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A~rican Progress, one of the Doubl Shipbuilding. CourtellY Mobil 8hi ,e Eagle-class vessels built at

A~rican Progress, one of the Doubl

Shipbuilding. CourtellY Mobil

8hi

,e Eagle-class vessels built at Newport N ews ppmg and Transportation Company.

TANKER OPERATION S

A

Han dbook

for th e Person -in-Ch arge (PIC)

FOURTH EDITI ON

MARK HUBER

Based on earlier editions of

Tanker Operations A Handbook for the Sh ip's Officer

by G. S. Marton

~

CORNELL MARITIME PRESS

Centrevi lle. Maryland

Copyright <0 2001 by Cornell Maritime Press

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in a ny manner whatsoever without written penniss ion except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. For infonnation, address Cornell Maritime Press, Inc., Centreville, Maryland 21617

Library of Congrt'sa Cataloging-in.Publication Data

Huber. Mark, 11)54- Tan;,~::~ratiOnl :a handbook for the peraon-in-chll.rge (PIC)

I Mark Huber.-4t h ed.

'Bued on e:rlier edition, of Tanker operation" a handbook for the ehip'e officer by

G .S. Marton. Includea inde.

ISBN0-8703S-528-6

-Tille1. Tankera--Handbooka"manual' etc . I. Marton, G. S., 1948-- Tanker operationB. II

VM~ .HBa2001

623.88"245--dc21

2001032582

Manufactured in the U First edition 1978 F

, .

m . te d

ourth Sta~~of edition, America 2001

With love to my wife J ody

Contents

P REFACE TO THE FO URTH EDIT ION PREFACE TO THE FIR ST EDI TI ON

CHAPTER 1

Tank Ves sel Design and Classification

Oil Tanker

Parcel Tanker

Combination Carrier

Barges

Barriers

Classification

Development of the Superta nker

Review

xiii

xvii

3

10

13

16

18

19

23

23

CHAPTER 2

Cargo Characteristics

Richard Beadon and Mark Huber

Bulk Liquid Cargoes

Properties of Petroleum

Flammability Characteristics of Bulk LiquidCargoes Avoidance of the Flammable Range

Classification of Petroleum Cargo Weight. Capacity, and Flow

vii

2.

25

26

29

31

32

CONTENTS

rot _ M

lIurcmt'nt and Regulation 8

of Cargo Infonnation

CONTENTS

35

37

CloBed Gau ging

40

HighlLow Vapor Pressure Protection

Operation8

'0

Review

ix

106

111

112

120

CHAPTER 3

CHAPTER 6

Oil Exploration and the Refining Process

Cargo Measurement and Calculation

J ohn O'Connor

Robert Stewart

 

52

55

56

59

62

63

63

CHAPTER 4

The Purpo se of Cargo Measurement

121

Part ies Involved

122

Terms of Sal e

122

Measurement Equipment

123

Tank Structure an d Measurement

125

Measurement Procedures

130

Equip ment Use

Pre loading

Inspe ction and Measurement

Postloadin g Inspe ction and Meas urement

Pred isch arge Inspecti on an d Measurement

134

134

136

140

141

141

144

146

150

156

Cargo Piping Systems

64

Poetdi acharge Ins pection and Measurement

70

Cargo Calculation

78

Cargo Planning

80

Load Lines and Zone Limitations

95

Cargo Term s

87

91

95 Revi ew

96

Loadin g

to Fin al Draft

Loadin g and Discharging Rate s

156

157

CHAPTER 7

Cargo Pumps

Kinetic Pumps

Poeitive-Diaplecement Pumps and Eductors

Review

161

175

160

CONn:NTS

CHAPTER 8

Cargo Tran sfer Operati ons

RecuJation.

OperBtlOnB

Toppmg-Off OpE"rBtion

Fini.hinr Cargo Loading

182

197

200

201

Review

CONTENTS

CHAPTER 12

Tank Cleaning Operations

Equipment

203 Crude-Oil-Washing (COW)

Offshore Moorings

20.

Supplemental Cleaning

Dischargmg Operation

209

Tank Coati ngs

Review

Review

CHAPTER 9

CHAPT ER 13

Chartering and Operations

Enclosed Space Entry

Risks Associated with Enclosed Space Entry

Scott R. Bergeron

Veuel Ownership

211

Gas-Freeing Process

1'ypell of Charter Agreements

212

Testin g

The Charter Party

213

Entry Procedure

Tenns of the Charter Party

215

Instrum entati on

Pricing

22.

Review

FreiJht Rate

225

Review

228

CH AP TE R 14

 

Pollution Regulations

CHA PTE R 10

Source s of Pollution from Tank Vessels

Vetting Inspections

Federal Pollution Legislation

Scott R. Bergeron

Inte rnational Pollution Legislation, MARPOL

Pollution Reduction Efforts

Inapectiona

229

Review

'The Grew'1 Role in Vetting

231

Review

237

CHAPTER 15

CHAPTER 11

Ballasting and Deballasting Operations

ijallutirtg Operations

D lb ~w ting: O l?l'r 8 ti0 D8

238

Inert Gas Systems

Sources of Inert Gas General Requirement s for an Inert Gas System

System Components

245 Emergency Procedures

xi

249

253

263

270

27l

273

27'

278

280

284

289

29.

295

296

298

30.

30'

307

308

308

322

1b1\

CONTENTS

S)'I!tamll fione in th e V ile of IG SYlitemll

'"

CH AP TE R 16

Emergency Procedures

~l'P,ENDlX, CONVE RSION FACTORS

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

322

32,

326

327

329

331

332

333

334

335

335

336

337

339

341

3 56

Preface to the Fourth Edition

T he fourth edition of Tanker Operations ha s und ergone substa ntial

cha nge since it was last r evised in 1992. Th e te xt has been completely

reorganized wit h the addition of new subject material , illustrations, re- view questions, and a glossary of key terms and acronyms . As many read- ers of Ta nker Operations can attest, this text is-and will always be-a work in progress as long as the design , equipment. regulations, and opera- tiona l procedures on tank vessels continue to evolve. I must admit that I underestimated the magnitude of this project and, as a result , have a much greater a ppreciation for the efforts of Greg Marton in producing the origi- nal work in 1978. Th is text is intended prim arily for individuals ente ring the ta nke r in-

du stry. However , se asoned tanker mates, barge tankermen. a nd many of

359 the shore side staff may find th e information in this edition of practical

374 valu e. In recent yea rs, th e ru les governing th e min imum qualifications for

per sonnel serving on tank vessels have cha nged both domestically and in- ternationally. In addition to obtaining practical sea experie nce, individu-

als serving on ta nk vesse ls mu st now complete

program in ca rgo

mind , it seemed a ppropriate for

as th e sta nda rd re ference for this specialized cargo training. Successful

completion of th e aforementioned requirements qua lifies a person to re- ceive an endorse ment on the following docum ents :

In th e Uni ted St ates, the indi vidual receives an endorsement on the Merchant Mariner Document (MMm AS a Tan kennan Pers on-in -Charge (PIC) Dangerous Liquid s (OL) or Liquefied Gas (LG). Under the Inte rna- tion al Convention on Standards of Tr aining, Certification, and Watch - keeping for Seafarers, 1978 (STe W), as amended in 1995. an indi vidual

an a pproved training

handling a nd fire fighting. With these requiremen ts in

this edition of Tanker Operations to serve

xiii

rv

nk"t

iv

PREFACr. TO T NI', rou HIH I';U II I U ,"

an l'ndortll'ml.>nt on the STeWcert ificate. This endorsement stutes

th.t the person is qualified to se rve on tan kships carrying dan gerous oils, c he micals. or gas i n bulk . Th e f ollowing r eferences sho~ ld be con sul ~ed for details concerning each of th ese endorBements: th.e Un~tedStates Code of

F~ rol R e gul at ions. Titl e 4 6 C FR P a~ l~ , ~e rtlficatlOn o f Ta~k enn en ;

and the Intern ati onal Maritime Orga nlzatlOns STCW Conventlon , 1978, as amended in 1995, Annex 2, Chapter V, "Special Training Requi rements

for Personnel on Tankers" (Regulation v/n I would like to thank many individuals for ass isting me with th is seem-

parti cul ar , I a m !p"at~~ to my wif e, Jod y, a nd m y

ha s also been

enhanced throu gh the efforts of severa l contributors , eac h of whom wrot e new chapters: Captain Richard Beadon, Director, Center for Ma ritime Ed- ucation at Seamen' s Church Institute; Robert Stewart, Professor, Ca lifor-

nia Maritime Academy; John O'Connor, Pr esid ent ofIn ternati onal Marine

Consultants; and Scott Bergeron, Chief Operating Officer , Liberi an Sh ip and Corporate Registry. The glossary was written by Kelly Curtin , Assis- tant Professor, State University ofNew York Maritime College. I a lso wish to thank my colleagues at the U.S. Merchant Marine Acad emy: John Hanus, Lt. Rob Smith (USCG>, Paul Zerafa, and Brian Holden for th eir computer expertise , and Captain Douglas A Hard for his ti reless efforts

ingl y e ndless proje ct. In

family forth eir patien ce and support . This edition of th e text

throughout this endeavor, reviewing

tive criticism.

