.5330E-14 5.2356E-15 1.4537E-03
201 2.4837E+05 1.5368E+05 1.6060E+04 -2.5726E-08 8.0401E-08 -3.5225E+02 7.8000E+04 1.0156E-01 .0
1.0069E-01 1.7070E-02 -1.0227E-01 -2.7606E-14 5.2356E-15 1.4537E-03
203 1.9665E+05 1.8168E+05 2.0698E+04 -2.8129E-08 -1.7611E-08 -2.8327E+02 7.8000E+04 7.5058E-02 .0
5.2881E-02 4.5218E-02 -8.3228E-02 -2.7606E-14 9.9665E-15 1.4537E-03
204 1.9665E+05 1.8168E+05 2.0698E+04 -2.8129E-08 -1.7611E-08 -2.8327E+02 7.8000E+04 7.5058E-02 .0
5.2881E-02 4.5218E-02 -8.3228E-02 -2.7606E-14 9.9665E-15 1.4537E-03
202 2.4837E+05 1.5368E+05 1.6060E+04 -2.5726E-08 8.0401E-08 -3.5225E+02 7.8000E+04 1.0156E-01 .0
1.0069E-01 1.7070E-02 -1.0227E-01 -2.7606E-14 5.2356E-15 1.4537E-03
S6-42 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
SOLID ELEMENTS
Nonlinear Output Format
1 ELASTIC-PLASTIC BUCKLING OF IMPERFECT SPHERICAL SHELL N10657 DECEMBER 2, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 12/ 1/93 PAGE 177
HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE APPLIED,PERIPHERY CLAMPED
0 SUBCASE 3
LOAD STEP = 3.00000E+00
N O N L I N E A R S T R E S S E S I N H E X A H E D R O N S O L I D E L E M E N T S ( H E X A )
ELEMENT GRID/ POINT STRESSES/ TOTAL STRAINS EQUIVALENT EFF. STRAIN EFF. CREEP
ID GAUSS ID X Y Z XY YZ ZX STRESS PLAS/NLELAS STRAIN
0 11 GRID CENTER 5.8398E+04 4.4519E+04 -2.0017E+04 -3.0549E-08 3.1213E-08 3.7113E+02 7.8000E+04 2.3300E-02 .0
2.6695E-03 5.3108E-04 -1.3093E-04 -6.1377E-15 7.6010E-15 1.4537E-03
101 -1.6090E+05 -4.6212E+04 4.0530E+04 -1.8137E-07 7.5895E-08 -9.9750E+02 6.4259E+04 9.9663E-02 .0
-9.1663E-02 -1.6827E-02 1.0228E-01 1.5330E-14 5.2356E-15 1.4537E-03
103 -1.3510E+05 -1.5007E+05 -3.2840E+04 -2.0672E-07 -1.3284E-08 -1.0080E+02 2.4847E+04 7.8079E-02 .0
-5.1229E-02 -4.3337E-02 8.2691E-02 1.5330E-14 9.9665E-15 1.4537E-03
104 -1.3510E+05 -1.5007E+05 -3.2840E+04 -2.0672E-07 -1.3284E-08 -1.0080E+02 2.4847E+04 7.8079E-02 .0
-5.1229E-02 -4.3337E-02 8.2691E-02 1.5330E-14 9.9665E-15 1.4537E-03
102 -1.6090E+05 -4.6212E+04 4.0530E+04 -1.8137E-07 7.5895E-08 -9.9750E+02 6.4259E+04 9.9663E-02 .0
-9.1663E-02 -1.6827E-02 1.0228E-01 1.5330E-14 5.2356E-15 1.4537E-03
201 2.4837E+05 1.5368E+05 1.6060E+04 -2.5726E-08 8.0401E-08 -3.5225E+02 7.8000E+04 1.0156E-01 .0
1.0069E-01 1.7070E-02 -1.0227E-01 -2.7606E-14 5.2356E-15 1.4537E-03
203 1.9665E+05 1.8168E+05 2.0698E+04 -2.8129E-08 -1.7611E-08 -2.8327E+02 7.8000E+04 7.5058E-02 .0
5.2881E-02 4.5218E-02 -8.3228E-02 -2.7606E-14 9.9665E-15 1.4537E-03
204 1.9665E+05 1.8168E+05 2.0698E+04 -2.8129E-08 -1.7611E-08 -2.8327E+02 7.8000E+04 7.5058E-02 .0
5.2881E-02 4.5218E-02 -8.3228E-02 -2.7606E-14 9.9665E-15 1.4537E-03
202 2.4837E+05 1.5368E+05 1.6060E+04 -2.5726E-08 8.0401E-08 -3.5225E+02 7.8000E+04 1.0156E-01 .0
1.0069E-01 1.7070E-02 -1.0227E-01 -2.7606E-14 5.2356E-15 1.4537E-03
S6-43 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
LARGE STRAIN ELEMENTS
General:
Can have large displacements and rotation.
Only isotropic hyperelastic material is available (MATHP).
Strain to displacement matrix is nonlinear.
Equilibrium is satisfied in deformed configuration.
S6-44 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
HYPERELASTIC ELEMENTS
Hyperelastic element characteristics:
All hyperelastic elements have hyperelastic materials only (MATHP Bulk
Data entry). Hyperelastic material includes linear elastic material.
Total Lagrangian formulation with updated coordinates.
Green strain potential function.
Energy conjugate stress-strain pair: Cauchy stress and symmetric part
of the virtual displacement gradient.
Deformation is split into volumetric and distortional components.
Mixed formulation: Separate interpolation for displacements and
volume ratio/pressure.
S6-45 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
HYPERELASTIC ELEMENTS
Avoids volumetric locking for nearly incompressible material.
Stiffness matrix is divided into material and geometric parts.
Geometric part is included by PARAM,LGDISP,1.
It is strongly recommended that PARAM,LGDISP,1 be used.
Temperature loads can be specified for all elements.
Follower pressure loads are available for all elements.
Missing grids (e.g., 5 node CQUAD) are not recommended.
S6-46 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
HYPERELASTIC ELEMENTS
Element Type Connectivity Property Hyperelastic
Material
Plane Strain:
4-noded QUAD
5-9 noded QUAD
3-noded TRIA
6-noded TRIA
CQUAD4
CQUAD8
CQUAD
CQUAD8
CQUAD
CTRIA3
CTRIA6
CTRIA6
PLPLANE
PLPLANE
PLPLANE
PLPLANE
MATHP
MATHP
MATHP
MATHP
Axisymmetric:
4-9 noded QUAD
3-6 noded TRIA
CQUADX
CTRIAX
PLPLANE
PLPLANE
MATHP
MATHP
Solid:
8-20 noded HEXA
6-15 noded PENTA
4-10 noded TETRA
CHEXA
CPENTA
C TETRA
PLSOLID
PLSOLID
PLSOLID
MATHP
MATHP
MATHP
S6-47 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
TOTAL LAGRANGIAN FORMULATION
Concept
x = X + u
The datum is always the initial state.
Previous
Converged Solution
Initial State
Last Estimate
x
z
Basic Coordinate System
New Estimate
V
i
V
0
u
i
( )
u
i 1 +
( )
V
i 1 +
u
i
u
i
u
0
X
u
i 1 +
u
i
u
i
+ =
x
i 1 +
X u
i 1 +
+ =
y
S6-48 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
TOTAL LAGRANGIAN FORMULATION
Hyperelastic elements use the updated coordinates to form the
stiffness matrix.
S6-49 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
VOLUMETRIC LOCKING
What Is Volumetric Locking?
Pressure
For nearly incompressible materials (D
i
, J = 1)
Stiffness matrix is ill-conditioned.
Spurious stresses.
Locking.
Volumetric Locking Avoidance
Mixed formulation
Energy functional:
P ( ) 2i J 1 ( )
2i 1
D
i
i 1 =
ND

=
W u J

, , ( ) U I
1
I
2
J

, ( ) p

J J

( ) + | | V
0
W
ext
u ( ) + d
B
0

=
S6-50 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
VOLUMETRIC LOCKING
Virtual work of the internal forces:
Separate interpolations for displacements and volume ratio/pressure.
W
i nt
S
T
E V
0

T

S
u ( ) V d
B

= d
B
0

=
S6-51 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
OUTPUT FOR HYPERELASTIC ELEMENTS
Cauchy stress
Defined from
where df = force in the deformed state
n = unit normal to the deformed area
dA = deformed area
df n dA =
x-y plane of basic Axisymmetric
x-y plane of user-specified coordinate system; default=basic Plain Strain
Basic Solids
Output Coordinate System Elements
S6-52 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
OUTPUT FOR HYPERELASTIC ELEMENTS
Logarithmic strain
where i = principal stretches
Ni = unit vectors in the principal directions
ln
i
N
i
N
i
T
i 1 =
3

=
S6-53 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
OUTPUT FOR HYPERELASTIC ELEMENTS
Note that in case of temperature strains, the total strains are output
Pressure (tension is positive)
Volumetric strain (volume increase is positive)
where J = det F
Linear and nonlinear output format is available.
Output may be requested in SORT1 or SORT2.
SORT2 is applicable to linear format.


E
--- T + =
p
1
3
---
tr =

V
J 1 =
-
S6-54 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
HYPERELASTIC ELEMENT LIMITATIONS
Fully incompressible material is not available yet; nearly
incompressible material is Poissons ratio
v 0.4995 or D1 1000. (A10 + A01)
Hyperelastic elements are only available in SOLs 106
and 129 and are not available in SOL 66 or SOL 99.
SOL 101 does not produce a fatal error; however, it
gives the wrong results.
Stress and strain output only in basic with no grid point
stress output, no center stress output and no user-
defined coordinate system for output.
S6-55 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
PLANAR HYPERELASTIC ELEMENTS
Plane strain: QUAD4, QUAD8, QUAD, TRIA3, TRIA6,
TRIA.
Axisymmetric: QUADX, TRIAX.
Properties are specified by PLPLANE.
PLPLANE Bulk Data Entry
Defines a finite deformation plane strain element.
Format:
Example:
CID MID PID PLPLANE
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
201 204 203 PLPLANE
S6-56 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
PLANAR HYPERELASTIC ELEMENTS
Field Contents
PID Element property identification number. (Integer > 0).
MID Identification number of MATHP entry. (Integer > 0).
Identification number of a coordinate system defining the
plane of deformation.
CID See Remarks 2 and 3. (Integer 0; Default = 0).
Remarks:
1. PLPLANE can be referenced by a CQUAD, CQUAD4, CQUAD8, CQUADX,
CTRIA3, CTRIA6, or CTRIAX entry.
2. Plane strain hyperelastic elements must lie on the x-y plane of the CID coordinate
system. Stresses and strains are output in the CID coordinate system.
3. Axisymmetric hyperelastic elements must lie on the x-y plane of the basic
coordinate system. CID may not be specified and stresses and strains are output in
the basic coordinate system.
S6-57 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
PLANAR HYPERELASTIC ELEMENTS
ID must be unique between PSHELL and PLPLANE; otherwise, User Fatal
Message 5410 is issued.
Fatal Error 6438 is issued if MATHP is not specified.
Output is in terms of Cauchy stress/log strains in the x-y plane of the
referred coordinate system at each Gauss point.
S6-58 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
PLANAR HYPERELASTIC ELEMENTS
Nonlinear Output Format
1 PURE SHEAR NOVEMBER 18, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 11/17/93 PAGE 83
0
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
N O N L I N E A R S T R E S S E S I N H Y P E R E L A S T I C Q U A D R I L A T E R A L E L E M E N T S ( QUADFD )
ELEMENT GRID/ POINT CAUCHY STRESSES/ LOG STRAINS PRESSURE VOL. STRAIN
ID GAUSS ID X Y Z XY
0 1 GAUS 1 1.678579E+02 -1.188351E-03 5.456201E+00 1.560323E-16 5.777097E+01 1.925699E-02
1.791759E+00 -1.772686E+00 .0 .0
2 1.678579E+02 -1.188351E-03 5.456201E+00 -1.191492E-15 5.777097E+01 1.925699E-02
1.791759E+00 -1.772686E+00 .0 .0
3 1.678579E+02 -1.188351E-03 5.456201E+00 -3.368891E-16 5.777097E+01 1.925699E-02
1.791759E+00 -1.772686E+00 .0 .0
4 1.678579E+02 -1.188351E-03 5.456201E+00 -7.083336E-16 5.777097E+01 1.925699E-02
1.791759E+00 -1.772686E+00 .0 .0
1 SIMPLE TENSION, AXISYMMETRIC ELEMENT SEPTEMBER 3, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/ 2/93 PAGE 103
0
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
NONLINEAR STRESSES IN H Y P E R E L A S T I C A X I S Y M M. Q U A D R I L A T E R A L ELEMENTS (QUADXFD)
ELEMENT GRID/ POINT CAUCHY STRESSES/ LOG STRAINS PRESSURE VOL. STRAIN
ID GAUSS ID RAD YY THETA RY
0 1 GAUS 1 1.806839E-09 2.917973E+02 1.806839E-09 -1.456493E-15 9.726578E+01 3.242192E-02
-8.296252E-01 1.818534E+00 -3.250761E-01 -9.570014E-01
2 1.806910E-09 2.917973E+02 1.806910E-09 3.027552E-16 9.726578E+01 3.242192E-02
-8.296252E-01 1.818534E+00 -3.250761E-01 -9.570014E-01
3 1.807052E-09 2.917973E+02 1.807052E-09 -6.255834E-15 9.726578E+01 3.242192E-02
-8.296252E-01 1.818534E+00 -3.250761E-01 -9.570014E-01
4 1.807052E-09 2.917973E+02 1.807052E-09 -7.787191E-16 9.726578E+01 3.242192E-02
-8.296252E-01 1.818534E+00 -3.250761E-01 -9.570014E-01
S6-59 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
PLANAR HYPERELASTIC ELEMENTS
Linear Output Format
1 PURE SHEAR NOVEMBER 18, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 11/17/93
PAGE 125
0 NONLINEAR
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
S T R E S S E S I N H Y P E R E L A S T I C Q U A D R I L A T E R A L E L E M E N T S ( QUADFD )
ELEMENT GRID/ POINT ---------CAUCHY STRESSES-------- PRINCIPAL STRESSES (ZERO SHEAR)
ID GAUSS ID NORMAL-X NORMAL-Y SHEAR-XY ANGLE MAJOR MINOR
0 1 GAUS 1 1.678579E+02 -1.188351E-03 1.560323E-16 .0000 1.678579E+02 -1.188351E-03
2 1.678579E+02 -1.188351E-03 -1.191492E-15 .0000 1.678579E+02 -1.188351E-03
3 1.678579E+02 -1.188351E-03 -3.368891E-16 .0000 1.678579E+02 -1.188351E-03
4 1.678579E+02 -1.188351E-03 -7.083336E-16 .0000 1.678579E+02 -1.188351E-03
1 SIMPLE TENSION, AXISYMMETRIC ELEMENT SEPTEMBER 3, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 9/ 2/93
PAGE 154
0 NONLINEAR
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
S T R E S S E S I N H Y P E R E L A S T I C A X I S Y M M. Q U A D R I L A T E R A L E L E M E N T S (QUADXFD)
ELEMENT GRID/ POINT STRESSES IN ELEMENT COORD SYSTEM PRINCIPAL STRESSES (ZERO SHEAR)
ID GAUSS ID RADIAL NORMAL-Y SHEAR-RY ANGLE MAJOR MINOR
0 1 GAUS 1 1.806839E-09 2.917973E+02 -1.456493E-15 -90.0000 2.917973E+02 1.806825E-09
2 1.806910E-09 2.917973E+02 3.027552E-16 90.0000 2.917973E+02 1.806939E-09
3 1.807052E-09 2.917973E+02 -6.255834E-15 -90.0000 2.917973E+02 1.807052E-09
4 1.807052E-09 2.917973E+02 -7.787191E-16 -90.0000 2.917973E+02 1.807052E-09
S6-60 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
SOLID HYPERELASTIC ELEMENTS
HEXA, PENTA, and TETRA.
Properties are specified by PLSOLID.
PLSOLID Bulk Data Entry
Defines a finite deformation solid element.
Format:
Example:
MID PID PLSOLID
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
21 20 PLSOLID
S6-61 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
SOLID HYPERELASTIC ELEMENTS
Field Contents
PID Element property identification number. (Integer > 0).
MID Identification number of a MATHP entry. (Integer > 0).
Remarks:
1. PLSOLID can be referenced by a CHEXA, CPENTA or CTETRA entry.
2. Stress and strain are output in the basic coordinate system.
IDs must be unique between PSOLID and PLSOLID; otherwise, User Fatal
Message 5410 is issued.
Fatal Error 6438 is issued if MATHP is not specified.
Output is in terms of Cauchy stress/log strain in the basic coordinate
system at each Gauss point.
S6-62 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
SOLID HYPERELASTIC ELEMENTS
Nonlinear Output Format
1 SIMPLE TENSION DECEMBER 1, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 11/30/93 PAGE 157
0 NONLINEAR SUBCASE 100 $ UNIAXI
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
S T R E S S E S I N H Y P E R E L A S T I C H E X A H E D R O N E L E M E N T S ( H E X A F D )
GRID/ POINT --------CAUCHY STRESSES--------- DIR. COSINES MEAN
ELEMENT-ID GAUSS ID NORMAL SHEAR PRINCIPAL -A- -B- -C- PRESSURE
0 1 GAUS
1 X 2.917973E+02 XY -7.841313E-15 A 2.917973E+02 LX 1.00 .0 .0 9.726578E+01
Y 1.804707E-09 YZ -7.742389E-17 B 1.804693E-09 LY .00 .0 .0
Z 1.804707E-09 ZX 2.332978E-15 C 1.804693E-09 LZ .00 .0 .0
2 X 2.917973E+02 XY -3.102808E-16 A 2.917973E+02 LX 1.00 .0 .0 9.726578E+01
Y 1.804707E-09 YZ -1.485038E-16 B 1.804693E-09 LY .00 .0 .0
Z 1.804707E-09 ZX 9.636988E-16 C 1.804693E-09 LZ .00 .0 .0
3 X 2.917973E+02 XY 2.823466E-15 A 2.917973E+02 LX 1.00 .0 .0 9.726578E+01
Y 1.804707E-09 YZ 6.255328E-17 B 1.804707E-09 LY .00 .0 .0
Z 1.804707E-09 ZX -6.466815E-15 C 1.804707E-09 LZ .00 .0 .0
4 X 2.917973E+02 XY -5.997311E-16 A 2.917973E+02 LX 1.00 .0 .0 9.726578E+01
Y 1.804707E-09 YZ 9.181191E-17 B 1.804707E-09 LY .00 .0 .0
Z 1.804707E-09 ZX -2.187819E-15 C 1.804707E-09 LZ .00 .0 .0
5 X 2.917973E+02 XY 2.333811E-15 A 2.917973E+02 LX 1.00 .0 .0 9.726578E+01
Y 1.804707E-09 YZ -1.264558E-16 B 1.804707E-09 LY .00 .0 .0
Z 1.804707E-09 ZX 2.823466E-15 C 1.804707E-09 LZ .00 .0 .0
6 X 2.917973E+02 XY -2.335867E-16 A 2.917973E+02 LX 1.00 .0 .0 9.726578E+01
Y 1.804693E-09 YZ -1.129638E-16 B 1.804694E-09 LY .00 .0 .0
Z 1.804693E-09 ZX 2.138826E-15 C 1.804694E-09 LZ .00 .0 .0
7 X 2.917973E+02 XY 2.162630E-15 A 2.917973E+02 LX 1.00 .0 .0 9.726578E+01
Y 1.804665E-09 YZ 2.140466E-17 B 1.804636E-09 LY .00 .0 .0
Z 1.804665E-09 ZX -6.248027E-15 C 1.804636E-09 LZ .00 .0 .0
8 X 2.917973E+02 XY -4.047673E-16 A 2.917973E+02 LX 1.00 .0 .0 9.726578E+01
Y 1.804651E-09 YZ 2.496398E-17 B 1.804622E-09 LY .00 .0 .0
Z 1.804651E-09 ZX -1.969031E-15 C 1.804622E-09 LZ .00 .0 .0
S6-63 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
SOLID HYPERELASTIC ELEMENTS
Linear Output Format
1 SIMPLE TENSION DECEMBER 1, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 11/30/93 PAGE 157
0 NONLINEAR SUBCASE 100 $ UNIAXI
LOAD STEP = 1.00000E+00
S T R E S S E S I N H Y P E R E L A S T I C H E X A H E D R O N E L E M E N T S ( H E X A F D )
GRID/ POINT --------CAUCHY STRESSES--------- DIR. COSINES MEAN
ELEMENT-ID GAUSS ID NORMAL SHEAR PRINCIPAL -A- -B- -C- PRESSURE
0 1 GAUS
1 X 2.917973E+02 XY -7.841313E-15 A 2.917973E+02 LX 1.00 .0 .0 9.726578E+01
Y 1.804707E-09 YZ -7.742389E-17 B 1.804693E-09 LY .00 .0 .0
Z 1.804707E-09 ZX 2.332978E-15 C 1.804693E-09 LZ .00 .0 .0
2 X 2.917973E+02 XY -3.102808E-16 A 2.917973E+02 LX 1.00 .0 .0 9.726578E+01
Y 1.804707E-09 YZ -1.485038E-16 B 1.804693E-09 LY .00 .0 .0
Z 1.804707E-09 ZX 9.636988E-16 C 1.804693E-09 LZ .00 .0 .0
3 X 2.917973E+02 XY 2.823466E-15 A 2.917973E+02 LX 1.00 .0 .0 9.726578E+01
Y 1.804707E-09 YZ 6.255328E-17 B 1.804707E-09 LY .00 .0 .0
Z 1.804707E-09 ZX -6.466815E-15 C 1.804707E-09 LZ .00 .0 .0
4 X 2.917973E+02 XY -5.997311E-16 A 2.917973E+02 LX 1.00 .0 .0 9.726578E+01
Y 1.804707E-09 YZ 9.181191E-17 B 1.804707E-09 LY .00 .0 .0
Z 1.804707E-09 ZX -2.187819E-15 C 1.804707E-09 LZ .00 .0 .0
5 X 2.917973E+02 XY 2.333811E-15 A 2.917973E+02 LX 1.00 .0 .0 9.726578E+01
Y 1.804707E-09 YZ -1.264558E-16 B 1.804707E-09 LY .00 .0 .0
Z 1.804707E-09 ZX 2.823466E-15 C 1.804707E-09 LZ .00 .0 .0
6 X 2.917973E+02 XY -2.335867E-16 A 2.917973E+02 LX 1.00 .0 .0 9.726578E+01
Y 1.804693E-09 YZ -1.129638E-16 B 1.804694E-09 LY .00 .0 .0
Z 1.804693E-09 ZX 2.138826E-15 C 1.804694E-09 LZ .00 .0 .0
7 X 2.917973E+02 XY 2.162630E-15 A 2.917973E+02 LX 1.00 .0 .0 9.726578E+01
Y 1.804665E-09 YZ 2.140466E-17 B 1.804636E-09 LY .00 .0 .0
Z 1.804665E-09 ZX -6.248027E-15 C 1.804636E-09 LZ .00 .0 .0
8 X 2.917973E+02 XY -4.047673E-16 A 2.917973E+02 LX 1.00 .0 .0 9.726578E+01
Y 1.804651E-09 YZ 2.496398E-17 B 1.804622E-09 LY .00 .0 .0
Z 1.804651E-09 ZX -1.969031E-15 C 1.804622E-09 LZ .00 .0 .0
S6-64 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
CONTACT (INTERFACE) ELEMENTS
GAP
3-D slideline
S6-65 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
GAP ELEMENT
Connects two grid points with the orientation (gap
direction).
Opening or closing (contact) is determined in the gap
direction.
Uses hard surface contact, i.e., no penetration of grid
points is allowed in the gap direction.
Can specify friction between the two points.
Uses the penalty method for both contact and friction.
Can have a large opening between the two points.
No large relative slipping between the two points is
permitted.
No large rotation for the two points (relative or rigid).
S6-66 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
GAP ELEMENT
CGAP Bulk Data Entry
Defines a gap or frictional element for nonlinear analysis.
Format:
Example:
Alternate Format and Example:
No PGAP CGAP
Geometric
Nonlinearity
Material Property Connectivity
CID X3 X2 X1 GB GA PID EID CGAP
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
-6.1 0.3 5.2 112 110 2 17 CGAP
CID GO GA GA PID EID CGAP
13 112 110 2 17 CGAP
S6-67 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
GAP ELEMENT
CID identifies the element coordinate system.
T1, T2, and T3 of CID are the element x-, y-, and z-axis, respectively.
For noncoincident grid points GA and GB if CID is not defined
GA - GB defines the x-axis.
Orientation vector is given by x1, x2, and x3, (like beam element) or GA -
GO defines the x-y plane.
For coincident grid points GA and GB,
If CID is blank, the job is terminated with a fatal message.
S6-68 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
GAP ELEMENT
CGAP Element Coordinate System.
GA
GB
KA KB
KB
Note: KA and KB in this
figure are from the
PGAP entry.
v
z
elem
y
elem
x
elem
S6-69 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
GAP ELEMENT
PGAP Bulk Data Entry
Defines the properties of the gap element (CGAP entry).
Format:
Example:
0.25 0.25 1.0E+6 1.0E+6 2.5 0.025 2 PGAP
TRMIN MAR TMAX
MU2 MU1 KT KB KA F0 U0 PID PGAP
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
S6-70 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
GAP ELEMENT
Shear Force for GAP Element.
F0
F
x
(Compressi on)
Slope = KB
Slope = KA
(Tension)
Slope KA is used when U
A
U
B
UO
(Compression)
U
A
U
B
UO
Nonlinear Shear
Unloading
Slope = KT
MU1
?asterisk14?
F
x
MU2
?asterisk14?
F
x
V or W
GAP Element Force-Deflection Curve for Nonlinear Analysis.
S6-71 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
GAP ELEMENT
There are two kinds of GAP element:
New and adaptive (TMAX >=0., preferred choice). New GAP can force
bisection and stiffness updates.
Old and non-adaptive (TMAX = 1.0).
New GAP element is recommended.
Old GAP element will not be covered.
Initial GAP opening is defined by U
0
, not by the distance.
Preload is defined by F
0
(not recommended).
Closed stiffness K
a
is used when U
A
U
B
U
0
.
The default for open stiffness K
b
= 10
14
K
a
.
S6-72 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
GAP ELEMENT
The transverse shear stiffness K
T
becomes active upon
contact. (The default =
1
* K
a
).
The continuation line is applicable for adaptive features
of the new GAP element only.
Adaptive features are specified by TMAX > 0.
Penalty values are adjusted based on the penetration.
If the penetration is greater than TMAX, the penalty
value is increased by a magnitude.
New Default

1
Static Friction 0.0

2
Kinetic Friction

1
S6-73 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
GAP ELEMENT
If the penetration is less than TRMIN * TMAX, the
penalty value is decreased by a magnitude.
MAR defines the lower and upper bounds for the penalty
value adjustment ratio.
Proper Estimation of Gap Stiffness
The stiffness of the beam at points A and B
The stiffness of the beam at points A and B
A
B
K
A
3EI
L
3
-------- - 1 = = K
B
48EI
L
3
----------- - 16 = =
K
A
1000
*
MAX K
A
K
B
,
( ) 16 10
3

K
B
10
3
*
MIN K
A
K
B
,
( )
0.001 =

S6-74 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003


GAP ELEMENT
The recommended stiffness acts rigid when closed and acts free when
open with an error of 0.1%.
Factors (10
3
or 10
3
) may be reduced to facilitate convergence at the
expense of accuracy.
Recommended stiffnesses are based on the decoupled stiffnesses.
Friction Features
Friction effect is turned off with K
t
= 0.
Static and kinetic frictions are allowed.
Frictional gap problem is path dependent.
Sticking with elastic stiffness K
t
before slipping.
Slipping is similar to plasticity.
Sub-incremental process similar to plasticity is used for the new gap.
No sub-incremental process for the old gap.
Accuracy deteriorates if the increment produces large changes in the
displacements with friction.
S6-75 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
GAP ELEMENT
The slip locus is generalized by an ellipse:.
F
y
2
F
z
2

s
F
x
( )
2
+ Closed and Sticking
F
y
2
F
z
2

k
F
x
( )
2
> + Closed and Slipping
S6-76 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
GAP ELEMENT
Caution for Using GAP Element
Large rotation capability is not implemented.
When used for linear analysis, GAP stays linear with the initial stiffness.
The penalty values (K
a
and K
t
) should be as small as possible for
solution efficiency, but large enough for acceptable accuracy.
Penalty values are constants while the structural stiffness in the
adjacent structure changes continuously during loading.
Avoid friction unless its effect is significant.
Use smaller increments if friction is involved.
Avoid complications by using isotropic friction (for old gap).
Typical coefficients of friction:
Steel on steel (dry) 0.4 to 0.6
Steel on steel (greasy) 0.05 to 0.1
Brake lining on cast iron 0.3 to 0.4
Tire on pavement (dry) 0.8 to 0.9
S6-77 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
GAP ELEMENT
Output Format
1 NONLINEAR STATIC CONTACT OF A SPHERE ON A RIGID NG6603 JANUARY 26, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 1/25/93 PAGE 353
FLAT PLANE. LOAD IN THE -Z IS 60. WITH FRICTION
0 RESULTS ARE FOR A HEXA MODEL SUBCASE 3
LOAD STEP = 3.00000E+00
S T R E S S E S ( F O R C E S ) I N G A P E L E M E N T S ( C G A P )
ELEMENT - F O R C E S I N E L E M S Y S T - - D I S P L A C E M E N T S I N E L E M S Y S T -
ID COMP-X SHEAR-Y SHEAR-Z AXIAL-U TOTAL-V TOTAL-W SLIP-V SLIP-W STATUS
2001 5.41107E+00 -3.66852E-01 .0 2.20054E-02 -1.81889E-03 .0 -1.81522E-03 .0 STICK
2002 1.03702E+01 -2.07404E+00 -1.66861E-14 1.97010E-01 -1.78610E-02 -6.96423E-19 -1.78403E-02 -5.29562E-19 SLIP
2003 -1.21279E-09 .0 .0 4.20721E-01 -1.52148E-02 .0 -1.52148E-02 .0 OPEN
2004 5.23067E+00 .0 .0 2.20193E-02 -1.80472E-02 .0 -1.80472E-02 .0 SLIDE
S6-78 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
GAP ELEMENT
STRESS output request in the Case Control Section.
Output quantities are in the element coordinates.
Output shows GAP status: open, slide, stick, slip.
Positive Fx is a compression force.
Total displacement is from the original position.
Slip displacement for the sticking or slipping condition is
the slip from the current contact position or slip center.
Slip-V
Force
Displacement
S6-79 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
GAP ELEMENT
Slip displacement for the open or sliding condition is the
same as the total displacement.
If open , ( = 0 or 0 ), Total-V = Slip-V.
If sliding, Total-V = Slip-V 0 for new gap.
If sticking, Slip-V Total-V 0.
If slipped, Total-V Slip-V = Vs from slip center.
S6-80 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
3-D SIDELINE CONTACT
Concept
Allows contact between two deformable bodies in a plane.
One of the bodies is called the master and other the slave.
The master/slave line is the region where contact can occur.
Slave Line
Slideline Plane Vector Direction
Master Line
x
y
z
k
k 1
k + 1
l + 1
l 1
k-th Slave Segment
l-th Master Segment
S6-81 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
3-D SIDELINE CONTACT
A master/slave segment is the line joining two consecutive nodes.
Master/slave nodes are the grid points in the contact region.
The slideline plane is the plane in which the master and slave nodes
must lie.
The master and slave nodes can have large relative motion within the
slideline plane.
Relative motions outside the slideline plane are ignored. Therefore,
they must be small.
Contact is determined between the slave nodes and the master line
(very important).
S6-82 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
3-D SIDELINE CONTACT
3-D Slideline Element
Consists of three nodes: slave, master node 1, and master node 2.
where S, m
1
, m
2
= slave, master node 1 and master node 2, respectively
a, a
0
= current and previous surface coordinate
g
n
= penetration of slave node into the master segment
g
t
= sliding of the slave node on the master segment
n = normal direction for the master segment
x
2
x
1