Finally , I would like to

each chapte r and offerin g con stru c- thank th e following individu als a nd

organizations

for providing information and many of the

illustrat ions :

Alaska Tanker Company; Ameri can Petroleum In stitute; Atl a ntic Richfield Company; Avondale Shipyard; Mary J en Bea ch; Ian -Conra d Bergan, Inc.: Bethlehem Steel Corporation ; BP Pip elines (Alas ka) Inc.; British Petroleum Company , Ltd.: Butterworth Systems , In c; Calhoon MEBAEngineering School; California Maritime Academy; Chevron Ship- ping Company; Clement Engineering Services; College of Nautical Studies; Coppus Engineering Corporation; Dixon Valve a nd Coupling Co.; Environmental Protection Agency; ExxonIMobil Corporati on ; Th omas J . Fellei~n; Bill Finhandler; Foster Wheel er Boiler Corporation ; Ga mlen Che,:"~cal Company; General Dynamics Corporation; Keith Gill ; Global ~~tImea~dTransportation Schoo~;Gulf Oil Corporation; Eri c Halbeck; nan HaU, Haywood Manufactunng Company; Howden En gin eeri ng; Lynn Hu~r .; ~udson Engineering Company ; IMO Industrie s, In c., G ems Sensors DIVISion; Ingersoll Dresser Pump; International Association of In- dependent Tanker Owners UNTERTANKO); International Association of Ports ~ndHarbors (lAPH>; International Chamber of Shipping (ICS l; In-

~~~~~o~al Ma~ne Consultants; International Maritime Organization

n~matIonal Tanker Owners Pollution Federation; Keystone

I~PLe,"gKiom~any; Keystone Valve Division of Keystone International,

Shi

I

nc.,

:

e

nceid: Kockumatt

,

lon, AB'L

aunn 'M

arttime; · · Bnan . Law ; LIbrary .

I U I'Hl': t'OURl1i EDITION

~

.u

~v'"

of Congre ss Photo Duplication Service' Kimberly Lo

shore

Maritime

Mazza; Metritepe, nc.;

MM C I nt e m at lO nal C orporati on; F rank M ohn Services AS· Ron ~r

Nat ional Academy Pre ss an d the National Academy ofScien~es'N t?ne I'

8 I 10na h

Audu

gr aphic

. Lc

'

,

0 '1 P

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rt (LOOP)' E n ' c

0

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,

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bo

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letv r

8

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ocre y,

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ociety;

'

Nat a i rona

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IF '

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a; MalOe Maritime AO"d"m renzo, '" ' 1/

.

Ullllana OfT-

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a rena

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,

8 ec h nology ' and Grad uate St ,. udi

y,

' C

iee :

aplam ,John

teve~ Miller; Mine Safety Appliances Com an .

rotectton

.

Association' N"

,

a n ona t x an time Union ofAmerica' Nation I D _

18

1

',.

,

,

Coun Cil ; N atr ona

t ion Saf ety ~ oard ; Nau ~Ical In stltu ~ ; Newport New s Sh ipbuilding ; J ohn O'Conn or; Oil Compame s I ntemat lOn al Marine Forum; Penn-Attransco

Corporation; Per:rnea Mari time Protection ; Phillips Petroleum Company; George Roeanovich ; Saab Electronics; Saab-Seania, Aerospace Division; Sailors Union of the Pacific; Salen & Wicander AB; Salwicc, Inc.; San Fr ancisco Maritime Museum; E.W, Saybolt& Company, Inc.; Ed Schultz;

Seafarers Intern ational Union ;Sea men's Chur ch Institute;SeaRiver Mar-

itim e; Servomex (U .K. ), Ltd .; Shell International Petroleum and Shell Oil

Compan y tU.S.A.); Shipbuilders Council of America; Skarpenord Data

Systems AS; Southern Oregon State College; Sperry Marine Systems;

Sta cey Valve Co" Inc.: Star Enterprise;State University of NewYork Mar-

itime College; Stolt Nielsen Tr ansportation Company; Sun

and Dry Dock Compan y; Texaco , I nc.; Tos co: Tr ans america Dclaval, In c.;

TS Tanksyetern SA; Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.; U.S. Coast Guard; U.S, Depa rtmen t of Transportat ion; U,S, Maritime Administration ; U,S. Sal vage Association; Valve Manufacturers Association; Viatran Corpora- tion;Vitronics , Inc.; Rosalie Vita le; West Coast Ship Chandlers, Inc.;Terra White; J eff Williams; William E. Williams Valve Corp.; Wilson Walton In-

tem ati onal ; Worthington Pu mps, Th e last edition of Tanker Operations offered this wordof advice to the reader : "You can't learn tankers from a book; don't try to do so, Ships a re

d esigned an

there is no substitute for seei ng th e actual equipment and operatmg ~t your self. " As a f ollow-up to that th ought , I w ould a dd th at n o u: xt o n thi s subject can ade quately address every vessel design, piece ofeqwpment , or procedur e. Ultim ately , a thoro ugh wo rking knowledg e .o f the c argo Syste~ on th e vessel is your best defense aga inst potentlal mishaps. Remem~ ,

c. ga ined a s an apprentice

t h e specialized trammg a nd pr actrca expenen

. on tankers is just the beginni ng of a lifetime ofIeammg.

te e ~nd Shlp~U1ldmg Company ; Na tional T rensporta-

Shipbuilding

d equipped diff er entl y,a nd n o tw o are exac tly alike . In th~ en ~.

.

.

.

.

.

I

'

Preface t o the First Edition

A nu mbe r of ye ars ago, when I wua beginning mycareer on oiltank I

ofte n felt the lack of a simple, stra ightforward handbook on the basic

problems of tanker ?perations. Hence, this book. Tanker Operations: A

Hand book {or th e S hIp's Officer is directed primarily toward the newcomer

to t anke rs; specifically, the new officer. Generally speaking, it is not 8

step-by-ste p manual covering every possible situation. Instead, it tended as:

is in-

1. An introductory guid e designed to make the new officer's adjustment to tanker life smoother , less perilous.

2. A source of useful infonnation for th e more experienced officer.

3.

A refe r en ce book for other ind ividuals interested in the operation of oil

tanker s, part icularly tho se as piring to the rating of tankerman.

I should point out, h owever, that tanker s cannot be learned entirely

from a book . The tankerman'a job is too complex and, in many ways, intu- iti ve. Moreover, eac h t anker is unique a nd mus t be learne d individually . Fortunately, th e lea rning process is not an entirely lonely tas k. Ship- mates-pumpm en, fellow officers, sa ilors- have knowledge to share, an d some make exce lle nt teacher s. In th e end, however , th e way to learn a tanker i s to put on a b oil er s ui t and , fla shli ght in h and ,e xplore every co.me r ofthe ve ssel, le arnin g p um proom , p ipin g s ystems, va lves . Th is i s a ~e~lOus, sometime s exhaustin g p roce ss, b ut it mu st b e d one . A~ o fficer un wllhn g to make this effort should forget a bout a car eer ,even a bn efone,on tanke rs. Some tankers. old and ru sty.a re relics of a bygone era.Others are so.fu- turistic, so thoroughly automat ed . th at th eir crewmembers feel more like astronauts than t ankermen . And, in all likelihood, th e future tankerman

will need the training and temper ament of an astronau t.

xvii

vIII

Rl.'gardl('s~of age or equ ipment, however, all tankers perform

th e 8a~lle

basic task-they carry oil . Their voyage s span th e globe ~ from th e bl~ zm g

deserts of Saudi Arabia to the frozen shores

tankermen are accompan ied by the pungent smells of ~rude.Oila nd ~a8o­

line, by loneliness, tension , ex haustion

of the Ar ctic. 'Throu gh It a ll,

and the s8 t1~factlOn o f d ~m g a

job well. No individual can adequately describe

must be experienced firsthand.

this unique way of hfe . It

. I would like to take this opportunity to thank the m an y mdlVlduals and

organizations who were kind enough to help mein th~seffort.~omes howed remarkable patience with my repeated requests for mfonnatlOn , resea rch

materials, and illustrations. Special thanks to ; The American Bureau ~f Shipping; ~ encan ?ast Iron Pipe Company; American I nstitute of Manne Unden~ters;Am en can Institute of Merchant Shipping; American Petroleum institute ; the Ansul Company; Apex MarineCorporation ;Atlantic Richfield Company; t he Scott Aviation DivisionofATO, Inc.; Mrs . Gerry Bayless; Bethlehem Steel Corpo- ration ; Bingham-Willamette Company; British Petroleum Company, Ltd

Henry Browne & Son, Ltd.; Buttenvorth Systems, Inc .; Chevron Shipping Company; Coppus Engineering Corporation; Exxon Corporation and Exxon Company ,US.A.); FMC Corporation; Mr. Steve Faulkner; Mr. Bill Fin- handler; Gamlen Chemical Company; General Dynamics Corporation; General Fire Extinguisher Corporation; Mr . R.W. Gorman ; Gulf Oil Corpo- ration; Mr. Arthur Handt; Hendy Inte rn ational Company; the Pen ce Divi- sion of the Hudson Engineering Company; Mr . John Hunter; Huntingto n Alloys, Inc.; th e Keystone Valve Division of Keystone Internation al , Inc.; ~kumsAutomationAB; Mr.Gene D . Legler; the H arry Lundeber g School; Mine Safety Applian ces Company; Mr . C. Bradford Mitchell; National Au- dubon Society; National Foam System, Inc.; National Maritime Union of America; National Steel an d Shipbuilding Company; Miss Maureen Ott ; t he ~~ h M. ~~rsons Company; Paul-Munroe H ydra ulics , I nc .; Mr s. Pi a

P ~ pp ; Phi llips Petro le~ Company; Sailors' Union of the Pacifi c; S al en &

WIt:lJlder AB; S~ Francisco Mari tim e Museum ; E.W. Saybolt & Compan y, Inc., Mr. W.F. Schill; Seafarers International Union; Shell Inte rn a tion a l Pe-

~roleuman~Shell Oil Company m.S.A); Shipbuil ders Council of Am erica; pehITY,Manne Syste ms; Su n Shipbuilding an d Dry Dock Company' Mr Bob

United ut er and: Sta~ Und Me~~

Un ited Sta tes Coast Guard;

M enur acturers

oast Ship Chan dlers Inc ' Worthingto n

'

;

S

ite

T8

L ho

'

a. ~aton~s,In c.;

.

.

~ e

antime Administration; U.S. Salvage Association ' Valve

Aeeociati

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on, . W

es

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.,

G. 8. MARTON

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orpora uon.

B. Marton 8r.aduated fi

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Qu inghisseagoingca

ing tan'ke rIJ of a1l

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a l" ifomia . Maritime Academy ill 1969.

e. serue d o n all types of m erchant shi ps, includ ·

1 \Jpe8 reerd'

'1sl

an

TANKE R OPERATIONS

CHA PTER 1 Tank Vessel Design and Classification T he fir st t anker appear~d

CHA PTER 1

Tank Vessel Design and Classification

T he fir st t anker appear~d over a century a go, a nd s ince that tim e tanke r

transport ha s evolved into one

oft he most

efficient modes oft ranspor -

tation in the world . Modem refinements in th e design ofthe se vessels have

resul ted in the development of a versatile carrier capable oftransport ing a wide array of bulk liquid cargoes. Today, tank vessels (both ships and

oft remendous volumes of liquid

barges) are responsible for the movement

cargoes . This chapter focuses prim aril y on vessels th at are designed to

carry ca rgoes classified as "dangerous liqui ds."

Th e following definitions are provided to eliminate confusion about

th e types of vessels de scribed in th e te xt. The United St ates Coast

Gu ard (USCG) defines a tank vessel as "a vesse l th at is constructed or

ad apted primarily to carry, or that carries, oil or ha zardous material in

bulk as ca rgo or cargo residue." The USCG further categori zes a tank vessel as a t ankship (if it is self-propelled) or a tank ba rge (if it has no mean s of pr opulsion ). Th roughout the text, efforts have been made to use the term "tank vessel" ift he topic applies to both shi ps and barges.

OIL TANKER

The earliest design of tank vessels involved construction with a single hull .

Figure 1-1 shows a cross section ofa traditional

In the early part of the twentieth cent ury, th e shift toward longitudinal

construction resulted in a unique subdivision of the cargo tank area. A13

seen in figure I-I, the use of twin longitudinal bulkheads divided the vessel athwartehipa into three tanks: a center tank flank ed by a set of wing tanks.

A series of oiltight transverse bulkheads completed the subdivision of the

cargo area, as required, for the particular trade of the vessel. This method

single-hull design .

3

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~ ,- ~I Ij;~ s KH til ~I ~- ,. l'~ P i' , •t
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•t

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/A CCOmmodaliOn ! , j- -
/A CCOmmodaliOn
!
,
j- -

Figure 1-2. Profile view of a double-bottom ta nker. The double-bottom space serves 8S the s egr egated-ballaet ca pacity for the vessel. Copyright e In ternational Mari- time Organi zation CIMO), London .

of con struction wa s well s uited

goes ; at the same time it virtuall y eliminated the free surface problems ex- perienced with earlier tanker designs. Free surface is an effect cre at ed wh en liquid s move about in an unre- stricted fashion within a compartment such as 8 cargo or ball ast tank. The

resultant shift of weight has an adverse impa ct on the stability oft he vessel.

so every effort is made to minimize shifting.Typical methods of reducing the

free surface effect include keeping the number of slack cargo and ballast tanks to a minimum, constructing smaller compartments (subdivisions). an d utilizing partia l bulkhead s (swas h plates or swash bulkheads ). The suc- cess of the single-hull design is evidenced by the fact that it has withstood the test of time and deadweight Idwt) tonnage. Single-hull construction pre- dominated until the late 1960s when political and environmental pressures drove the tanker industry to seek other methods of construction. By the 19708 a number of owners had shifted to double-bottom construction (fig. 1-2) to meet the new segregated-ballast requirements.

in-

Th e gr ounding of the Exxon Valdez in 1989 prompted domestic an d

ternational requ irements calling for newly constructed oil ta nkers to be fit- ted with a doubl e hull. Double-hull tankers had been successfully operated for a number ofyears, hence this design took cente r stage as the most likely re sponse to the public 's out cry for height ened protection of the marine en-

use of two pieces of stee l (inne r and oute r hull s)to separa te

the cargo area from the s ea is ex pected to min imize oil outfl ow from the ma- jority of tanker casualties-grounding, collision, or minor shell dam - age-that involve a breach of the hull . The construction scenes of the

the

ARGO Endeavour (fig. 1-3 ) clearly illu strate th e protection afforded

for the bulk t rans portation of liquid car-

vironment. The

cargo tanks wit hin the double hu ll. The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 called for new tankers contracted after J un e 30, 1990, to be constructed with a double hull. The U.S. construction requirements contained in Title 33 CFR Part 157.10d specify minimum

spacing as follows:

6 TANK VESSEL DES IGN AND CLASSIFICATION

For vessels of 5.000 dwt and abov e-

Double sides 'WI

W z 0.5 + dwt 120,000 or 2 meters the lesser and in no case lesa t han 1 meter

Doubl e bottom (In

H '" Bre adth / 15 or 2 meters t he lesser an d in no case less than 1 me te r

or 2 meters t he lesser an d in no case less than 1 me te

Figure }-3 Conat

hull at number 1ru

eli

on scene oftheARCO EndeolJOur showing th e protective daub e

1

cargo tanks port and s tarboard. Co urtesy ARea M arin e , I nc .

OIL TANKER

For vessels of less than 5,000 dwt-

Dou ble sid es (W )

W

O.4 + / 2.4) (d wt / 20, OOO) in

.

mete rs , but in no case less than 0 .76 mete

Double bottom (II) H • Breadth / 15 in meters, but in no cas e lesa th an 0.76 m('ter

r

7

Figure 1-4 sho,:",s t h e newly

~n8tructed double-hull tanker

Am erican

Pr ~gr (,s 8 o perate d In th e tatton Company.

dome s tic trad e b y M obil S hippin g

a nd

'I' rene por -

Th e.double-hull requirement created tremendous cont roversy with in

t he United ~tate8 and inte~na tional s hipping co mmunities. Indu stry e x-

effe:t.lvene~s of th e double-hull design in a h igh -

perts questlOn~d the

energy grounding or collision WIth the potential for significant 10s8 of cargo. Th e Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA '90) left th e door open toaltem a-

t ive vessel designs which could offer

equ al to or better t han the protection provided by the double hull . During the 1990s research into al ternative designs and techno logy was conducted

t hroughout th e world . However , in 1993 , a

gress reaffirmed t he double-hull design 8 S the only method of construction th at s hould be permitted to ope rate in U.S. wate rs . This conclusion placed the United St ates at odds wit h t he rest of th e shipping commun ity as the Inte rn a tion a l Maritim e Or ganization (I MO ) h ad e mbraced not only t he double-hull method of construction but also the controvers ial mid-deck de- sign . The Coast Gua rd cited inexper ience with th e mid-deck design as one of the re asons for not recommending it as a viable alte rnative to the double hull. In the mid-de ck design (fig. 1-5)an inte rmediate oiltight deck essen- tially creates an up per an d a lower cargo ta nk. In the event ofmajor bottom damage, thi s design pr events sign ificant loss of cargo based on the hydro-

static principle . When fully loaded , th e head pressure of th e oil in the bot-

tom tank is less

Once the vessel

the vess el, water Flows in , pressing up the bottom tank. This simple but ef-

fective concept ap pea rs to outperform th e double-hul l design in model tests

t hat simulate casualties involving significant bottom damage. The wider

doubl e side s in th e mid-deck des ign resemble tr aditi onal wing tanks and

th an the wat er pressure exerted on the outaid e of the hull . comes to rest, ins tea d of oil gravitating out the bottom of

en vironmental protection that was

USCG report to the U.S. Con-

provi de better protection against collision dam age than the double hul l. Another des ign closely related to the mid-deck is th e Coulombi Egg

shown

in figure 1-6. After seve ral years of evaluation, IMO has also ac-

cepted

this design as affording a mea sure of protection for the marine

environment equivalent to that of the double hull. As in the case of the mid-

deck des ign, however, the U.S. Coast Guard opposes the idea of equivalence

perm it eit her design into t he United States. The controversy

and will not

Upper cargo tank d Wingtank _ Air pipellrunk (ballast) Figure 1-5.The mid-deck design shown here

Upper cargo tank

d

Wingtank _ Air pipellrunk (ballast)
Wingtank
_ Air pipellrunk
(ballast)