6
5
1
4
3
n
S
t
m
1
g
n
g
t
x
2
x
1

x
2
x
1

a
a
0
m
2
2
S6-83 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
3-D SIDELINE CONTACT
The element tangential (x) direction is the direction from master node 1
to master node 2.
The element normal (y) direction is perpendicular to the tangential
direction in the slideline plane.
The element z-direction is the slideline plane vector.
Normal direction (y) is obtained by z x.
The normal direction must point toward the slave node.
The penetration or gap is calculated by measuring how close the slave
node is to the master segment in the normal direction.
The slave node slides on the master segment until a tensile force
develops.
The surface coordinate is the parametric projection (0 to 1) of the slave
node onto the master segment.
A 3-D slideline element is created for each slave node.
S6-84 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
3-D SIDELINE CONTACT
Note that the master nodes to which a slave node connects change
continually.
The only way an internal element can be identified is by the external grid
number of the slave node.
S6-85 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
3-D SIDELINE CONTACT
Output
1 NONLINEAR STATIC CONTACT OF A SPHERE ON A RIGID PLANE WITHOUT FRIC JANUARY 26, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 1/25/93 PAGE53
0 SUBCASE 3
LOAD STEP = 3.00000E+00
R E S U L T S F O R S L I D E L I N E E L E M E N T S (IN ELEMENT SYSTEM)
SLAVE CONTAC MASTER SURFACE NORMAL SHEAR NORMAL SHEAR NORMAL SLIP SLIP SLIP
GRID ID GRID1 GRID2 CORDINATE FORCE FORCE STRESS STRESS GAP RATIO CODE
110 1 315 313 3.5261E-01 1.1142E+01 .0 1.8074E+01 .0 6.6289E-03 -4.7546E-02 .0 SLIDE
108 1 315 313 2.2509E-01 9.9720E+00 .0 1.6162E+01 .0 5.8047E-03 -3.5960E-02 .0 SLIDE
105 1 315 313 1.0759E-01 5.3024E+00 .0 1.7893E+01 .0 1.9600E-03 -1.8563E-02 .0 SLIDE
208 2 315 314 1.0000E+00 .0 .0 .0 .0 -1.1209E+00 .0 .0 OPEN
176 2 315 314 4.7187E-01 2.7194E+00 .0 4.5926E+00 .0 1.5293E-03 -3.9368E-02 .0 SLIDE
170 2 315 314 1.0759E-01 5.2982E+00 .0 1.7879E+01 .0 1.9684E-03 -1.8563E-02 .0 SLIDE
S6-86 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
3-D SIDELINE CONTACT
General Features
Can have as many slideline contact regions as desired.
Contact is determined only for slave nodes and the master line.
May specify symmetric penetration, i.e., contact is determined for both
slave and master nodes into master and slave line, respectively.
Initial penetration of slave nodes into master line is not allowed.
User Warning Message 6315 is issued, if the initial penetration is less
than 10% of the master segment length.
Coordinates of the slave node are changed internally to preclude
penetration.
User Fatal Message 6314 is issued, if initial penetration for any slave
node is greater then 10% of the master segment length.
The master and slave nodes must be in the slideline plane in the initial
geometry; otherwise, Fatal Message 6312 is issued.
S6-87 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
3-D SIDELINE CONTACT
During the analysis, no check is made to ensure that the master and
slave nodes are in the slideline plane.
The slave or master nodes need not be attached to the physical element
(model rigid surface).
Ensure that the contact region is properly defined so that there are no
erroneous overhangs.
Forces/stresses are associated with slave nodes.
Output can be requested in SORT1 or SORT2.
There is only one output format.
S6-88 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
3-D SIDELINE CONTACT
User Interface
Bulk Data entries:
BCONP Defines the parameters for a contact region and its
properties.
BLSEG Defines the grid points on the master/slave line.
BFRIC Defines the frictional properties.
BWIDTH Defines the width/thickness associated with each slave
node.
BOUTPUT Defines the output requests for slave nodes in a slideline
contact region.
Case Control command:
BOUTPUT Selects contact region for output
DMAP parameter:
ADPCON Adjusts penalty values on restart.
S6-89 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
BCONP BULK DATA ENTRY
Description:
Defines the parameters for a contact region and its properties
Format:
Example:
Field Contents
ID Contact region identification number (Integer > 0)
SLAVE Slave region identification number (Integer > 0).
MASTER Master region identification number (Integer > 0)
SFAC Stiffness scaling factor. This factor is used to scale the
penalty values automatically calculated by the program. (Real
> 0 or blank)
1 33 1 15 10 95 BCOMP
CID PTYPE FRICID SFAC MASTER SLAVE ID BCONP
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
S6-90 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
BCONP BULK DATA ENTRY
Field Contents
FRICID Contact friction identification number (Integer > 0 or blank)
PTYPE Penetration type (Integer = 1 or 2; Default =1).
1: unsymmetrical (slave penetration only) (default)
2: symmetrical
CID Coordinate system ID to define the slide line plane vector and
the slide line plane of contact. (Integer > 0 or blank; Default =
0 which means the basic coordinate system)
S6-91 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
BCONP BULK DATA ENTRY
Can have as many contact regions as desired.
Penalty values are automatically selected based on the diagonal terms
of grid points.
In symmetrical penetration, both the slave and master nodes are
checked for penetration into the master and slave surface, respectively.
The t3 direction of CID is the z-direction of all the 3-D slideline elements
(one corresponding to each slave node and also to each master node
for symmetric penetration) of the contact region.
k
Slave Line
Slideline Plane Vector Direction
Master Line
x
y
z
k-1th Slave Segment
1-th Master Segment
k 1
k + 1
l + 1
l 1
S6-92 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
BLSEG BULK DATA ENTRY
Description:
Defines a curve which consists of a number of line segments via grid
numbers that may come in contact with other body. A line segment is
defined between every two consecutive grid points. Thus, number of line
segments defined is equal to the number of grid points specified minus
1. A corresponding BWlDTH Bulk data entry may be required to define
the width/thickness of each line segment. If the corresponding BWlDTH
is not present, the width/thickness for each line segment is assumed
unity
Format:
G12 G11
G10 BY G9 THRU G8
G7 G6 G5 G4 G3 G2 G1 ID BLSEG
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
S6-93 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
BLSEG BULK DATA ENTRY
Examples:
Field Contents
ID Line segments identification number (Integer > 0)
Gi Grid numbers on a curve in a continuous topological order so
that the normal to the segment points towards other curve.
Grid points must be specified in topological order.
Normals (z t) of the master segments must face toward the slave line
for unsymmetric penetration.
Normals of master and slave segments must face each other for
symmetric penetration
44 THRU 35
33 32 30 27
1 4 BY 21 THRU 5 15 BLSEG
S6-94 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
BLSEG BULK DATA ENTRY
These conditions are accomplished by traversing counterclockwise or
clockwise from the master line to the slave line depending on whether
the slideline vector forms the right-hand rule or the left-hand rule.
The master line must have at least two grid points.
The slave line may have only one grid point for unsymmetrical
penetration.
Two grid points in a line cannot be the same or coincident except for the
first point and the last point, which signify a close region.
S6-95 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
BFRIC BULK DATA ENTRY
Description:
Defines frictional properties between two bodies in contact.
Format:
Example:
Field Contents
FID Friction identification number (Integer > 0)
FSTIF Frictional stiffness in stick (Real > 0.0). Default =
automatically selected by the program.
MU1 Coefficient of static friction (Real > 0.0).
(Note that no distinction is made between static and kinetic friction.)
MU1 FSTIF FID BFRIC
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
0.3 33 BFRIC
S6-96 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
BWIDTH BULK DATA ENTRY
Description
Defines width/thickness for line segments in 3-D/2-D slideline contact
defined in the corresponding BLSEG BULK Data entry. This entry may
be omitted if the width/thickness of each segment defined in the BLSEG
entry is unity. Number of thicknesses to be specified is equal to the
number of segments defined in the corresponding BLSEG entry. If
there is no corresponding BLSEG entry, the width/thickness specified in
the entry are not used by the program.
Format:
W12 W11
W10 BY W9 THRU W8
W7 W6 W5 W4 W3 W2 W1 ID BWIDTH
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
S6-97 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
BWIDTH BULK DATA ENTRY
Examples:
Field Contents
ID Width/thickness set identification number (Real > 0.0).
Wi Width/Thickness values for the corresponding line segments
defined in the BLSEG entry. (Real > 0.0).
44 THRU 35
2 2 2 2
1 BY 5 THRU 2 15 BWIDTH
S6-98 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
BWIDTH BULK DATA ENTRY
ID is the same as the slave line (BLSEG) ID.
Widths/thicknesses are specified for slave nodes only. Default = unity.
Widths/thicknesses are used for calculating contact stresses.
Each slave node is assigned a contributory area.
The number of widths to be specified is equal to the number of slave
nodes -1.
For only one slave node, specify the area in W1 field.
S6-99 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
BOUTPUT BULK DATA ENTRY
Description
Defines the slave nodes at which the output is requested.
Format:
Example:
Field Contents
ID Boundary identification number for which output is desired
(Integer > 0.0).
Gi Slave node numbers for which output is desired.
Note: The ID is the same as the corresponding BCONP ID. This entry
can selectively specify the slave grid points for which OUTPUT is
desired.
B10 BY G9 THRU G8
G8 G7 G6 G5 G4 G3 G2 G1
ALL ID BPOUTPUT
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
ALL 15 BOUTPUT
S6-100 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
BOUTPUT CASE CONTROL COMMAND
Description:
Selects slave nodes specified in the Bulk Data entry BOUTPUT for
history output.
Format:
Example:
BOUTPUT = ALL
BOUTPUT = 5
Field Contents
SORT1 Output is presented as a tabular listing of slave nodes for
each load or time depending on the solution sequence.
SORT2 Output is presented as a tabular listing of load or time for
each slave node.
BOUTPUT
SORT1, PRINT
SORT2, PUNCH
PLOT
\ .
|
|
|
| |
ALL
n
None
)

`


=
S6-101 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
BOUTPUT CASE CONTROL COMMAND
Field Contents
PRINT The print file (Fortran I/O unit 6) is the output media.
PUNCH The punch file is the output media.
PLOT Generate slave node results history but do not print.
ALL Histories of all the slave nodes listed in all the BOUTPUT
bulk data entries are output. If no BOUTPUT bulk data entries
are specified, histories of all the lave nodes in all the contact
regions are output.
n Set identification of previously appearing set command. Only
contact regions whose identification numbers.
none Result histories for no slave nodes are output.
Note: This command selects the contact region for which output is
desired.
S6-102 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
PARAM ADPCON
User interface
PARAM,ADPCON,(real value)
On restart, ADPCON can be used to increase or
decrease the penalty values for all the line contact
regions.
A negative value of ADPCON implies that penalty values
are calculated at the beginning of a subcase only. This
is useful for contact between elastic bodies.
Penalty values for a line contact region are given by
where ks = number calculated automatically for a slave node by the
program
SFAC = scale factor specified in BCONP
| ADPCON | * SFAC * k
s
S6-103 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
SUMMARY
Small Strain Physical Elements
S6-104 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
SUMMARY
Small Strain Physical Elements
S6-105 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
QUAD8
TRIA6
S6-106 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
SUMMARY
Small Strain Physical Elements
S6-107 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
SUMMARY
Small Strain Physical Elements (Cont.)
One-dimensional stress-strain curves use MAT1.
All other elements may be used for nonlinear analysis as long as they
remain linear.
S6-108 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
TETRA10
S6-109 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
LARGE STRAIN (HYPERELASTIC) PHYSICAL
ELEMENTS
S6-110 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
LARGE STRAIN (HYPERELASTIC) PHYSICAL
ELEMENTS
S6-111 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
LARGE STRAIN (HYPERELASTIC) PHYSICAL
ELEMENTS
S6-112 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
LARGE STRAIN (HYPERELASTIC) PHYSICAL
ELEMENTS
S6-113 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
LARGE STRAIN (HYPERELASTIC) PHYSICAL
ELEMENTS
S6-114 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
LARGE STRAIN (HYPERELASTIC) PHYSICAL
ELEMENTS
S6-115 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
LARGE STRAIN (HYPERELASTIC) PHYSICAL
ELEMENTS
S6-116 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
LARGE STRAIN (HYPERELASTIC) PHYSICAL
ELEMENTS
Contact Interface Elements
S6-117 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM ONE
Purpose
To illustrate the use of hyperelastic elements
Problem Description
Determine the force versus displacement curve for the rubber bushing
unit.
Assumptions
Rubber material is perfectly bonded to frame and shaft.
Frame and shaft are rigid.
Rubber
Frame
Shaft
15mm
30mm
Rubber material is the
Mooney-Rivlin type with:
Rubber Bushing
A
10
0.177 N mm
2
=
A
01
0.045 N mm
2
=
D
1
333 N mm
2
=

S6-118 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003


EXAMPLE PROBLEM ONE
Solution
Model one-half of rubber bushing taking advantage of symmetry.
Fully constraint the grid points at the outer boundary (between rubber
and frame).
Constraint the horizontal degree of freedom for grid points at the inner
boundary (between rubber and shaft) and tie the vertical motion
together with MPC.
Force-Displacement
Curve of a Rubber
Bushing.
S6-119 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM ONE
S6-120 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM 1: .DAT File
ID, chap6E1, NAS103 Chap 6, EX 1 $ AR (12/03)
SOL 106
CEND
TITLE = Rubber Bushing, NAS103 chapter 6 Ex 1
MPC = 13
SUBCASE 1
NLPARM = 1
SPC = 2
LOAD = 1
DISPLACEMENT=ALL
BEGIN BULK
PARAM POST 0
PARAM AUTOSPC NO
PARAM LGDISP 2
PARAM PRTMAXIM YES
NLPARM, 1, 10, , AUTO, 1, 25, PW, YES
MATHP, 1, .177, .045, 333.
PLPLANE, 1, 1
CQUAD4, 1, 1, 1, 2, 9, 8
=, *1, =, *7, *7, *7, *7
=10
CQUAD4, 13, 1, 2, 3, 10, 9
=, *1, =, *7, *7, *7, *7
=10
CQUAD4, 25, 1, 3, 4, 11, 10
=, *1, =, *7, *7, *7, *7
=10
CQUAD4, 37, 1, 4, 5, 12, 11
=, *1, =, *7, *7, *7, *7
=10
CQUAD4, 49, 1, 5, 6, 13, 12
=, *1, =, *7, *7, *7, *7
=10
CQUAD4, 61, 1, 6, 7, 14, 13
=, *1, =, *7, *7, *7, *7
=10
GRID, 1, 1, 30., 0., 0.
=, *1, =, *(-2.5), =, =
=5
GRID, 8, 1, 30., 15., 0.
=, *1, =, *(-2.5), =, =
=5
GRID, 15, 1, 30., 30., 0.
=, *1, =, *(-2.5), =, =
=5
GRID, 22, 1, 30., 45., 0.
=, *1, =, *(-2.5), =, =
=5
GRID, 29, 1, 30., 60., 0.
=, *1, =, *(-2.5), =, =
=5
GRID, 36, 1, 30., 75., 0.
=, *1, =, *(-2.5), =, =
=5
S6-121 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM 1: .DAT File (Cont.)
GRID, 43, 1, 30., 90., 0.
=, *1, =, *(-2.5), =, =
=5
GRID, 50, 1, 30., 105., 0.
=, *1, =, *(-2.5), =, =
=5
GRID, 57, 1, 30., 120., 0.
=, *1, =, *(-2.5), =, =
=5
GRID, 64, 1, 30., 135., 0.
=, *1, =, *(-2.5), =, =
=5
GRID, 71, 1, 30., 150., 0.
=, *1, =, *(-2.5), =, =
=5
GRID, 78, 1, 30., 165., 0.
=, *1, =, *(-2.5), =, =
=5
GRID, 85, 1, 30., 180., 0.
=, *1, =, *(-2.5), =, =
=5
MPCADD, 13, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
MPC, 1, 14, 2, -1., 7, 2, 1.
MPC, 2, 21, 2, -1., 7, 2, 1.
MPC, 3, 28, 2, -1., 7, 2, 1.
MPC, 4, 35, 2, -1., 7, 2, 1.
MPC, 5, 42, 2, -1., 7, 2, 1.
MPC, 6, 49, 2, -1., 7, 2, 1.
MPC, 7, 56, 2, -1., 7, 2, 1.
MPC, 8, 63, 2, -1., 7, 2, 1.
MPC, 9, 70, 2, -1., 7, 2, 1.
MPC, 10, 77, 2, -1., 7, 2, 1.
MPC, 11, 84, 2, -1., 7, 2, 1.
MPC, 12, 91, 2, -1., 7, 2, 1.
SPCADD, 2, 1, 3, 4
SPC1, 1, 12, 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, 36,
, 43, 50, 57, 64, 71, 78, 85
SPC1, 3, 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42,
, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77, 84, 91
SPC1, 4, 1, 1, THRU, 7
SPC1 4, 1, 85, THRU, 91
FORCE, 1, 7, , 1200., 0., -1., 0.
CORD2C, 1, , 0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 1.,
, 0., -1., 0.
ENDDATA
S6-122 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM TWO
Purpose
To illustrate the use of axisymmetric hyperelastic elements and follower
forces.
Problem Description
A circular plate is 15 inches in diameter and 0.5 inches thick. It is simply
supported along the edge and is subjected to a uniform pressure of 45
psi. Plot the deformed shape at various pressures.
Rubber material properties:
Solution
The problem is solved in two ways:
Model a ten-degree wedge using HEXA8 and PENTA6 elements with
axisymmetric boundary conditions.
Model it using axisymmetric QUAD4 elements.
A
10
80 psi, A
0
1
20 psi = =
D
1
5 10
4
psi =
S6-123 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM TWO
Deformed Shapes for the Wedge Model.
Deformed Shapes for the Axisymmetric
Model.
S6-124 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM THREE
Purpose
To illustrate the 3-D slideline contact capability.
Problem Description
Determine the deformed shape for a pipe being pushed in and out of a
clip.
Pipe
Diameter = 10.1 mm
E = 2.1 105
n = 0.3
Clip
Diameter = 10.0 mm
E = 2.1 103
n = 0.3
S6-125 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM THREE
Solution
Reduce the problem to a two-dimensional model.
Undeformed Shape
Deformed Shape,

Pipe
= 5.0 mm
S6-126 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM THREE
Deformed Shape, Deformed Shape

Pipe
= 10.30 mm
Pipe
= 7.5 mm
S6-127 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
WORKSHOP PROBLEM ONE
Purpose
To demonstrate the use of 3-D slideline contact.
Problem Description
An elastic punch is punched into an elastic foundation and then moved
horizontally to the right by 30 inches. The details of the model are as
shown below.
Modify the input file to define a symmetric contact region.
Use the displacement increment to push the punch horizontally to the
right by a total of 10 inches. Use increment of one inch per load step.
Plot the deformed shapes at the end of subcases one and two.
S6-128 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
WORKSHOP PROBLEM ONE
Input File for Modification
ID CHAP6WS1,NAS103, Chap 6, Workshop 1 $ AR (12/0
TIME 300
SOL 106
CEND
$
TITLE = SYMMETRIC ELASTIC PUNCH WITH FRICTION
$
DISP = ALL
SUBCASE 1 $ VERTICAL LOAD
LOAD = 1
NLPARM = 410
SUBCASE 2 $ DISPLACEMENT TO THE RIGHT
LOAD = 1
$
BEGIN BULK
PARAM,POST,0
$
$ GEOMETRY
GRID,100,,0.,0.,0.,,123456
=,*1,,*(10.),==
=9
GRID,200,,0.,,20.,,2456
=,*1,,*(10.),==
=9
GRID,300,,45.,,20.,,2456
GRID,301,,55.,,20.,,2456
GRID,302,,65.,,20.,,2456
GRID,400,,45.,,25.,,2456
GRID,401,,55.,,25.,,2456
GRID,402,,65.,,25.,,2456
$
$ ELEMENTS
CQUAD4,100,1,100,101,201,200
=,*1,=,*1,*1,*1,*1
=8
CQUAD4,200,2,300,301,401,400
=,*1,=,*1,*1,*1,*1
PSHELL,1,1,1.,-1
PSHELL,2,2,1.,-1
MAT1,1,1.E5,,0.0
MAT1,2,1.E5,,0.0
S6-129 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
WORKSHOP PROBLEM ONE
$
$ PUNCH LOAD: VERTICAL LOAD
FORCE,1,400,,-1000.,0.,0.,1.
FORCE,1,401,,-2000.,0.,0.,1.
FORCE,1,402,,-1000.,0.,0.,1.
$
$ LOAD FOR SUBCASE 2 : RIGHT HORIZONTAL DISPLACEMENT
$
$ SLIDELINE CONTACT
$
$ NONLINEAR SOLUTION STRATEGY: AUTO METHOD WITH DEFAULTS
NLPARM, 410, 1 , ,AUTO, , ,PW, YES, +NLP41
+NLP41, ,1.E-6, 1.E-10
$
ENDDATA
Input File for Modification (Contd)
S6-130 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
SOLUTION TO WORKSHOP PROBLEM ONE
ID CHAP6WS1S,NAS103, Chap 6, Workshop 1 $ AR
(12/03)
TIME 300
SOL 106
CEND
$
TITLE = SYMMETRIC ELASTIC PUNCH WITH FRICTION
$
DISP = ALL
SUBCASE 1 $ VERTICAL LOAD
LOAD = 1
NLPARM = 410
SUBCASE 2 $ DISPLACEMENT TO THE RIGHT
LOAD = 1
NLPARM=420
SPC=2
$
BEGIN BULK
PARAM,POST,0
$
$ GEOMETRY
GRID,100,,0.,0.,0.,,123456
=,*1,,*(10.),==
=9
GRID,200,,0.,,20.,,2456
=,*1,,*(10.),==
=9
GRID,300,,45.,,20.,,2456
GRID,301,,55.,,20.,,2456
GRID,302,,65.,,20.,,2456
GRID,400,,45.,,25.,,2456
GRID,401,,55.,,25.,,2456
GRID,402,,65.,,25.,,2456
$
$ ELEMENTS
CQUAD4,100,1,100,101,201,200
=,*1,=,*1,*1,*1,*1
=8
CQUAD4,200,2,300,301,401,400
=,*1,=,*1,*1,*1,*1
PSHELL,1,1,1.,-1
PSHELL,2,2,1.,-1
MAT1,1,1.E5,,0.0
MAT1,2,1.E5,,0.0
S6-131 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
SOLUTION TO WORKSHOP PROBLEM ONE
$
$ PUNCH LOAD: VERTICAL LOAD
FORCE,1,400,,-1000.,0.,0.,1.
FORCE,1,401,,-2000.,0.,0.,1.
FORCE,1,402,,-1000.,0.,0.,1.
$
$ LOAD FOR SUBCASE 2 : RIGHT HORIZONTAL DISPLACEMENT
SPC, 2, 300, 1, 10.
SPC, 2, 302, 1, 10., 301, 1, 10.
$
$ SLIDELINE CONTACT
BCONP, 10, 10, 20, , 10., 10, 2, 10
BFRIC, 10, 1, , 0.1
BLSEG, 10, 302, 301, 300
BLSEG, 20, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206,
, 207, 208, 209, 210
CORD2R, 10, , 0., 0., 0., 0., -1., 0.
, 1., 0., 0.
$
$ NONLINEAR SOLUTION STRATEGY: AUTO METHOD WITH DEFAULTS
NLPARM, 410, 1 , ,AUTO, , ,PW, YES, +NLP41
+NLP41, ,1.E-6, 1.E-10
NLPARM, 420, 10, ,AUTO, , ,PW, YES, +NLP42
+NLP42, ,1.E-6, 1.E-10
$
ENDDATA
S6-132 NAS 103, Section 6, December 2003
SOLUTION TO WORKSHOP PROBLEM ONE
S7-1 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
SECTION 7
NONLINEAR TRANSIENT ANALYSIS
S7-2 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
S7-3 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Review Of Transient Analysis 7-5
User Interface 7-11
Example Input For Sol 129 7-15
General Features 7-16
General Limitations 7-17
Integration Schemes 7-18
Nonlinear Transient Solution Strategy 7-21
Mass Specification 7-30
Damping 7-31
Damping Specification 7-34
Load Specification 7-37
Dynamic Loads 7-38
Dynamic Loads Example 7-47
S7-4 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Static Loads In Transient Analysis 7-49
LSEQ Entry 7-50
Example: Static Loads In Transient Analysis 7-53
Nonlinear Loads 7-55
Example: Nonlinear Loads 7-63
Initial Conditions 7-66
Restarts For Nonlinear Transient Analysis 7-67
Hints And Recommendations For Sol 129 7-68
Example Problem One 7-69
Example Problem Two 7-74
Workshop Problems One Through Three 7-76
Workshop Problem Four 7-80
Solution For Workshop Problem One 7-84
Solution For Workshop Problem Two 7-89
Solution For Workshop Problem Three 7-90
Solution To Workshop Problem Four 7-91
S7-5 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
REVIEW OF TRANSIENT ANALYSIS
Static analysis:
Compute a solution U that satisfies the equilibrium equation:
F(U) = P
Transient analysis:
Compute a solution U that satisfies the equilibrium equation:
U) P(t, t) F(U, t) , U D( ) t , U ( I = + +
& & &
Inertia
Forces
Damping
Forces
Element
Forces
External
Load
S7-6 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
REVIEW OF TRANSIENT ANALYSIS
For a linear system
For a general nonlinear system
Mass of the system may change
Damping may change
Stiffness may change
Load may be function of system response
In MSC.NASTRAN mass and damping cannot change. Therefore, the
equilibrium equation is
P(t) KU U B U M = + +
& & &
U) P(t, F(U(t)) t U B ) t ( U M = + +
& & &
S7-7 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
REVIEW OF TRANSIENT ANALYSIS
Nonlinear Transient Analysis
Nonlinear transient analysis proceeds by dividing the time into a
number of small time steps.
Beginning of
k-th Time Step
t = total time
End of k-th Time Step
Note: Time steps may not be equal.
t
1
t
k
t
n
S7-8 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
REVIEW OF TRANSIENT ANALYSIS
The solution at the end of a time step provides the initial conditions for
the next time step.
For each time step, a relationship is assumed between displacement,
velocity, and acceleration (integration scheme).
u
n
Displacement at time t
n
approximated by d
n
.
u
n
Velocity at time t
n
approximated by v
n
.
u
n
Acceleration at time t
n
approximated by a
n
.
.
..
t
F(d)
F
n
d
n
F
n + 1
d
n + 1
d
a, v, u, d
a
n
v
n
d
n
d(t)
u(t)
t t
n
t
n + 1
d
n + 1
a
n + 1
v
n + 1
d
S7-9 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
REVIEW OF TRANSIENT ANALYSIS
There are a number of different integration schemes available in the
literature.
Implicit integration: d
n + 1
is obtained by using the equilibrium conditions at
time t
n + 1
.
Explicit integration: d
n + 1
is obtained by using the equilibrium conditions at
time t
n
.
Use of the integration scheme reduces the transient equilibrium
equation to a static equilibrium equation form.
Effective dynamic stiffness and load vector depend on the integration
scheme used.
For example, for the average acceleration scheme, also called the
trapezoidal rule or Newmark scheme ( = 1/2, = 1/4),
K * ( M, B, K, t ) U = P * ( t, , , M, B, P )
Effective Dynamics Effective Dynamic
Stiffness Load Vector
.
U
S7-10 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
REVIEW OF TRANSIENT ANALYSIS
The equilibrium is satisfied at the beginning and at the end of a time step.
The equilibrium is not satisfied within the time step. Therefore, the selection of t
is important.
A large value of t reduces accuracy.
A small value of t increases computing cost.
A strategy is needed that automatically adjusts the time step value to achieve an
optimum value in terms of accuracy and computing cost.
Adjustment of time step value requires the reformation and decomposition of the
dynamic stiffness.
K B
t
M
t
K +

=
2 4
2
*
) ( 2 )] (
4
) ( 2 [ ) (
*
t U B t U
t
t U M t P P
& & & &
+

+ + =
S7-11 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
USER INTERFACE
Solution sequences
SOL 129 or SOL 99.
Solution strategy
TSTEPNL Bulk Data entry.
TSTEPNL Case Control command (always required).
SEALL or equivalent Case Control command is required
for SOL 99
Mass specification
RHO field in MATi Bulk Data entries.
CMASSi Bulk Data entries for scalar mass elements.
CONMi Bulk Data entries for concentrated mass elements.
PARAM,COUPMASS, to specify the generation of coupled rather than
lumped mass matrices for elements with coupled mass capability.
PARAM,WTMASS.
S7-12 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
USER INTERFACE
Damping specification
CVISC Bulk Data entry for the viscous damper element.
Field GE in MATi Bulk Data entries for nonlinear element damping
PARAM, G for overall structural damping.
PARAM, W3 to convert structural damping to equivalent viscous
damping.
PARAM, W4 to convert element damping to equivalent viscous
damping.
PARAM, NDAMP to specify numerical damping.
S7-13 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
USER INTERFACE
Load Specification
Selected by DLOAD, LOADSET, and NONLINEAR Case Control
commands.
Nonlinear transient load as a negative variable raised to a power. NOLIN4
Nonlinear transient load as a positive variable raised to a power. NOLIN3
Nonlinear transient load as the product of two variables. NOLIN2
Nonlinear transient load as a tabular function. NOLIN1
Generate transient load history for static loads. LSEQ
Transient load scale factors. DAREA
Transient load as defined by analytical functions. TLOAD2
Transient load as ordered time, force pairs. TLOAD1
S7-14 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
USER INTERFACE
Initial conditions specification
TIC Bulk Data entry
IC Case Control command
Additional entries for nonlinear analysis
Similar to nonlinear static analysis
Material nonlinear only
MATS1
Geometric nonlinear only
PARAM,LGDISP,+1
Contact (interface) only
CGAP/PGAP
BCONP, BLSEG, BWIDTH, BFRIC, BOUTPUT
Combined material and geometric nonlinear
MATS1
PARAM,LGDISP,+1
S7-15 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
EXAMPLE INPUT FOR SOL 129
ID MSC, NL129
TIME 30
SOL 129
DIAG 50 $ Print nonlinear iteration information
CEND
TITLE = MATERIAL NONLINEAR TRANSIENT ANALYSIS
SPC = 123
DISP = ALL
STRESS = ALL
IC = 50
SUBCASE 10
DLOAD = 100
TSTEPNL = 10
SUBCASE 20
DLOAD = 200
TSTEPNL = 20
BEGIN BULK
.
.
(Usual entries for model definition)
.
.
MAT1,10,30.+6,,.3, 0.1, , , 1.E-4
MATS1,10,,PLASTIC,0.,,,30.+3
$
PARAM,LGDISP,1
$ LOAD ENTRIES
TLOAD2,100,10,,0,0.0,10.0,1.0
TLOAD2,110,20,,0,10.0,20.0,1.0
DLOAD,200,1.0,1.0,100,1.0,110
DAREA,10,15,1,10.0
DAREA,20,18,1,5.0
$ INITIAL CONDITIONS
TIC,50,5,1,1.0,-2.0
TIC,50,6,2,-2.0,4.0
$ SOLUTION STRATEGY ENTRIES
TSTEPNL,10,10,.01,1,AUTO,,10,P
TSTEPNL,20,20,.01,1,AUTO,,10,P
$
ENDDATA
Initial Conditions
Load Selection
Solution Strategy
S7-16 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
GENERAL FEATURES
Transient material nonlinear, geometric nonlinear,
combined geometric and material nonlinear, and contact
problems can be solved using this solution sequence.
Linear superelements can be combined with nonlinear
elements.
Modal reduction (SEQSET,EIGR) and generalized
dynamic reduction (DYNRED) are available for the linear
superelements.
Parameter-controlled restarts from the end of any SOL
129 subcase or from SOL 106.
S7-17 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
GENERAL LIMITATIONS
No constraint changes after first subcase - including restart.
No thermal loads or enforced displacements.
Reduction (GDR, Guyan reduction) only for superelements.
PARAM G damping only applies to linear elements.
Nonlinear element damping provided by GE on MAT Bulk Data
entries (PARAM W4 must also be used) only for initial K.
Damping remains constant.
No element force output for nonlinear elements.
Upstream loads are ignored in the superelement data recovery.
No grid point stresses for nonlinear elements.
Mass cannot change.
S7-18 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
INTEGRATION SCHEMES
Two-Point Integration Scheme
Use the following equilibrium equation:
Assume that the acceleration for a time step is equal to the average of
the beginning and end of the step.
Velocity and displacement are obtained by integration.
1 1 1 n 1 n
U U
+ + + +
= + +
n n
P F B M
& & &
2
(t) U
1 +
+
=
n n
U U
& & & &
& &
2
1
1
1
1
4
2
t
U U
t U U U
t
U U
U U
n n
n n n
n n
n n

|
|
.
|

\
| +
+ + =

|
|
.
|

\
| +
+ =
+
+
+
+
& & & &
&
& & & &
& &
S7-19 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
INTEGRATION SCHEMES
Rearrange the equilibrium equation in terms of incremental values.
Calculate velocity as follows:
Note that the acceleration need not be calculated since it does not
appear in the incremental equilibrium equation.
For postprocessing purposes, acceleration is calculated as:
] [
2 4