Figure 1-5.The mid-deck design shown here uses hydrostatic pressure to minimize oil outflow in the event that the cargo tanks are breached. Courtesy Marine Log.

Ballast

Cargo

Ballast

Cargo

Cargo

Cargo

10 TANK VESSE DESIGN AND CLAS!:l11"lL;A'IIU1~

O'It"T a J temati v e d esigns

Iec nve ly close d th e d oor o n ot her tech ~ology as eviden ced ? y th e fact ~hat

double-hull orde rs and deliveri es dommate new construction worldwide.

continues in part because ~he U .S. po sition h a s e r .

P AR CEL TANKER

As consumer demand for chem icals and ot her s pecialty products in- cre ased worldwid e the need for vessels design ed s peci fica lly to tr an sp ort th ese cargoes also expanded. As a qui ck fix, so me owners modified exi st- ing product carriers into what were te rmed "drugs!ore" ve ssels , carrying lim ited qu an tit ies o f ma ny diff eren t pr oducts . tr.ItImatel~, th ese ve s sels

paved the way for parcel carrie rs, vesse ls specia lly designed an d con-

structed from the keel up to accommodate th e growing m ar ket . Figu re 1-7

by

shows one s uch vessel , the Stolt Innovation, built and operated

Stolt-Nielsen S.A. Figure 1-8 shows the deck of an externally framed vessel. This method

of ta nks to be smooth . Due to

of construction allows th e interna l s urfaces

the nature of the ca rgoes transported, parcel tankers a re design ed to main- tain a high degree of segregation between ca rgoes . Fi gure 1-9 shows t he complexity of deck pipin g on one coastal che mical carrier. Toward th e end ofth e t wentieth century, the demand for parcel tankers

incr eased as th e tr an sport of th ese ca rgoes by s uch vessels proved to be sa fe and cost-effective while maintaining th e hi gh est sta nda rds of qu a lit y as- surance. The list of differ ent cargoes ca rri ed by parcel t ankers is exhaus-

tive; however, th e rul es governing t he sa fe t ransport of

well defined in th e international bul k che mical codes. The construction

and s urvi vability requirements for che mica l vessels ca n be found in Title 46 CFR Part 151 (barges) and P art 153 (ships) as well as in the bulk chemi-

cal codes (lBCIBCHl from the Inte rn ational Maritime Organi zat ion (lMO>.

nB C is the Internati onal Code for the Cons t ruction a nd Equipment of Ship s Carrying Dangerous Ch emicals in Bulk . BCH is t he Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Ca rrying Dan gerous Chemicals.)

The marine environment is afforded three levels of protection against a n unc ~nt rolled r~le a se of t he cargo re sultin g f rom a br ea ch of th e cargo tank. FIgure 1-10 illustrates th e spacing requiremen ts for Ty pes I II and

III containment in the cargo area , as specified in t he bulk chemical codes.

these cargoes a re

1. Type I containment provides the maximum level of protecti on possible

~ hen t ransporting f1ubstances t hat pose th e gre ate st envir onmental ri sk

an .uncontrolled release from th e vessel should occur. In addition to the spaCing requirements between th e side and bottom shown in figure 1-B, veuelsconatruetedin

I

d

eccor ance WIththese rul ea must also be capable 0

.

r

. .

SUI"VJVlng a certain prescribed l eve l of damage to th e hull .

a certain prescribed l eve l of damage to th e hull . Figure 1-7. The

Figure 1-7. The St olt Innovation serves in the parcel trade worldwide. Dourteay Stolt-Nielsen Tran sporta tion Group Ltd .

Dourteay Stolt-Nielsen Tran sporta tion Group Ltd . Figure I -B. The deck of an externally

Figure I -B. The deck of an externally framed parcel tanker. With thi s design, the cargota nks have smooth internal surfaces. Courtesy International Marine Consul- ta nts lIMC).

With thi s design, the cargota nks have smooth internal surfaces. Courtesy International Marine Consul- ta
12 TAN K \ 'ESSEL DESIGN AND CLASSIFICATION COMBINATION CARRIE R Type I 1 3

12 TAN K \ 'ESSEL DESIGN AND CLASSIFICATION

COMBINATION CARRIE R

Type I

13

2. Type II conta inment ill required whe n t ran8por1ing substance/:l t hat pONe a significant ha zard to the environmen t . T he s paci ng requirements and t he aurvtvabihty requirements orth e vessel a re Ieee than those for Type I COn _

tamment.

3. T)-pe III containment affords a moderate leve l of protection. No special spacing requi rements a re necessary and the s urvivability cri teria in the

event of vessel damage are not 8S st ringent as those for Type I or II .

The chemical codes furt her classify cargo tanks according to t heir con.

a part of the

'"

,,-

115m

6115 or 6 m

'"

11".5 m

struction.Independent tank s are cargo tanks not designed as

hull structure. An examp le of an independent tank would be a cylindri cal

cargo tank installed above th e deck . An indep endent ta nk is u sed to elimi- nate or at lea st minimize the forces or stresses th at may be working on the adjacent hul l structure. An independent tank is in stall ed in such a manner th at it can be moved relative to t he vessel. Integral tanks are cargo tanks t hat fonn a n essential part of t he hull structure and contribute to the strengt h of th e vessel. In tegral tanks are subject to the forces and stresses experienced by t he hull structure as a re- sul t of cargo operations and motion of the vessel. Figu re I- I I illustrates several cargo tank configurations on parcel tankers .

Cargo

Cargo

7"~

Type II

Bfl50r6m

Type III

Cargo

760mm

. Cargo Cargo 7"~ Type II Bfl50r6m Type III Cargo 760mm Figure 1-10. The s pacing

Figure 1-10. The s pacing requiremen ts for Types I, II. a nd III containment un der

t he bulk c hemical codes . C opyright C> Interna tional Maritime O rganization (110101, London .

Gravity ta nks ar e those tanks ha ving a design pressure not gre ater th an 10 pounds per square inch gauge and of prism at ic or other geometric s hape where s tress analysis is neither readily or complete ly determinate. Pressure tanks are independent tanks whose pressure is above 10 pounds per square inch gauge and fabricated in accordance with domestic rules.

COMBI NAT IO N CAR R IER

The USCG defin es a combina tion carrier as a ny vessel designed to carry oil or solid cargoes in bulk. Th ey are s pecially built vessels often referred to as

COMB INATION CARRIER

15

>:

relbu1k/oil carrie rs (OBOs) capa ble of alte rna ting betwee n carrying oil

oa rgoee a nd bul k comm oditi es a uc h 8S ir on o re

: r8 can also be ada pted to meet th e s pecialized requireme nts of a custome r

8uch 88 alte r natin g between the transport of ca ustic and alumina for th e

aluminu m indu stry. The advantages of t his design include th e ab ility to

carr)' cargo in both directio ns during a voyage a nd to shift t rades ea market

conditions and freight rate s cha nge .

o r coa l. Com b ina tion ca m -

Figure 1-12 illustrate s a typical c r08S section of a n DBO . Th e design is 8 S a double-bottom

characteri zed by large rai sed h atch openings 8S well

and top side ball ast ta nks for t rimming of solid cargoes. Some of the con-

tank coati ngs a nd

high st resses from t he loadin g of dry ca rgoes. Problems also arise in situa-

where m ajor components ofthe cargo sys te m (such as pumps, valves. ga s systems , and so forth) experie nce extended periods of inac tivity.

ine rt

tions

cern s expressed with t his design include damage to t he

To combat th ese problems. combination carriere require frequent inspec -

tion and on goin g p re venti ve mainte nanc e to e nsur e the continued r eliabil-

ity of ca rgo system equipment.

Uw'"

Waler

ba llaSI

hopper oroil la nk l arge ha\Ct1way H.d Oil or dry bulk ta iga Duel
hopper
oroil
la nk
l arge ha\Ct1way
H.d
Oil
or dry bulk ta iga
Duel keel

lower

hopperlank

Double ecucm

gure 1 -12. uoncl Safe ly

tesy OCIMF, ICS, and !APH.

~

OBO ; typica l se ction . Reprint ed with permi ssion Guide for Oil Tank ers and Terminals flSGOTTJ,

water

ballas!

from t~~ lntema-

4th editio n. Cour-

BARGES

An bll.rV s .

f.'(me

Th

e

.II 000barges,

,

II

T

annua y.

out

th

inl

e i

an

aI

run 0

of bulk liquid

an

d

o

th ey

k barges

thod

d mesne tank barge 10

tran spo rtation by water ut il'

indu atrv

i

U

8 0

ce

'iO

rough

d

th

'

ustry IS com posed of appro '

.

rute Ited St

k

Th

I

ates

h

d

ll

IZC llt .

"l.rtk

a ccount for th e tr an spo rt of

within th e

milli on s I"

es,

eee ve rsa ti le vesse ls t r

afton ""'r8!(!ly

e rver produ cts th

aya, and sounds)

.

. un

d waterway system (rivers , a

ffi shore in the coastWIs e tr a d e . k

an

.

8

hi

ey rgu re 1-13 shows a tYpo

F '

8

SPort

the full range ofcargoes carried by tan

Ip S .

I nd profile view ofan existing single-hull ba rge.

leal

p anr~"barge8are constructed with a centerline bulkh ead and a 8

'

,

.

transverse bulkheads . This results In a

port-and-starboa rd ca rgotank

'

ene80f

figuration 8S seen in figur:e }-13. The number of ca rgo compartments fo~~ on a barge is generally dictated .by the trad e ?ft he ves~el.Under the Oil PollutionAct of 1990, the barge industry al so IS faced ~th converting the existing single-hull fleet to a double-hull standard. Fi gure 1-14 show

new double-hull barge that is

the domesticcoastwise trade. Barges transporting ca rgoes other than oil must m eet the constructioll

ca ll for heig htened

requirements outlined in Title 46 eFR Part 151, which

pro tionofthe cargo area from side or bottom dam age to the ba rge. Barge

being constructed b y Al a b a ma

Shipyard ~o:

Tank hatch

3 eiertoaro

2 starboard

1 starboard

cargo tank

cargo tank

cargo tank

3 port

2 pert

t pert

cargo lank

cargotank

cargo lank

Tank hatch

0

0

0

0

2 starboard

1 starbOard

cargo tank.

cargo tank

Tank hatch 0 0 0 0 2 starboard 1 starbOard c a r g o t

re

~RI(1NAND CLASSIFICATION

TANK VgSSEL Dc"

,

_"

t

, t_ 'ctuTalstrength, collision a nd ground·

di

f

"

hullsare categon

iog ."quiremant8. 8

"l ed al.'COnung 0

d

"

Th

e

. ' :r; ;ySTWSare cate gorized i n th re e wa ys as fo llow s:

u

r~

bility in the event of floo log r om specified

,

daInagt>tothehull.

'1'

-

'lr

I barge

hu

,

8 are

It

products wh ich req uire the maxi.

urw topl't'Clude the uncontrolled reles se of th e ca rgo.

d

'".,.,-'" to ea

elll

<

'O

J

Typell bargt' hull. I re theee designed to carry

"\'1' measures 10 preclude the u ncont rolled r elease of t he nlfieant pl't'ven

'"'' TypeIII bargehulll are th081'designed to carry products of sufficient h az-

ard to rvquireB moderate degree of control.

ItIUlii pre"l'ntl\'e m69ll

products which require sig.

.

.

BARRI ER S

Inthe construction ora tank vessel, a physical barrier is generally required

to seperate the cargo and noncargo are as of'the vessel. Se ve ral a pproaches to meet this requirement are outlin ed in th e construction regulation s . The

m t common m thod is the we of a void-d ead a ir space, known as a cofferdam-that placestwobulkheads between the ca rgo an d non cargo a r- eas lUI seen in figure 1-15. Alternative methods of separation includ e th e use of a ca rgo or ballast pumproom an empty cargo tank, or a tank carrying a grade E ca rgo

e brea dth and

dfl hFOmi of 150F and above ). This barri er exte nd s th

ellthtr~evesselcreating-thetransiti on betwe en the gas -s afe areas ofthe ::::a e:ntructure and engine space s) and the potentially hazard-

rie m~t8.lity ~:r:ve;:~therdesign features

contribute to this bar-

,

u

ng

e act that the forward side of the after house

CLASSIFICATION

19

facing the ca rgo tank area is sea led, and aCCeR!!to the house te limited to

have im- two b asic

principles of constructIOn: (1) rrunmuzmg the ac cumulation of flammable cargo vap ors in and a round the supers truc t ure and (2) separatin g the

cargo area from potential sources of ignition.

doors locate d at the Bide of the superstru ctur e. These changes p ro ved t h e sa fety ofth ~ ves sel o~e~ e~r~ier de sign s b y enh .anci ng

C LAS S I F IC AT ION

Tank vessels are usually classified by the trad e in which the y are engaged and according to deadweight tonnage. Th e trade of a vessel is defined by the type of cargoes r outinely carried over a n umbe r of voyages. In the tanker indust ry three bro ad categories

predominate:

1. Crud~il carrie rs

2. Product carriers Clean (gasoline, jet , diesel, etc .) Dirt y (black oils- residual fuel oils, vacuum gss oils, asphalt. etc .I

3. Parcel camet'll (chemical/specialty cargocs, etc.l

Tankers tend to remain in one trade. However, as market conditions

an d cu stomer req uir em ents

tween t ra des d urin g t he lifetime of t he vessel. To change the t rade of a ves- sel is a su bstantial commitment on the part of a n owner as extensive

cleaning a nd e ven m odifi ca ti on ofthe vesse l may

Tanker pe r sonnel often r efer to the vessel acco rding to its dead weight

change, a vessel may move back and fort h be-

be n ecessary .

ton nage Idwt). The de adweigh t t onnage is used as a roug h m easu re oft he

cargo carrying ca pacity of the vessel a nd is usu ally ex pressed in long ton s

metric to ns (1 metri c to n « 2.204.6 pounds).

The dead weight tonna ge of a vessel is defined as the a mount of ca rgo, fuel, wat er, a nd stores a vessel ca n carry wh en fully loaded . Ta nk er s a re typ i- cally divided in to four broad ca tegories a s see n in table I -I a nd figure 1-16 .

(1 long ton = 2,240 pounds) or

TABLE 1·1

Classification of Tank ers According to Deadweigh t 'po nnege

T o nnage R ang !!

5 ,000 W 35,000 dwt 35, 000 W 160,000 dwt 160,000 W 300,000 dwt

300,000 dwt and above

Category

HandyfCoosto1lParcellBarge

Medium

VLCCs (very-large crude carrier) ULeC t! ( u ltra-large crude carri er )

Trod,

Pr oduct/parcel

Product/crude oil

Crude oil

Crude oil

~ ./1 16.500 dw1 ~ J 532" DnIn 30 6' Beam 70' ~ '00=_ S
~
./1
16.500 dw1
~
J
532"
DnIn 30 6'
Beam 70'
~
'00=_
S
Lenglh
86 1'
Drafl49 ,6'
Beam 125'
~
2~=_
7
Lenglh 1,141'
Ora" 65.4'
Beam 170'
l
~
500 ,000 dwt
Length 1,300'
Draft 82'
Beam233'

Figure 1-16. Relative sizes of tankers. Tanker s ize ha s in crea sed dr amatically s ince \\!\\·1I. The top fiKUrl"represents e T·Ztanker Courtesy Exxon.

"' ''l s ~. ~ " o 0 .:! ':'" ~~ o ~ " .
"' ''l
s ~.
~
"
o
0
.:!
':'"
~~
o
~
"
.
c
o
3
0
'<
0
Z~
;:;. 2
,,- -
g.
~
.
0
~ ;;
~ ii
~
~
~ [
0;
~
~ 8
\;'
a-
~

REVIEW

23

DEVE LO P ME NT O F Til E SUP E RTANKER

Durin g th e po st-Wo rld Wa r 11 e ra, t he lanker industry experie nced d ra- matic cha nge s in both t he dimensions a nd the t rade routes ofthese vessels. Th e eve r popul ar T -2 ta nke r of t he war yea rs gave way to modem construc-

tion (fi g. 1·1 7 ) in order to create more economica l ways of transpo rti ng oil

to meet

the grow ing dema nds of t he industrialize d world.

A nu mb er of factors contributed to the rapid increase in ta nker size. in-

clud in g the

Suez Ca nal , a choke point for tanker t raffic to and from the oil fields of the Per sian Gulf. Nationalization of the oil refineries in the Middle East and

fier ce com peti tion a mong international

celerating the development of the modem-day supertanker. VLCCs and ULCCs ply the most solitary trade routes of the oceans, typically loading at offshore plat form s or single-point moorings and discharging at designated lightering zones off th e coast (fig. 1-18). Th ese vesse ls can ente r only a limited numb er of ports in the world when fully loaded a nd ther efore remain at sea for exten ded periods oftime,

hostilities in the Middle East that resulted in the closure of the

shipowners all played a role in ac-

a typical voya ge often ta king seve nty to seventy-five days.

REVIEW

1. Defin e the te rm "ta nk vessel."

2 . Wh at is th e effect of free surfa ce on a vessel?

3. How can the effect s of free surface be reduced or eliminated?

4. Describe the

5. T he O il P ollution Act

ti on. What are th e minimum spacing requi rements bet ween th e hulls?

6. Dr a w a cross sect ion ofa mid-deck tanker an d explain the method em- ployed to reduce oil outflow in the even t of'a casualty (grounding/colli-

method of const ruction of single-hull ta nk vessels.

of

1990 mand ate s double hull s for new con st ruc-

sion ).

7. In the transport of hazardous chemicals, explain the require ment s for Types I, II , and III containment.

a. In t he

construc tion of a mod em t ank er , the car go a nd nonc ar go are as

of the vessel mu st be phy sically se parated through what means?

 

9.

List three factors that contributed to the development of the modern

10.

supertan ker .

List the

va rious trades in which a tank vesse l is typically engaged.

 

1-18.Lighteringoperalion at Ilea A VL

b

eBfJOW 8 8mallershuttle tank

ry. Oourteay Shell lnte

. ti er( 71,000 dwt ) th at delivers the cru de oil to th e

CC (209,000 dwt) discharges part of

rna 10na1 Petroleum .

CHAPTER 2

Cargo Characteristics

RICHARD BEADON AND MARK HUB ER

N umero Wi potential hazards a re associ a ted with

th e s e agoing tr an sport

of bulk liquid cargoes. To minimize th ose ri sks it is im pera ti ve for th e

person-in-charge (PIC)to hav e a keen understanding of th e phys ical proper- nee of the cargo being transported. Experience has shown t h at kn owledge

about the cargo is vital to intelligent decisi on-making with re spect to sa fe carriage 88 weU 88 to efforts to maintain quality assurance. I mp roper trans-

fer procedures, stowage, and care of the cargo h ave all fa cto red into inci-

dents that resulted in harm to personnel and damage to ves sel, ca rgo, a nd

the environment. This chapter seeks to address the main ch a racteristics

presented by the cargo as it relates to the role of t he vessel PIC.

and hazards

Many of the properties and hazards discussed in this chapte r a pply to all

bulk liquids . However, due to their special nature, liquid chemica ls may present significantly different characteristics and hazards .

BULK LIQUID CARGOES

Tank vessels transport a wide variety of liquids in bulk (u n pack age d ). ~e~ fall under three broad classifications : petroleum liquids , che mical liquids, and special liquids.

PfW'pleum liquids

r

U

.

Petroleum Liquids

conere . 0 f naturally occurring crude oil and the various

I

J! od ctsdenved(refinedl from this raw material, including the followin g :

GuOJine

1<11

_I

Ker08ene

Jet fuel

Lubricants

24

Residual fuel oil Asphalt Coke

PROPERTU:S OF PETROLEUM

25

Ch emical Liquid"

A liquid chemical.is a ny substance used in , or obtained by, a che mical pro-

cess . Ther e a re literally hundreds of differen t che micals t rans porte d