4 2 4
1
2
1
2
n n n n n n T
U U C
t
M
t
U M
t
F P P U K B
t
M
t

(

+ + =
(

+ +
&
Dynamic Stiffness
Dynamic Load Factor
n n n n
U
t
U U U
& &

=
+ +
2
) (
1 1
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
=

+
+
+

+ +
} { } { } {
1
} {
1
1
1
1
1
1 1
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n n
n
U
t
t
U
t
t
t
t
U
t
t
T t
U
& & & & & & &
S7-20 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
INTEGRATION SCHEMES
Two-point integration scheme is the same as the
trapezoidal rule or average acceleration method except
for the calculation of acceleration in postprocessing.
For linear problems, this scheme is second-order
accurate, is unconditionally stable, and has no numerical
damping.
Easy starting, restarting, ending.
Residual error carried over effectively.
Equilibrium is satisfied without the need of calculating
0
U
& &
S7-21 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
NONLINEAR TRANSIENT SOLUTION
STRATEGY
Specified by TSTEPNL Bulk Data entry
Selected by TSTEPNL Case Control command
TSTEPNL Bulk Data Entry
Description: Defines parametric controls and data for nonlinear
transient analysis
Format:
Examples:
RTOLB UTOL MAXR RB MSTEP ADJUST MAXBIS
FSTRESS MAXLS MAXQN MAXDIV EPSW EPSP EPSU
CONV MAXITIER KSTEP NO DT NDT ID TSTEPNL
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
0.1 16 0.75 0 5 5
0.02 2 10 2 1.00E-06 1.00E-03
PW -10 2 1 250 TSTEPNL
S7-22 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
NONLINEAR TRANSIENT SOLUTION
STRATEGY
Field Contents
ID Identification number. (Integer > 0).
NDT Number of time steps of value DT. (Integer > 4).
DT Time increment. (Real > 0.0).
NO Time step interval for output. Every NO-th step will be saved
for output. (Integer > 0; Default = 1).
KSTEP If METHOD = TSTEP, then KSTEP is the time step interval
for stiffness Updates. If METHOD = ADAPT, then KSTEP
is the number of converged bisection solutions between
stiffness updates. (Integer > 0; Default = 2)
MAXITER Limit on number of iterations for each time step. (Integer 0;
Default = 10)
S7-23 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
NONLINEAR TRANSIENT SOLUTION
STRATEGY
Field Contents (Cont.)
CONV Flags to select convergence criteria. (Character: U, P,
W, or any combination; Default = PW)
EPSU Error tolerance for displacement (U) criterion. (Real > 0.0;
Default = 1 .0E-2)
EPSP Error tolerance for load (P) criterion. (Real > 0.0; Default =
1.0E-3)
EPSW Error tolerance for work (W) criterion. (Real > 0.0;
Default = 1 .0E-6)
MAXDIV Limit on the number of diverging conditions for a time step
before the solution is assumed to diverge. (Integer > 0;
Default = 2)
MAXQN Maximum number of quasi-Newton correction vectors to be
saved on the database. (Integer 0; Default = 10)
MAXLS Maximum number of line searches allowed per iteration.
(Integer 0; Default = 2)
S7-24 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
NONLINEAR TRANSIENT SOLUTION
STRATEGY
Field Contents (Cont.)
FSTRESS Fraction of effective stress (s) used to limit the subincrement
size in the material routines. (0.0 < Real < 1.0;
Default = 0.2)
MAXBIS Maximum number of bisections allowed for each time step.
(- 9 Integer 9; Default = 5)
ADJUST Time step skip factor for automatic time step adjustment.
(Integer 0; Default = 5)
MSTEP Number of steps to obtain the dominant period response.
(10 Integer 200; Default = variable between 20 and 40)
RB Define bounds for maintaining the same time step for the
stepping function if METHOD = ADAPT. (0.1 Real 1.0;
Default = 0.75)
MAXR Maximum ratio for the adjusted incremental time relative to
DT allowed for time step adjustment. (1.0 Real 32.0;
Default = 16.0)
S7-25 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
NONLINEAR TRANSIENT SOLUTION
STRATEGY
Field Contents (Cont.)
UTOL Tolerance on displacement increment beneath which there is
no time step adjustment. (0.001 > Real 1.0; Default = 0.1)
RTOLB Maximum value of incremental rotation (in degrees) allowed
per iteration to activate bisection. (Real > 2.0;
Default = 20.0)
S7-26 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
NONLINEAR TRANSIENT SOLUTION
STRATEGY
Automatic Time Step Adjustment (Adaptive Method)
Two-Point Integration Scheme
Time step is automatically adjusted (Use ADJUST = 0, to deactivate)
Stiffness is automatically updated to improve convergence
(KSTEP = # of converged bisection solutions between stiffness updates)
Accurate, efficient, and user-friendly
Based on the dominant frequency in the incremental deformation
pattern:
Number of steps (MSTEP) for a period is adaptive, based on the
stiffness ratio:
n
T
n
n n
T
n
n
T
n
n
T
n
n
U M U
F F U
U M U
U K U


=


=

) (
1
2

n n n
n
t MSTEP t
t
r

=
+
1 2 1
1

S7-27 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003


NONLINEAR TRANSIENT SOLUTION
STRATEGY
Thrashing is prevented by the stepping function:
With f = 0.25for r < 0.5 * RB
f = 0.5 for 0.5 < RB r < RB
f = 1.0 for RB r < 2.0
f = 2.0 for 2.0 r < 3.0/RB
f = 4.0 for r 3.0/RB
Bounds for t adjustment:
Undesirable effects due to GAP, plasticity, large mass, massless points,
etc., are filtered out.
n n
t r f t =
+
) (
1
MAXR DT t
MAXR
DT
n
* < <
S7-28 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
NONLINEAR TRANSIENT SOLUTION
STRATEGY
Stepping Function for Time Step Adjustment with
R
b
= 0.75
f(r)
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
.5 R
b
1 2 3 4 5 R
b
0.5
0.25
r
S7-29 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
NONLINEAR TRANSIENT SOLUTION
STRATEGY
Bisection Algorithm
To overcome divergent problems due to nonlinearity.
Activated when divergence occurs.
Activated when MAXITER is reached.
Activated when excessive is detected.
Decomposition at every bisection.
Update [K] at every KSTEP-th converged bisection.
Bisection continues until solution converges or MAXBIS is reached.
If MAXBIS is reached, the reiteration procedure is activated to select the
best attainable solution.
S7-30 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
MASS SPECIFICATION
Similar to linear transient analysis.
CMASS1 and CMASS2 define scalar mass elements.
CMASS3 and CMASS4 define scalar mass elements connected
only to scalar points.
CONM1 defines a 6 x 6 mass matrix for a grid point.
CONM2 defines a diagonal mass matrix for translational degrees of
freedom and a 3 x 3 full matrix for rotational degrees of freedom at a
grid point.
Element mass density is defined on the RHO field of the MATi Bulk
Data entry.
PARAM,COUPMASS,1 specifies the coupled mass matrix for
elements with coupled mass capability (BAR, BEAM, ROD, HEXA,
PENTA, TRIA, and TUBE elements).
S7-31 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
DAMPING
Damping represents energy dissipation observed in
structures.
Difficult to accurately model since damping results from
many mechanisms:
Viscous effects (dashpot, shock absorber)
External friction (slippage in structural joints)
Internal friction (characteristic of material type)
Structural nonlinearities (plasticity)
Analytical conveniences are used to model damping.
Viscous damping force proportional to velocity
u b f
v
& =
p ku u b u m = + +
& & &
S7-32 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
DAMPING
Structural damping force proportional to displacement
Viscous and structural damping are equivalent at
frequency
3
.
with
1 = = i u Gk i f
s
t coefficien damping structural G ) 1 ( = = + + p ku iG u m & &
G
b
3
k
----------
2
3

n
------------- = =

c
2m
n
--------------- =
S7-33 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
DAMPING
Damping
Structural Damping, f
s
= iGKu
Equivalent
Viscous b = Gk/
3

3

f
v
bu

=
S7-34 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
DAMPING SPECIFICATION
Similar to linear transient analysis.
Damping matrix B comprised of several matrices:
Where B
1
= damping elements (VISC,DAMP)
G = overall structural damping coefficient (PARAM,G)
W
3
= frequency of interest - rad/sec (PARAM,W3)
K
1
= global stiffness matrix
G
e
= element structural damping coefficient (GE on the MATi
entry)
W
4
= frequency of interest - rad/sec (PARAM,W4
K
e
= element stiffness matrix

+ + =
e
e e
K G
W
K
W
G
B B
4
1
3
1
1
S7-35 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
DAMPING SPECIFICATION
Default values for W3 and W4 are 0.0. In this case, the associated damping
terms are ignored.
Nonlinear element damping provided with PARAM,W4 and field GE in the
MATi entry using initial K.
Damping matrix is not rotated.
Caution for large rotation.
S7-36 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
DAMPING SPECIFICATION
DAMPING PARAMETERS
PARAM,G, factor (default = 0.0)
Overall structural damping coefficient to multiply stiffness matrix for linear
elements.
PARAM,W3, factor (default = 0.0)
Converts overall structural damping to equivalent viscous damping.
PARAM,W4 factor (default = 0.0)
Converts element structural damping to equivalent viscous damping.
Units for W3,W4 are radians/unit time.
If PARAM,G is used; PARAM,W3 must be set to greater than zero or
PARAM,G will be ignored.
S7-37 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
LOAD SPECIFICATION
Three ways:
Dynamic loads
Static loads
Nonlinear loads
S7-38 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
DYNAMIC LOADS
Dynamic loads require both temporal and spatial
distribution.
A user needs to follow four steps to specify dynamic
loads.
The four steps are:
1. Define the load as a function of time (TLOADi).
2. Define the spatial distribution of the load (DAREA).
3. Combine the TLOADi entries via DLOAD entry.
4. Select the loads via the DLOAD Case Control command.
S7-39 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
DYNAMIC LOADS
TLOAD1 Bulk Data Entry
Description: Defines a time-dependent dynamic load or enforced
motion of the form
for use in transient response analysis.
Format:
Example:
)} t ( F * A { )} t ( P { =
TID TYPE DELAY DAREA SID TLOAD1
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
13 7 5 TLOAD1
S7-40 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
DYNAMIC LOADS
Field Contents
SID Set identification number. (Integer > 0).
DAREA Identification number of DAREA entry set or a thermal load
set (in heat transfer analysis) which defines A. (Integer > 0).
DELAY Identification number of DELAY entry set that defines t.
(Integer 0, or blank).
TYPE Defines the nature of the dynamic excitation. (Integer 0, 1, 2,
3, or blank).
TID Identification number of TABLEDi entry that gives F(t-t).
(Integer > 0).
Enforced Acceleration 3
Enforced Velocity 2
Enforced Displacement 1
Force or Moment 0 or blank
Excitation Function Integer
S7-41 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
DYNAMIC LOADS
DAREA Bulk Data Entry
Description: Defines scale (area) factors for dynamic loads. DAREA is
used in conjunction with RLOADi and TLOADi entries.
Format:
Example:
Field Contents
SID Identification number. (Integer > 0).
Pi Grid, extra, or scalar point identification number.(Integer > 0).
Ci Component number. (Integer 1 through 6 for grid point;
blank or 0 for extra or scalar point).
Ai Scale (area) factor. (Real).
A2 C2 P2 A1 C1 P1 SID DARIA
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
10.1 1 15 8.2 2 6 3 DARIA
S7-42 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
DYNAMIC LOADS
TLOAD2 Bulk Data Entry
Description: Defines a time-dependent dynamic load or enforced
motion of the form
for use in a transient response problem where = t - T1 - t.
Format:
Example:

+ + +
+ > + <
=
) (T2 t ) (T1 , )
~
2 cos(
~
) (T2 or t ) (T1 t , 0
)} ( { ~


P t F e t A
t P
t C
t
~
B C
P F T2 T1 TYPE DELAY DAREA SID TLOAD2
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
2
12 4.7 2.1 10 4 TLOAD2
S7-43 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
DYNAMIC LOADS
Field Contents
SID Set identification number. (Integer > 0).
DAREA Identification number of DAREA entry set or a thermal load
set (in heat transfer analysis) that defines A. (Integer > 0).
DELAY Identification number of DELAY entry set that defines t.
(Integer 0, or blank).
TYPE Defines the nature of the dynamic excitation. (Integer 0, 1, 2,
3 or blank).
T1 Time constant. (Real 0.0).
T2 Time constant. (Real; T2 > T1).
F Frequency in cycles per unit time. (Real 0.0; Default =
0.0).
P Phase angle in degrees. (Real; Default = 0.0).
C Exponential coefficient. (Real; Default = 0.0).
B Growth coefficient. (Real; Default = 0.0).
S7-44 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
DYNAMIC LOADS
For a constant load, leave fields F, P, C, and B blank.
For a cosine wave, specify F = 1.0, and leave fields P, C,
and B blank.
For a sine wave, specify F = 1.0, P = - 90 and leave
fields C and B blank.
S7-45 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
DYNAMIC LOADS
DLOAD Bulk Data Entry
Description: Defines a dynamic loading condition for frequency
response or transient response problems as a linear combination of
load sets defined via RLOAD1 or RLOAD2 entries for frequency
response or TLOAD1 or TLOAD2 entries for transient response.
Format:
Example:
L4 S4
L3 S3 L2 S2 L1 S1 S SID DLOAD
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
9 -2
8 2 7 -2 6 2 1 17 DLOAD
S7-46 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
DYNAMIC LOADS
Field Contents
Sid Load set identification number. (Integer > 0).
S Scale factor. (Real).
Si Scale Factors. (Real).
Li Load set identification numbers of RLOAD1, RLOAD2,
TLOAD1, and TLOAD2 entries. (Integer > 0).
S7-47 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
DYNAMIC LOADS EXAMPLE
Step 1
P1 : TLOAD1,101,1,0,0,1
P2 : TLOAD1,102,2,0,0,2
or
TLOAD2,102,2,0,0.0,10.0
P3 : TLOAD2,103,3,,0,0.0,10.0,1.0,-90.0
Constant
P
1
P
3
P
2
10 11 12
7 8 9
4 5 6
1 2 3
10.0
Time P
1
= 1.0
Load
Sine Wave
10.0
10.0
10.0
P
2
= 2.0
P
3
= 10.0
S7-48 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
DYNAMIC LOADS EXAMPLE
Step 2
DAREA,1,10,2,-1.0
DAREA,2,12,1,-2.0
DAREA,3,11,2,-10.0
Step 3
DLOAD,10,1.0,1.0,101,1.0,102,1.0,103
Step 4
DLOAD=10 in Case Control
S7-49 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
STATIC LOADS IN TRANSIENT ANALYSIS
A user needs to follow five steps to specify static loads in
transient analysis.
The five steps are:
1. Define the static loads using FORCEi, GRAV, MOMENTi, etc., that are
referenced by the LOAD Case Control command.
2. Define a LSEQ Bulk Data entry to point to a TLOADi entry and to a load
set that is referenced by a LOAD Case Control command.
3. Define a TLOAD1 or TLOAD2 entry to define a constant function with
time.
4. Combine all the TLOADi entries through the DLOAD Bulk Data entry.
5. Select the DLOAD entry through the DLOAD Case Control command
and the LSEQ entry through the LOADSET Case Control command.
S7-50 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
LSEQ ENTRY
Defines static loads that will be applied dynamically.
Relationship to other commands and entries:
DLOAD LOADSET
DLOAD LSEQ
Case Control:
Bulk Data:
Dynamic
Load
DAREA Static
Load
S7-51 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
LSEQ ENTRY
LSEQ Bulk Data Entry
Description: Defines a sequence of static load sets.
Format:
Example:
Field Contents
SID Set identification of the set of LSEQ entries. (Integer > 0).
DAREA The DAREA set identification assigned to this static load
vector. (Integer > 0).
TID LID DAREA SID LSEQ
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
1001 1000 200 100 LSEQ
S7-52 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
LSEQ ENTRY
Field Contents
LID Load set identification number of a set of static load entries
such as those Referenced by the LOAD Case Control
command. (Integer > 0 or blank).
TID Temperature set identification of a set of thermal load entries
such as those referenced by the TEMP(LOAD) Case Control
command. (Integer > 0 or blank).
S7-53 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
EXAMPLE: STATIC LOADS IN TRANSIENT
ANALYSIS
Aim: to specify gravity load in transient analysis.
Solution:
Case Control Section
Step 5: DLOAD = 50011
LOADSET = 5000
Bulk Data Set
Step 4: DLOAD, 50011, 1.0, 1.0, 5001, 1.0, 4444,.
Step 3: TLOAD2, 5001, 5002, , 0, 0.0, 99999., 0., 0.
to LSEQ
Normal Dynamic Loads
S7-54 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
EXAMPLE: STATIC LOADS IN TRANSIENT
ANALYSIS
Step 3: TLOAD2, 5001, 5002, , 0, 0.0, 99999., 0., 0.
Step 2: LSEQ, 5000, 5002, 5555
Step 1: GRAV, 5555, , 380., 0., 0., 1.0
Defines a function = cos (0) = 1.0
LOADSET DAREA
S7-55 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
NONLINEAR LOADS
Allows for the specification of load at a particular degree
of freedom to be the function of displacement and
velocity at another degree of freedom.
Example:
Load at grid point 1, displacement component 2 as a
function of the displacement component 1 at grid point 3.
P(t)
6
5 4 3 2 1
P(t) = f (u
3
)
S7-56 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
NONLINEAR LOADS
Useful for specifying nonlinear springs and nonlinear
damping.
Nonlinear loads are specified using NOLINi entries.
Four NOLINi entries (NOLIN1, NOLIN2, NOLIN3, and
NOLIN4) to specify mechanical loads.
Nonlinear loads are selected via the NONLINEAR Case
Control command.
Nonlinear loads cannot be selected via the DLOAD Case
Control command.
All degrees of freedom referenced on NOLINi entry must
be members of the solution set.
S7-57 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
NONLINEAR LOADS
Velocity for an independent degree of freedom (for the
purpose of loads) is calculated as
Note: This may be different from that calculated in the
integration scheme. But it is acceptable.
In all NOLINi entries a degree of freedom is specified by
the grid number and its component number.
All loads generated with NOLINi entries lag behind by one
time step t.
t
t t t
t
U U
U


=
&
S7-58 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
NONLINEAR LOADS
NOLIN1 Bulk Data Entry
Description: Defines nonlinear transient forcing functions of the form.
Function of displacement: P
i
(t) = S * T(u
j
(t)) (1)
Function of velocity: P
i
(t) = S * T(u
j
(t)) (2)
where u
j
(t) and u
j
(t) are the displacement and velocity at point GJ in the
direction of CJ.
Format:
Example:
.
.
TID CJ GJ S C1 G1 SID NOLIN1
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
6 10 3 2.1 4 3 21 NOLIN1
S7-59 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
NONLINEAR LOADS
Field Contents
SID Nonlinear load set identification number. (Integer > 0).
GI Grid, scalar, or extra point identification number at which
nonlinear load is to be applied. (Integer > 0).
CI Component number for GI. (0 < Integer 6; blank or zero if
GI is a scalar or extra point).
S Scale factor. (Real).
GJ Grid, scalar, or extra point identification number. (Integer >
0).
CJ Component number for GJ according to the following table:
TID Identification number of a TABLEDi entry. (Integer > 0).
Integer = 10 Blank or Zero Extra
Integer = 10 Blank or Zero Scalar
11 < Integer < 16 1 < Integer < 6 Grid
Velocity Displacement Type of point
S7-60 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
NONLINEAR LOADS
NOLIN2 Bulk Data Entry
Description: Defines nonlinear transient forcing functions of the form.
where and can be either displacement or velocity at points GJ and GK
in the directions of CJ and CK.
Format:
Example:
P
i
(t) = S * X
j
(t) * X
k
(t)
CK GK CJ GJ S C1 G1 SID NOLIN2
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
2 1 2 2.9 1 2 14 NOLIN2
S7-61 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
NONLINEAR LOADS
NOLIN3 Bulk Data Entry
Description: Defines nonlinear transient forcing functions of the form.
where may be a displacement or a velocity at point GJ in the direction
of CJ.
Format:
Example:

>
=
0 ) ( , 0
0 ) ( , )] ( [ *
) (
t X
t X t X S
t P
j
j
A
j
i
A CJ GJ 5 C1 G1 SID NOLIN3
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
2 15 2 -6.1 102 4 NOLIN3
S7-62 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
NONLINEAR LOADS
NOLIN4 Bulk Data Entry
Description: Defines nonlinear transient forcing functions of the form.
where may be a displacement or a velocity at point GJ in the direction
of CJ.
Format:
Example:

<
=
0 ) ( , 0
0 ) ( , )] ( [ *
) (
t X
t X t X S
t P
j
j
A
j
i
A CJ GJ S C1 G1 SID NOLIN4
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
16.3 101 2 6 4 2 NOLIN4
S7-63 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
EXAMPLE: NONLINEAR LOADS
Use of NOLINi Entries
k
c
g(x)
m
f(t)
x
Nonlinear Spring
x
g(x)
g=0
x
2
mx

cx

kx g x ( ) f t ( ) = + + +
mx

cx

kx f t ( ) g x ( ) = + +
S7-64 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
EXAMPLE: NONLINEAR LOADS
Assume:
X
100
represents the displacement of the moving mass (X
100
= X).
How to define g(x)?
Define two scalar points, for example, 200 and 300 with k=1.
Use a NOLIN1 entry to define a force acting at scalar points 200 and
300
1
1
Table 3333
X
200
X
300
X if X 0
0 if X 0 <

=
NOLIN1,SID,200,1,1.0,100,1,3333
NOLIN1,SID,300,1,1.0,100,1,3333
Table ID
Table ID
S7-65 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
EXAMPLE: NONLINEAR LOADS
Use a NOLIN2 entry to define a force acting at GRID
100:
NOLIN2,SID,100,1,-1.000,200,1,300,1

We define a force acting at the mass (GRID 100) equal


to
Note: This approach is more accurate than using just one NOLIN1 to
define -g(x), where Table 3333 would be a square function rather than a
linear function.

>
0 X if 0
0 X
2
if X
S7-66 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
INITIAL CONDITIONS
May impose initial displacements and/or velocities with a
TIC Bulk Data entry.
IC Case Control command selects TIC entries in the
Bulk Data Section.
Warning: Initial conditions for unspecified degrees of
freedom are set to zero.
Initial conditions may be specified only for A-set degrees
of freedom.
S7-67 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
RESTARTS FOR NONLINEAR TRANSIENT
ANALYSIS
Starting from a previous transient analysis
Restarts are allowed only from the end of subcases.
Set parameters:
PARAM,LOOPID,I I = loop number on printout
PARAM,STIME,T
o
T
o
= starting value of time
To should be the last printed value for subcase I.
The database will be modified starting from LOOPID+1, T = T
o
.
Starting from a previous nonlinear static analysis
Set parameter:
PARAM,SLOOPID,I I = loop number on SOL 106 run
Initial transient load should be identical to static loads at restart state.
(SPC, etc., may change)
Caution:The database will be completely overwritten.
Transient analysis will destroy the static analysis
database.
S7-68 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
HINTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SOL
129
Identify the type of nonlinearity.
Localize nonlinear region.
Divide time history by subcases for convenience.
Each subcase should not have more than 200 time
steps.
Select default values to start - TSTEPNL.
Pick time step size for highest frequency of interest.
Twelve or more steps per cycle and frequent content of
input.
Some damping is desirable for numerical stability.
Avoid massless degrees of freedom.
Choose GAP stiffness carefully.
Increase MAXITER if convergency is poor.
S7-69 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM 1
Description: Transient Analysis of a Simply Supported
Beam with a Restrained Motion
0.02 in
990
25 in
50 in
0.02 in
F
n
z
x
Stopper
P(t)
F
n
(U
10010
)
(U
10010
)
0.011 sec
t
P
47.2
Forcing Function NOLIN1 Representing GAP
20 Beam Elements
50 in
A = 0.314 in
2
I = 0.157 in
4
= 0.3 lb./in
3
S7-70 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM 1 (Contd.)
Displacement at the Loading Point (DT=0.0002)
S7-71 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM 1 (Contd.)
Acceleration at the Loading Point (DT=0.002)
S7-72 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM 1: .dat File
ID, chap7e1, NAS103, chap 7, example 1 $ (AR
12/28/03)
SOL, 129
CEND
TITLE=SS Beam with a Restrained Motion (NOLIN1)
SUBTITLE=Direct Transient Response, Nonlinear
Force
LABEL= NOLIN in SOL 129
SEALL = ALL
ECHO=SORTED
SPC=1002
SET 1 = 10005
SET 2 = 10010
SET 3 = 10005,10010
DISP=3
VELO=3
OLOAD=1
NLLOAD=2
SUBCASE 1
DLOAD=30
TSTEPNL=20
NONLINEAR=13 $ Select Nonlinear Force
$
BEGIN BULK
PARAM, POST, 0
PARAM, GRDPNT, 10010
PARAM, WTMASS, 0.002588
$
CBAR, 101, 100, 10000, 10001, 0.0, 0.0, 1.
CBAR, 102, 100, 10001, 10002, 0.0, 0.0, 1.
CBAR, 103, 100, 10002, 10003, 0.0, 0.0, 1.
CBAR, 104, 100, 10003, 10004, 0.0, 0.0, 1.
CBAR, 105, 100, 10004, 10005, 0.0, 0.0, 1.
CBAR, 106, 100, 10005, 10006, 0.0, 0.0, 1.
CBAR, 107, 100, 10006, 10007, 0.0, 0.0, 1.
CBAR, 108, 100, 10007, 10008, 0.0, 0.0, 1.
CBAR, 109, 100, 10008, 10009, 0.0, 0.0, 1.
CBAR, 110, 100, 10009, 10010, 0.0, 0.0, 1.
CBAR, 111, 100, 10010, 10011, 0.0, 0.0, 1.
CBAR, 112, 100, 10011, 10012, 0.0, 0.0, 1.
CBAR, 113, 100, 10012, 10013, 0.0, 0.0, 1.
CBAR, 114, 100, 10013, 10014, 0.0, 0.0, 1.
CBAR, 115, 100, 10014, 10015, 0.0, 0.0, 1.
CBAR, 116, 100, 10015, 10016, 0.0, 0.0, 1.
CBAR, 117, 100, 10016, 10017, 0.0, 0.0, 1.
CBAR, 118, 100, 10017, 10018, 0.0, 0.0, 1.
CBAR, 119, 100, 10018, 10019, 0.0, 0.0, 1.
CBAR, 120, 100, 10019, 10020, 0.0, 0.0, 1.
$
CONM2, 12, 10010, , .1
$
GRID, 10, , 50., 0.,-1.
GRID, 10000, , 0., 0., 0., , 1246
GRID, 10001, , 5., 0., 0., , 1246
GRID, 10002, , 10., 0., 0., , 1246
GRID, 10003, , 15., 0., 0., , 1246
GRID, 10004, , 20., 0., 0., , 1246
GRID, 10005, , 25., 0., 0., , 1246
GRID, 10006, , 30., 0., 0., , 1246
GRID, 10007, , 35., 0., 0., , 1246
GRID, 10008, , 40., 0., 0., , 1246
GRID, 10009, , 45., 0., 0., , 1246
GRID, 10010, , 50., 0., 0., , 1246
GRID, 10011, , 55., 0., 0., , 1246
GRID, 10012, , 60., 0., 0., , 1246
S7-73 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM 1: .dat File (Contd.)
GRID, 10013, , 65., 0., 0., , 1246
GRID, 10014, , 70., 0., 0., , 1246
GRID, 10015, , 75., 0., 0., , 1246
GRID, 10016, , 80., 0., 0., , 1246
GRID, 10017, , 85., 0., 0., , 1246
GRID, 10018, , 90., 0., 0., , 1246
GRID, 10019, , 95., 0., 0., , 1246
GRID, 10020, ,100., 0., 0., , 1246
$
MAT1, 1000, 3.E7, , 0.3, 0.3
$
PBAR, 100, 1000, 0.31416, 0.15708
, 1., 0.
$
SPC, 1002, 10, 123456
SPC, 1002, 10020, 3, , 10000, 3
$ Modeling Information for Center Spring
CROD, 10, 10, 10, 10010
MAT1, 10, 10., , 0.
PROD, 10, 10, 1.
$
MATS1, 10, , PLASTIC, 0., 1, 1, 3.E8
$ Loading and Solution Information
TLOAD2, 30, 33, , , 0., 0.011, 90.91, -90.
DAREA, 33, 10005, 3, 47.2
TSTEPNL, 20, 200, 0.0002, 1, ADAPT
$ Modeling Information for Nonlinear Spring
NOLIN1, 13, 10010, 3, 1., 10010, 3, 13
TABLED1, 13,
, -2.5E-2, 4.95, -2.0E-2, 0., 0., 0., ENDT
ENDDATA
S7-74 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM TWO
Purpose
To illustrate the use of slideline contact and nonlinear transient analysis
in bumper crash applications.
Problem Description
A rigid barrier moving at 5 mph. impacts a bumber fixed at the bumper
brackets. Plot the deformed shape of the bumper after 20 msec of
contact.
S7-75 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM TWO
Solution
Five separate contact regions are defined with the barrier as the master
and the bumper as the slave.
Each master region consists of two master nodes.
Each slave region consists of 23 slave nodes.
DEFORMED BUMPER
S7-76 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
WORKSHOP PROBLEMS ONE THROUGH
THREE
Purpose
To demonstrate the use of cold start and restart procedures for
nonlinear transient analysis (SOL 129).
Problem Description
For the massless rod given below, calculate and plot (a) the rod stress
time history and (b) displacement, velocity, and acceleration time history
for the mass. Request the output every tenth time step.
S7-77 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
WORKSHOP PROBLEMS ONE THROUGH
THREE
P(t)
Max
30000 lbs
t
10000 lbs
240 in
P(t) Massless Rod

y
= 67895 psi

E = 30.E 6
A = .6672
g = 386 in/sec
2
= 0.0025907
1
g
---
S7-78 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
WORKSHOP PROBLEMS ONE THROUGH
THREE
1. Modify the input file to perform the analysis in one
subcase for a total duration of 0.3 seconds with an initial
time increment of 0.0025 seconds.
2. Modify the input file to perform the analysis in three
subcases. The duration for the first, second, and third
subcase is 0.125, 0.100, and 0.075 seconds,
respectively.
3. Restart the analysis from the end of subcase two.
S7-79 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
WORKSHOP PROBLEMS ONE THROUGH
THREE
Input File for Modification
ID CHAP7WS1, NAS103 Workshop $ AR 12/15/03
SOL 129
CEND
TITLE=ELASTO PLASTIC VIBRATION PROBLEM NAS103 Chapter 6
SUBTITLE=NONLINEAR TRANSIENT ANALYSIS
ECHO=BOTH
SET 1 = 1
SET 2 = 2
DISP=1
ACCE=1
VELO=1
STRESS=2
SUBCASE 1
OUTPUT(XYPLOT)
XTITLE = TIME IN SECS
XGRID LINES = YES
YGRID LINES = YES
YTITLE = DISPLACEMENT GRID 1
XYPLOT DISP RESP/1(T2)
YTITLE = VELOCITY GRID 1
XYPLOT VELO RESP/1(T2)
YTITLE = ACCELERATION GRID 1
XYPLOT ACCE RESP/1(T2)
YTITLE = STRESS IN ROD
XYPLOT STRESS RESP /2(2)
BEGIN BULK
$ GEOMETRY AND CONNECTIVITY
GRID, 1, , 0., 0., 0., , 13456
GRID, 2, , 0., 240., 0., , 123456
CROD, 2, 2, 2, 1
CMASS2, 1, 10000., 1, 2
$ PROPERTIES
PROD, 2 2 .6672
MAT1, 2, 30.E06
MATS1, 2, , PLASTIC, 0., 1, 1, 67895.68
$ SOLUTION STRATEGY
$ LOADING
PARAM, POST, 0
ENDDATA
S7-80 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
WORKSHOP PROBLEM FOUR
Purpose
To demonstrate the use of (a) GAP element and (b) material damping
and initial condition in nonlinear transient analysis.
Problem Description
Modify the input file to specify (a) a gap element between the rod and
rigid body, (b) damping for the rod element, and (c) initial conditions.
S7-81 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
WORKSHOP PROBLEM FOUR
Rod length, L = 100.m
Area of rod, A = 1.m2
Youngs modulus, E = 103 N/m2
Poissons ration, = 0.3
Mass density, = 1.0 kg/m3
Mass of rod, m = = AL = 10. kg
Mass of rigid body, M = 20.kg
Velocity of impact for Vo = 0.1 m/sec
Damping = 0.1% at first mode
570796 . 1 El
L 2
TT ) 1 n 2 (
=

=
S7-82 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
WORKSHOP PROBLEM FOUR
Input File for Modification
ID CHAP7WS4, NAS103 Workshop $ AR 12/15/03
SOL 129
CEND
TITLE = TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF SHOCK WAVE IN BAR -- IMPACT
SUBTITLE = BAR STRUCK BY A MOVING MASS AT THE FREE END
ECHO = UNSORT
SET 1 = 21,99
SET 2 = 101,120,899
DISP = 1
VELOCITY = 1
STRESS = 2
SUBCASE 1 $ UP TO 6 SECONDS
TSTEPNL = 200
OUTPUT(XYPLOT)
CSCALE = 1.5
XAXIS = YES
YAXIS = YES
XGRID LINES = YES
YGRID LINES = YES
XTITLE = TIME
YTITLE = FORCE
TCURVE = FORCE IN THE GAP (ELEMENT 899)
XYPLOT STRESS /899(2)
YTITLE = DISPLACEMENT
TCURVE = DISP. (T1) AT MASS PT. (GP99), FREE END (GP21)
XYPLOT DISP /99(T1),21(T1)
YTITLE = STRESS
TCURVE = STRESS AT FREE END (ELEMENT 120)
XYPLOT STRESS /120(2)
TCURVE = STRESS AT FIXED END (ELEMENT 101)
XYPLOT STRESS /101(2)
S7-83 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
WORKSHOP PROBLEM FOUR
Input File for Modification (cont.)
BEGIN BULK
$ GEOMETRY
GRDSET, , , , , , , 23456
GRID, 1, ,0., 0., 0., , 123456
GRID, 2, ,5., 0., 0.
=,*1,=,*5.,== $
=18
GRID, 99, , 100., 0., 0.
$ ELEMENT CONNECTIVITY
CONROD, 101, 1, 2, 100, 1.
=,*1,*1,*1,== $
=18
$ MATERIAL PROPERTIES
CONM2, 999, 99, , 20.
$ GAP ELEMENT CONNEVTIVITY
$ GAP ELEMENT PROPERTIES
$ INITIAL CONDITIONS
$ PARAMETERS
param, post, 0
PARAM, COUPMASS, 1
$ SOLUTION STRATEGY
TSTEPNL 200 600 .01 1
$
ENDDATA
S7-84 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
SOLUTION FOR WORKSHOP PROBLEM ONE
ID CHAP7WS1S, NAS103 Workshop $ AR 12/15/03
SOL 129
CEND
TITLE=ELASTO PLASTIC VIBRATION PROBLEM NAS103
Chapter 7
SUBTITLE=NONLINEAR TRANSIENT ANALYSIS
ECHO=BOTH
SET 1 = 1
SET 2 = 2
DISP=1
ACCE=1
VELO=1
STRESS=2
SUBCASE 1
DLOAD=100
TSTEPNL=100
OUTPUT(XYPLOT)
XTITLE = TIME IN SECS
XGRID LINES = YES
YGRID LINES = YES
YTITLE = DISPLACEMENT GRID 1
XYPLOT DISP RESP/1(T2)
YTITLE = VELOCITY GRID 1
XYPLOT VELO RESP/1(T2)
YTITLE = ACCELERATION GRID 1
XYPLOT ACCE RESP/1(T2)
YTITLE = STRESS IN ROD
XYPLOT STRESS RESP /2(2)
BEGIN BULK
$ GEOMETRY AND CONNECTIVITY
GRID, 1, , 0., 0., 0., , 13456
GRID, 2, , 0., 240., 0., , 123456
CROD, 2, 2, 2, 1
CMASS2, 1, 10000., 1, 2
$ PROPERTIES
PROD, 2 2 .6672
MAT1, 2, 30.E06
MATS1, 2, , PLASTIC, 0., 1, 1, 67895.68
$ SOLUTION STRATEGY
TSTEPNL, 100, 120, .0025, 1
$ LOADING
DAREA, 100, 1, 2, 30000.
TLOAD1, 100, 100, , 0, 100
TABLED1,100, , , , , , , , +TAB
+TAB, 0., 1., 10., 1., ENDT
$ PARAMETERS
PARAM, POST, 0
PARAM, WTMASS, .0025907
ENDDATA
S7-85 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
SOLUTION FOR WORKSHOP PROBLEM ONE
S7-86 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
SOLUTION FOR WORKSHOP PROBLEM ONE
S7-87 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
SOLUTION FOR WORKSHOP PROBLEM ONE
S7-88 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
SOLUTION FOR WORKSHOP PROBLEM ONE
S7-89 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
SOLUTION FOR WORKSHOP PROBLEM TWO
ID CHAP7WS2S, NAS103 Workshop $ AR 12/15/03
SOL 129
CEND
TITLE=ELASTO PLASTIC VIBRATION PROBLEM NAS103
Chapter 7
SUBTITLE=NONLINEAR TRANSIENT ANALYSIS
ECHO=BOTH
SET 1 = 1
SET 2 = 2
DISP=1
ACCE=1
VELO=1
STRESS=2
SUBCASE 1
DLOAD=100
TSTEPNL=100
SUBCASE 2
DLOAD=100
TSTEPNL=200
SUBCASE 3
DLOAD=100
TSTEPNL=300
OUTPUT(XYPLOT)
XTITLE = TIME IN SECS
XGRID LINES = YES
YGRID LINES = YES
YTITLE = DISPLACEMENT GRID 1
XYPLOT DISP RESP/1(T2)
YTITLE = VELOCITY GRID 1
XYPLOT VELO RESP/1(T2)
YTITLE = ACCELERATION GRID 1
XYPLOT ACCE RESP/1(T2)
YTITLE = STRESS IN ROD
XYPLOT STRESS RESP /2(2)
BEGIN BULK
$ GEOMETRY AND CONNECTIVITY
GRID, 1, , 0., 0., 0., , 13456
GRID, 2, , 0., 240., 0., , 123456
CROD, 2, 2, 2, 1
CMASS2, 1, 10000., 1, 2
$ PROPERTIES
PROD, 2 2 .6672
MAT1, 2, 30.E06
MATS1, 2, , PLASTIC, 0., 1, 1, 67895.68
$ SOLUTION STRATEGY
TSTEPNL, 100, 50, .0025, 1
TSTEPNL, 200, 40, .0025, 1
TSTEPNL, 300, 30, .0025, 1
$ LOADING
DAREA, 100, 1, 2, 30000.
TLOAD1, 100, 100, , 0, 100
TABLED1,100, , , , , , , , +TAB
+TAB, 0., 1., 10., 1., ENDT
$ PARAMETERS
PARAM, POST, 0
PARAM, WTMASS, .0025907
ENDDATA
S7-90 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
SOLUTION FOR WORKSHOP PROBLEM
THREE
RESTART,VERSION=1,KEEP
ASSIGN MASTER='chap7_ws_2s.MASTER'
ID CHAP7_WS_3S, NAS103 Workshop $ AR 12/15/03
SOL 129
CEND
TITLE=ELASTO PLASTIC VIBRATION PROBLEM NAS103 Chapter
7
SUBTITLE=NONLINEAR TRANSIENT ANALYSIS
ECHO=BOTH
$ INITIAL STATE FOR RESTART
PARAM,LOOPID,2
PARAM,STIME,0.225
$
SET 1 = 1
SET 2 = 2
DISP=1
ACCE=1
VELO=1
STRESS=2
SUBCASE 1
DLOAD=100
TSTEPNL=100
SUBCASE 2
DLOAD=100
TSTEPNL=200
SUBCASE 3
DLOAD=100
TSTEPNL=300
OUTPUT(XYPLOT)
XTITLE = TIME IN SECS
XGRID LINES = YES
YGRID LINES = YES
YTITLE = DISPLACEMENT GRID 1
XYPLOT DISP RESP/1(T2)
YTITLE = VELOCITY GRID 1
XYPLOT VELO RESP/1(T2)
YTITLE = ACCELERATION GRID 1
XYPLOT ACCE RESP/1(T2)
YTITLE = STRESS IN ROD
XYPLOT STRESS RESP /2(2)
BEGIN BULK
ENDDATA
S7-91 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
SOLUTION FOR WORKSHOP PROBLEM FOUR
ID CHAP7WS4S, NAS103 Workshop $ AR 12/15/03
SOL 129
CEND
TITLE = TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF SHOCK WAVE IN BAR -- IMPACT
SUBTITLE = BAR STRUCK BY A MOVING MASS AT THE FREE END
ECHO = UNSORT
SET 1 = 21,99
SET 2 = 101,120,899
DISP = 1
VELOCITY = 1
STRESS = 2
SUBCASE 1 $ UP TO 6 SECONDS
IC = 1
TSTEPNL = 200
OUTPUT(XYPLOT)
CSCALE = 1.5
XAXIS = YES
YAXIS = YES
XGRID LINES = YES
YGRID LINES = YES
XTITLE = TIME
YTITLE = FORCE
TCURVE = FORCE IN THE GAP (ELEMENT 899)
XYPLOT STRESS /899(2)
YTITLE = DISPLACEMENT
TCURVE = DISP. (T1) AT MASS PT. (GP99), FREE END (GP21)
XYPLOT DISP /99(T1),21(T1)
YTITLE = STRESS
TCURVE = STRESS AT FREE END (ELEMENT 120)
XYPLOT STRESS /120(2)
TCURVE = STRESS AT FIXED END (ELEMENT 101)
XYPLOT STRESS /101(2)
S7-92 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
SOLUTION FOR WORKSHOP PROBLEM FOUR
BEGIN BULK
$ GEOMETRY
GRDSET, , , , , , , 23456
GRID, 1, ,0., 0., 0., , 123456
GRID, 2, ,5., 0., 0.
=,*1,=,*5.,== $
=18
GRID, 99, , 100., 0., 0.
$ ELEMENT CONNECTIVITY
CONROD, 101, 1, 2, 100, 1.
=,*1,*1,*1,== $
=18
$ MATERIAL PROPERTIES
CONM2, 999, 99, , 20.
MAT1, 100, 1.E+3, , .3, 0.1, , ,.002
$ GAP ELEMENT CONNEVTIVITY
CGAP, 899, 90, 21, 99, 0., 1., 0., 0
$ GAP ELEMENT PROPERTIES
PGAP, 90, , ,1.E6
$ INITIAL CONDITIONS
TIC, 1, 99, 1, , -0.1
TIC, 1, 21, 1, , -0.1
$ PARAMETERS
param, post, 0
PARAM, COUPMASS, 1
PARAM W4 1.570796
$ SOLUTION STRATEGY
TSTEPNL 200 600 .01 1
$
ENDDATA
S7-93 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
SOLUTION FOR WORKSHOP PROBLEM FOUR
Force in the GAP Element
S7-94 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
SOLUTION FOR WORKSHOP PROBLEM FOUR
Displacement for the Free End and Rigid Body
S7-95 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
SOLUTION FOR WORKSHOP PROBLEM FOUR
Stress in the Rod at the Free End
S7-96 NAS 103, Section 7, December, 2003
SOLUTION FOR WORKSHOP PROBLEM FOUR
Stress in Rod at the Fixed End
S8-1 NAS 103, Section 8, December 2003
SECTION 8
NONLINEAR ANALYSIS WITH
SUPERELEMENTS
S8-2 NAS 103, Section 8, December 2003
S8-3 NAS 103, Section 8, December 2003
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Advantage Of Superelement Analysis 8-4
Typical Aircraft Superelement Arrangement 8-6
How Are Superelements Defined In MSC.Nastran? 8-7
Grid Point Partitioning 8-8
Interior Versus Exterior 8-10
Element Partitioning 8-11
Solution Terminology 8-12
Super Command 8-14
Superelement Example Input 8-16
Nonlinear Analysis Features 8-17
Hierarchy Of Load Data 8-20
Example Of Case Control With Upstream Loads 8-21
Example Of Bulk Data To Specify Upstream Loads 8-22
Workshop Problem 1 8-23
Solution For Workshop Problem 1 8-28
S8-4 NAS 103, Section 8, December 2003
ADVANTAGE OF SUPERELEMENT ANALYSIS
Large problems (i.e., allows solving problems that
exceed your hardware capabilities).
Less CPU or wall clock time per run (reduced risk since
each superelement may be processed individually).
Partial redesign requires only partial solution (cost).
Allows more control of resource usage.
Partitioned input desirable.
Organization
Repeated components
Partitioned output desirable.
Organization
Comprehension
Components may be modeled by subcontractors.
S8-5 NAS 103, Section 8, December 2003
ADVANTAGE OF SUPERELEMENT ANALYSIS
Multi-step reduction for dynamic analysis.
Zooming (or global-local analysis).
Allows for efficient configuration studies (What if...).
S8-6 NAS 103, Section 8, December 2003
TYPICAL AIRCRAFT SUPERELEMENT
ARRANGEMENT
1
2
5
6
3
4
1 2 3 4 5 6
0
1 2 3 4 5 6
0
56
Single-Level Tree Multilevel Tree
Small
Big
Body Tail Wing
123
S8-7 NAS 103, Section 8, December 2003
HOW ARE SUPERELEMENTS DEFINED IN
MSC.NASTRAN?
Superelements are identified using numbers (SEID).
Each superelement (SEID > 0) is defined with its own set
of grids, elements, constraints, loads, etc.
Interior grid points are assigned (partitioned) to a superelement by the
user.
Exterior grid points, elements, loads, and constraints are automatically
partitioned by the program based on interior grid point assignments.
The residual structure is a superelement that contains
grid points, elements, etc., which are not assigned to any
other superelement.
Last superelement (SEID = 0) to be processed.
Superelement on which the assembly analysis (nonlinear, transient
response, frequency response, buckling, system modes, etc.) is
performed.
A superelement may also be defined as an image of a
superelement or obtained from outside MSC.NASTRAN.
S8-8 NAS 103, Section 8, December 2003
GRID POINT PARTITIONING
Bulk Data Entries
Only interior points need to be defined.
2 47 GRID
SEID ETC. GID GRID
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
57 THRU 47 0 SESET
G2 THRU G1 SEID SESET
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Superelements are identified
by an integer
S8-9 NAS 103, Section 8, December 2003
GRID POINT PARTITIONING
SESET takes precedence over GRID.
For the example shown above, Grid Point 47 will belong to the residual
structure (SEID=0).
Elements, constraints, loads, etc., are automatically
partitioned.
Points not assigned belong to the residual structure by
default. A model with no grid point assignments is
defined as a residual structure-only model.
S8-10 NAS 103, Section 8, December 2003
INTERIOR VERSUS EXTERIOR
A grid point assigned to a superelement by the user is
interior to that superelement.
The processing order defines exterior sets of grid points
for each superelement.
A grid point that is connected to a superelement and is
interior to a downstream superelement is exterior to the
upstream superelement.
Scalar points are interior only to the residual structure
but may be exterior to any number of superelements.
S8-11 NAS 103, Section 8, December 2003
ELEMENT PARTITIONING
Automatically performed by the program.
All element identification numbers must be unique.
An element that is connected entirely by the interior
points of a superelement is assigned to that
superelement.
Branch element - An element that is connected to the
interior points of more than one superelement - is
assigned to the most upstream superelement.
Boundary element - An element that is connected by all
exterior points of one or more superelements - is sent
downstream (SEELT can be used to assign it upstream).
Concentrated mass element (CONMi) is assigned as
interior to the superelement that contains the attachment
GRID point.
S8-12 NAS 103, Section 8, December 2003
SOLUTION TERMINOLOGY
Superelement matrix generation SEMG
Generate structural matrices (KGG, KJJ), MJJ, BJJ.
Enforced displacements, rigid elements, MPCs, check singularities.
Superelement load generation SELG (statics only)
Generate load matrices (PG, PJ).
Superelement stiffness (K) reduction SEKR (stiffness
only)
Superelement mass (and damping) reduction SEMR
Assemble upstreams.
Reduce to (boundary exterior) points.
Superelement load reduction SELR
Loads, mass or damping.
Float downstream to assemble, reduce.
S8-13 NAS 103, Section 8, December 2003
SOLUTION TERMINOLOGY
Superelement data recovery SEDR
Expand boundary displacements.
Compute internal loads, stresses, element strain energy, etc.
S8-14 NAS 103, Section 8, December 2003
SUPER COMMAND
Partitions (assigns) a subcase to a superelement(s).
Associates a superelement(s) with requests for
parameters, loads, constraints, and output.
Subcase is required for each superelement and for each
load condition.
If the Case Control Section does not contain a SUPER
command, then loads, constraints, and output requests
are applied to the residual structure only.
The SUPER command may reference a superelement or
a SET of superelements.
Note: The SET ID must be unique with respect to any superelement
IDs.
S8-15 NAS 103, Section 8, December 2003
SUPER COMMAND
Examples:
Form of SUPER command
SUPER = i,j
where i = superelement ID or set of superelements
j= load sequence number (a counter on loading conditions)
The load sequence number for a superelement cannot be greater
than the number of loading conditions for the residual structure (see
the MSC.NASTRAN Quick Reference Guide).
The appropriate SE_ _ = n commands must also appear above the
subcase level.
SUPER = ALL
or but
SET 1 = 10, 20, 0 SET 10 = 10, 20, 0
SUPER = 1 (SET) SUPER = 10 (SEID)
or
Defaults differently than other entries.
SUPER = 10
S8-16 NAS 103, Section 8, December 2003
SUPERELEMENT EXAMPLE INPUT
Case Control:
SEALL = ALL
SUPER = ALL
Bulk Data:
SESET, 1, 16, THRU, 19
SESET, 2, 21, THRU, 24
SESET, 3, 26, THRU, 29
SEID = 1 SEID = 2 SEID = 3
P
10 30 25 15 20
16 19 21 24 26 29
S8-17 NAS 103, Section 8, December 2003
NONLINEAR ANALYSIS FEATURES
Linear assumptions - only the residual structure is
allowed to be nonlinear (material or geometric).
Nonlinear superelement analysis can be restarted from
linear analysis (databases from SOLs 101 and 109).
Restarts - No recalculations are required for upstream
superelements if there is no change in superelements.
For Unstructured Solution Sequences 66 and 99, specify
for every superelement unless SEALL=ALL is used.
SELG, SELR for changes in loads.
SEMG, SEKR, SEMR for changes in elements.
Always do SEALL on residual superelements.
Recommendation: Read the MSC.NASTRAN
Superelement Analysis Users Guide or MSC.NASTRAN
Superelement Seminar Notes.
S8-18 NAS 103, Section 8, December 2003
NONLINEAR ANALYSIS FEATURES
Load vectors for the upstream elements must be
generated before the nonlinear solutions.
Case Control command SUPER is used to partition the
proper subcase to a superelement.
All the subcases should include the SUPER command
(default, SUPER=0) except when SUPER=ALL is
specified above the subcases.
Case Control command LOADSET selects LSEQ loads.
Only one LOADSET may appear in Case Control and
must be above all the subcases.
Bulk Data CLOAD entry is designed to apply static loads
to upstream superelements by combining loads defined
in LSEQ.
S8-19 NAS 103, Section 8, December 2003
NONLINEAR ANALYSIS FEATURES
Case Control command CLOAD must be specified in the
residual solution subcases to have loads on the
superelements.
The Case Control command CLOAD must be specified
in all the subcases to have data recovery for
superelements.
Usual static load entries (LOAD, FORCE, etc.) applied to
the upstream superelements cannot be directly
referenced by a Case Control command LOAD.
Any loads which are referenced by a CLOAD entry
should not be again referenced by a LOAD entry,
otherwise, the load will be doubled, e.g., GRAV, TEMP.
S8-20 NAS 103, Section 8, December 2003
HIERARCHY OF LOAD DATA
LOAD CLOAD
LOADSET
Bulk Data CLOAD
DAREA2 DAREA1
LSEQ
Static Loads
SE 0 Upstream Superelement
S8-21 NAS 103, Section 8, December 2003
EXAMPLE OF CASE CONTROL WITH
UPSTREAM LOADS
.
.
.
SEALL = ALL
LOADSET = 1000
SUPER = ALL
DISP = ALL
ETC.
.
.
.
SUBCASE 10
CLOAD = 1001
NLPARM = 12
.
.
.
SUBCASE 20
CLOAD = 1002
NLPARM = 22
LOAD = 10
$ Selects LSEQ 1000 for
$ Identify superelements
This command
processes upstream
Points to
Sets Up
$ Refers to CLOAD Bulk Data
$ Convergence control
Nonlinear Solutions
for Residual
Points to
LSEQ
Residual
$ Residual superelement forces
S8-22 NAS 103, Section 8, December 2003
EXAMPLE OF BULK DATA TO SPECIFY
UPSTREAM LOADS
$ LSEQ selected by LOADSET/DAREA may be referenced by RLOAD, TLOAD
LOADSET = SID
$ (LOADSET) (DAREA) (P-ID) (TID)
LSEQ 1000 101 1
LSEQ 1000 102 2
LSEQ 1000 103 27
$ Usual LOAD entries
FORCE 1 etc.
PLOAD 2 etc.
GRAV 27 etc.
$ CLOAD combines LSEQ loads for upstream superelements
$ CID S S1 DAREA S2 DAREA
CLOAD 1001 1.0 386 103 1.0 101
CLOAD 1002 1.0 386. 103 1.0 102
CLOAD = CID
Load Column (lowest to highest)
S8-23 NAS 103, Section 8, December 2003
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 1
Purpose
To demonstrate one possible way to specify upstream and residual
loads.
Problem Description
The model shown below consists of three superelements:
superelement 100, superelement 200, and superelement 0.
SE 100 SE 0 SE 200
101Q4 1003BM 201Q4
1002BM
102
202
101 201
2 4
3 1
1001Q4
z
y x
S8-24 NAS 103, Section 8, December 2003
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 1 (Contd.)
Perform the analysis for the following loads:
Subcase Upstream Load Combination Residual Load
1 No Load -1.0 (PLOAD2 1000)
2 -1.0 (PLOAD2 112)
No Load
3 -1.0 (PLOAD2 113) -1.0 (PLOAD2 1000)
4 0.2 (PLOAD2 113)
+.5 (PLOAD2 114)
-1.0 (PLOAD2 1000)
5 1.4 (PLOAD2 113)
+1.0 (PLOAD2 114)
+.5 (PLOAD2 115)
-1.0 (PLOAD2 1000)
SID
S8-25 NAS 103, Section 8, December 2003
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 1 (Contd.)
Input File for Modification
ID CHAP8WS1,NAS103, Chap 8 Workshop 1 $ AR (12/28/03)
SOL 106
CEND
TITLE=SUPERELEMENT LOAD COMBINATION TEST
SUBTITLE=TWO TIPS PLUS A RESIDUAL
ECHO = BOTH
DISP=ALL
STRESS=ALL
SPC = 20
SUPER = ALL
SUBCASE 1
LABEL=1000 PSI RESIDUAL
NLPARM=10
SUBCASE 2
LABEL=MINUS 1500 PSI SE 100
NLPARM=10
SUBCASE 3
LABEL=1000 PSI RESIDUAL MINUS 1500 PSI SE 100
NLPARM=10
SUBCASE 4
LABEL=1000 PSI RESIDUAL PLUS 1300 PSI SE 100 PLUS 750 PSI SE 200
NLPARM=10
SUBCASE 5
LABEL=1000 PSI RESIDUAL PLUS 5600 PSI SE 100 PLUS 3000 PSI SE 200
NLPARM=20
BEGIN BULK
$ PARAMETERS
PARAM, POST, 0
NLPARM, 10, 2, , AUTO, 10, , PW, NO
NLPARM, 20, 2, , AUTO, 10, , PW, YES
$ PROPERTIES
MAT1, 1, 29.E6, , 0.3, .001, 6.5E-4
MAT1, 10, 29.E6, , 0.3, .001, 6.5E-4
MATS1, 10, , PLASTIC, 2.9E6, 2, 2, 33.E3
PSHELL, 100, 1, 0.5, 1
PSHELL, 1000, 10, 0.5, 10
S8-26 NAS 103, Section 8, December 2003
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 1 (Contd.)
Input File for Modification (Cont.)
$ LINEAR ELEMENTS IN RESIDUAL
CBEAM, 1002, 10, 1, 4, 2
CBEAM, 1003, 10, 2, 3, 1
PBEAM, 10, 1, 0.2, 8.333E-5, 8.333E-3
, -0.5, -0.1, , , 0.5, 0.1
$ BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
SPC1, 20, 12, 1, 2
SPC1, 20, 13, 1, 3
$
$ LOADING CONDITIONS
$ ASSIGNS LOAD VECTORS TO THE SUPERELEMENTS AND LABELS THEM
$ APPLIED LOADS
PLOAD2, 111 , 0., 101
PLOAD2, 112 , 1.5E3, 101
PLOAD2, 113 , 1.5E3, 101
PLOAD2, 114 , 2.0E3, 101
PLOAD2, 115 , 3.0E3, 101
PLOAD2, 114 , 1.5E3, 201
PLOAD2, 115 , 3.0E3, 201
PLOAD2, 1000, -1.0E3, 1001
$ COMBINE LOADS
$ GEOMETRY
GRID, 1, , , -1.0, 0., , 4, 0
GRID, 2, , , -1.0, 1., , 4, 0
GRID, 3, , , 1.0, 0., , 4, 0
GRID, 4, , , 1.0, 1., , 4, 0
GRID, 101, , , -2.0, 0., , 4, 100
GRID, 102, , , -2.0, 1., , 4, 100
GRID, 201, , , 3.0, 0., , 4, 200
GRID, 202, , , 3.0, 1., , 4, 200
CQUAD4, 101, 100, 1, 2, 102, 101
CQUAD4, 201, 100, 4, 3, 201, 202
CQUAD4, 1001, 1000, 1, 3, 4, 2
ENDDATA
S8-27 NAS 103, Section 8, December 2003
WORKSHOP PROBLEM 1 (Contd.)
Hints
Bulk Data changes:
Define a dummy load PLOAD2, 111 for superelement 100.
Define CLOADs 1010, 1020, 1030, 1040, and 1050 to apply upstream loads
in subcases 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively.
Define LOAD 10 to apply residual load.
Define LSEQ,100 entries to select PLOAD2 entries with ID = 111 through
115.
Case Control changes:
Define SUPER = ALL above subcase level.
Define LOADSET = 100 above subcase level.
Select LOAD and CLOAD entries for each subcase.
S8-28 NAS 103, Section 8, December 2003
SOLUTION FOR WORKSHOP PROBLEM 1
ID CHAP8WS1s,NAS103, Chap 8 Workshop 1 $ AR (12/28/03)
SOL 106
CEND
TITLE=SUPERELEMENT LOAD COMBINATION TEST
SUBTITLE=TWO TIPS PLUS A RESIDUAL
ECHO = BOTH
DISP=ALL
STRESS=ALL
SPC = 20
LOADSET = 100 $ REFERING TO LSEQ FOR UPSTREAM LOADS
SUPER = ALL
SUBCASE 1
LABEL=1000 PSI RESIDUAL
NLPARM=10
LOAD = 10
CLOAD = 1010
SUBCASE 2
LABEL=MINUS 1500 PSI SE 100
NLPARM=10
CLOAD = 1020
SUBCASE 3
LABEL=1000 PSI RESIDUAL MINUS 1500 PSI SE 100
NLPARM=10
LOAD = 10
CLOAD = 1030
SUBCASE 4
LABEL=1000 PSI RESIDUAL PLUS 1300 PSI SE 100 PLUS 750 PSI SE 200
NLPARM=10
LOAD = 10
CLOAD = 1040
SUBCASE 5
LABEL=1000 PSI RESIDUAL PLUS 5600 PSI SE 100 PLUS 3000 PSI SE 200
NLPARM=20
LOAD = 10
CLOAD = 1050
BEGIN BULK
$ PARAMETERS
PARAM, POST, 0
NLPARM, 10, 2, , AUTO, 10, , PW, NO
NLPARM, 20, 2, , AUTO, 10, , PW, YES
$ PROPERTIES
MAT1, 1, 29.E6, , 0.3, .001, 6.5E-4
MAT1, 10, 29.E6, , 0.3, .001, 6.5E-4
MATS1, 10, , PLASTIC, 2.9E6, 2, 2, 33.E3
PSHELL, 100, 1, 0.5, 1
PSHELL, 1000, 10, 0.5, 10
S8-29 NAS 103, Section 8, December 2003
SOLUTION FOR WORKSHOP PROBLEM 1
(Contd.)
$ LINEAR ELEMENTS IN RESIDUAL
CBEAM, 1002, 10, 1, 4, 2
CBEAM, 1003, 10, 2, 3, 1
PBEAM, 10, 1, 0.2, 8.333E-5, 8.333E-3
, -0.5, -0.1, , , 0.5, 0.1
$ BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
SPC1, 20, 12, 1, 2
SPC1, 20, 13, 1, 3
$ LOADING CONDITIONS
LSEQ, 100, 11, 111
LSEQ, 100, 12, 112
LSEQ, 100, 13, 113
LSEQ, 100, 14, 114
LSEQ, 100, 15, 115
$ ASSIGNS LOAD VECTORS TO THE SUPERELEMENTS AND LABELS THEM
$ APPLIED LOADS
PLOAD2, 111 , 0., 101
PLOAD2, 112 , 1.5E3, 101
PLOAD2, 113 , 1.5E3, 101
PLOAD2, 114 , 2.0E3, 101
PLOAD2, 115 , 3.0E3, 101
PLOAD2, 114 , 1.5E3, 201
PLOAD2, 115 , 3.0E3, 201
PLOAD2, 1000, -1.0E3, 1001
$ COMBINE LOADS
LOAD, 10, 1.0, -1.0, 1000
CLOAD, 1010, 1.0, -1.0, 11
CLOAD, 1020, 1.0, -1.0, 12
CLOAD, 1030, 1.0, -1.0, 13
CLOAD, 1040, 1.0, 0.2, 13, 0.5, 14
CLOAD, 1050, 1.0, 1.4, 13, 1.0, 14, 0.5, 15
$ GEOMETRY
GRID, 1, , , -1.0, 0., , 4, 0
GRID, 2, , , -1.0, 1., , 4, 0
GRID, 3, , , 1.0, 0., , 4, 0
GRID, 4, , , 1.0, 1., , 4, 0
GRID, 101, , , -2.0, 0., , 4, 100
GRID, 102, , , -2.0, 1., , 4, 100
GRID, 201, , , 3.0, 0., , 4, 200
GRID, 202, , , 3.0, 1., , 4, 200
CQUAD4, 101, 100, 1, 2, 102, 101
CQUAD4, 201, 100, 4, 3, 201, 202
CQUAD4, 1001, 1000, 1, 3, 4, 2
ENDDATA
S8-30 NAS 103, Section 8, December 2003
S9-1 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
SECTION 9
SPECIAL TOPICS
S9-2 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
S9-3 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Special Topics 9-5
Normal Modes of Deformed Structure 9-6
Normal Modes of Prestressed Structure 9-7
Normal Modes With Differential Stiffness 9-8
Example Problem 1 Modes of Preloaded Structure 9-9
Input File For Problem 1A Modes Without Preload 9-11
Partial Output File For Problem #1A Modes Without Preload 9-12
Input File: Problem #1B Modes With Preload Using SOL 106 9-13
Partial Output File For Problem #1B Modes With Preload Using
SOL 106 9-14
Input File: Problem #1C Modes With Preload Using SOL 103 9-15
Partial Output File For Problem #1C Modes With Preload Using
SOL 103 9-16
Composite Elements 9-17
Features Of Nonlinear Composite Beam 9-18
Input Data Entry PBCOMP Beam Property Alternate From For
PBEAM 9-19
S9-4 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Beam Cross-Sectional Area Lumping Scheme For Various
Sections 9-21
Smeared Cross-Sectional Properties (I1,I2,I12 Ignored on Parent
Entry) 9-23
Features Of Composite Plates 9-25
Laminate And Ply Orientation (PCOMP) 9-26
2-D Orthotropic Material 9-27
Composite Material Specification 9-28
Composite Element Specification 9-30
PCOMP Mat Relationship 9-33
Anisotropic Material In Mat2 9-34
Example Problem 2: Composite Cantilever Beam 9-36
Failure Theory For Composites 9-40
Output For Composite Element 9-42
Smeared Material Properties In PSHELL And MAT2 9-43
Layer Stresses In Composite Elements 9-44
Failure Index Table 9-45
S9-5 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
SPECIAL TOPICS
Nonlinear modal analysis
Composite analysis
S9-6 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
Normal Modes of Deformed Structure
Large Geometry Changes
u
1
Nonlinear Material
k
1
F
k
0
K
0
= k1
S9-7 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
Normal Modes of Prestressed Structure
Procedures for obtaining frequencies of a preloaded
structure.
Method 1 (Nonlinear Solution for Preload)
Use SOL 106.
Include linear or nonlinear material properties as required by modeling.
If material is linear, then only linear material properties are referenced.
Include PARAM,LGDISP,1 in the Bulk Data Section.
Only the residual structure (SEID=0) may contain nonlinear elements.
All upstream superelements must be linear.
A METHOD = X Case Control Command in subcase calls out the
appropriate EIGRL entry.
Include PARAM,NMLOOP,Y where Y is the loopid that you want to
calculate the normal modes at.
S9-8 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
Normal Modes With
Differential Stiffness (Cont.)
Procedures for obtaining frequencies of a preloaded
structure.
Method 2 (Linear Solution for Preload)
Use SOL 103.
Material must be linear.
Two subcases are required.
The first subcase is a static subcase calling out the preload.
The second subcase calculates the modes with a METHOD = X
case control command, where X is the appropriate EIGRL ID.
The second subcase must also contain a STATSUB = Y command,
where Y is subcase ID of the first subcase.
S9-9 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM 1 -Modes of Preloaded
Structure
Consider the simply supported beam as shown below.
Calculate the first bending frequency:
Case A: Without preload
Case B: With preload using SOL106
Case C: With preload using SOL 103
P
S9-10 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM 1 -Modes of Preloaded
Structure (Cont.)
0.1 in
0.1 in
0.1 in
1.0 in
1.0 in
2.0 in
Length: 100 in
Height: 2 in
Width: 1 in
Thickness: 0.100 in
Area: 0.38 in
2
I
1
: 0.229 in
4
I
2
: 0.017 in
4
S9-11 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
Input File For Problem 1A - Modes Without
Preload
SOL 103
DIAG 8
CEND
TITLE = Normal Modes, Unloaded
$
SUBCASE 1
METHOD = 10
SPC = 1
VECTOR=ALL
$
BEGIN BULK
PARAM, COUPMASS, 1
PARAM, WTMASS, .00259
$
EIGRL,10,,,3
PBARL, 1, 1, , I, , , , ,+PB
+PB, 2., 1., 1., .1, .1, .1
CBAR, 1, 1, 1, 2, 0., 1., 0.
CBAR, 2, 1, 2, 3, 0., 1., 0.
CBAR, 3, 1, 3, 4, 0., 1., 0.
CBAR, 4, 1, 4, 5, 0., 1., 0.
CBAR, 5, 1, 5, 6, 0., 1., 0.
CBAR, 6, 1, 6, 7, 0., 1., 0.
CBAR, 7, 1, 7, 8, 0., 1., 0.
CBAR, 8, 1, 8, 9, 0., 1., 0.
CBAR, 9, 1, 9, 10, 0., 1., 0.
CBAR, 10, 1, 10, 11, 0., 1., 0.
$
MAT1, 1, 1.+7, , .3, .101
GRID, 1, , 0., 0., 0., ,345
GRID, 2, , 10., 0., 0., ,345
GRID, 3, , 20., 0., 0., ,345
GRID, 4, , 30., 0., 0., ,345
GRID, 5, , 40., 0., 0., ,345
GRID, 6, , 50., 0., 0., ,345
GRID, 7, , 60., 0., 0., ,345
GRID, 8, , 70., 0., 0., ,345
GRID, 9, , 80., 0., 0., ,345
GRID, 10, , 90., 0., 0., ,345
GRID, 11, , 100., 0., 0., ,345
SPC1, 1, 1234, 1
SPC1, 1, 234, 11
FORCE, 1, 11, 0, 500., 1., 0., 0.
ENDDATA
S9-12 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
Partial Output File For Problem #1A Modes
Without Preload
0
E I G E N V A L U E A N A L Y S I S S U M M A R Y (READ MODULE)
BLOCK SIZE USED ...................... 7
NUMBER OF DECOMPOSITIONS ............. 2
NUMBER OF ROOTS FOUND ................ 3
NUMBER OF SOLVES REQUIRED ............ 4
1 NORMAL MODES EXAMPLE APRIL 8, 1998 MSC.Nastran 4/ 6/98 PAGE 5
0 SUBCASE 1
R E A L E I G E N V A L U E S
MODE EXTRACTION EIGENVALUE RADIANS CYCLES GENERALIZED GENERALIZED
NO. ORDER MASS STIFFNESS
1 1 2.239398E+04 1.496462E+02 2.381693E+01 1.000000E+00 2.239398E+04
2 2 3.549898E+05 5.958102E+02 9.482614E+01 1.000000E+00 3.549898E+05
3 3 1.771818E+06 1.331096E+03 2.118506E+02 1.000000E+00 1.771818E+06
S9-13 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
Input File: Problem #1B - Modes With Preload Using SOL 106
SOL 106
TIME 600
CEND
TITLE = Normal Modes, Prestressed (nonlinear)
METHOD = 10
SUBCASE 1
NLPARM = 1
SPC = 1
LOAD = 1
DISPLACEMENT=ALL
$
BEGIN BULK
PARAM, COUPMASS, 1
PARAM, WTMASS, .00259
$
PARAM, LGDISP, 1
NLPARM, 1, 5, , AUTO, 5, 25, PW, NO
+NLP, .001, 1.-7
PARAM,NMLOOP,5
$
EIGRL,10,,,3
PBARL, 1, 1, , I, , , , ,+PB
+PB, 2., 1., 1., .1, .1, .1
CBAR, 1, 1, 1, 2, 0., 1., 0.
CBAR, 2, 1, 2, 3, 0., 1., 0.
CBAR, 3, 1, 3, 4, 0., 1., 0.
CBAR, 4, 1, 4, 5, 0., 1., 0.
CBAR, 5, 1, 5, 6, 0., 1., 0.
CBAR, 6, 1, 6, 7, 0., 1., 0.
CBAR, 7, 1, 7, 8, 0., 1., 0.
CBAR, 8, 1, 8, 9, 0., 1., 0.
CBAR, 9, 1, 9, 10, 0., 1., 0.
CBAR, 10, 1, 10, 11, 0., 1., 0.
$
MAT1, 1, 1.+7, , .3, .101
GRID, 1, , 0., 0., 0., ,345
GRID, 2, , 10., 0., 0., ,345
GRID, 3, , 20., 0., 0., ,345
GRID, 4, , 30., 0., 0., ,345
GRID, 5, , 40., 0., 0., ,345
GRID, 6, , 50., 0., 0., ,345
GRID, 7, , 60., 0., 0., ,345
GRID, 8, , 70., 0., 0., ,345
GRID, 9, , 80., 0., 0., ,345
GRID, 10, , 90., 0., 0., ,345
GRID, 11, , 100., 0., 0., ,345
SPC1, 1, 1234, 1
SPC1, 1, 234, 11
FORCE, 1, 11, 0, 500., 1., 0., 0.
ENDDATA
S9-14 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
Partial Output File For Problem #1B Modes With Preload
Using SOL 106
R E A L E I G E N V A L U E S
MODE EXTRACTION EIGENVALUE RADIANS CYCLES GENERALIZED GENERALIZED
NO. ORDER MASS STIFFNESS
1 1 2.735837E+04 1.654037E+02 2.632481E+01 1.000000E+00 2.735837E+04
2 2 3.748482E+05 6.122484E+02 9.744236E+01 1.000000E+00 3.748482E+05
3 3 1.816508E+06 1.347779E+03 2.145057E+02 1.000000E+00 1.816508E+06
S9-15 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
Input File: Problem #1C - Modes With Preload Using SOL 103
SOL 103
DIAG 8
CEND
TITLE = Normal Modes, preloaded (linear)
SPC = 1
DISPLACEMENT=ALL
$
SUBCASE 1
LOAD = 1
SUBCASE 2
METHOD = 10
STATSUB = 1
$
BEGIN BULK
PARAM, COUPMASS, 1
PARAM, WTMASS, .00259
$
EIGRL,10,,,3
PBARL, 1, 1, , I, , , , ,+PB
+PB, 2., 1., 1., .1, .1, .1
CBAR, 1, 1, 1, 2, 0., 1., 0.
CBAR, 2, 1, 2, 3, 0., 1., 0.
CBAR, 3, 1, 3, 4, 0., 1., 0.
CBAR, 4, 1, 4, 5, 0., 1., 0.
CBAR, 5, 1, 5, 6, 0., 1., 0.
CBAR, 6, 1, 6, 7, 0., 1., 0.
CBAR, 7, 1, 7, 8, 0., 1., 0.
CBAR, 8, 1, 8, 9, 0., 1., 0.
CBAR, 9, 1, 9, 10, 0., 1., 0.
CBAR, 10, 1, 10, 11, 0., 1., 0.
$
MAT1, 1, 1.+7, , .3, .101
GRID, 1, , 0., 0., 0., ,345
GRID, 2, , 10., 0., 0., ,345
GRID, 3, , 20., 0., 0., ,345
GRID, 4, , 30., 0., 0., ,345
GRID, 5, , 40., 0., 0., ,345
GRID, 6, , 50., 0., 0., ,345
GRID, 7, , 60., 0., 0., ,345
GRID, 8, , 70., 0., 0., ,345
GRID, 9, , 80., 0., 0., ,345
GRID, 10, , 90., 0., 0., ,345
GRID, 11, , 100., 0., 0., ,345
SPC1, 1, 1234, 1
SPC1, 1, 234, 11
FORCE, 1, 11, 0, 500., 1., 0., 0.
ENDDATA
S9-16 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
Partial Output File For Problem #1C Modes With Preload
Using SOL 103
1 NORMAL MODES WITH DIFFERENTIAL STIFFNESS APRIL 9, 1998 MSC.Nastran 4/ 6/98
PAGE 9
0 SUBCASE 2
R E A L E I G E N V A L U E S
MODE EXTRACTION EIGENVALUE RADIANS CYCLES GENERALIZED GENERALIZED
NO. ORDER MASS STIFFNESS
1 1 2.735837E+04 1.654037E+02 2.632481E+01 1.000000E+00 2.735837E+04
2 2 3.748482E+05 6.122484E+02 9.744236E+01 1.000000E+00 3.748482E+05
3 3 1.816508E+06 1.347779E+03 2.145057E+02 1.000000E+00 1.816508E+06
S9-17 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
COMPOSITE ELEMENTS
Beam with PBCOMP
QUAD4 and TRIA3 with PCOMP and MAT8
S9-18 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
FEATURES OF NONLINEAR COMPOSITE
BEAM
BEAM properties in PBCOMP.
May be used for geometric and material nonlinear
problems.
Distribution of lumped areas of the BEAM cross section
in arbitrary configuration.
Different material for each of the lumped areas allowed.
Maximum of 20 lumped areas may be input.
The BEAM is assumed to be uniform (non-tapered).
Warping effects are ignored.
S9-19 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
INPUT DATA ENTRY PBCOMP BEAM
PROPERTY ALTERNATE FORM FOR PBEAM
Can replace PBEAM for linear or nonlinear analysis
Will be ignored if 2nd to 21st
continuation entry is present
MATS1
234 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 23
bcd SECTION N2 N1 M2 M1 K2 K1
123 0 0 0 2.9 6 39 PBCOMP
abc NSM J I12 I2 I1 A MID PID PBCOMP
Shear Stiffness KAG
Symmetry Option
456 25 0 0.9 0.2 45
def SOUT2 MID2 C2 Z2 Y2 cde
S9-20 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
INPUT DATA ENTRY PBCOMP BEAM
PROPERTY ALTERNATE FORM FOR PBEAM
Continue 18 more times for a total of 21 continuation
entries.
Need E, or E, G on MAT1 entry for parent entry.
345 NO 18 0 1.2 -0.5 34
cde SOUT1 MID1 C1 Z1 Y1 bcd
If blank, use parent entry.
For heat transfer, use only MAT4 and/or MAT 5.
S9-21 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
BEAM CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA LUMPING
SCHEME FOR VARIOUS SECTIONS
SECTION=0 (default)
Symmetric about y and z
SECTION=1
(wi th continuation entry)
Symmetric about y and z
SECTION=2
Symmetric about y
SECTION=3
Symmetric about z
SECTION=4
Symmetric about y=z=0
SECTION=5
No symmetry
I
zz
- Moment of i nertia about z-axis
I
yy
- Moment of i nertia about y-axis
Z
r ef
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Y
ref
0 2 K
z
, ( )
K
y
K
z
, ( )
2 K
y
0 , ( )
Z
r ef
Z
r ef
Y
ref
Y
ref
1
2
3
4
5
6
8
7
K
y
I
zz
A
------ K
z
I
yy
A
------ C
1
1
8
--- = , = , =
1 2
3
4
5 6
8
7
Y
1
Y
3
Y
5
Y
7
= = =
Z
1
Z
3
Z
5
Z
7
etc. , = = =
Y
1
Y
5
=
Z
1
Z
5
etc. , =
Z
r ef
Z
r ef
Z
r ef
Y
ref
Y
ref
Y
ref
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1 2
3
4
8
7 5 6
1 2 3 4
5
6
7
8
Y
1
Y
5
Z
1
Z
5
etc. , = , = Y
1
Y
5
Z
1
Z
5
etc. , = , =
S9-22 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
BEAM CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA LUMPING
SCHEME FOR VARIOUS SECTIONS
Notes:
1. Integration points (lumped areas) are numbered 1-8, to be referenced
by stress output request (SO field).
2. User-specified points are denoted by , and the program default
points are denoted by .
3. Underlined words refer to fields on the PBCOMP entry (Section 5 of
the MSC/NASTRAN Quick Reference Guide).
4. Use 1/2 areas on the symmetric boundary.
S9-23 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
SMEARED CROSS-SECTIONAL PROPERTIES
(I1,I2,I12 Ignored on Parent Entry)
Offset of neutral axis
Effective cross-sectional area
y
NA
y
i
C
i
E
i
i 1 =
n