tank vessels . Th ese s ubstances a re derived from many sources and ha ve di -

ver se characteristics. Th ey may be catego rize d aa organic or inorganic

che mica ls . Table 2-1 shows a sampling of each .

by

TABl.E 2·1

Chemical Liquids

Orga nic Chemical.

Inorganic C~micals

Aromatic hydrocarbons

Boricscid

Vinyl chloride

Sulfuric acid

Acetone

Phosphoricacid

Acetic acid

Caustic soda

Styrene monomer

Hydrochloric acid

Acrylonitrile

Molten su lfur

Special Liquids Liquid substances other than th ose classified as petroleum or che mical are described as special1iquids. Table 2-2 shows some examples.

TABLE 2-2

Special Liquids

Animal l Vegetabl e Oils

Palm oil

Soybean oil

Sunflower oil Other vegetable oils Animal oils Tallow and greases

Molasses

tisct'llant'ous Liq uids

Freshwater

Beer

Wine

PROPERTIES OF PETROLEUM

Crude oil a nd th e pr oducts derived from t he raw mat erial are cons ide red petroleum liquids. Crude oil is a mix tu re ofa wide ran ge of long-chain hy -

one or mor e

hydrogen atom s linked with one or more carbon a toms , h en ce th e te rm hy-

d rocarbon mole cules. A hydro carbon molecule is esse ntially

drocarbon. The comp osition of crude oil va ries wid ely (pa raffins, naph- thenea. or aromatics) depending on its geographic sou rce . Crude oil can be

described as eith er "he avy" or "light" based upon

number of carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon molecul e influen ces the

its specific gr avity. The

CARGO CHARACTERISTICS

2 7

pr es-

FLAMMABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF BULK LIQUID CARGOES

In a

Arom~oundis a chemical substance ma,de up of tw o or mor e eleme nts

mix.

ture of hydrocarbon compounds rangl~~from th ose th at are pa rt ly eee. eous under normal atmosphenc conditions to th ose t ha t are liq uid

.

spec fiegraVl yo'

molecule the heavier the molecule will be.

r. crude oil The greater the number crcarbon a toms '

I

.,

other method of expr essing th e va por pressure is empl oyed- the Reid va. per pressu re (RVPJ. Reid vapor p ressu re (RVP): Reid va por pressure is the measured va-

bondf'dtogt"therand not separable by.physlcal mean s . Crude oil is a

por pre ssure th at resul ts when a sa mple of liqu id in a closed container is

h eat ed to a s ta n da rd te

standa rd laborato ry experiment u sin g Reid te stin g app aratu s. Thi s te st is ofpracticnl va lu e to t he PI C as it replicates the conditions th at may exis t du rin g tr ansport of a cargo at sea. It does so by providi ng an indication of the behavior of a pa rt icular cargo in the sealed tanks of a vessel when s ub-

mpe rat u re of lOO°F (37 . SOC). I t i s d e term ined in a

solid. Also present are traces of nitrogen, s ulfu r, oxy gen , an d m etal:~

Crude oil8 containing sulfur

known as sour crudes and are characterized b y a vil e a nd nau seati n g ::t~

~n·egg odor.

compounds such a s hydrogen s u lfide

The refining process, described in more detail in ch ap ter 3, involv separating the various hydrocarbon compounds in crude oil into grou ps ~8 fractioM of compounds having similar boiling point ranges . A number methods are used in the refining process including th e following :

0

f

Distillation. or physical separation, consists of boiling off the crud e oil and splittingit into a numberof fractions. Grading is 8 chemical conversion that results in splitti ng the heavier frac. tJo~into lighter fractions. Each fraction has its own boiling point and a urnque set ofphysical properties. Purification is the process ofremoving certain impurities (such as sulfur) from the petroleum productsduring the refining process.

FLAMMABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF BULK LIQUID CARGOES

There are serious fire risks ass certain chemical cargoes' h

order. To enable the PIC

. h WIt. the transport of petroleum and

to iude a h ISCUBSlOn of these char a cteri stic s i s i n

.

t

d

ceredi

gorieed accordingtotheirfl~~~:~'l~degree ofriek, most ~argoeBare cete-

terms used in the c1assificati

f I tty . FolloWlnglS a review of'so me basic

. Volatility: In a fire invof~: c:r goes :

'.

fla~m.ableliquid. the va por th at is

mability of a liquid cargo will d not .dn liquid itself. Therefore, th e flam -

to Produce. flammable vapor. V:iaet~ip,:manly on the ability of th e liquid

ty IS a term used to de scribe th e ten- to Produce flammable vapor. To assist

the PIO, thereareanumbe

dency of oils or chemical prod ta

gIVen off by the liquid burns

g

Tru

.

. evaporpressure (TVP). V

ro weyaof'ex

fUC

presslOgthe . volatilityofa liquid.

a liquid. FQrexample wh . apor pressure indicates the volatility of

::~~'ithwiU begin to va'pori::i~~~~roleurn(liquid) cargo is loaded into a

th Space above. When the vapor a nd Iiq- e pressure exerted on the liquid is its f

a petroleum liquid will

un t e space reach equilibri

•a 8

ue

prellsure. The true urn, d'fli

I

erences in compo.,",. vapor preaeu

Ion and tern perature; consequently an-

re 0

jecte~ to chang in g ambi~n t ( s.ea a nd ai r ) te mpe ra t ures. Reid vapo r

sure 18 used In th e claeaification of flammable liqu ids, as shown in table

2-3"

Flash point: An other term frequently encountered in t he classifica- tion of liquids is fla sh poin t. Th e flash poin t of a flammable liquid I S th e lowest te mperature at whic h t he liquid gives otfsufficient va por to fonn an ignitabl e mixt ure n ea r its su rface. Th is mixture of va por and ai r is ign it - abl e by a n ex tern al sou rce of ignition , but the rate of va porization is usu -

ally in sufficien t to su stain

Fire point: Th e fire point of a flammable liquid is t he lowest te mpera-

a nd continue

point of a liquid. Th e

principal u se oft he terms flash poin t and fire point is to indicat e the rela-

to burn. Thi s te mperature is high er th an th e flash

ture a t wh ich t he liquid will produce s ufficient vapor to igni te

combustion .

ti ve fir e h azar d associated with differe nt products. Autoignition temperature: Th e autoignition point of a liquid is t he

lowest temperature at which sus tained combus tion will occur in a liquid

without the applicat ion of Thi s temperature is a bove

Flammable limits: A liquid ca nnot bum unless it emits flammabl e va- pors. In orde r to bu m , t he correct proportions of oxygen, va por, a nd h eat mu st be present. Th e flamm abl e va por ofa liq uid mu st t h er efore mix with air in the proper proportions to form an ign itable mixture.

Lower explosive limit (LEL) or lower flammable limit (LFL): The

a spark or flame <exte rnal source of ignition ).

th e fire point of a liquid,

lower explo si ve li mit is the smallest percentage of vapor in air that will

fonn an ignitabl e mixture (point C in figure 2-0 . If t he

par is below the LEL, the mi xtu re is considered "lean" and will not su pport

combustion.

Upper explosive limit (UEL) or upper flammable limit (UFL):

The upper explosiv e limit is the greatest per cen tage of va por in air th at will form an ignitable mixture (point D in figure 2-1 ). If the pe rcen tage of vapor present exceeds the UEL, th e mix ture is considered "rich" a nd will n ot s up- port combustion.

Flammable range or explosive range: The flamm able or explosive

range diagram in figure 2-} illustrates all th e possibl e combinations of va- por in air (bet ween the upper and lower flammable limits ) that form an

concen tratio n of'va-

a
a

'"

CARGO CHARACTERISTICS

AVOIDAN CE OFTIl F. FLAMMABLE RANGE

29

e

The flamma ble limits can vary su bstantially for diff

"

1

T

bl

'

Va por.

d

ca rg oes.

T

0

d

a

d

h

"nat y:

ata 8

'"

apor

pa

rti

"

ueren

petro eum

a mma t tty lor

t

1

<

Bnd chemica

several cargoes.

consult th e

e 2 -3 li sts th e ty pical limi te of n

.

d

.

.

b"I"

ete rrmne the flamm able limits of.

eels or t he l aboratory a nalysis of the

V

ICU I ar cargo

'

en eity iet he ratio of th e weight ofa vapor or gas

sa me temper-

cargo.

10 ' ''' '''' T OllutJon ~.,• ••. DtI!JbOn WIth air WIth nett gas
10
' ''' ''''
T
OllutJon
~.,•
••.
DtI!JbOn
WIth air
WIth nett gas
(unacceptable)
(purging)
5
G
H
''' "
o
s
10
15 20
21

-

Oxygen--percentage by volume

"' . JrpoeII cn.o. oiI n does l>()f rel\llel ll'lll

t.-Thll

,

"'~ClWI~l<bsl.Ill"*-'

lot

purposes ~be_01Ny

Wldc::::.

o with no air pr esen t compar ed to an equal volume of air at the

atur~ a nd ~ressu re .The v apor d ensity ofa l iquid can only b e accu rate ly de-

tennm ed m a s tandard

indi cates t hat t he ~as.wetghs the same

Valu es lesslh an 1 indica te t hat the gas is lighter than air a nd will tend to

rise. Values greater than 1 would indicate that the gas is heavier than ai r and would tend to settle. An unders tan din g .of vapor ~ensityis important because most petroleum cargo va pors are heavier than air and will settle in lower regions of a tank or purnp roo m . This is an important consideration when determining the method

is an important consideration when determining the method .laboratory experiment. A vapo r den sity of

.laboratory experiment. A vapo r den sity of 1

as that of an equal volume of ai r.

A and adequacy of te sting a n at mosphere for the presence of cargo vapors.

Vap or den sity is also an important element that contributes to the ac- cumulation of fla mmable vapors on deck and around the superstructure while tanks a re venting during a loading ope ration.

ThI_I'IiI'9'~_ ~

_

=

Figure 2·1. Flammable range diagram. Reprinted with

national S r. G '

f

uldeforOdTankersandTermina[s(1SGOTTJ 4th

perrrua sron

.

.

.

tesy OCIMF, IeS, and lAPR

otety

rom t

e

h

e Inter-

C

our-

diti

mon .

ignitab le mixtu re. Mixtures of h dr bo

the flamm able range (sha d d

y

.ocar

n vapor and air th at lie outside

.

tion. I n th e ca 8e o f o il carg oe~ .~;~8 ~n t he curve ) will not support co mbue-

lower explosive limit th

Conversely ift he hydr , cca ere bo

,.1. e ydroca rbon concentration is below t he

vapor to support combustion. . "

e upper explosive

18

Insu fficient

"

mnt , t here is insufficient

'

.

r

.

n

concent ratio

n 18 . a

b

ove t

h

1

air to support combus tion.

TABLE 2-3

p Typical Flammable Limits of Sam

p I e

rod uet

Crud~(average)

Gasoline

Kerosene

Benzene

Ethyleneoxide

Am

"

moma

Naphtha

LEL

1.0%

1.3%

0 7%

1:4%

2 ooc

"

ro

15 5%

0:9%

UEL

10.0%

7.6%

6.0%

8.0%

100 .0%

27.0%

6.7%

Souru: United State C

8

08al Guard

C

argoes

Range

9.0%

6.3 %

5.3%

6.6%

98.0%

11.5%

5.8%

AVOIDANCE OF THE FLAMMABLE RANGE

To enhance the ove rall safety of tran sporting flamm abl e cargoes, many tank ve ssels are eq uipped with inert gas systems (see cha pter 15 for a de- tailed discu ssion ). The purpose of this sys te m is to maintain the atmo- sphere of th e ca rgo tanks in a nonflammable condition throughout the voyage cycle (ope ra ti ng li fe ) of th e vessel. This is a chieved t hrough the use ora ga s or a mixture of gases t hat is deficient in oxygen and therefore inca- pable of su pport ing combustion . Alth ough the atmosphere or a tank may contain flammable vapors in varying concentration , there can be no fir e or explosion if the t ank is sta rve d of oxygen . A properly inerted cargo s pace is a ny compa rt ment wit h an a tmosphere contain ing 8 percent or le ss oxygen by volume an d mainta ined under posi-

ti ve pr essu re . T he application of an in ert gas sys te m durin g a typi cal voy-

flammable ran ge di agram (fig. 2-1).

Th e goal of t his system is to prevent the atmosphere of th e cargo tanks

age ca n best be illustrated re lati ve to a

from ever e ntering the flammable range.

Voyage Cycle (Inert Gas Cycle)

A conve n ie nt starting poin t for thi s discul'lsion is a vess el in t he shipyard with t he en tire ca rgo system clean and ga s free (see chapter 13 for a discus- sion of th e gas-free state). As shown in the fla mmable range diagra m (fig.

2-1), th e a t mosphe re of t he cargo tanks would likely be found near position

30

CARGO CHARACTERISTICS

A wi th an oxyge n cont~>nt o f2 l pe~ent by v~lu~e and a ~eadi n g o rl ess than

1 pt'rt'E"nt ofthe LELan a combustlble,-gas mdlcsto,r. Prior to depart ing the

vard o r while en route to the first loadi

ng port . th e

Inert gas ~Y8tem i so per .

ated to carry out th e primary inerting of the ca rgo tanks . "':'lth vents open

t he fresh air is drive n out of the cargo tanks and repla ced WIth good quaHt; i nert gas . The net effect of t his opera~ion is ~ lo","er ~h.e oxygen content of

the atmosphere in

thecargotanks . P~marytne:tm gl s 11I~stra ted in figure

2.} by moving to the left along the honzontal axi s from pom t A until t he at. mosphere reaches 8 percent or less oxygen by volume. It should be noted

content ora space is lowered ,. the ran~e ?fflarnm ability

for most petroleum products decreases progressively until it terminate s at

about 11 percent oxygen by volume . At the loading port, cargo entering the empty tanks will st art to dis- place the ine rt atmosphere. Due to the turbulence ofth e loading operat ion flammable cargo vapors are generated, resulting in th e a tmosphere mav:

iog up the vertica l (hydrocarbon) axis ofthe flammabl e range di agram to- ward-point F. There is no material change in the oxygen content provided a positive pressure is maintained within the space, thereby preventing the ingress of air. At the completion of the loading operation, th e atmosphere above the cargo in the topped-off tanktel is likely to be a rich mixture, yet still in an inert state. During the sea passage to the discharge port, the oxygen content and

that 8S t he oxygen

tank

(deck) pressure should be monitored. Due to

the fact tha t liquid car-

goes

expan d and contract with changes in sea and air tempera tu re, signifi-

cant fluctuati ons in the tank (deck ) pressure occur durin g the voyage . If,

for example,

peratures, it may be necessary to vent off the excess pressure. Conversely, when colder te mperatures and a corresponding drop in tank (deck) pres-

the deck pressure rises as a result of increasing a mbie nt tem-

';

su re are encountered. it may be necessary to start the inert gas sys te m and to~up the p:essure in th e tanks. Topping-up is defi ned as the introduction

ofme.rt gas mto a tank already in the inert con dit ion with the object of in-

creae mg th e.ta nk press~re to p reve nt a ny

system is sta rted and

perated for th e duration of th e ca rgo discharge. In ert gas is delivered to

the tankB.to re~laceth e ca rgo bein g discha rge d. To ensure that positive

o Upon amva l at th e.discharge port. th e in ert gas

in gress of air .

~~:ssure 18 mal~ta ined . ~h e

in ert gas s upply mu st excee d t he c ar go di s-

rge ~ate . Dunng the di sch arge op er ati on ( fig. 2 . 1) th e h ydrocarbon con -

'tit

tank

centration ofth e atmo sph

.

mtertgahs. Thereafter, during each successive load and di sch arge the

th

~ C ange IS acceptable provid ed

a mosp ere moves up and d

ere WI

own

'II d

rop as the ca rgo va pors a re diluted WI

e vertical (hydrocarbon) axis .T ' hi s ve

oxygen (aIT) ' 18 , not in trodu ced m ' to

'

rti

I-

the

,1

h

~ace

I

'

ossibJ

I P

. bl y ~mpromlfHngthe in ert status of the ta nk or vessel.

.

a u~r~ ~ S~ i° uld d evelo? at th e di scharge po rt . t his may nece ssitate p yerd. During the b all ast trip it m ay b ecome n eces s ar y

;k ,~~

"

:'\

C LASSIFICATION OF PETROI.EUM

31

to prepare th e ca rgo tank~s) for entry by personnel. The ta nk or lanks

s hould be w ~u:r-w as~ed 10 ac~~dance with reco mmended guideline s hile main t ainin g a n 1O~rt co ndition. F ollowing t he w ash. th e tank s are

;llrged with in ert gas pnor

to vent ilation with air.

PURGING

Purging is the introduction of inert gas into a la nk th at is already in an in-

ert condit ion wi th t he obj ect o f ~educing the h ydrocarbon

a point where subsequent ventilation with fresh air will not result in th e

creation of a flammable atmosphere. The purgi ng process is illustrated in

figure 2 -1 by moving fr~m ~ in t F

Safe indus try practice dictates that purgang of a tank should conti nue until the hydroca rbon concentration of the space is 2 percent or less by vol- ume as detennined by usin g a su itable hydrocarbon analyze r. Upon completion of purging, the space is ventilated with air using por- tabl e fan s or the inert ga s system in the gas-free mode.Ventilating with air at this point fu rther reduces the hydrocarbon concentration while increas- ing the oxygen content ofthe space. Th e ventilation process continues un til th e atmospheric tests reve al a return to sa fe readings (21 percent oxygen by volume a nd less that 1 percent LEL on a combustibl e-gas indicatorJ. '!?e process of ventilating the tank with air is shown in figure 2-1 by moving

co ncent rati on to

to p oint H .

from point H to point A.

It is imp ortant to realize that avoidanc e o f th e

.

.

n amm ~ble r an ge I~ thi .s

way is th e exp ectatio n of the tran sportation industry and ISonly possible If

the operator th oroughl y understands the use of the inert gas syste m.

C LASSIF ICATION OF PETROLEUM

Petroleum liquids are

following information addresses two common approaches.

classified in many ways throughout the world . The

Intem ational Classification In many safety-related rule s a nd r egul ati ons, ?etr:ole~m ca rgoes a re broad ly classified as volatile liquid s a nd nonvolatile Iiquida, . Volatile liquids: Petroleum liquids tha t have closed-cup flash pom u: be-

low 1400F (60 0C)are considered volatile. Over th e nor~alr a.nge of ambient

t emperaturee encountered d

unng transp?r t ~ cargoes m thi s category are ble

capable of producing gas/air mixtures within and above the flamm~ range. For this reason, volatile cargoe s are frequently trans ported In a

la nk with a cont rolled (inerted) atmosp here. Nonvol at ile liquids ' These arc pet roleum products that have closed-.cu~

flash points of 140° F (60 ° C) and above. Over t he normal range ofamblen '

atmosphere above these

'

wmpere tures encountered during transpor

t th

e

CARGO CHARACTERISTICS

CARC.o WEIG HT , CAPACITY, AND F LOW

33

30

bl Ih

) typ

ica lly contai ns gas concentration s be l ow t he lower

I fuel h oils oi and die.

ese cargoes, cweve-, th e

ClITpB

Ilamms

ell space

it

I

·

(' Iml.

CS

d

anPsin

e-~

this category include . . h rest

id

us

ue

C

·

I

0 1 8.

·

I

ti D n or hea t is often necessary du nngt

U 8

10

0

'A ther properuee associated WIth t