C
i
E
i
i 1 =
n

------------------------------ - =
PBCOMP Field 4 of each continuation
line greater than 1.
SEAL2 Field 1
MAT1
z
NA
z
i
C
i
E
i
i 1 =
n

C
i
E
i
i 1 =
n

------------------------------ =
A A = z
i
C
i
E
i
E
o
-------------- -
i 1 =
n

PBCOMP Field 4
S9-24 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
SMEARED CROSS-SECTIONAL PROPERTIES
(I1,I2,I12 Ignored on Parent Entry)
Effective moment of inertia
I
1
A
C
i
E
i
y
i
y
NA
( )
2
E
o
------------------------------------------
i 1 =
n

=
PBCOMP
Field 8
Override I1, I2, I12
of Parent Entry
MID Parent Entry
I
2
A
C
i
E
i
z
i
z
NA
( )
2
E
o
----------------------------------------- -
i 1 =
n

=
I
12
A
C
i
E
i
y
i
y
NA
( ) z
i
z
NA
( )
E
o
----------------------------------------------------------------- -
i 1 =
n

=
J J
G
i
nG
o
----------
i 1 =
n

=
S9-25 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
FEATURES OF COMPOSITE PLATES
Classical lamination theory is used.
Equations for laminate (aggregate) are derived from those of laminae.
Each individual lamina is in plane stress.
The laminate is presumed to consist of perfectly bonded laminae.
Bond is presumed to be very thin and nonshear deformable.
No lamina can slip relative to each other; laminate acts as a single layer.
Plate elements (QUAD4, QUAD8, TRIA3, TRIA6) are
available for modeling composites.
Limited to the linear material.
User interface: PCOMP and MAT8.
Pre-(IFP6) and post-(SDRCOMP) processing of PCOMP
and MAT8.
Stress output for user-specified plies available.
Failure indices for elements can be requested.
S9-26 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
LAMINATE AND PLY ORIENTATION (PCOMP)
T

Z
X
Y
X
n
2
1
1
2
Z
0
Y
S9-27 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
2-D ORTHOTROPIC MATERIAL
Orthotropic material in plane stress requires:
Material constants in terms of E1, E2, 12, AND G12
where E2 12 = E1 21
Transverse shear effects included (G1z, G2z) (Mindlin or
Reisner plate).

3
0
13
0 and
23
0 = , = , =

12 )



`




E
1
1
12

21

--------------------------
E
1

21
1
12

21

-------------------------- 0
E
2

12
1
12

21

--------------------------
E
2
1
12

21

-------------------------- 0
0 0 G
12

12 )



`




=
S9-28 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
Field Contents
MAT8 Input data for each ply. May be replaced by MAT2
E1, E2 Moduli in principal directions
n12 e2/e1 uniaxial loading in 1-direction
COMPOSITE MATERIAL SPECIFICATION
0 1.+3 8.+2 2.+2 1.5+4 1.+4 155 1.5-6 28.-6 0
S Yc Yt Xc Xt TREF A2 A1
1.-3 0
F12 GE
0 0.056 1.5+6 3.+6 2.+6 0.3 1.+6 30.+6 100 MAT8
RHO G2z G1z G12 n12 E2 E1 MID MAT8
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
S9-29 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
COMPOSITE MATERIAL SPECIFICATION
Field Contents
G12 In-plane shear modulus
G1z, G2z Transverse shear moduli in 1-z and 2-z planes
RHO Mass density
TREF Reference temperature for calculation of thermal
loads or a temperature dependent thermal
expansion coefficient
A1, A2 Thermal expansion coefficients in the 1- and 2-
directions
Xt, Xc, Yt Tension and compression allowable stresses in 1-
and 2- directions
S Allowable stress in plane shear for failure index
GE Structural damping
F12 Interaction term in Tsai-Wu failure theory
S9-30 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
Example:
Field Contents
PID Property identification number. (0 < Integer < 10
6
)
Z0 Distance from the reference plane to the bottom
surface. See Remark 10. (Real; Default = -1/2 the
thickness of the element)
COMPOSITE ELEMENT SPECIFICATION
Etc. SOUT3 THETA3 T3 MID3
SOUT2 THETA2 T2 MID2 SOUT1 THETA1 T1 MID1
LAM GE TREF FT SB NSM Z0 PID PCOMP
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
90 -45
45 YES 0 0.056 171
HOFF 1000.0 7.45 -0.224 181 PCOMP
S9-31 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
COMPOSITE ELEMENT SPECIFICATION
Field Contents
NSM Nonstructural mass per unit area. (Real)
SB Allowable shear stress of the bonding material (allowable
interlaminar shear stress). Required if failure index is desired.
(Real > 0.0)
FT Failure theory. The following theories are allowed (Character
or blank. If blank, then no failure calculation will be
performed):
HILL for the Hill theory
HOFF for the Hoffman theory
TSAI for the Tsai-Wu theory
STRN for the maximum strain theory
TREF Reference temperature. See Remark 3. (Real).
GE Damping coefficient. See Remark 4g. (Real; Default =0.0).
LAM Symmetric lamination option. If LAM = SYM, only
S9-32 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
COMPOSITE ELEMENT SPECIFICATION
Field Contents
MIDi Material ID of the various plies. The plies are identified by
serially numbering them from 1 at the bottom layer. The MIDs
must refer to MAT1, MAT2, or MAT8 Bulk Data entries. See
Remark 1. (Integer > 0 or blank except MID1 must be
specified).
Ti Thickness of the various plies. See Remark 1. (Real or blank
except T1 must be specified).
THETAi Orientation angle of the longitudinal direction of each ply with
the material axis of the element. (If the material angle on the
element connection entry is 0.0, the material axis and side
102 of the element coincide). The plies are to be numbered
serially starting with 1 at the bottom layer. The bottom layer is
defined as the surface with the largest Z value in the
element coordinate system. (Real; Default = 0.0).
SOUTi Stress or strain output request. See Remarks 5 and 6.
(Character: YES or NO; Default = NO).
S9-33 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
PCOMP - MAT RELATIONSHIP
CQUAD4
PBCOMP
MAT1 MAT3 MAT2
EQUIV PSHELL*
MID1
MAT2
MID4
MAT4
MID3
MAT3
MID2
MAT2
S9-34 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
ANISOTROPIC MATERIAL IN MAT2
Field Contents
Gii Material constants
RHO Mass density
A1, A2, A12 Thermal expansion coefficients
+M22 5.1+3 6.2+3 6.2+3 100 MAT2
RHO G33 G23 G22 G13 G12 G11 MID MAT2
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
+M23 20.+5 0.002 500 6.5-6 6.5-6 +M22
SS SC ST GE TREF A12 A2 A1
1003 +M29
MCSID
S9-35 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
ANISOTROPIC MATERIAL IN MAT2
Field Contents
TREF Reference temperature for the calculation of thermal loads
GE Structural damping
ST, SC, SS Stress limit in tension, compression and shear for
computing margin of safety
MCSID Material coordinate system ID

12
)


`



G
11
G
12
G
13
G
22
G
23
SYM G
33

12
)


`



T T
0
( )
A
1
A
2
A
12
)


`



=
S9-36 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM 2: COMPOSITE
CANTILEVER BEAM
Y
A
X
360 in 360 in
0.1 in
360 in
5 10
5
lb 5 10
5
lb
E
1
1 10
7
psi = E
2
1 10
6
=

12
0.3 = G
12
4 10
6
psi =
45
o
for Layers 1 and 3 =
0
0
for Layer 2 =
S9-37 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
Input File For Example 2 Composite
Cantilever Beam
ID, chap9ex2b, NAS103, chap 8 Ex 2 (Nonlinear)
SOL 106
CEND
TITLE = Cantilever Composite Beam of NAS103 chapter 9
ECHO=SORT
SUBCASE 1
SPC = 1
LOAD = 1
NLPARM = 10
DISPLACEMENT(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
SPCFORCES(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
STRESS(SORT1,REAL,VONMISES,BILIN)=ALL
BEGIN BULK
PARAM, POST, 0
PARAM, AUTOSPC, YES
PARAM, PRTMAXIM, YES
PARAM, LGDISP, 2
$ NONLINEAR SOLUTION STRATEGY
NLPARM, 10, 1, , AUTO, , , PW, YES, +NLP1
+NLP1, , 1.E-2, 1.E-3
$ Composite Material
PCOMP, 1,
, 1, .02, 45., YES, 1, .06, 0., YES
, 1, .02, 45., YES
$ Elements
CQUAD4, 1, 1, 1, 2, 15, 14
CQUAD4, 2, 1, 2, 3, 16, 15
CQUAD4, 3, 1, 3, 4, 17, 16
CQUAD4, 4, 1, 4, 5, 18, 17
CQUAD4, 5, 1, 5, 6, 19, 18
CQUAD4, 6, 1, 6, 7, 20, 19
CQUAD4, 7, 1, 7, 8, 21, 20
CQUAD4, 8, 1, 8, 9, 22, 21
CQUAD4, 9, 1, 9, 10, 23, 22
CQUAD4, 10, 1, 10, 11, 24, 23
CQUAD4, 11, 1, 11, 12, 25, 24
CQUAD4, 12, 1, 12, 13, 26, 25
.
.
CQUAD4, 61, 1, 66, 67, 80, 79
CQUAD4, 62, 1, 67, 68, 81, 80
CQUAD4, 63, 1, 68, 69, 82, 81
CQUAD4, 64, 1, 69, 70, 83, 82
CQUAD4, 65, 1, 70, 71, 84, 83
CQUAD4, 66, 1, 71, 72, 85, 84
CQUAD4, 67, 1, 72, 73, 86, 85
CQUAD4, 68, 1, 73, 74, 87, 86
CQUAD4, 69, 1, 74, 75, 88, 87
CQUAD4, 70, 1, 75, 76, 89, 88
CQUAD4, 71, 1, 76, 77, 90, 89
CQUAD4, 72, 1, 77, 78, 91, 90
S9-38 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
Input File For Problem 1A - Modes Without
Preload
$ Material Properties
MAT8, 1, 1.E7, 1.E6, .3, 4.E6
$ Nodes
GRID, 1, , 0., 0., 0.
GRID, 2, , 60., 0., 0.
GRID, 3, , 120., 0., 0.
GRID, 4, , 180., 0., 0.
GRID, 5, , 240., 0., 0.
GRID, 6, , 300., 0., 0.
GRID, 7, , 360., 0., 0.
GRID, 8, , 420., 0., 0.
GRID, 9, , 480., 0., 0.
GRID, 10, , 540., 0., 0.
GRID, 11, , 600., 0., 0.
GRID, 12, , 660., 0., 0.
GRID, 13, , 720., 0., 0.
.
.
GRID, 79, , 0., 360., 0.
GRID, 80, , 60., 360., 0.
GRID, 81, , 120., 360., 0.
GRID, 82, , 180., 360., 0.
GRID, 83, , 240., 360., 0.
GRID, 84, , 300., 360., 0.
GRID, 85, , 360., 360., 0.
GRID, 86, , 420., 360., 0.
GRID, 87, , 480., 360., 0.
GRID, 88, , 540., 360., 0.
GRID, 89, , 600., 360., 0.
GRID, 90, , 660., 360., 0.
GRID, 91, , 720., 360., 0.
$
SPC1, 1, 123456, 1, 14, 27, 40, 53, 66
, 79
$
FORCE, 1, 7, 0, 5.E5, 0., -1., 0.
FORCE, 1, 13, 0, 5.E5, 0., -1., 0.
$
ENDDATA
S9-39 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
EXAMPLE PROBLEM 2: COMPOSITE
CANTILEVER BEAM (Contd.)
Vertical Displacement at Point A
(with a 12X6 Mesh of Quad4)
LAYER THICKNESSES DISPLACEMENT
Linear (SOL 101) Nonlinear (SOL 106)
0.02/0.06/0.02 28.95 28.49
0.03/0.04/0.03 33.48 32.90
0.04/0.02/0.04 41.94 41.08
S9-40 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
FAILURE THEORY FOR COMPOSITES
Allowable stresses are direction dependent.
Failure envelope is defined in the stress space.
Failure index is a measure whether the stress state in
the worst stressed lamina is within or outside the
envelope.
Inter-laminar shear stress is checked against the
allowable bonding stress (Sb).
Failure index for the laminate is the larger of the two.
S9-41 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
FAILURE THEORY FOR COMPOSITES
Laminate has failed if the failure index is greater than 1.
Failure envelope is defined by:
Hillss theory (ellipsoidal).
Hoffmans theory. Accounts for differing tension and compression.
Tensor polynomial theory (Tsai-Wu): closed envelope.
Maximum strain theory.
S9-42 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
OUTPUT FOR COMPOSITE ELEMENT
Smeared material properties for equivalent PSHELL and
MAT2 data. Requires ECHO = SORT.
Smeared stresses in linear stress output format. Usual
stress output request.
Stresses in individual lamina (including inter-laminar
shear stresses). Requires YES on SOUT field on
PCOMP.
Failure index table
Requires ELFORCE and ELSTRESS requests.
Allowable stresses must be provided on MAT8.
S9-43 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
SMEARED MATERIAL PROPERTIES IN
PSHELL AND MAT2
For ECHO = SORT
COMPOSITE ELEMENTS SOL 106 MARCH 15, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 3/12/93 PAGE 5
*** USER INFORMATION MESSAGE 4379, THE USER SUPPLIED PCOMP BULK DATA CARDS ARE REPLACED BY THE FOLLOWING PSHELL AND MAT2
CARDS.
PSHELL 100 100000100 2.0000E-01 200000100 1.0000E+00 300000100 1.0000E+00 0.0000E+00
-1.0000E-01 1.0000E-01 0
MAT2 100000100 1.4286E+07 4.2857E+06 2.5241E-08 1.4286E+07 1.5806E-09 5.0000E+06 0.0000E+00
0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00
0
MAT2 200000100 1.4286E+07 4.2857E+06 2.0446E-08 1.4286E+07 1.2803E-09 5.0000E+06 0.0000E+00
0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00
0
MAT2 300000100 4.1667E+06 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 4.1667E+06 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00
0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00
0
S9-44 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
LAYER STRESSES IN COMPOSITE ELEMENTS
COMPOSITE ELEMENTS SOL 106 MARCH 15, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 3/12/93 PAGE 103
SUBCASE 1
S T R E S S E S I N L A Y E R E D C O M P O S I T E E L E M E N T S ( Q U A D 4 )
ELEMENT PLY STRESSES IN FIBRE AND MATRIX DIRECTIONS INTER-LAMINAR STRESSES PRINCIPAL STRESSES (ZERO SHEAR) MAX
ID ID NORMAL-1 NORMAL-2 SHEAR-12 SHEAR-1Z SHEAR-2Z ANGLE MAJOR MINOR SHEAR
101 1 -4.07141E+05 -1.35714E+06 -1.69456E+02 7.84304E+02 2.02505E-14 -.01 -4.07141E+05 -1.35714E+06 4.75001E+05
101 3 4.07141E+05 1.35714E+06 1.69456E+02 5.49630E-12 1.41913E-28 89.99 1.35714E+06 4.07141E+05 4.75001E+05
102 1 -4.07139E+05 -1.35714E+06 -8.32131E+02 5.71212E+02 4.69811E-12 -.05 -4.07138E+05 -1.35714E+06 4.75002E+05
102 3 4.07139E+05 1.35714E+06 8.32131E+02 4.00298E-12 3.29237E-26 89.95 1.35714E+06 4.07138E+05 4.75002E+05
103 1 -4.07137E+05 -1.35714E+06 -1.19496E+03 3.82783E+02 2.43006E-13 -.07 -4.07136E+05 -1.35714E+06 4.75003E+05
103 3 4.07137E+05 1.35714E+06 1.19496E+03 2.68250E-12 1.70295E-27 89.93 1.35714E+06 4.07136E+05 4.75003E+05
104 1 -4.07137E+05 -1.35714E+06 -9.55886E+02 2.18618E+02 -8.70770E-13 -.06 -4.07136E+05 -1.35714E+06 4.75003E+05
104 3 4.07137E+05 1.35714E+06 9.55886E+02 1.53205E-12 -6.10225E-27 89.94 1.35714E+06 4.07136E+05 4.75003E+05
105 1 -4.07136E+05 -1.35714E+06 -4.99785E+02 7.09528E+01 2.78697E-12 -.03 -4.07136E+05 -1.35714E+06 4.75003E+05
105 3 4.07136E+05 1.35714E+06 4.99785E+02 4.97228E-13 1.95307E-26 89.97 1.35714E+06 4.07136E+05 4.75003E+05
S9-45 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
FAILURE INDEX TABLE
1 COMPOSITE ELEMENTS SOL 106 MARCH 15, 1993 MSC/NASTRAN 3/12/93 PAGE 104
0 SUBCASE 1 $
F A I L U R E I N D I C E S F O R L A Y E R E D C O M P O S I T E E L E M E N T S ( Q U A D 4 )
ELEMENT FAILURE PLY FP=FAILURE INDEX FOR PLY FB=FAILURE INDEX FOR BONDING FAILURE INDEX FOR ELEMENT FLAG
ID THEORY ID (DIRECT STRESSES/STRAINS) (INTER-LAMINAR STRESSES) MAX OF FP,FB FOR ALL PLIES
101 HILL 1 582.0204
.7843
2 .0000
.7843
3 582.0204
582.0204 ***
102 HILL 1 582.0205
.5712
2 .0000
.5712
3 582.0206
582.0206 ***
103 HILL 1 582.0208
.3828
2 .0000
.3828
3 582.0208
582.0208 ***
104 HILL 1 582.0205
.2186
2 .0000
.2186
3 582.0205
582.0205 ***
105 HILL 1 582.0202
.0710
2 .0000
.0710
3 582.0203
582.0203 ***
S9-46 NAS 103, Section 9, December 2003
10-1 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
SECTION 10
SOL 600
10-2 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
10-3 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear(SOL 600) Analysis 10-7
Overview Of NonLinear Analysis Using MSC.Nastran SOL 600 10-8
MSC.Nastran SOL 600 Overview 10-9
What Is MSC.Nastran SOL 600? 10-10
Nonlinear Capabilities In MSC.Nastran 10-11
What Is MSC.Marc? 10-12
What Is MSC.Marc? Summary 10-15
What Is MSC.Nastran SOL 600 10-16
What Is MSC.Patran? 10-17
MSC.Patran Is A Pre- & Post-Processor 10-19
MSC.Nastran SOL 600 Is Open Architecture 10-20
What Is MSC.Nastran SOL 600? 10-21
Why Should I Use MSC.Nastran SOL 600? 10-22
How Does MSC.Nastran SOL 600 Work? 10-24
10-4 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Features And Capabilities 10-28
Summary of MSC.Nastran SOL 600 Nonlinear Analysis Capabilities 10-29
Non-Linear Capabilities In MSC.Nastrain SOL 600 10-30
Geometric Non-Linearities 10-31
Geometric Non-Linearities - Finite Deformation 10-32
Geometric Nonlinearity Follower Forces 10-33
Geometric Nonlinearity Updated Lagrange 10-34
MSC.Nastran SOL 600 Materials 10-35
MSC.Nastran SOL 600 Plasticity Models 10-36
SOL 600 Hyperelasitic Models 10-37
Nonlinear Material Models 10-38
Boundary Condition Non-Linearity 10-39
Rigid & Deformable Bodies 10-41
MSC.Nastran SOL 600 Contact 10-42
10-5 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Boundary Condition Non-Linearity 10-44
Example Analysis Of A Rubber Boot 10-46
MSC.Nastran SOL 600 Features 10-47
Features Matrix Solver Options 10-48
Features Distributed Memory Parallel 10-49
Parallel Processing: Distributed Memory Parallel Method 10-50
Features Distributed Memory Parallel Method 10-51
Features Advanced Element Technology 10-53
Features Conclusion 10-54
Summary of MSC.Nastran SOL 600 Nonlinear Analysis Capabilities 10-55
When To Use SOL 600 VS 106/129 10-56
Future Capabilities 10-57
Enhancements Planned 10-58
Future Capabilities User- Subroutines 10-59
Future Capabilities Thermal And Coupled Analysis 10-60
10-6 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Future Capabilities Adaptive Global Remeshing 10-61
More Info On MSC.Nastran SOL 600 Features 10-62
To Learn More MSC.Nastran SOL 600 Documentation 10-63
MSC.Nastran SOL 600 Is Easy To Learn 10-64
Learn Through On-Line Example Problems 10-65
Learn Through On-Line Example Problems 10-66
MSC Client Support 10-67
Nonlinear Summary 10-68
Conclusion 10-69
10-7 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
MSC.NASTRAN IMPLICIT
NONLINEAR (SOL 600) ANALYSIS
Nonlinear
Analysis Capabilities
For 3D Contact and
Highly Nonlinear Problems
10-8 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
OVERVIEW OF NONLINEAR ANALYSIS USING
MSC.NASTRAN SOL 600
OVERVIEW
WHAT IS MSC.NASTRAN SOL 600
WHO SHOULD USE MSC.NASTRAN SOL 600
MSC.NASTRAN, MSC.MARC AND MSC.PATRAN
SUMMARY OF MSC.NASTRAN SOL 600 NONLINEAR ANALYSIS
CAPABILITIES
MSC.NASTRAN SOL 600 FEATURES
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
10-9 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
MSC.NASTRAN SOL600 OVERVIEW
MSC.Nastran SOL 600 =
MSC.MARC ALGORITHMS +
MSC.NASTRAN INTERFACE
What is MSC.Nastran SOL600?
Powerful
General Purpose
Robust
User Friendly
Features and Capabilities:
Contact
Geometric and Material Nonlinear
Added value: Adaptive Re-meshing and
DDM
Conclusions
10-10 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
WHAT IS MSC.NASTRAN SOL 600?
Integrated Package:
MSC.Nastran Interface
MSC.Marc Algorithms
MSC.Patran GUI
Access to most MSC.Marc Capabilities
Access to all MSC.Marc Structural / Thermal
/ Coupled Analysis Capabilities
Easy to Use
Intuitive
Powerful
Makes nonlinear finite element analysis
EASY!!!
10-11 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
NONLINEAR CAPABILITIES IN MSC.NASTRAN
MSC.Nastran Advanced
Nonlinear SOL600:
Provides FEA capability for
the analysis of 3D contact
and highly nonlinear
problems.
Combines the worlds most
advanced nonlinear finite
element technology with the
worlds most widely used
finite element code,
MSC.Nastran
10-12 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
WHAT IS MSC.MARC?
10-13 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
WHAT IS MSC.MARC?
First commercially available, general-purpose, non-
linear, FE code - used in industry for over 30 years
Parallel-processing on multiple platforms
Coupled-thermal structural analysis
User-subroutines to create new material models, apply
new boundary conditions
Particularly powerful for highly nonlinear problems
10-14 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
Rigid-Deformable and Deformable-Deformable
Contact
Analytic or Discrete Rigid Contact Surfaces with Velocity,
Force/Moment, or Displacement Control
Glued, Stick-Slip or Continuous Friction Models
Elastic, Plastic, Hyper-elastic, Creep and Visco-elastic
Material Models
Ample Library of Built in Material Models
Composite, Damping and Failure Materials
Large Element Library
0,1,2 and 3-D Elements may be Combined
User Control on Integration Methods
Advanced Solution and Modeling Features
User Subroutines
Global and Local Adaptive Re-meshing
Parallel Processing using Domain Decomposition - Manual or
Automatic Sub-division of the Model
X
Y
Z
Large Displacements
Contact Resolution
Buckling
Non-Linear Material
(Hyper-elastic rubber
in this example)
WHAT IS MSC.MARC?
10-15 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
WHAT IS MSC.MARC ? - SUMMARY
MSC.MARC is a general-purpose,
non-linear FEA code.
It has been used extensively for the
last 3 decades in various types of
industries
MSC.Marc - DDM is a completely
parallelized finite element process
Based on MSC.Marcs nonlinear
algorithms, Nastran SOL 600 is a
very powerful tool for solving large
and complex highly nonlinear
problems
Typical Application:
Rubber Boot with Hyper-
elastic material and self-
contact
10-16 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
WHAT IS MSC.NASTRAN SOL600
MSC.Nastran SOL600 is the
nonlinear capabilities of
MSC.MARC delivered in an
MSC.Nastran user interface
MSC.PATRAN provides:
un-paralleled geometry integration
capabilities (who else can integrate
with Catia as strongly as we do?)
robust automated meshing
algorithms (the new parasolid
geometry editing features truly
expand your meshing options)
feature-rich, mature pre- and post-
processing capabilities
10-17 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
WHAT IS MSC.PATRAN?
10-18 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
WHAT IS MSC.PATRAN?
MSC.PATRAN is a finite element pre- and post-
processor, which has been integrated with
several nonlinear analysis solvers including
MSC.MARC, MSC.NASTRAN, and
ABAQUS/Standard for implicit solutions; and
MSC.DYTRAN and LS-DYNA3D for explicit
solutions.
All model definition, analysis submittal and
results evaluation can be done through
MSC.PATRAN and driven via the graphical user
interface.
MSC.PATRAN on-line help facility includes
documentation for all GUI forms and topics as
well as help on MSC.MARC.
10-19 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
MSC.Patran
Geometric Representation
of Model
MSC.Patran
MSC.Nastran
MSC.Marc
MSC.Marc
MSC.Fea
Abaqus
ANSYS
MSC.Dytran
MSC.Thermal
MSC.Structural Opt.
MSC.Fatigue
LS-DYNA3D
SUPPORTED SOLVERS
P
r
e
-
P
r
o
c
e
s
s
i
n
g
P
o
s
t
-
P
r
o
c
e
s
s
i
n
g
Results Visualization
MSC.PATRAN IS A PRE- & POST-PROCESSOR
10-20 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
Patran
CAD:
UG
ProE
CATIA
Euclid
Ideas
Other:
Parasolid
Acis
Iges
Step
Express
Analysis:
Nastran
Marc
Abaqus
Ansys
Ideas
LS-Dyna
Sinda
Other:
Neutral
Iges
Step
Fatigue
New preference
Mapping feature
In Patran 2002
Provides Complete
Model Conversion
MSC.NASTRAN SOL 600 IS OPEN
ARCHITECTURE
Strengths of MSC.Nastran SOL
600
Open Architecture Interfaces to
Any CAD or Analysis Program
MSC.Nastran SOL 600 has
interfaces to all major CAD and
Analysis Codes includes input
deck readers for all most analysis
codes. Provides customizable
hooks for importing and exporting
model information.
Allows you to bring model data to
anywhere/ from anywhere
10-21 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
WHAT IS MSC.NASTRAN SOL600 ?
Allows Nastran users to perform:
nonlinear structural
thermal *
coupled thermo-structural analysis *
Includes contact, large deflection,
rotation, and strain analysis capabilities
never before available in Nastran
Can use input decks from the many
thousands of existing MSC.Nastran
models.
Provides solutions for simple to complex
engineering problems including multi-
body contact and advanced elastomeric
(rubber) material models
* Note: Starred capabilities (on any page) may
not be in first release
10-22 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
WHY SHOULD I USE MSC.NASTRAN SOL600 ?
Allows Companies to Use a
Single Model Format (BDF)
Single Input Format Allows:
Common Model for All Analysis
Needs
Elimination of Model Re-creation
Effort
Reduced Time-to-Market
Increased Efficiency
Further value to FEA simulation
Allows Re-use of Thousands
of Existing Models That Cost
Millions to Create
$ NASTRAN input file created by MSC.Nastran input file
$ Direct Text Input for File Management Section
$ Nonlinear II Analysis
SOLMARC 600 EXEMARC PATH=3
$ Direct Text Input for Executive Control
CEND
SEALL = ALL
SUPER = ALL
TITLE = MSC.Nastran job created12-Oct-01 at 09:38:33
ECHO = NONE
$ Direct Text Input for Global Case Control Data
BCONTACT = ALL
SUBCASE 1
$ Subcase name : Default
SUBTITLE=Default
NLPARM = 1
BCONTACT = 1
SPC = 2
LOAD = 2
DISPLACEMENT(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
SPCFORCES(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
STRESS(SORT1,REAL,VONMISES,BILIN)=ALL
BEGIN BULK
PARAM POST 0
PARAM AUTOSPC NO
PARAM LGDISP 1
PARAM,NOCOMPS,-1
PARAM PRTMAXIM YES
NLPARM 1 10 AUTO 5 25
$ Direct Text Input for Bulk Data
$ Elements and Element Properties for region : shell
PSHELL 1 1 .25 1 1
$ Pset: "shell" will be imported as: "pshell.1"
CQUAD4 1 1 1 2 13 12
CQUAD4 2 1 2 3 14 13
10-23 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
WHY SHOULD I USE MSC.NASTRAN SOL600 ?
(Cont.)
Brings the Following to
MSC.Nastran:
Contact
Large Deformation and Rotation
Large Strain
Advance Nonlinear Materials:
Plasticity for Polymers and Metals
Hyper-elastic for Elastomers
Gaskets for Engine Blocks
Brings Powerful, Mature, Robust
Nonlinear Technology to the
MSC.Nastran Community
10-24 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
HOW DOES MSC.NASTRAN SOL600 WORK ?
MSC.Nastran Look and feel:
Input a standard BDF Read by
Nastran IFP
Runs Marc Under the Hood
Results Read back to Nastran
database via Toolkit
Standard Output from Nastran
New Nastran text input:
Executive Command:
SOL600, NLSTATIC
New Case Control Command for 3D
contact
New Bulk Data Entries for 3D
contact
New Bulk Data Entry for gasket
material
$ NASTRAN input file created by MSC.Nastran input file
$ Direct Text Input for File Management Section
$ Advanced Nonlinear Analysis
SOL 600, NLSTATIC
$ Direct Text Input for Executive Control
CEND
SEALL = ALL
SUPER = ALL
TITLE = MSC.Nastran job created12-Feb-03 at
ECHO = NONE
$ Direct Text Input for Global Case Control Data
BCONTACT = ALL
SUBCASE 1
$ Subcase name : Default
SUBTITLE=Default
NLPARM = 1
BCONTACT = 1
SPC = 2
LOAD = 2
DISPLACEMENT(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
SPCFORCES(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
STRESS(SORT1,REAL,VONMISES,BILIN)=ALL
BEGIN BULK
PARAM POST 0
PARAM AUTOSPC NO
PARAM LGDISP 1
PARAM,NOCOMPS,-1
PARAM PRTMAXIM YES
NLPARM 1 10 AUTO 5 25
$ Direct Text Input for Bulk Data
$ Elements and Element Properties for region : shell
PSHELL 1 1 .25 1 1
$ Pset: "shell" will be imported as: "pshell.1"
CQUAD4 1 1 1 2 13 12
CQUAD4 2 1 2 3 14 13
10-25 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
HOW DOES MSC.NASTRAN SOL600 WORK ?
Nastran-Marc Translator:
Start Nastran, read the Nastran
input file
Generate a Marc input file and
run Marc in the background
Marc run-time error messages
piped to .f06
Nastran deletes intermediate
files
Needs a Marc and a Nastran
executable (both will be included
on the Nastran CD)
Future version will eliminate
separate Marc input and run
Nastran Input
File
Nastran IFP
Nas-Marc
Translator
Spawn Marc
Run
Nastran Results
Database
Nastran .f06
File
Marc .t16
File
Nastran .xdb
File
Nastran .op2
File
10-26 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
MSC.Nastran SOL600 Runs
MSC.Marc as a Background
Process
Version 2004: Two Executables
Marc Files: jobname.marc.xxx
Version 2005: Single Executable
Version 2004 gives users as
much (next page) or as little
control of MSC.Marc run as
they desire:
Input File May be Edited
Job Submittal
License Usage
Output File Format
Job Messages can be
consolidated in .f06 file
Marc files can be automatically
removed
HOW DOES MSC.NASTRAN SOL600 WORK ?
10-27 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
HOW DOES MSC.NASTRAN SOL600 WORK ?
MSC.Nastran SOL600 is
the nonlinear capabilities of
MSC.MARC delivered in an
MSC.Nastran user interface
MSC.PATRAN provides:
un-paralleled geometry
integration capabilities (who else
can integrate with Catia as
strongly as we do?)
robust automated meshing
algorithms (the new parasolid
geometry editing features truly
expand your meshing options)
feature-rich, mature pre- and
post-processing capabilities
MSC.Nastran Input Deck
Use std Nast output req -
deck echo and
Write jobname.marc.dat
IFP Processes Input Deck
Stop
Successful
Translation?
Submit Marc
Analysis?
Marc writes .out,.t16,.t19
Is marccpy
= 1or 2?
Post-processing
DMAP in place?
Submit Marc job -see note
Append runtime error
.t16/19 results to Nast db
Nastran .f06,
.f04, .log files
error messages
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
generate std xdb,op2,f06
.sts,etc (these will be
deleted later by Nastran
if marccpy = 1 or 3) -.sts
messages to .f06 and .log
and .log may be used by
MSC.Patran to monitor
the progress of the job
while it is running
Note - every attempt will be
made to have the Nastran Input
File Processor (IFP) catch all
input format errors. However,
this may not be possible
in early releases. It may
sometimes be necessary for the
user to debug the Marc analyisis.
See Chapter 16 on Trouble
Shooting Analysis Runs for
debugging suggestions if this
occurs.
No
No
No
10-28 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
FEATURES AND CAPABILITIES
Supports the following Structural
Capabilities:
Contact
Nonlinear Materials :
Elastic - Plastic
Hyper-elastic
Creep and Visco-elastic
Composite
Large Deformation Large Strain
Patran Preference for SOL600
capabilities identical to Marc Preference
10-29 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
0. 2. 4. 6.
NOMINAL STRAIN
0.
20.
40.
60.
80.
UNIAXIAL TENSION
BIAXIAL TENSION
PLANAR TENSION
Treloars Experimental Data
N
O
M
I
N
A
L

S
T
R
E
S
S

(
K
G
F
/
C
M
*
*
2
)
SUMMARY OF MSC.NASTRAN SOL600
NONLINEAR ANALYSIS CAPABILITIES
The following Analysis Solutions are supported with
MSC.NASTRAN SOL600 (more detail on these in Chapter 2)
Linear Static Analysis
Nonlinear Static Analysis
Geometric Nonlinearity
Material Nonlinearity
Contact Nonlinearity
Example: Rubber (Hyperelastic Material)
10-30 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
NON-LINEAR CAPABILITIES IN MSC.NASTRAN
SOL600
Materially Non-linear
Models
Geometric Non-linearity's
Boundary Condition Non-
linearity's (Contact)
All Non-linear Behaviors
Can be Combined
Example Application: Ball
Joint
Axi-symmetric model
of ball-joint assembly
10-31 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
GEOMETRIC NON-LINEARITIES
Large Displacement and
Rotations
Large Strain Analyses
Buckling of Structures
Post-buckling behavior
Axially Loading Critical Mode
10-32 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
GEOMETRIC NONLINEARITY - FINITE
DEFORMATION
Finite Deformation
Large Deflection, Rotation and
Strain:
Large Deformation and Rotation of RBES
Large (Finite) Strain With Choice of Strain
Definitions
Finite Strain Plasticity
Robust and User-Friendly
Adaptive Load Incrementation
Total and Updated Lagrange
Procedures
Choice of Solvers Including
Iterative and MSC.Nastrans Fast
Sparse
10-33 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
Distributed loads are taken into account by
means of equivalent nodal loads; changes in
direction and area can be taken into account
using the MSC.Marc parameter option
FOLLOW FOR
Where on MSC.Patran?
The pressure stays normal to the deformed
shape thus changes direction, in turn also
producing a change in the reaction forces
and moments.
GEOMETRIC NONLINEARITY - FOLLOWER
FORCES
10-34 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
Updated Lagrange is especially useful for
beam and shell structures with large rotations
and for large strain plasticity problems;
activated using the UPDATE parameter option
0
1
2
3
0
1
2
3
Updated
Lagrange
Total
Lagrange
GEOMETRIC NONLINEARITY - UPDATED
LAGRANGE
10-35 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
Isotropic
2-D and 3-D Orthotropic
2-D and 3-D Anisotropic
Laminated and 3D
Composites, Gaskets for
Engine Blocks
Material properties can be
temperature dependent e.g.
Youngs Modulus
Poisson Ratio
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
Specific Heat
Thermal Conductivity
And more
MSC.NASTRAN SOL600 MATERIALS
10-36 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
MSC.NASTRAN SOL600 PLASTICITY MODELS
Perfectly Plastic and Rigid Plastic
Elastic Plastic with Hardening or
Softening
Plastic - Hardening Laws:
Isotropic
Kinematic
Combined and others
Plastic - Yielding:
With a dependence of the yield stress
on strain rate
Von Mises and Drucker-Prager
Linear and Parabolic Mohr-Coulomb
Various Oak Ridge National Laboratory
models and others
10-37 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
Hyper-elastic
Including Graphical Feedback on
Experimental Data Fitting
Large strain for elastic materials
(rubber) using;
Neo-Hookean
Mooney-Rivlin
Ogden
Gent
Arruda-Boyce
Jamus-Green-Simpson models
Large strain, elastic analysis of
compressible foams
SOL600 HYPERELASITIC MODELS
10-38 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
Nonlinear Material Models
Creep
Behavior for materials where, for a
constant stress state, strain
increases with time
Relaxation where stress decreases
with time at constant deformation
Visco-elastic
Behavior for elastic materials that
relax and dissipate energy under
transient loadings
Failure
Hill, Hoffman, Tsai-Wu, Maximum
Stress or Strain
Damping
Using Mass or Stiffness Matrix, or
Numerical Multipliers - can be used
together
NONLINEAR MATERIAL MODELS
10-39 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
BOUNDARY CONDITION NON-LINEARITY
Contact
Developed in Marc in late 80s
Automatic detection of contact
2D and 3D contact
Finds widespread use in areas like
Manufacturing Simulations for sheet
metal forming, deep drawing, mounting
seals and other process simulations,
bio- medical simulations and more
10-40 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
BOUNDARY CONDITION NON-LINEARITY
Contact
Automatic Re-meshing during contact
Friction models
Stick-slip model
Coloumb model
Shear Friction for rolling
10-41 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
RIGID & DEFORMABLE BODIES
Analytic or Discrete Rigid Contact Surfaces with Velocity,
Force/Moment, or Displacement Control
Glued, Stick-Slip or Continuous Friction Models
10-42 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
MSC.NASTRAN SOL600 CONTACT
Contact Capabilities
Brings Advanced Contact
Capabilities to MSC.Nastran:
Easy to Use Multi-Body Capability
2-D and Full 3-D Contact
Supports Rigid-Deformable Contact
Position, Velocity or Load Controlled
Rigid Bodies
Rigid Geometry Defined Via NURBS
Discrete or Analytical Definition
Deformable
Structure
Contact stress
(including friction)
Calculated
Contact area
10-43 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
MSC.NASTRAN SOL600 CONTACT
Contact Capabilities
Include Deformable-Deformable
Contact With:
Initial Interference Fit
Stress Free Initial Mesh Adjustment
Single or Double Sided Contact
Detection
Force or StressBased Separation
Multiple Friction Models
Glued Contact
Automatic or User Defined
Contact Tolerance Distance
(CTD)
Bias on CTD
10-44 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
BOUNDARY CONDITION NON-LINEARITY
Multi-Body Contact
Very Easy to Set-Up
Automatic detection of contact surfaces
2D and 3D contact
Finds widespread use in areas
like: Manufacturing Simulations
for sheet metal forming, deep
drawing, mounting seals and
other process simulations, bio-
medical simulations and more
Try setting this up with contact
pair contact
10-45 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
BOUNDARY CONDITION NON-LINEARITY
Contact Capabilities:
Rigid and Deformable
Automatic Re-meshing during
contact
Reports Interface Results
Surface Interactions
Contact Distance Tol
Bias on Distance Tol
Quadratic Elements
Friction models
Glued Contact
Separation Force
10-46 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
EXAMPLE - ANALYSIS OF A RUBBER BOOT
All Non-Linearities Can Appear Together
Constant Velocity Rubber Boot
Elastomeric material model (Mooney, non-linear elastic)
Large rotations and strains
Multi-body and Self-contact (default)
Local buckling
10-47 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
MSC.NASTRAN SOL 600 FEATURES
MSC.NASTRAN SOL 600 Features:
Structural, Thermal and Coupled
Analysis (thermal and coupled in
2004)
Material, Geometric and Contact
Non-linearity
Parallel Processing (DMP)
available (in 2003)
Experimental Data fitting for
elastomers (in 2003)
User Defined Subroutines (2004)
Global Re-meshing (2004)
10-48 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
FEATURES - MATRIX SOLVER OPTIONS
Matrix Solution Methods (more on this later)
Direct Solver
Direct Sparse
Iterative Solver (Conjugate Gradient)
Sparse Iterative
New BCS Solver (Multi-frontal solver)
10-49 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
FEATURES DISTRIBUTED MEMORY
PARALLEL
MSC.Nastran DMP
Parallel Processing
Automatic Subdivision based on Metis
Manual Decomposition based on MSC.Patran
Groups
Nastran SOL 600 allows DMP using a single
input file
10-50 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
1 CPU
4 CPUs
PARALLEL PROCESSING: DISTRIBUTED
MEMORY PARALLEL METHOD
Mesh is broken up into several domains, each submitted
to a different CPU
10-51 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
Linearly-Scalable Distributed
Memory Parrallel
MSC.Nastran SOL600 DMP often
gives what is called Super-Linear
scalability meaning the you get
better than 1/# cpu performance
increase. This occurs because the
% of in-core solution time goes way
up
In a recent comparison
MSC.Nastran SOL600s DMP
capability was used to solve an
engine block problem in 2.5 hours
that took our competitor 7 days to
solve using a single cpu solution.
Who wouldnt want to cut their
solution times down by an order of
magnitude
PARALLEL PROCESSING: DISTRIBUTED
MEMORY PARALLEL METHOD
10-52 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
Domain 1
Domain 2
Domain 3
Domain 4
Domain 5
Domain 6
Domain 7
Domain 8
Entire Engine Model Generally linear scaling!
FEATURES - DISTRIBUTED MEMORY
PARALLEL
Example
448,361 Elements
1.8 Million DOFs
10 Increment -
Transient Thermal
Analysis
78 minute on single
processor
12 minutes on 8 CPUs
10-53 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
FEATURES - ADVANCED ELEMENT
TECHNOLOGY
Advanced Element
Technology
Linear and Quadratic
Herrmann Formulation for
Incompressible Materials
Assumed Strain Captures
Stress Distribution in Bending
Global and Local Adaptive Re-
meshing
Parallel Processing using
DISTRIBUTED MEMORY
PARALLEL - Manual or Automatic
Sub-division of the Model
User Subroutines
Linear
Quadratic
Mid-body (Hermann formulation)
10-54 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
FEATURES - CONCLUSION
Take advantage of the MSC.Marc
features through an MSC.Nastran
interface:
1. Easy to Set-up Multi-body Contact
2. Global adaptive re-meshing
3. Experimental data fitting with graphical user
feedback
4. Linearly scalable DDM
300 150 450 600 750 900
Strain
S
t
r
e
s
s
15
30
45
60
75
Domain 1
Domain 2
Domain 3
Domain 4
448,361 Elements
1.8 Million DOFs
10 Increment -
Transient
Thermal Analysis
78 min. on single
processor
12 minutes on 8
CPUs
10-55 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
Load, P
Displacement
1.0
A B
Proportional loading with unstable response.
SUMMARY OF MSC.NASTRAN SOL 600
NONLINEAR ANALYSIS CAPABILITIES
General Solution Features
No fixed problem size limits, DISTRIBUTED MEMORY PARALLEL avail.
for parallel solution
Automated procedures for load step, convergence control, and
equilibrium/stability control in nonlinear analysis
Reliable Newton-Raphson algorithm
Arc length control for static collapse problems
10-56 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
WHEN TO USE SOL600 VS 106/129
Most Common Reasons to Use MSC.Nastran SOL 600:
Capability SOL 106/129 SOL 600
2D Def-Def Contact Slidelines Multi-Body
2D Rigid-Def Contact No Multi-Body
3D Def-Def Contact Slidelines Multi-Body
3D Rigid-Def Contact No Multi-Body
Beam Contact No Multi-Body
Elastic-Perfectly Plastic via Bi-Linear Yes
Bi-linear Elastic Plastic Yes via Multi-Linear
Multi-linear Elastic Plastic Yes Yes
Temp-Dependent Elastic-Plastic No Yes
Multi-linear Elastic Yes No
Mooney-Rivlin for 1D (beam) elements No Yes
Mooney-Rivlin for 2D elements Yes Yes
Mooney-Rivlin for 3D elements Yes Yes
Other hyperelastic (Ogden,Gent) for all
element types No Yes
Temp-Dependent Hyperelastic No Yes
Composite Beams Yes Yes
Composite Shells Yes Yes
Continuum (2D Solid & 3D) Composites No Yes
Need to Model 3D or Multi-Body
Contact
Strain Level > 10-15%
RBEs/MPCs need large
rotation capability
Elastic-Plastic or Hyper-Elastic
Material Properties are
Temperature Dependent
Need to Model 3D Solid
Composites
User Defined Subroutines
Need Global Adaptive Re-
meshing
10-57 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
FUTURE CAPABILITIES
10-58 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
ENHANCEMENTS PLANNED
Product enhancements for MSC.Nastran SOL 600 are planned.
Major enhancements for v 2005.
Examples of MSC.Nastran Version 2003 enhancements: 3D contact,
increased robustness, new rubber models and element technology,
improvements in rigid-plastic flow and structural-acoustic analyses,
general contact post-processing including area, force and stress
calculation between deformable bodies (surface-to-surface)
Deformable
Structure
Contact stress
(including friction)
Calculated
Contact area
10-59 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
FUTURE CAPABILITIES - USER-SUBROUTINES
User-subroutines are a
powerful way to input new
capabilities by the user for
specific needs
User-subroutines can be
used to create:
Material Models
Work-hardening varying as a
function of temperature
Damage models etc.
Shape memory alloy material
models
Boundary Conditions
Heat flux varying spatially or
with other BCs
Friction varying as a function of
temperature
10-60 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
FUTURE CAPABILITIES - THERMAL AND
COUPLED ANALYSIS
Steady state and Transient Analysis
Conductivity and radiation across interfaces can be
modeled
Temperature-dependent material properties can be used
Latent heat exchange during phase changes can be
modeled
10-61 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
FUTURE CAPABILITIES ADAPTIVE GLOBAL
REMESHING
Global Adaptive Re-
Meshing (2005 ?)
MSC.Nastran SOL600 will have
a wide variety of methods
available for specifying re-
meshing criteria. Specifying the
area to be re-meshed is as easy
as setting up a contact body (in
fact that is what you do).
Global adaptive re-meshing
is the silver bullet for
solving mesh distortion
problems
10-62 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
MORE INFO ON MSC.NASTRAN SOL 600
FEATURES
For More Information:
See the MSC.Nastran SOL 600
Product Spec Sheet
Get the Power-point presentation
on the Nastran SOL 600 Webinar or
the New MSC.Nastran Preference
(down-load from:
http://www.pm.macsch.com/nastran
/presentations/naspref2003.ppt)
On-line documentation for
MSC.Patran, MSC.Nastran SOL
600 , and the MSC.Nastran Pref.
Guide
10-63 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
TO LEARN MORE - MSC.NASTRAN SOL 600
DOCUMENTATION
MSC.Nastran SOL 600
Users Guide
MSC.Marc Online
Documentation
MSC.Nastran Preference
Guide
MSC.Nastran User
Manuals:
Quick Reference Guide
Reference Manual
MSC.Patran Users Guide
10-64 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
MSC.NASTRAN SOL 600 IS EASY TO LEARN
MSC.Nastran SOL 600 STUDENT
VERSION:
There is a node/element/entity
limited version available for
educational use.
Has all capabilities of the full
product except for
node/element/entity limits
For More Information or to Order:
Go to the MSC Engineering e-com
Software Mart
Get the Power-point presentation on
the New MSC.Marc Preference (down-
load from: http://www.engineering-
e.com/software)
10-65 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
LEARN THROUGH ON-LINE EXAMPLE
PROBLEMS
Truly general purpose FEA capability. MSC.Nastran
SOL 600 is fully modular. All capabilities can be mixed
and used together.
MSC.PATRAN incorporates the most commonly used
features of the MSC.MARC analysis code to produce an
integrated interface as MSC.Nastran SOL 600:
Code specific translator.
Analysis model set-up and submission of MARC jobs supported through
MSC.PATRAN
Customer support provided for setting up analyses for all Nastran SOL
600 procedures.
Nastran SOL 600S general modeling and PCL customization
capabilities, along with direct text input, help support advanced
modeling capabilities.
10-66 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
LEARN THROUGH ON-LINE EXAMPLE
PROBLEMS
Http://www.mscsoftware.com/support/online_ex/Patran
MSC.Nastran SOL 600 Example Problems
10-67 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
With corporate headquarters in Santa Ana, California, MSC.Software
maintains regional sales and support offices worldwide.
MSC Technical Support Hotline 1-800-732-7284 (USA/Canada).
Staffed Monday through Friday 7:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. Pacific Standard
Time (10:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. Eastern Standard Time)
E-mail support (USA/Canada) at
mscmarc.support@mscsoftware.com
MSC.Marc, MSC.Marc Mentat, MSC.Patran Marc Preference
support
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MSC.Patran other than Marc Preference- support)
Support (USA/Canada) Fax 714-979-2900
Internet support http://www.mscsoftware.com
MSC CLIENT SUPPORT
10-68 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
NONLINEAR SUMMARY
Non-linearity results from
contact, geometric and/or
material response.
All non-linearities can appear
together in any analysis
General-purpose, mature,
robust FE capability used in
industry for over 30 years
Parallel-processing for large
models using DMP
Coupled-thermal structural
analysis (V 2005?)
User-subroutines to create new
material models, apply new
boundary conditions (V 2005?)
10-69 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
CONCLUSION
MSC.Nastran SOL 600 is a powerful, easy to use tool for
simulating manufacturing processes and component
designs
10-70 NAS 103, SOL 600, December 2003
CONCLUSION
Combine the Worlds Most Advanced
Contact and Nonlinear Finite Element
Technology With the Worlds Leading
Analysis Code and You Get
MSC.Nastran Implicit Nonlinear
SOL600
This Powerful Combination Will Lead To:
Common Analysis Model Format
Increased Efficiency
Reductions in:
Need for Physical Prototypes
Model Re-creation Effort
Product Development Time
Increased Value of FEA Simulation an
Already Indispensable Tool !!
A-1 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
SECTION 11
APPENDIX A
(NONLINEAR DATA)
A-2 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
A-3 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Summary Of Nonlinear Case Control Data A-5
Summary Of Nonlinear Bulk Data A-7
Summary Of Parameters In Nonlinear Analysis A-11
Description Of Specific Nonlinear Bulk Data A-13
BCONP A-14
BFRIC A-19
BLSEG A-21
BOUTPUT A-24
BWIDTH A-26
CGAP A-29
CREEP A-34
MATHP A-44
MATS1 A-49
NLPARM A-58
A-4 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
NLPCI A-70
PBCOMP A-76
PGAP A-85
PLPLANE A-92
PLSOLID A-94
TABLES1 A-95
TABLEST A-98
TSTEPNL A-100
A-5 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
SUMMARY OF NONLINEAR CASE CONTROL
DATA
Requests output for acceleration of physical points ACCELERATION
Requests output for velocities of physical points VELOCITY
Requests output for displacements of physical points DISPLACEMENT
Requests output for 3-D slideline contact BOUTPUT
Output Request
Selects iteration methods for nonlinear transient analysis TSTEPNL
Selects iteration methods for nonlinear static analysis NLPARM
Selects methods for eigenvalue analysis METHOD
Solution Method
Selection
Selects initial conditions for transient response IC
Selects nonlinear loading (NOLINi) for transient response NONLINEAR
Selects static load sets defined on the Bulk Data entry LSEQ LOADSET
Selects dynamic loading conditions DLOAD
Selects static load combination for superelements CLOAD
Selects static loading condition LOAD
Load Selection
A-6 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
SUMMARY OF NONLINEAR CASE CONTROL
DATA
Specifies the superelement identification numbers for which the mass
and damping matrices are assembled and reduced
SEMR
Specifies the superelement identification numbers for which stiffness,
mass, and damping matrices are generated
SEMG
Specifies the superelement identification numbers for which the static
load matrices are assembled and reduced
SELR
Specifies the superelement identification numbers for which load
vectors are generated
SELG
Specifies the superelement identification numbers for which stiffness
matrices are assembled and reduced
SEKR
Combines the functions of SEMG, SELG, SEKR, SEMR, and SELR SEALL
Specifies the superelement identification number and the load
sequence number
SUPER
Superelement Control
Requests the beginning of the plotter output OUTPUT (Plot)
Requests output for NOLINi in transient response NNLOAD
Requests output for constraint forces of SPC points SPCFORCES
Requests output for element stresses STRESS
Requests output for element forces ELFORCE
(Cont.) Output Request
A-7 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
SUMMARY OF NONLINEAR BULK DATA
Defines properties for CROD PROD
Defines properties for large strain CQUAD4 and CTRIA3 PLPLANE
Defines properties for large strain CHEXA, CPENTA, and CTETRA PLSOLID
Defines properties for composite material laminate PCOMP
Defines properties for CBEAM PBEAM
Defines properties for composite CBEAM PBCOMP
Element Properties
Defines connection for a tube CTUBE
Defines connection for triangular element with bending and membrane stiffness CTRIA3
Defines connection for four-sided solid element CTETRA
Defines connection for rod with axial and torsional stiffness CROD
Defines connection for quadrilateral element with bending and membrane
stiffness
CQUAD4
Defines connection for five-sided solid element CPENTA
Defines connection and properties for rod CONROD
Defines connection for six-sided solid element CHEXA
Defines connection for beam element CBEAM
Element Connectivity
A-8 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
SUMMARY OF NONLINEAR BULK DATA
Defines a linear relationship for two or more degrees of freedom MPC
Defines single-point constraints SPC1
Defines single-point constraints and enforced displacements SPC
Constraints
Combines many TABLES1 entries for temperature- dependent material properties TABLEST
Defines a function for stress-dependent material properties TABLES1
Defines properties for plastic and nonlinear elastic materials MATS1
Defines properties for hyperelastic material MATHP
Defines anisotropic material properties for solid elements MAT9
Defines orthotropic material properties for shell elements MAT8
Defines anisotropic material properties for shell elements MAT2
Defines creep material properties CREEP
Material Properties
Defines properties for CTUBE PTUBE
Defines properties for CHEXA, CPENTA, and CTETRA PSOLID
Defines properties for CTRIA3 and CQUAD4 PSHELL
(Cont.) Element Properties
A-9 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
SUMMARY OF NONLINEAR BULK DATA
Defines loads as a function of time TLOADi
Specifies initial values for displacement and velocity TIC
Defines temperature field for line elements TEMPRB
Defines temperature field for surface elements TEMPPi
Defines temperature at grid points TEMP
Defines load due to centrifugal force field RFORCE
Defines pressure loads on surfaces of HEXA, PENTA, TETRA, TRIA3, and
QUAD4 elements
PLOAD4
Defines pressure loads on shell elements, QUAD4, and TRIA3 PLOAD2
Defines pressure loads on QUAD4 and TRIA3\ PLOAD
Defines nonlinear transient load NONLINi
Defines moment at a grid point MOMENTi
Defines static load sets for dynamic analysis LSEQ
Defines concentrated load at grid point FORCEi
Defines a static load combination for superelement loads CLOAD
Loads
A-10 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
SUMMARY OF NONLINEAR BULK DATA
Defines properties for CGAP PGAP
Defines connection for gap or frictional element CGAP
Defines the width/thickness for line segments in 3-D/2-D slideline contact defined
in the corresponding BLSEG Bulk Data entry
BWIDTH
Defines slave nodes at which output is requested BOUTPUT
Defines a curve consisting of a number of line segments via grid numbers that
may come in contact with other bodies
BLSEG
Defines frictional properties between two bodies in contact BFRIC
Defines the parameters for contact between two bodies BCONP
Contact
Defines eigenvalue extraction method for buckling analysis EIGB
Specifies integration and iteration methods for nonlinear transient analysis TSTEPNL
Defines arc-length methods for nonlinear static analysis NLPCI
Defines iteration methods for nonlinear static analysis NLPARM
Solution Methods
A-11 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
SUMMARY OF PARAMETERS IN NONLINEAR
ANALYSIS
Specifies LOOPID for nonlinear normal mode analysis 0 E NMLOOP
Sets Defaults for the CONV, EPSU, EPSP, and EPSW
fields of NLPARM Bulk Data Entry
2 E NLTOL
Specifies number of integration points through thickness for
QUAD4 and TRIA3
5 B B NLAYERS
Specifies numerical damping in ADAPT method 0.025 E NDAMP
Maximum number of iterations for internal loop 5 E MAXLP
Specifies LOOPID in the database for restarts 0 E E LOOPID
Selects large displacement effects -1 E E LGDISP
Specifies large rotation approach 1 B B LANGLE
Assigns stiffness to normal rotation of QUAD4, TRIA3 0.0 E E K6ROT
Selects nonlinear buckling analysis for restarts -1 E BUCKLE
Specifies automatic SPC for residual structure NO B E AUTOPSPCR
Scale factor to adjust automatic calculated penalty values
for slideline elements
1.0 E ADPCON
Description Default
129 106
Parameter Name Solution
Sequence
A-12 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
SUMMARY OF PARAMETERS IN NONLINEAR
ANALYSIS
Note: B=usable in the Bulk Data Section only
E=usable in either the Bulk Data or Case Control Section
Selects frequency for conversion of element damping 0.0 B W4
Selects the frequency for the conversion of structural
damping
0.0 B W3
Tests for negative terms on factor diagonal -2 (N), 1(A) E TESTNEG
Specifies subcase ID for restarts 0 E SUBID
Specifies LOOPID from SOL 106 database for restarts 0 B SLOOPID
Description Default
129 106
Parameter Name Solution
Sequence
A-13 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
DESCRIPTION OF SPECIFIC NONLINEAR
BULK DATA
A-14 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
BCONP
Description:
Defines the parameters for a contact region and its properties
Format:
Example:
Field Contents
ID Contact region identification number (Integer > 0)
SLAVE Slave region identification number (Integer > 0).
MASTER Master region identification number (Integer > 0)
SFAC Stiffness scaling factor. This factor is used to scale the
penalty values automatically calculated by the program. (Real
> 0 or blank)
1 33 1 15 10 95 BCOMP
CID PTYPE FRICID SFAC MASTER SLAVE ID BCONP
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
A-15 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
BCONP
Field Contents
FRICID Contact friction identification number (Integer > 0 or blank)
PTYPE Penetration type (Integer = 1 or 2; Default =1).
1: unsymmetrical (slave penetration only) (default)
2: symmetrical
CID Coordinate system ID to define the slide line plane vector and
the slide line plane of contact. (Integer > 0 or blank; Default =
0 which means the basic coordinate system)
Remarks
1. ID field must be unique with respect to all other BCONP identification
numbers.
2. The referenced SLAVE is the identification number in the BLSEG Bulk
Data entry. This is the slave line. The width of each slave segment
must also be defined to get proper contact stresses. See BWIDTH Bulk
Data entry for the details of specifying widths.
A-16 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
BCONP
Remarks (Cont.)
3. The referenced MASTER is the identification number in the BLSEG Bulk
Data entry. This is the master line. For symmetrical penetration, the
width of each master segment must also be defined. See BWlDTH Bulk
Data entry for the details of specifying widths.
4. SFAC may be used to scale the penalty values automatically calculated
by the program. The program calculates the penalty value as a function
of the diagonal stiffness matrix coefficients that are in the contact
region. In addition to SFAC, penalty values calculated by the program
may be further scaled by the ADPCON parameter (see description of
ADPCON parameter for more details). The penalty value is then equal
to k * SFAC * |ADPCON|, where k is a function of the local stiffness. It
should be noted that the value in SFAC applies to only one contact
region, whereas the ADPCON parameter applies to all the contact
regions in the model.
5. The referenced FRlClD is the identification number of the BFRlC Bulk
Data entry. The BFRlC defines the frictional properties for the contact
region.
A-17 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
BCONP
Remarks (Cont.)
6. In an unsymmetrical contact algorithm only slave nodes are checked for
penetration into master segments. This may result in master nodes penetrating
the slave line. However, the error involve depends only on the mesh
discretization. In symmetric penetration both slave and master nodes are
checked for penetration. Thus, no distinction is made between slave and master.
Symmetric penetration may be up to thirty percent more expensive than the
unsymmetric penetration.
7. In Figure 1, the unit vector in the Z-axis of the coordinate system defines the
slideline plane vector. Slideline plane vector is normal to the slideline plane.
Relative motions outside the slideline plane are ignored, therefore must be small
compared to a typical master segment. For a master segment the direction from
master node 1 to master node 2 gives the tangential direction (t). The normal
direction for a master segment is obtained by cross product of the slideline plane
vector with the unit tangent vector (i.e., n = z x t). The definition of the coordinate
system should be such that the normal direction must point toward the slave
region. For symmetric penetration the normals of master segments and slave
segments must face each other. This is generally accomplished by traversing
from master line to slave line in a counter-clockwise or clockwise fashion
depending on whether the slideline plane vector forms right hand or left hand
coordinate system with the slideline plane.
A-18 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
BCONP
X-Y plane is the slide line plane. Unit normal in the Z-direction
is the slide line plane vector.
Arrows show positive direction for ordering nodes. Counter-
clockwise from master line to slave line.
Slave and master segment normals must face each other.
k-th Slave Segment
l-th Master Segment
k k - 1
Slave Line
Master Line
k
+
1
Slideline Plane Vector Direction
Y
X
Z
l

1
l
+
1
A-19 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
BFRIC
Description:
Defines frictional properties between two bodies in contact.
Format:
Example:
Field Contents
FID Friction identification number (Integer > 0)
FSTIF Frictional stiffness in stick (Real > 0.0). Default =
automatically selected by the program.
MU1 Coefficient of static friction (Real > 0.0).
MU1 FSTIF FID BFRIC
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
0.3 33 BFRIC
A-20 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
BFRIC
Remarks:
1. This identification number must be unique with respect to all other
friction identification numbers. This is used in the FRlClD field of
BCONP Bulk Data entry.
2. The value of frictional stiffness requires care. A method of choosing its
value is to divide the expected frictional strength (MU1 the expected
normal force) by a reasonable value of the relative displacement which
may be allowed before slip occurs. The relative value of displacement
before slip occurs must be small compared to expected relative
displacements during slip. A large stiffness value may cause poor
convergence, while too small value may cause poor accuracy.
Frictional stiffness specified by the user is selected as the initial value.
If convergence difficulties are encountered during the analysis, the
frictional stiffness may be reduced automatically to improve
convergence.
3. The stiffness matrix for frictional slip is unsymmetric. However, the
program does not use the true unsymmetric matrix. Instead the program
uses only the symmetric terms. This is to avoid using the unsymmetric
solver to reduce CPU time.
A-21 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
BLSEG
Description:
Defines a curve which consists of a number of line segments via grid
numbers that may come in contact with other body. A line segment is
defined between every two consecutive grid points. Thus, number of line
segments defined is equal to the number of grid points specified minus
1. A corresponding BWlDTH Bulk data entry may be required to define
the width/thickness of each line segment. If the corresponding BWlDTH
is not present, the width/thickness for each line segment is assumed
unity
Format:
G12 G11
G10 BY G9 THRU G8
G7 G6 G5 G4 G3 G2 G1 ID BLSEG
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
A-22 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
BLSEG
Examples:
Field Contents
ID Line segments identification number (Integer > 0)
Gi Grid numbers on a curve in a continuous topological order so
that the normal to the segment points towards other curve.
Remarks
1. ID must be unique with respect to all other BLSEG entries. Each line
segment has a width in 3-D sideline and a thickness in a 2-D slideline
contact to calculate contact stresses. The width/thickness of each line
segment is defined via BWIDTH Bulk Data entry. The ID in BLSEG
must be same as the ID specified in the BWlDTH. That is, there must
be one to one correspondence between BLSEG and BWlDTH.
BWlDTH Bulk Data entry may be omitted only if the width/thickness of
each segment is unity.
44 THRU 35
33 32 30 27
1 4 BY 21 THRU 5 15 BLSEG
A-23 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
BLSEG
Remarks (Cont.)
2. Gi may be automatically generated using the THRU and BY keywords.
For first line, THRU and BY can only be specified in the fourth and the
sixth fields, respectively. For continuation lines, THRU and BY can only
be specified in the third and the fifth fields, respectively. For automatic
generation of grid numbers the default value for increment is 1 if grid
numbers are increasing or -1 if grid numbers are decreasing (i.e., the
user need not specify BY and the increment value).
The normal to the segment is determined by the cross product of the
slideline plane vector (i.e., the Z direction of the coordinate system
defined in the ClD field of BCONP Bulk Data entry) and the tangential
direction of the segment. The tangential direction is the direction from
node 1 to node 2 of the line segment.
A curve may be closed or open. A closed curve is specified by having
the last grid number same as the first grid number.
A-24 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
BOUTPUT
Description
Defines the slave nodes at which the output is requested.
Format:
Example:
Field Contents
ID Boundary identification number for which output is desired
(Integer > 0.0).
Gi Slave node numbers for which output is desired.
B10 BY G9 THRU G8
G8 G7 G6 G5 G4 G3 G2 G1
ALL ID BPOUTPUT
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
ALL 15 BOUTPUT
A-25 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
BOUTPUT
Remark:
1. The grid numbers may be automatically generated using the THRU and
BY keywords. For first line, THRU and BY can only be specified in the
fourth and the sixth fields, respectively. For continuation lines, THRU
and BY can only be specified in the third and the fifth fields,
respectively. If output is desired for all the slave nodes, specify the
word ALL in the third field of the first line or just include the contact
region ID in the Case Control command BOUTPUT.
A-26 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
BWIDTH
Description
Defines width/thickness for line segments in 3-D/2-D slideline contact
defined in the corresponding BLSEG BULK Data entry. This entry may
be omitted if the width/thickness of each segment defined in the BLSEG
entry is unity. Number of thicknesses to be specified is equal to the
number of segments defined in the corresponding BLSEG entry. If
there is no corresponding BLSEG entry, the width/thickness specified in
the entry are not used by the program.
Format:
W12 W11
W10 BY W9 THRU W8
W7 W6 W5 W4 W3 W2 W1 ID BWIDTH
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
A-27 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
BWIDTH
Examples:
Field Contents
ID Width/thickness set identification number (Real > 0.0).
Wi Width/Thickness values for the corresponding line segments
defined in the BLSEG entry. (Real > 0.0).
Remarks:
1. The ID field must be unique with respect to all other BWlDTH entries. It
must be the same as the ID field in the corresponding BLSEG entry.
44 THRU 35
2 2 2 2
1 BY 5 THRU 2 15 BWIDTH
A-28 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
BWIDTH
Remarks: (Cont.)
2. The widths may be automatically generated using the THRU and BY
keywords. For first line, THRU and BY can only be specified in the
fourth and the sixth fields, respectively. For continuation lines, THRU
and BY can only be specified in the third and the fifth fields,
respectively. For automatic generation of the width values the default
value for increment is 1.0 if the width is increasing or -1.0 if the width is
decreasing. That is the user need not specify BY and the increment
value. If the number of width specified are less than the number of
segments defined in the corresponding BLSEG entry, the width for the
remaining segments is assumed to be equal to the last width specified.
3. If there is only one grid point in the corresponding BLSEG entry, there is
no contributory area associated with the grid point. To compute correct
contact stresses an area may be associated with the single grid point by
specifying the area in field W1.
A-29 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
CGAP
CGAP Bulk Data Entry
Defines a gap or frictional element for nonlinear analysis.
Format:
Example:
Alternate Format and Example:
CID X3 X2 X1 GB GA PID EID CGAP
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
-6.1 0.3 5.2 112 110 2 17 CGAP
CID GO GA GA PID EID CGAP
13 112 110 2 17 CGAP
A-30 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
CGAP
Field Contents
EID Element identification number. (Integer > 0).
PID Property identification number of a PGAP entry. (Integer > 0;
Default = EID).
GA, GB Connected grid points at ends A and B. (Integers > 0; GA
GB).
X1, X2, X3 Components of the orientation vector , from GA, in the
displacement coordinate system at GA. (Real).
G0 Alternate method to supply the orientation vector using grid
point G0. Direction of is from GA to G0. (Integer).
CID Element coordinate system identification number. See
Remark 3. (Integer 0 or blank).
v
v
A-31 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
CGAP
Remarks:
1. The CGAP element is intended for the nonlinear solution sequences
66, 99, 106, 129, 153 and 159. However, it will produce a linear
stiffness matrix for the other solutions, but remains linear with the initial
stiffness. The stiffness used depends on the value for the initial gap
opening (U0 field in the PGAP entry).
2. If the grid points GA and GB are coincident (distance from A to B < 10
-4
)
and the CID field is blank, the job will be terminated with a fatal error
message.
3. The gap element coordinate system is defined by one of two following
methods:
a) If the coordinate system (CID field) is specified, the element coordinate
system is established using that coordinate system, in which the element x-
axis is in the T1 direction and the y-axis in the T2 direction. The orientation
vector will be ignored in this case.
b) If the CID field is blank and the grid points GA and GB are not coincident
(distance from A to B 10
-4
), then the line AB is the element x-axis and the
orientation vector lies in the x-y plane (like the CBEAM element).
A-32 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
CGAP
Remarks:
4. The element coordinate system does not rotate as a result of
deflections.
5. Initial gap openings are defined on the PGAP entry and not by the
separation distance between GA and GB.
6. Forces, which are requested with the STRESS Case Control command,
are output in the element coordinate system. Fx is positive for
compression.
A-33 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
CGAP
GA
GB
KA KB
KB
Note: KA and KB in this
figure are from the
PGAP entry.
v
z
elem
y
elem
x
elem
Figure 2. CGAP Element Coordinate System.
A-34 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
CREEP
Creep Bulk Data Entry
Defines creep characteristics based on experimental data or known
empirical creep law. This entry will be activated if a MAT1, MAT2, or
MAT9 entry with the same MID is used and the NLPARM entry is
prepared for creep analysis.
Format:
Example:
+CR 1.-5 CRLAW 10
-9
1100 8 CREEP
G f e d c b a TYPE
G f e d c b a TYPE
THRESH TIDCS TIDCP TIDKP FORM EXP TO MID CREEP
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
A-35 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
CREEP
Field Contents
MID Material identification number of a MAT1, MAT2, or MAT9
entry. (Integer > 0).
T0 Reference temperature at which creep characteristics are
defined. See Remark 2. (Real; Default = 0.0).
EXP Temperature-dependent term, e
(-H/R(R*T0))
, in the creep rate
expression. See Remark 2. (0.0 < Real 1.0;
Default = 1.0E-9).
FORM Form of the input data defining creep characteristics.
(Character: CRLAW for empirical creep law, or TABLE for
tabular input data of creep model parameters).
TIDKP Identification number of a TABLES1 entry which defines the
TIDCP creep model parameters Kp(), Cp(), and Cs(),
TIDCS respectively. See Remarks 3 through 5. (Integer > 0).
THRESH Threshold limit for creep process. Threshold stress under
which creep does not occur is computed as THRESH
multiplied by Youngs modulus. (0.0 < Real < 1.0E-3;
Default = 1.0E-5).
A-36 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
CREEP
Field Contents (Cont.)
TYPE Identification number of the empirical creep law type. See
Remark 1. (Integer: 111, 112, 121, 122, 211, 212, 221, 222,
or 300).
a through g Coefficients of the empirical creep law specified in TYPE.
Continuation should not be specified if FORM = TABLE.
See Remark 1. (Real).
Remarks:
1. Two classes of empirical creep law are available.
Creep Law Class 1
The first creep law class is expressed as
Parameters A(), R(), and K() are specified in the following form, as
recommended by Oak Ridge National Laboratory

c
t , ( ) A ( ) 1 e
R
( )
t
| | K ( )t + =
(1)
A-37 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
CREEP
Remarks: (Cont.)
TYPE = ijk where i, j, and k are digits equal to 1 or 2 according to the desired
function in the table above. For example, TYPE = 122 defines A() = a
b
,
R() = c
d
, and K() = ee
f
Creep Law Class 2
The second creep law class (TYPE = 300) is expressed as:
where the values of b and d must be defined as follows:
1.0 < b < 8.0
and
0.2 < d < 2.0
k =2 ee
f
k = 1 e*[sinh (f)]
g
K(s)
j = 2 c
d
j = 1 ce
d
R(s)
i = 2 ae
b
i = 1 a
b
A(s)
Digit Function 2 Digit Function 1 Parameter

c
t , ( ) a
b
t
d
=
(2)
A-38 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
CREEP
Remarks: (Cont.)
The coefficient g should be blank if TYPE = 112, 122, 222, or 212 and c, e, f,
and g should be blank if TYPE = 300. The coefficients a through g are
dependent on the structural units; caution must be exercised to make these
units consistent with the rest of the input data.
2. Creep law coefficients a through g are usually determined by least
squares fit of experimental data, obtained under a constant temperature.
This reference temperature at which creep behavior is characterized
must be specified in the T0 field if the temperature of the structure is
different from this reference temperature. The conversion of the
temperature input (F or C) to K (degrees Kelvin) must be specified in
the PARAM,TABS entry as follows:
PARAM,TABS,273.16 (If Celsius is used)
PARAM,TABS,459.69 (If Fahrenheit is used)
A-39 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
CREEP
Remarks: (Cont.)
When the correction for the temperature effect is required, the
temperature distribution must be defined in the Bulk Data entries
(TEMP, TEMPP1 and/or TEMPRB), which are selected by the Case
Control command TEMP(LOAD) = SID within the subcase.
From the thermodynamic consideration, the creep rate is expressed as:
where H = energy activation
R = gas constant (= 1.98 cal/mole K)
T = absolute temperature (K)
= strain/sec per activation
If the creep characteristics are defined at temperature T0, the creep rate
at temperature T is corrected by a factor.

A
e

H RT

( ) =
(3)
a

&
A-40 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
CREEP
Remarks: (Cont.)
Where = Corrected creep rate
= creep rate at T0
Exp
(T0/T-1)
= correction factor
3. If the creep model parameters K
p
, C
p
, C
s
and are to be specified with
FORM = TABLE then TABLES1 entries (whose IDs appear in TIDXX
fields) must be provided in the Bulk Data Section. In this case, the
continuation should not be specified.
4. Creep model parameters K
p
, C
p
, and C
s
represent parameters of the
uniaxial rheological model as shown in the following figure.
Tabular values (Xi, Yi) in the TABLES1 entry correspond to (
i
, K
pi
), (
i
,
C
pi
), and (
i
, C
si
) for the input of K
p
, C
p
, and C
s
, respectively. For linear
viscoelastic materials, parameters K
p
, C
p
, and C
s
, are constant and two
values of si must be specified for the same value of K
pi
, C
pi
, and C
si

o
c
----- EXP
T0 T

1
( )
=
(4)
c
o

&
c

&
A-41 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
CREEP
Remarks: (Cont.)
Creep model parameters, as shown in the figures below, must have
positive values. If the table look-up results in a negative value, the
value will be reset to zero and a warning message (TABLE LOOK-UP
RESULTS IN NEGATIVE VALUE OF CREEP MODEL PARAMETER IN
ELEMENT ID = ****) will be issued.
Secondary
Creep
Primary
Creep
Elastic
K
e
C
s
()
C
p
()
K
p
()
(t)
Figure 1. CREEP Parameter Idealization
A-42 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
CREEP
Remarks: (Cont.)
0
5 10 15 20 25 30
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
(ksi)
K
p
(Kips/in
2
)
Figure 2. Kp Versus Example for CREEP
250 x 10
6
200 x 10
6
150 x 10
6
100 x 10
6
50 x 10
6
0
5 10 15 20 25 30
(ksi)
C
p
Kips-hours
in
3
--------------------------
Figure 3. Kp Versus Example for CREEP
40,000 x 10
6
30,000 x 10
6
20,000 x 10
6
10,000 x 10
6
0
5 10 15 20 25 30
50,000 x 10
6
(ksi)
C
s
( )
Kips-hours
in
3
--------------------------
Figure 3. C
s
Versus Example for CREEP
A-43 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
CREEP
Remarks: (Cont.)
5. Creep analysis requires an initial static solution at t = 0, which can be
obtained by specifying a subcase which requests an NLPARM entry
with DT = 0.0.
A-44 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
MATHP
Specifies material properties for use in nonlinear analysis
of rubber-like materials (elastomers).
Format:
TABD TAB4 TAB3 TAB2 TAB1
D5 A05 A14 A23 A32 A41 A50
D4 A04 A13 A22 A31 A40
D3 A03 A12 A21 A30
D2 A02 A11 A20
ND NA
GE TREF AV RHO D1 A01 A10 MID MATHP
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
A-45 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
MATHP
Field Contents
MID Identification number of a MATHP entry. (Integer > 0; No default)
Aij Material constants related to distortional deformation. (Real; Default
= 0.0)
Di Material constants related to volumetric deformation. (Real ;
Default for D1 is 10
3
*(A10 + A01); Default for D2 through D5
is 0.0)
RHO Mass density in original configuration. (Real; Default = 0.0)
AV Coefficient of volumetric thermal expansion. (Real; Default = 0.0)
TREF Reference temperature. See MAT1 entry. (Real; Default = 0.0)
GE Structural damping element coefficient. (Real; Default = 0.0)
NA Order of the distortional strain energy polynomial function. (0 <
Integer < 5; Default = 1)
ND Order of the volumetric strain energy polynomial function. (0 <
Integer < 5; Default = 1)
TAB1 Table identification number of a TABLES1 entry that contains simple
tension/compression data to be used in the estimation of the material
constants Aij. See Section 15.3.3 of the MSC.NASTRAN Reference
Manual. (Integer > 0 or blank)
A-46 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
MATHP
Field Contents (Cont.)
TAB2 Table identification number of a TABLES1 entry that contains
equibiaxial tension data to be used in the estimation of the material
constants Aij. See Section 15.3.3 of the MSC.NASTRAN Reference
Manual. (Integer > 0 or blank).
TAB3 Table identification number of a TABLES1 entry that contains simple
shear data to be used in the estimation of the material constants Aij.
See Section 15.3.3 of the MSC.NASTRAN Reference Manual.
(Integer > 0 or blank)
TAB4 Table identification number of a TABLES1 entry that contains pure
shear data to be used in the estimation of the material constants Aij.
See Section 15.3.3 of the MSC.NASTRAN Reference Manual.
(Integer > 0 or blank)
TABD Table identification number of a TABLES1 entry that contains pure
volumetric compression data to be used in the estimation of the
material constant Di. See Section 15.3.3 of the MSC.NASTRAN
Reference Manual. (Integer > 0 or blank)
A-47 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
MATHP
Remarks:
The generalized Mooney-Rivlin strain energy function may be
expressed as follows:
where I
1
and I
2
are the first and second distortional strain invariants,
respectively; J = det F is the determinant of the deformation gradient;
and 2D1 = k and 2(A10 + A01) = G at small strains, in which K is the
bulk modulus and G is the shear modulus. The model reduces to a
Mooney-Rivlin material if NA = 1 and to a Neo-Hookean material if NA =
1 and A01 = 0.0. (See Remark 2). For Neo-Hookean or Mooney-Rivlin
materials no continuation command is needed. T is the current
temperature and T0 is the initial temperature.
Conventional Mooney-Rivlin and Neo-Hookean materials are fully
incompressible. Full incompressibility is not presently available but may
be simulated with a large enough value of D1. A value of D1 higher
than 10
3
* (A10 + A01) is, however, not recommended.
U J I
1
I
2 , , ( )
A
i j
I
1
3
( )
i
I
2
3
( )
j
D
i
J 1 AV T T
0

( )

( )
2i
A
00
0 = ,
i 1 =
N
D

+
i j
,
0

N
A

=
A-48 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
MATHP
Remarks: (Cont.)
3. Di are obtained from least squares fitting of experimental data. One or
more of 4 experiments (TAB1 to TAB4) may be used to obtain Aij. Di
may be obtained from pure volumetric compression data (TABD). If
TABD is blank, the program expects Di to be manually input. If all TAB1
through TAB4 are blank, the program expects Aij to be manually input.
Parameter estimation, specified through any of the TABLES1 entries,
supersedes the manual input of the parameters.
4. IF ND = 1 and a nonzero value of D1 is provided or is obtained from
experimental data in TABD, then the parameter estimation of the
material constants Aij takes compressibility into account in the cases of
simple tension/compression, equibiaxial tension, and general biaxial
deformation. Otherwise, full incompressibility is assumed in estimating
the material constants.
A-49 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
MATS1
Material Stress Dependence
Specifies stress-dependent material properties for use in applications
involving nonlinear materials. This entry is used if a MAT1, MAT2, or
MAT9 entry is specified with the same MID in a nonlinear solution
sequence (SOLs 66, 99, 106, and 129).
Format:
Example:
Field Contents
MID Identification number of a MAT1, MAT2, or MAT9 entry.
(Integer > 0).
LIMIT2 LIMIT1 HR YF H TYPE TID MID MATS1
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
2. +4 1 1 0.0 PLASTIC 28 17 MATS1
A-50 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
MATS1
Field Contents (Cont.)
TID Identification number of a TABLES1 or TABLEST entry. If H
is given, then this field must be blank. See Remark 3.
(Integer 0 or blank).
TYPE Type of material nonlinearity. See Remarks. (Character:
NLELAST for nonlinear elastic or PLASTIC for
elastoplastic).
H Work hardening slope (slope of stress vs. plastic strain) in
units of stress. For elastic-perfectly plastic cases, H = 0.0.
For more than a single slope in the plastic range, the stress-
strain data must be supplied on a TABLES1 entry referenced
by TID, and this field must be blank. See Remark 2. (Real).
YF Yield function criterion, selected by one of the following
values (Integer):
1 = von Mises (Default)
2 = Tresca
3 = Mohr-Coulomb
4 = Drucker-Prager
A-51 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
MATS1
Field Contents (Cont.)
HR Hardening Rule, selected by one of the following values
(Integer):
1 = Isotropic (Default)
2 = Kinematic
3 = Combined isotropic and kinematic hardening
LIMIT1 Initial yield point. See . (Real).
LIMIT2 Internal friction angle for the Mohr-Coulomb and Drucker-
Prager yield criteria. See Table 1. (0.0 Real < 45.0).
Angle of Internal
Friction (in Degrees)
2*Cohesion, 2c (in units
of stress)
Mohr-Coulomb (3) or
Drucker-Prager (4)
Not Used Initial Yield Stress In
Tension, Y1
Von Mises (1) or Tresca (2)
LIMIT2 LIMIT1 Yield Function (YF)
Table 1. Yield Functions Versus LIMIT1 and LIMIT2.
A-52 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
MATS1
Remarks:
1. If TYPE = NLELAST, then MID may refer to a MAT1 entry only. Also,
the stress-strain data given in the TABLES1 entry will be used to
determine the stress for a given value of strain. The values H, YF, HR,
LIMIT1, and LIMIT2 will not be used in this case.
Thermoelastic analysis with temperature-dependent material properties
is available for linear and nonlinear elastic isotropic materials (TYPE =
NLELAST) and linear elastic anisotropic materials. Four options of
constitutive relations exist. The relations appear in Table 2 along with
the required Bulk Data entries.
A-53 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
MATS1
Remarks: (Cont.)
In Table 2 {} and {} are the stress and strain vectors, [G
e
] the elasticity
matrix, the effective elasticity modulus, and E the reference elasticity
modulus.
MAT1, MATT1, MATS1, TABLEST, and TABLES1
MAT1, MATS1, TABLEST, and TABLES1
MAT1, MATT1, MATS1, and TABLES1
MATi and MATTi where i = 1, 2, or 9
Required Bulk Data Entries Relation
} { (T)] [G
e
= } {
} { (T)] [G
) , (

e
E
E
} {

=
} { ] [G
) , , (

e
E
T E
} {

=
} { (t)] [G
) , , (

e
E
T E
} {

=
Table 2. Constituative Relations and Required Material Property Entries
A-54 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
MATS1
Remarks: (Cont.)
2. If TYPE = PLASTIC, either the table identification TID or the work
hardening slope H may be specified, but not both. If the TID is omitted,
the work hardening slope H must be specified unless the material is
perfectly plastic. The plasticity modulus (H) is related to the tangential
modulus (ET) by.
where E is the elastic modulus and E
T
= dY/d is the slope of the
uniaxial stress-strain curve in the plastic region. See Figure 1.
Hr
E
T
1
E
T
E
-------
---------------- =
A-55 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
MATS1
Remarks: (Cont.)
e
E
0
E
T
Y
1
Y or s ( )
Figure 1. Stress-Strain Curve Definition When H is Specified in Field 5.
A-56 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
MATS1
Remarks: (Cont.)
3. If TID is given, TABLES1 entries (Xi, Yi) of stress-strain data (
k
, Y
k
)
must conform to the following rules (see Figure 2):
a. If TYPE = PLASTIC, the curve must be defined in the first quadrant. The
first point must be at the origin (X1 = 0, Y2 = 0) and the second point (X2,
Y2) must be at the initial yield point (Y
1
or 2c) specified on the MATS1 entry.
The slope of the line joining the origin to the yield stress must be equal to the
value of E. Also, TID may not reference a TABLEST entry.
b. If TYPE = NLELAST, the full stress-strain curve (- < x < ) may be defined
in the first and the third quadrant to accommodate different uniaxial
compression data. If the curve is defined only in the first quadrant, then the
curve must start at the origin (X1 = 0.0, Y1 = 0.0) and the compression
properties will be assumed identical to tension properties
A-57 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
MATS1
Remarks: (Cont.)
0
Y or s ( )

2
p
Y
3
Y
2
Y
1
H
2
H
1
E
k = 1
k = 2
k = 3

3

3
p

1
H
3
If TYPE = PLASTIC

k
p
Effective Plastic Strain =
H
k
Y
k 1 +
Y
k

k 1 +
p

k
p

---------------------------- =
Figure 2. Stress-Strain Curve Definition When TID is Specified in Field 3
A-58 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
NLPARM
Parameters for Non Linear Static Analysis Center
Defines a set of parameters for nonlinear static analysis iteration
strategy.
Format:
Example:
Field Contents
ID Identification number. (Integer > 0).
NINC Number of increments. (0 < Integer < 1000).
RTOLB MAXR MAXBIS
LSTOL FSTRESS MAXLS MAXQN MAXID EPSW EPSP EPSU
INTOUT CONV MAXITER KSTEP KMETHOD DT NINC ID NLPARM
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
5 15 NLPARM
A-59 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
NLPARM
Field Contents (Cont.)
DT Incremental time interval for creep analysis. See Remark 3.
(Real 0.0; Default = 0.0 for no creep).
KMETHOD Method for controlling stiffness updates. (Character =
"AUTO", "ITER", or "SEMI"; Default = "AUTO").
KSTEP Number of iterations before the stiffness update for ITER
method. (Integer > 1; Default = 5).
MAXITER Limit on number of iterations for each load increment.
(Integer > 0; Default = 25).
CONV Flags to select convergence criteria. (Character: U, P,
W, or any combination; Default = PW).
INTOUT Intermediate output flag. See Remark 8. (Character =
YES, NO, or ALL; Default = NO).
EPSU Error tolerance for displacement (U) criterion. (Real > 0.0;
Default = 1.0 E
-2
).
A-60 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
NLPARM
Field Contents (Cont.)
EPSP Error tolerance for load (P) criterion. (Real > 0.0; Default =
1.0E
-2
).
EPSW Error tolerance for work (W) criterion. (Real > 0.0; Default =
1.0E
-2
).
MAXDIV Limit on probable divergence conditions per iteration before
the solution is assumed to diverge. See Remark 9.
(Integer 0; Default = 3
MAXQN Maximum number of quasi-Newton correction vectors to be
saved on the database. (Integer > 0; Default = MAXITER).
MAXLS Maximum number of line searches allowed for each iteration.
(Integer > 0; Default = 4)
FSTRESS Fraction of effective stress () used to limit the sub-increment
size in the material routines. (0.0 < Real < 1.0; Default = 0.2).
LSTOL Line search tolerance. (0.01 Real 0.9; Default = 0.5)
A-61 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
NLPARM
Field Contents (Cont.)
MAXBIS Maximum number of bisections allowed for each load
increment. (-10 MAXBIS 10; Default = 5).
MAXR Maximum ratio for the adjusted arc-length increment relative
to the initial value. See Remark 14. (1.0 MAXR 40.0;
Default = 20.0
RTOLB Maximum value of incremental rotation (in degrees) allowed
per iteration to activate bisection. (Real > 2.0; Default = 20.0).
Remarks:
1. The NLPARM entry is selected by the Case Control command NLPARM
= ID. Each solution subcase requires an NLPARM command.
A-62 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
NLPARM
Remarks: (Cont.)
2. In cases of static analysis (DT = 0.0) using Newton methods, NINC is
the number of equal subdivisions of the load change defined for the
subcase. Applied loads, gravity loads, temperature sets, enforced
displacements, etc., define the new loading conditions. The differences
from the previous case are divided by NINC to define the incremental
values. In cases of static analysis (DT = 0.0) using arc-length methods,
NINC is used to determine the initial arc-length for the subcase, and the
number of load subdivisions will not be equal to NINC. In cases of
creep analysis (DT > 0.0), NINC is the number of time step increments.
3. The unit of DT must be consistent with the unit used on the CREEP
entry that defines the creep characteristics. Total creep time for the
subcase is DT multiplied by the value in the field NINC; i.e., DT * NINC.
A-63 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
NLPARM
Remarks: (Cont.)
4. The stiffness update strategy is selected in the KMETHOD field.
a. If the AUTO option is selected, the program automatically selects the most
efficient strategy based on convergence rates. At each step the number of
iterations required to converge is estimated. Stiffness is updated, if (i)
estimated number of iterations to converge exceeds MAXITER, (ii) estimated
time required for convergence with current stiffness exceeds the estimated
time required for convergence with updated stiffness, and (iii) solution
diverges. See Remarks 9 and 13 for diverging solutions.
b. If the SEMI option is selected, the program for each load increment (i)
performs a single iteration based upon the new load, (ii) updates the
stiffness matrix, and (iii) resumes the normal AUTO option.
c. If the ITER option is selected, the program updates the stiffness matrix at
every KSTEP iterations and on convergence if KSTEP MAXITER.
However, if KSTEP > MAXITER, stiffness matrix is never updated. Note that
the Newton-Raphson iteration strategy is obtained by selecting the ITER
option and KSTEP = 1, while the Modified Newton-Raphson iteration
strategy is obtained by selecting the ITER option and KSTEP = MAXITER
A-64 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
NLPARM
Remarks: (Cont.)
5. For AUTO and SEMI options, the stiffness matrix is updated on
convergence if KSTEP is less than the number of iterations that were
required for convergence with the current stiffness.
6. The number of iterations for a load increment is limited to MAXITER. If
the solution does not converge in MAXITER iterations, the load
increment is bisected and the analysis is repeated. If the load increment
cannot be bisected (i.e., MAXBIS is attained or MAXBIS = 0) and
MAXDIV is positive, the best attainable solution is computed and the
analysis is continued to the next load increment. If MAXDIV is negative,
the analysis is terminated.
7. The test flags (U = displacement error, P = load equilibrium error, and W
= work error) and the tolerances (EPSU, EPSP and EPSW) define the
convergence criteria. All the requested criteria (combination of U, P
and/or W) are satisfied upon convergence. See the MSC/NASTRAN
Handbook for Nonlinear Analysis for more details on convergence
criteria.
A-65 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
NLPARM
Remarks: (Cont.)
8. INTOUT controls the output requests for displacements, element forces
and stresses, etc. YES or ALL must be specified in order to be able to
perform a subsequent restart from the middle of a subcase.
a. For the Newton family of iteration methods (i.e., when no NLPCI command is
specified), the option ALL is equivalent to option YES since the computed
load increment is always equal to the user-specified load increment.
b. For arc-length methods (i.e., when the NLPCI command is specified) the
computed load increment in general is not going to be equal to the user-
specified load increment, and is not known in advance. The option ALL
allows the user to obtain solutions at the desired intermediate load
increments.
For every computed and user-specified load increment. ALL
For the last load of the subcase NO
For every computed load increment YES
Output Processed INTOUT
A-66 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
NLPARM
Remarks: (Cont.)
9. The ratio of energy errors before and after the iteration is defined as
divergence rate E
i
, i.e.
Depending on the divergence rate, the number of diverging iteration
(NDIV) is incremented as follows:
The solution is assumed to diverge when NDIV w |MAXDIV|. If the
solution diverges and the load increment cannot be further bisected (i.e.,
MAXBIS is attained or MAXBIS is zero), the stiffness is updated based
on the previous iteration and the analysis is continued
E
i u
i
{ }
T
R
i
{ }
u
i
{ }
T
R
i 1
{ }
--------------------------------------- =
If E
i
1

or E
i
10
12

<
then , NDIV NDIV 2 + =
If 10
12
E
1
1
< <
then , NDIV NDIV 1 + =
A-67 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
NLPARM
Remarks: (Cont.)
If the solution diverges again in the same load increment while MAXDIV
is positive, the best solution is computed and the analysis is continued
to the next load increment. If MAXDIV is negative, the analysis is
terminated on the second divergence.
10. The BFGS update is performed if MAXQN > 0. As many as MAXQN
quasi-Newton vectors can be accumulated. The BFGS update with
these QN vectors provides a secant modulus in the search direction. If
MAXQN is reached, no additional ON vectors will be accumulated.
Accumulated QN vectors are purged when the stiffness is updated and
the accumulation is resumed.
11. The line search is performed as required, if MAXLS > 0. In the line
search, the displacement increment is scaled to minimize the energy
error. The line search is not performed if the absolute value of the
relative energy error is less than the value specified in LSTOL.
A-68 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
NLPARM
Remarks: (Cont.)
12. The number of subincrements in the material routines (elastoplastic and
creep) is determined so that the subincrement size is approximately
FSTRESS (equivalent stress). FSTRESS is also used to establish a
tolerance for error correction in the elastoplastic material; i.e.,
Error in yield function < FSTRESS *
If the limit is exceeded at the converging state, the program will exit with
a fatal error message. Otherwise, the stress state is adjusted to the
current yield surface.
The number of bisections for a load increment/arc-length is limited to
|MAXBIS|. Different actions are taken when the solution diverges
depending on the sign of MAXBIS. If MAXBIS is positive, the stiffness is
updated on the first divergence, and the load is bisected on the second
divergence. If MAXBIS is negative, the load is bisected every time the
solution diverges until the limit on bisection is reached. If the solution
does not converge after |MAXBIS| bisections, the analysis is continued
or terminated depending on the sign of MAXDIV. See Remark 9.
A-69 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
NLPARM
Remarks: (Cont.)
14. MAXR is used in the adaptive load increment/arc-length method to
define the overall upper and lower bounds on the load increment/arc-
length in the subcase; i.e.,
where l
n
is the arc-length at step n and l
0
is the original arc-length.
The arc-length method for load increments is selected by an NLPCI
Bulk Data entry. This entry must have the same ID as the NLPARM
Bulk Data entry.
15. The bisection is activated if the incremental rotation for any degree of
freedom (
x
,
y
, and
z
exceeds the value specified by RTOLB.
This bisection strategy is based on the incremental rotation and
controlled by MAXBIS.
1
MAXR
------------------ -

l
n

l
o
-------- MAXR

A-70 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
NLPCI
Parameters for Arc-Length Methods in Nonlinear Static
Analysis
Defines a set of parameters for the arc-length incremental solution
strategies in nonlinear static analysis (SOLs 66 and 106). This entry will
be used if a subcase contains an NLPARM command (NLPARM = ID).
Format:
Example:
MXINC DESITER SCALE MAXALR MINALR TYPE ID NLPCI
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
10 12 1 1 CRIS 10 NLPCI
A-71 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
NLPCI
Field Contents
ID Identification number of an associated NLPARM entry.
(Integer > 0).
TYPE Constraint type. (Character: "CRIS", "RIKS", or "MRIKS";
Default = "CRIS").
MINALR Minimum allowable arc-length adjustment ratio between
increments for the adaptive arc-length method. (0.0 < Real <
1.0; Default = 0.25).
MAXALR Maximum allowable arc-length adjustment ratio between
increments for the adaptive arc-length method. (Real > 1.0;
Default = 4.0).
SCALE Scale factor (w) for controlling the loading contribution in the
arc-length constraint. (Real > 0.0; Default = 0.0)
DESITER Desired number of iterations for convergence to be used for
the adaptive arc-length adjustment. (Integer > 0; Default =
12).
MXINC Maximum number of controlled increment steps allowed
within a subcase. (Integer > 0; Default = 20).
A-72 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
NLPCI
Remarks:
1. The NLPCI entry is selected by the Case Control command NLPARM =
ID. There must also be an NLPARM entry with the same ID. However,
for creep analysis (DT 0 0.0 in NLPARM entry), the arc-length methods
cannot be activated, and the NLPCI entry is ignored if specified. The
NLPCI entry is not recommended for heat transfer analysis in SOL 153.
2. The available constraint types are as follows:
TYPE = CRIS
TYPE = RIKS:
TYPE = MRIKS
u
n
i
u
n
0

{ }
T
u
n
i
u
n
0

{ }
w
2

( )
2

l
n
2
= +
u
n
i
u
n
i 1

{ }
T
u
n
1
u
n
0

{ }
w
2

i
0 = +
u
n
i
u
n
i 1

{ }
T
u
n
i 1
u
n
0

{ }
w
2

i 1

( )
0 = +
A-73 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
NLPCI
Remarks: (Cont.)
Where w = the user specified scaling factor (SCALE)
= the load factor
l = the arc length
The constraint equation has a disparity in the dimension by mixing the
displacements with the load factor. The scaling factor (w) is introduced
as user input so that the user can make constraint equation unit-
dependent by a proper scaling of the load factor m. As the value of w is
increased, the constraint equation is gradually dominated by the load
term. In the limiting case of infinite w, the arc-length method is
degenerated to the conventional Newtons method.
A-74 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
NLPCI
Remarks: (Cont.)
3. The MINALR and MAXALR fields are used to limit the adjustment of the
arc-length from one load increment to the next by
The arc-length adjustment is based on the convergence rate (i.e.,
number of iterations required for convergence) and the change in
stiffness. For constant arc-length during analysis, use MINALR =
MAXALR = 1.
4. The arc-length l for the variable arc-length strategy is adjusted based
on the number of iterations that were required for convergence in the
previous load increment (I
max
) and the number of iterations desired for
convergence in the current load increment (DESITER) as follows:
MINALR

l
new

l
old
---------------- MAXALR

A-75 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
NLPCI
Remarks: (Cont.)
5. The MXINC field is used to limit the number of controlled increment
steps in case the solution never reaches the specified load. This field is
useful in limiting the number of increments computed for a collapse
analysis
max
I
l DESITER
l
old
new

=
A-76 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
PBCOMP
Beam Property (Alternate form of PBEAM)
Alternate form of the PBEAM entry to define properties of a uniform
cross-sectional beam referenced by a CBEAM entry. This entry is also
used to specify lumped areas of the beam cross section for nonlinear
analysis and/or composite analysis.
Format:
-etc.-
MID2 C2 Z2 Y2
NID1 C1 Z1 Y1
SECTION N2 N1 N1 M2 M1 K2 K1
NSM J I12 I2 I1 A MID PID PCOMP
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
A-77 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
PBCOMP
Example:
Field Contents
PID Property identification number. See Remark 1. (Integer > 0)
MID Material identification number. See Remarks 2 and 5.
(Integer > 0)
A Area of beam cross section. (Real > 0.0)
I1 Area moment of inertia in plane 1 about the neutral axis. See
Remark 6. (Real > 0.0)
I2 Area moment of inertia in plane 2 about the neutral axis. See
Remark 6. (Real > 0.0).
0.15 0.9 0.2
18 0.1 1.2 -0.5
1
2.9 6 39 PBCOMP
A-78 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
PBCOMP
Field Contents (Cont.)
I12 Area product of inertia. See Remark 6. (Real; Default =
I1 12(I12)\
J Torsional stiffness parameter. See Remark 6. (Real > 0.0;
Default = 0.0).
NSM Nonstructural mass per unit length. (Real > 0.0;
Default = 0.0)
K1, K2 Shear stiffness factor K in K A G for plane 1 and plane 2.
See Remark 4. (Real > 0.0; Default = 1.0)
M1, M2 (y,z) coordinates of center of gravity of nonstructural mass.
See the figure in the CBEAM entry description. (Real;
Default = 0.0)
N1, N2 (y,z) coordinates of neutral axis. See the figure in the
CBEAM entry description. (Real; Default = 0.0)
SECTION Symmetry option to input lumped areas for the beam cross
section. See Figure 1 below and Remark 7. (0 Integer 5;
Default = 0)
A-79 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
PBCOMP
Field Contents (Cont.)
Yi, Zi (y,z) coordinates of the lumped areas in the element
coordinate system. See Remark 1. (Real)
Ci Fraction of the total area for the i-th lumped area. (Real >
0.0; Default = 0.0)
MIDi Material identification number for the i-th integration point.
See Remark 5. (Integer > 0)
Remarks:
1. The PID number must be unique with respect to other PBCOMP entries
as well as PBEAM entries. The second continuation entry may be
repeated 18 more times. A maximum of 21 continuation entries is
allowed; i.e., a maximum of 20 lumped areas may be input if SECTION
= 5. If SECTION = 1 through 4, the total number of areas input plus the
total number generated by symmetry must not exceed 20. If these are
not specified, the program defaults, as usual, to the elliptically
distributed 8 nonlinear rods. See Figure 1
A-80 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
PBCOMP
Remarks:
SECTION=0 (default)
Symmetric about y and z
SECTION=1
(wi th continuation entry)
Symmetric about y and z
SECTION=2
Symmetric about y
SECTION=3
Symmetric about z
SECTION=4
Symmetric about y=z=0
SECTION=5
No symmetry
I
zz
- Moment of i nertia about z-axis
I
yy
- Moment of i nertia about y-axis
Z
r ef
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Y
ref
0 2 K
z
, ( )
K
y
K
z
, ( )
2 K
y
0 , ( )
Z
r ef
Z
r ef
Y
ref
Y
ref
1
2
3
4
5
6
8
7
K
y
I
zz
A
------ K
z
I
yy
A
------ C
1
1
8
--- = , = , =
1 2
3
4
5 6
8
7
Y
1
Y
3
Y
5
Y
7
= = =
Z
1
Z
3
Z
5
Z
7
etc. , = = =
Y
1
Y
5
=
Z
1
Z
5
etc. , =
Z
r ef
Z
r ef
Z
r ef
Y
ref
Y
ref
Y
ref
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1 2
3
4
8
7 5 6
1 2 3 4
5
6
7
8
Y
1
Y
5
Z
1
Z
5
etc. , = , = Y
1
Y
5
Z
1
Z
5
etc. , = , =
Figure 1. PBCOMP Entry SECTION Types
A-81 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
PBCOMP
Remarks: (Cont.)
Figure Notes:
Integration points (lumped area) are numbered 1 through 8.
User-specified points are denoted by l and the program default point denoted by
m.
2. For structural problems, MID and MIDi must reference a MAT1 material
entry. For material nonlinear analysis, the material should be perfectly
plastic since the plastic hinge formulation is not valid for strain
hardening. For heat transfer problems, MID and MIDi must reference a
MAT4 or MAT5 material entry.
3. For the case where the user specifies I1, I2 and I12 on the parent entry,
he may specify the stress-output location on continuation entries. The
(y,z) coordinates specified on these entries will serve as stress output
locations with the corresponding Cis set to 0. Stress output is provided
at the first four lumped area locations only. If one of the symmetry
options is used and fewer than four lumped areas are input explicitly,
the sequence of output locations in the imaged quadrants is shown in
Figure 1. For one specific example in the model shown in Remark 7
(Figure 2), output can be obtained at points 1 and 2 and in the image
points 3 and 4
A-82 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
PBCOMP
Remarks: (Cont.)
4. Blank fields for K1 and K2 are defaulted to 1.0. If a value of 0.0 is used
for K1 and K2, the transverse shear stiffness becomes rigid and the
transverse shear flexibilities are set to 0.0.
5. The values E
0
and G
0
are computed based on the value of MID on the
parent entry. MIDi will follow the same symmetry rules as Ci depending
on the value of SECTION. If the MIDi field on a continuation entry is
blank, the value will be that of MID on the parent entry. MIDi values
may be input on continuations without the corresponding Yi, Zi, and Ci
values to allow different stress-strain laws.
6. If the lumped cross-sectional areas are specified, fields I1, I2, and I12
will be ignored. These and other modified values will be calculated
based on the input data (Yi, Zi, Ci, MIDi) as follows:
A-83 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
PBCOMP
Remarks: (Cont.)
where n is the number of lumped cross-sectional areas specified
y
NA
Yi Ci Ei
i 1 =
n

Ci Ei
i 1 =
n

------------------------------- - =
z
NA
Zi Ci Ei
i 1 =
n

Ci Ei
i 1 =
n

------------------------------- =
A A
Ci Ei
E
o
-------------
i 1 =
n

=
I
1
A
Ci Ei Yi y
NA

( )
2
E
o
-------------------------------------------
i 1 =
n

=
I
2
A
Ci Ei Zi z
NA

( )
2
E
o
--------------------------------------------
i 1 =
n

=
J J
Ci Gi
G
o
-----------------
i 1 =
n

=
I
12
A
Ci Ei Yi y
NA

( )
Zi z
NA

( )
E
o
---------------------------------------------------------------------
i 1 =
n

=
A-84 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
PBCOMP
Remarks: (Cont.)
As can be seen from Figure 1, if the user chooses to leave the SECTION field
blank, the program defaults to the elliptically distributed 8 nonlinear rods, similar
to the PBEAM entry. For this particular case it is illegal to supply Ci and MIDi
values. For a doubly symmetric section (SECTION = 1), if the lumped areas are
specified on either axis, the symmetry option will double the areas. For example,
for the section shown in Figure 2, points 2 and 4 are coincident and so are points
6 and 8. In such cases, it is recommended that users input the value of area as
half of the actual value at point 2 to obtain the desired effect.
For SECTION = 5, at least one Yi and one Zi must be nonzero
1
2
4
3 7
8
6
5
Y
ref
Z
ref
Figure 2. Doubly Symmetric PBCOMP Section
A-85 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
PGAP
Gap Element Property
Defines the properties of the gap element (CGAP entry).
Format:
Example
Field Contents
PID Property identification number. (Integer > 0).
U0 Initial gap opening. See Figure 2. (Real; Default = 0.0).
F0 Preload. See Figure 2. (Real 0.0; Default = 0.0)
KA Axial stiffness for the closed gap; i.e., Ua Ub > U0. See
Figure 2. (Real > 0.0)
0.25 0.25 1.0E+6 1.0E+6 2.5 0.025 2 PGAP
TRMIN MAR TMAX
MU2 MU1 KT KB KA F0 U0 PID PGAP
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
A-86 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
PGAP
Field Contents (Cont.)
KB Axial stiffness for the open gap; i.e., Ua Ub > U0. See
Figure 2. See Remark 2. (Real 0.0; Default = 10
-14
KA)
KT Transverse stiffness when the gap is closed. See Figure 3.
It is recommended that KT (0.1 KA) (Real 0.0; Default =
MU1 KA).
MU1 Coefficient of static friction (s) for the adaptive gap element
or coefficient of friction in the y transverse direction (y) for
the nonadaptive gap element. See Figure 3. (Real 0.0;
Default = 0.0)
MU2 Coefficient of kinetic friction (k) for the adaptive gap element
or coefficient of friction in the z transverse direction (z) for
the nonadaptive gap element. See Figure 3. (Real 0.0 for
the adaptive gap element, MU2 MU1; Default = MU1).
TMAX Maximum allowable penetration used in the adjustment of
penalty values. The positive value activates the penalty
value adjustment. See Remark 4. (Real; Default = 0.0).
A-87 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
PGAP
Field Contents (Cont.)
MAR Maximum allowable adjustment ratio for adaptive penalty
values KA and KT. See Remark 5. (1.0 < Real < 106;
Default = 100.0).
TRMIN Fraction of TMAX defining the lower bound for the allowable
penetration. See Remark 6. (0.0 Real 1.0;
Default = 0.001)
Remarks:
1. Figures 1 through 3 show the gap element and the force-displacement
curves used in the stiffness and force computations for the element.
2. For most contact problems, KA (penalty value) should be chosen to be
three orders of magnitude higher than the stiffness of the neighboring
grid points. A much larger KA value may slow convergence or cause
divergence, while a much smaller KA value may result in inaccurate
results. The value is adjusted as necessary if TMAX > 0.0.
A-88 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
PGAP
Remarks: (Cont.)
3. When the gap is open, there is no transverse stiffness. When the gap is
closed and there is friction, the gap has the elastic stiffness (KT) in the
transverse direction until the friction force is exceeded and slippage
starts to occur.
4. There are two kinds of gap elements: adaptive gap and nonadaptive
gap. If TMAX 0.0, the adaptive gap element is selected by the
program. When TMAX = 0.0, penalty values will not be adjusted, but
other adaptive features will be active (i.e., the gap-induced stiffness
update, gap-induced bisection, and subincremental process). The value
of TMAX = -1.0 selects the nonadaptive (old) gap element. The
recommended allowable penetration TMAX is about 10% of the element
thickness for plates or the equivalent thickness for other elements which
are connected to the gap
A-89 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
PGAP
Remarks: (Cont.)
5. The maximum adjustment ratio MAR is used only for the adaptive gap
element. Upper and lower bounds of the adjusted penalty are defined
by
where K
init
is either KA or KT.
6. TRMIN is used only for the penalty value adjustment in the adaptive
gap element. The lower bound for the allowable penetration is
computed by TRMIN * TMAX. The penalty values are decreased if the
penetration is below the lower bound
MAR K K
MAR
K
init
init

A-90 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
PGAP
Remarks: (Cont.)
y
V
A
U
A
G
A
W
A
z
V
B
U
B
x
G
B
W
B
Slope KA is used when
U
A

U
B

U0
F0
Slope = KB
Slope = KA
(compression)
U
A
- U
B
U0 (tension)
F
x
(compression)
Figure 1. The CGAP Element
Coordinate System
Figure 2. CGAP Element Force-
Deflection Curve for Nonlinear Analysis
A-91 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
PGAP
Remarks: (Cont.)
Nonlinear Shear
Unloading
Slope = KT

V or

W
MU1

F
x
MU2

F
x
Figure 3. Shear Force for CGAP Element
A-92 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
PLPLANE
Properties of Fully Nonlinear Plane Strain Elements
Defines the properties of a finite deformation, hyperelastic plane strain
or axisymmetric element.
Format:
Example:
Field Contents
PID Element property identification number. (Integer > 0).
MID Identification number of MATHP entry. (Integer > 0).
CID Identification number of a coordinate system defining the
plane of deformation. See Remarks 1and 2 (Integer 0;
Default = 0)
CID MID PID PLPLANE
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
201 204 203 PLPLANE
A-93 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
PLPLANE
Remarks:
1. PLPLANE can be referenced by a CQUAD, CQUAD4, CQUAD8,
CQUADX, CTRIA3, CTRIA6, or CTRIAX entry.
2. Plane strain hyperelastic elements must lie on the x-y plane of the CID
coordinate system. Stresses and strains are output in the CID
coordinate system.
3. Axisymmetric hyperelastic elements must lie on the x-y plane of the
basic coordinate system. CID may not be specified and stresses and
strains are output in the basic coordinate system.
A-94 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
PLSOLID
Finite Deformations Solid Element Properties
Defines a finite deformation hyperelastic solid element.
Format:
Example:
Field Contents
PID Element property identification number. (Integer > 0).
MID Identification number of a MATHP entry. (Integer > 0)
Remarks:
1. PLSOLID can be referenced by a CHEXA, CPENTA or CTETRA entry.
2. Stress and strain are output in the basic coordinate system.
MID PID PLSOLID
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
21 20 PLPLANE
A-95 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
TABLES1
Material Property Table, Form 1
Defines a tabular function for stress-dependent material properties such
as the stress-strain curve and creep parameters
Format:
Example:
Field Contents
TID Table identification number. (Integer > 0)
xi, yi Tabular values. (Real)
-etc.- y3 x3 y2 x2 y1 x1
TID TABLES1
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
ENDT 15000. .02 10000. .01 0.0 0.0
32 TABLES1
A-96 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
TABLES1
Remarks:
1. xi must be in either ascending or descending order, but not both.
2. Discontinuities may be specified between any two points except the two
starting points or two end points. For example, in Figure 1
discontinuities are allowed only between points x2 through x7. Also, if y
is evaluated at a discontinuity, then the average value of y is used. In
Figure 1 the value of y at x = x3 is y = (y3 + y4)/2.
3. At least one continuation entry must be present.
4. Any xi-yi pair may be ignored by placing SKIP in either of the two fields
used for that entry.
5. The end of the table is indicated by the existence of ENDT in either of
the two fields following the last entry. An error is detected if any
continuations follow the entry containing the end-of table flag ENDT.
6. TABLES1 is used to input a curve in the form of
y = y
T
(x)
A-97 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
TABLES1
Remarks: (Cont.)
where x is input to the table and y is returned. The table look-up is
performed using linear interpolation within the table and linear
extrapolation outside the table using the two starting or end points. See
Figure 1. No warning messages are issued if table data is input
incorrectly.
y
x
Discontinuity
Discontinuity
Linear
Extrapolation
of Segment
x
x1 x2 x3, x5 x6 x7,
, x4 x8
x value
Range of
A-98 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
TABLEST
Material Property Temperature-Dependence Table
Specifies the material property tables for nonlinear elastic temperature-
dependent materials.
Format:
Example:
Field Contents
TID Table identification number. (Integer > 0)
Ti Temperature values. (Real)
TIDi Table identification numbers of TABLES1 entries.
(Integer > 0)
-etc.- T3 Tid2 T2 Tid1 T1
TID TABLEST
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
ENDT 20 175.0 10 150.0
101 TABLEST
A-99 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
TABLEST
Remarks:
1. TIDi must be unique with respect to all TABLES1 and TABLEST table
identification numbers.
2. Temperature values must be listed in ascending order.
3. The end of the table is indicated by the existence of ENDT in either of
the two fields following the last entry. An error is detected if any
continuations follow the entry containing the end-of-table flag ENDT.
4. This table is referenced only by MATS1 entries that define nonlinear
elastic (TYPE = NLELAST) materials.
A-100 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
TSTEPNL
Parameters for Nonlinear Transient Analysis
Defines parametric controls and data for nonlinear transient structural or
heat transfer analysis. TSTEPNL is intended for SOLs 129, 159, and
99.
Format:
Example:
RTOLB UTOL MAXR RB MSTEP ADJUST MAXBIS
FSTRESS MAXLS MAXQN MAXDIV EPSW EPSP EPSU
CONV MAXITIER KSTEP NO DT NDT ID TSTEPNL
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
20 0.1 16 0.75 0 5 5
0.02 2 10 2 1.00E-06 1.00E-03
PW -10 2 1 250 TSTEPNL
A-101 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
TSTEPNL
Field Contents
ID Identification number. (Integer > 0).
NDT Number of time steps of value DT. (Integer > 4).
DT Time increment. (Real > 0.0).
NO Time step interval for output. Every NO-th step will be saved
for output. (Integer > 0; Default = 1).
KSTEP Number of converged bisection solutions between
stiffness updates. (Integer > 0; Default = 2)
MAXITER Limit on number of iterations for each time step. (Integer 0;
Default = 10)
CONV Flags to select convergence criteria. (Character: U, P,
W, or any combination; Default = PW)
A-102 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
TSTEPNL
Field Contents (Cont.)
EPSU Error tolerance for displacement (U) criterion. (Real > 0.0;
Default = 1 .0E-2)
EPSP Error tolerance for load (P) criterion. (Real > 0.0; Default =
1.0E-3)
EPSW Error tolerance for work (W) criterion. (Real > 0.0;
Default = 1 .0E-6)
MAXDIV Limit on the number of diverging conditions for a time step
before the solution is assumed to diverge. (Integer > 0;
Default = 2)
MAXQN Maximum number of quasi-Newton correction vectors to be
saved on the database. (Integer 0; Default = 10)
MAXLS Maximum number of line searches allowed per iteration.
(Integer 0; Default = 2)
FSTRESS Fraction of effective stress (s) used to limit the subincrement
size in the material routines. (0.0 < Real < 1.0;
Default = 0.2)
A-103 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
TSTEPNL
Field Contents (Cont.)
MAXBIS* Maximum number of bisections allowed for each time step.
(- 9 Integer 9; Default = 5)
ADJUST* Time step skip factor for automatic time step adjustment.
(Integer 0; Default = 5)
MSTEP* Number of steps to obtain the dominant period response.
(10 Integer 200; Default = variable between 20 and 40)
RB* Define bounds for maintaining the same time step for the
stepping function if METHOD = ADAPT. (0.1 Real 1.0;
Default = 0.75)
MAXR* Maximum ratio for the adjusted incremental time relative to
DT allowed for time step adjustment. (1.0 Real 32.0;
Default = 16.0)
UTOL* Tolerance on displacement increment beneath which there is
no time step adjustment. (0.001 > Real 1.0; Default = 0.1)
A-104 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
TSTEPNL
Field Contents (Cont.)
RTOLB Maximum value of incremental rotation (in degrees) allowed
per iteration to activate bisection. (Real > 2.0;
Default = 20.0)
*These fields are only valid for METHOD = ADAPT
Remarks:
1. The TSTEPNL Bulk Data entry is selected by the Case Control
command TSTEPNL = ID. Each subcase (residual superelement
solutions only) requires a TSTEPNL entry and either applied loads via
TLOADi data or initial values from a previous subcase. Multiple
subcases are assumed to occur sequentially in time with the initial
values of time and displacement conditions of each subcase defined by
the end conditions of the previous subcase.
A-105 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
TSTEPNL
Remarks: (Cont.)
2. IF METHOD = ADAPT, NDT is used to define the total duration for
analysis, which is NDT * DT. (Since DT is adjusted during the analysis
for METHOD = ADAPT, the actual number of time steps, in general,
will not be equal to NDT). Also, DT is used only as an initial value for
the time increment.
3. For printing and plotting the solution, data recovery is performed at time
steps 0, NO, 2 * NO, ..., and the last converged step. The Case Control
command OTIME may also be used to control the output times.
4. The stiffness update strategy as well as the direct time integration
method is selected in the METHOD field.
a. METHOD = AUTO: The stiffness matrix is automatically updated to
improve convergence. The KSTEP value is ignored.
b. METHOD = TSTEP: The stiffness matrix is updated every KSTEPth
increment of time.
A-106 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
TSTEPNL
Remarks: (Cont.)
c. METHOD = ADAPT: The program automatically adjusts the incremental
time and uses bisection. During the bisection process, the stiffness matrix is
updated every KSTEPth converged bisection solution in order to reduce
computing cost.
In all methods the stiffness matrix is always updated for a new subcase
or restart. The ADAPT method allows linear transient analysis, but
AUTO or TSTEP will abort the run if the model does not have any data
representing nonlinearity.
5. The number of iterations for a time step is limited to MAXITER. If
MAXITER is negative, the analysis is terminated when the divergence
condition is encountered twice during the same time step or the solution
diverges for five consecutive time steps. If MAXITER is positive, the
program computes the best solution and continues the analysis until
divergence occurs again. If the solution does not converge in MAXITER
iterations, the process is treated as a divergent process. See Remark 7.
A-107 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
TSTEPNL
Remarks: (Cont.)
6. The convergence test flags (U = displacement error test, P = load
equilibrium error test, W = work error test) and the error tolerances
(EPSU, EPSP, and EPSW) define the convergence criteria. All
requested criteria (combination of U, P, and/or W) are satisfied upon
convergence. Note that at least two iterations are necessary to check
the displacement convergence criterion.
7. MAXDIV provides control over diverging solutions. Depending on the
rate of divergence, the number of diverging solutions (NDIV) is
incremented by 1 or 2. The solution is assumed to diverge when NDIV
reaches MAXDIV during the iteration. If the bisection option is used
(allowed MAXBIS times) with the ADAPT method, the time step is
bisected upon divergence. Otherwise, the solution for the time step is
repeated with a new stiffness based on the converged state at the
beginning of the time step. If NDIV reaches MAXDIV again within the
same time step, the analysis is terminated.
8. Nonzero values of MAXQN and MAXLS will activate the quasi-Newton
update and the line search process, respectively.
A-108 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
TSTEPNL
Remarks: (Cont.)
9. The number of subincrements in the material routines is determined
such that the subincrement size is approximately FSTRESS * .
FSTRESS is also used to establish a tolerance for error correction in
elastoplastic material, i.e.,
error in yield function < FSTRESS * yield stress
If the limit is exceeded at the converging state, the program will EXIT
with a fatal error message. Otherwise, the stress state is adjusted to the
current yield surface, resulting in = 0.
10. The bisection process is activated when divergence occurs and
MAXBIS 0. The number of bisections for a time increment is limited to
|MAXBIS|. If MAXBIS is positive and the solution does not converge
after MAXBIS bisections, the best solution is computed and the analysis
is continued to the next time step. If MAXBIS is negative and the
solution does not converge in |MAXBIS| bisection, the analysis is
terminated.

A-109 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003


TSTEPNL
Remarks: (Cont.)
11. ADJUST controls the automatic time stepping for METHOD = ADAPT.
Since the automatic time step adjustment is based on the mode of
response and not on the loading pattern, it may be necessary to limit the
adjustable step size when the period of the forcing function is much
shorter than the period of dominant response frequency of the structure.
It is the users responsibility to ensure that the loading history is properly
traced with the ADJUST option. The ADJUST option should be
suppressed for the duration of short pulse loading. If unsure, start with
a value for DT that is much smaller than the pulse duration in order to
properly represent the loading pattern.
a. If ADJUST = 0, then the automatic adjustment is deactivated. This is
recommended when the loading consists of short duration pulses.
b. If ADJUST > 0, the time increment is continually adjusted for the first few
steps until a good value of is obtained. After this initial adjustment, the time
increment is adjusted every ADJUST-th time step only.
c. If ADJUST is one order greater than NDT, then automatic adjustment is
deactivated after the initial adjustment.
A-110 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
TSTEPNL
Remarks: (Cont.)
12. MSTEP and RB are used to adjust the time increment during analysis
for METHOD = ADAPT. The recommended value of MSTEP for nearly
linear problems is 20. A larger value (e.g., 40) is required for highly
nonlinear problems. By default, the program automatically computes
the value of MSTEP based on the changes in the stiffness.
The time increment adjustment is based on the number of time steps
desired to capture the dominant frequency response accurately. The
time increment is adjusted as follows:
Where:
n 1 n
f(r) t t =
+
r
1
MSTEP
--------------------
2

n
-------
\ .
| |
1

t
n
--------
\ .
| |
=
A-111 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
TSTEPNL
Remarks: (Cont.)
With f = 0.25 for r < 0.5 * RB
f = 0.5 for 0.5 * RB r < RB
f = 1.0 for RB r < 2.0
f = 2.0 for 2.0 r < 3.0/RB
f = 4.0 for r > 3.0/RB
13. MAXR is used to define the upper and lower bounds for adjusted time
step size, i.e.,,
DT MAXR t
MAXR
DT
MAXBIS
DT

|
.
|

\
|
, min
2
A-112 NAS 103, Appendix A, December 2003
TSTEPNL
Remarks: (Cont.)
14. UTOL is a tolerance used to filter undesirable time step adjustments;
i.e.,
Under this condition no time step adjustment is performed in a structural
analysis (SOLs 99 and 129). In a heat transfer analysis (SOL 159) the
time step is doubled.
15. The bisection is activated if the incremental rotation for any degree of
freedom (
x
,
y
,
z
) exceeds the value specified by RTOLB. This
bisection strategy is based on the incremental rotation and controlled by
MAXBIS
U
n
U

max
-------------------- UTOL
<