h

e voyage.

bl

aution mu st be e at mosphere is

excrt"illf'd with heated cargo, 8S the creation 0.(a flamma

. pp lea

po8tlible if it is heated to or near the flash point.

United St ates COBst Gua rd Class ific a tion The United States Coast Guard (USCG) separates petroleum liq uids into two categories: flammable and combustible.

Flammable liquids : Liquids that have an open -cup fla sh poin t at or be-

low BO' F (26.7 °CJ are classified 8S flammable

liquid s .

Combustible liquids: Liquids that have an open-cup flash point above

BO°F 126.7°C) are classified as combustible liquids. The flam mable and combustible liquids are subdivided into grad es based on their flash points and Reid vapor pressures. Tables 2-4 and 2-5 show the USCG classification system contained in Title 46 eFR Parts

30.10.15 and 30.10.22.

TABLE 2-4

USCG Clll8sificatio n of Flammable Liquids

Gnuk

A

B

Fla sh

Flash Point

BO°F or below

below

BOoF or

C BO°F or below

P oint a t or below sooF (26 .7°C)

Reid Vapor Pressure

14 psi and above

More than 8.5 but less than 14 psi

8.5 psi and below

Exa mp les

Natural gasoline, nap htha

Most commercial gasoli ne

Most crud e oils Aviation gasoline

TABLE 2·5 USCG Cla ssification of Combusti ble Liquids

Fla sh Point abo ve go OF (26

.70C)

Gnuk

Fltu h Point

D Above 80°F but below 150°F

E 150°F and above

Reid Vapor Pressure

N/A

N/A

Examples

Kerosene Commercial jet fuels Heavy fuel Lube oils Asphalt

CARgo WEIGHT, CAPACITY, AND FLOW

u

I

'. aain g o f a liquid c a

el

it is necessa ry to

of th e cargo a nd the a moun t of epace it wi ll occupy.

rgo into . a tan

~-

k

vessel

Once a car go ~ a s b een l oad ed i nto . a ta nk , it i s th.e~ nec es sary to deter:rn ine he quantity 10 t he tank . At t he discharge port, It IS necessary to again de -

t

rmin e the qu antity of ca rgo onboard pri or to the disch arge.

e

The sa fe, efficien t , an d

accurate determination of the qu antity of cargo

.

the vessel's tanks is

a key re sponsibility of the P IC . The quantity of cargo

~nan imp o rtant factor for proper acc ou ntin g ( b illin g); for ca rgo c alculation :~etenninin g dr aft , trim, and s t ress in o rde r to e n s u re th e vesse l i s not

ca lculation of tran sfer rates. Th e PIC shou ld therefore

overloade d); a nd for

be familiar with t he followin g tenn s relating to volume a nd weight, as they are used in conju nction with the tra nsport ofliquid ca rgoes in bulk.

Density Th e density of a substance is the weight per unit volume at a standa rd tern- perature of60°F (15.6°C ). The density of a liqui d is expressed in ounces per cubic foot. For example, a t a sta ndard tem perature of 60 °F 05 .6°C), the

density of fres hwater is 1,000 ou nces (62.5 Ibs) pe r cubic foot an d t he den- sity of salt wate r is 1,025 ounces (64 .06 Ibs) per cubic foot . If th e density and volume ofa liquid a re known, the weigh t of the vol-

ume occupied by th e

liquid can be found by

us ing t he following formula :

Weight:: Volume l( Density

If the wei ght a nd volume of the liquid are known , then the density can

be found

by tran sp osin g the fonnula :

Denaity e Weight I Volume

Specific Gravity (8m The specific gravity (SG) of a substa nce is t he ra tio of a given volume of a substance at a stand ard t emperatu re of 60 °F (15.GoC) to t h e weight of a n equal volume of freshwater a t the sa me te mpe ra ture. Fo r example:

Specific gravity of salt weter e Density of salt water - Deneity of freshwater :: 1,025 + 1,000 :: 1.025 This mea ns that salt water is 1.025 times as heavy DS freshwater .

If t he density ofa liquid is known, it can be converted into s pecific grav- ity by di viding its densi ty by t he density of fre shwater.

API Gravity

API gr avity is a n arb it ra ry sca le developed by the American Petroleum I n-

stit ute a nd

expressing th e we ight of a mea su red volume of a liquid.

used in the transportation industry as an alternative means of

,

C»GO rHARACTERISTICS

Th API gravity uf a liquid is expressed in a scale of degr ees API at a

stand: rd temper ature of 60°F (IS.6 °G). Freshwater has an a rbit ra ry grac.

w at er h a ve an API gravi t y

APr gravity

8 than 10. For information purposes, the API gravtty 19 denved u Sin g th e follow.

i ty o f 10 d egrees. L iquids light e~ tha n f re sh

greeter than 10 snd liquids heavier t han fres hwater have a n

I

.

.

.

.

ing formula:

API gravi ty in degrees = ( 14 1.5/S pecific gravity @ 60 "F) - 131 .5

Determination of Density, Specific Gravity, a n d API Gravity

Ahydrometer is one ofthe instruments commonly used to measure density. Hydromete rs are cali brated to measure density in ounces; howe ver . those th at measure API gravity 8 Te marked in degrees API . To obtain th e s pecific

gravity of a liquid, a density hydrometer is used and the reading is di vided

by 1,000 (the densi ty of fres hwater). To obta in the density/AP I gravity of cargo in

and the appropriate hydrometer used. Due to the fact that liq uid cargoes

expan d or contract with

the den sity/API gravi ty

of t he liqu id at the temperature the s am ple was

the reading obta ined is

a tank , a s a mple is drawn

changes in temperatures,

tes ted. Th erefore, it is esse ntia l to ta ke a te m perature readi ng of the sam- pIe to accurately calculate t he density or AP I gravity.

Units of Measure Table 2-6 shows the typical units of measure used in the tran sportation in. dustry .

Un.it

1

1

1

1

1 gTOs.e ba rJ't'1

1

barrel

cubicmeter

ton metri c (tonn e)

ton (long)

n

barJ't'1

TABLE 2--6

Units of Measure

ltfeasu~

42 gallons (US ) 6.2898 barr els 1,000 kilograms (2,204.6226 pounds) 2,240 pounds (1,016.0469 kilograms) 42 gallons at actual temperature in the tank 42 gallons adjusted to standard temperature of 60°F

.

Viscosity

Viscosity is a mea sure of th

no

If ncnon " ot a liquid or its resista nce to

"'I'. ISd s n Important consi dera tion whe n determin in g t he pumpebility

c h anges with different tempera-

increases, the vi scosity

It ·

e m . ema

f

yo

t

·

o IqUI (u fl. o
o
IqUI
(u
fl.
o

cargo Th I e viscos' t

.

I

a Ii tqur id

e F

a mp e . ~s th e te~perature of a liquid

be W Ol

effiCie nt loading a nd disch argin g of t he vessel

the PIC

a ar e of th e optimum viscosity of th e cargo. This value is useful

TOXlC ITY-MEASUREMENT AND REGULATIONS

35

in determining t.he h.eati ng requiremen ts of a ca r go and t he proper tem per-

atures to

for expressing viscosity . Cont rolled labora-

tory expe rime nt s a re used to determine the viscosity of a liquid. In one

method, Saybolt Seconds Universal (SSU). viscosity is measured by the

time in second s t hat it take s for a liquid at a pre scribed temperature to drain from a sta ndard viscosimeter. Thi s information is typically derived

from a laboratory an alysis

be main t ain ed dunn g cargo t ransfer a nd in t ra nsit .

Th ere are man y st a nda rds

report of t he cargo.

Pour P oint the lowest temperature a t which the liquid will

The pour poin t of a liquid is

remain flu id . It

or Celsius. The PI C s houl d be mindful of thi s temperature whe n transport- ingcargoes with elevated pou r points. Examples ofs uch cargoes include re-

sidual fuel oils, vacuum gas oils, wa x, an d as phalt. During trans port, the cargo temperature in t he ta nks should be closely monitored an d t he heat- ing sys tem adjusted to main ta in t he recommended temperature. To avoi d possible solidificati on of the cargo, th e temperature should neve r be al-

lowed to approach t h e pour point of t he

is e xpressed as a temperature eith er in degrees Fahrenheit

su bstance.

TOXICI T Y- ME ASUR EME NT AND REGULATIONS

Toxicity refers to the poison ous nature a nd poten tial health risk s associ- ated with a particul ar subs ta nce. Th e toxicity of a substance is difficult to measure and is subject to re vision a s mor e detailed inform at ion a bout t he

The t hr eshold limit va lue-

in dicator of t he r elati ve tox-

icity of gases and ass ists individu als in re ducing health ri sks. Studies per - formed on animals a nd ext rapolated for the human body form the ba sis of

rating toxicity level s.

Threshold Li mit Valu e-Tim e Wei gh te d Ave rage (TLV-TWA)

ramifications or exposure become available. time weighted average provide s a conve nient

The t h reshold limit value-time weighted average (TLV-TWAl is a designa- tion established by the American Conference of Govemme ntal an d Industrial Hygienis ts (ACGl H) for vario us substances. Th ese designations are usedas recommended guidelines in th e workpl ace; th ey are subject to review and may be updated annually, in whi ch case the results will be publi shed in ACGlH publi cations . The term th reshold limit value-time weighted average (TLV-TWA) is use d in the transportation industry to express the toxicity of vapors from a substance. The TLV-TWA ora substance is usually expressed as the number of parts per million {ppml by volume of vapor in air. According to ACG IH, "Threshold Limit Values refer to airborne con cen- tra tions or substances and represent conditions under which it is believed

CARGO CHARACTE RIST ICS

rly all workers may be repeatedly ex~ed day after day wit hout

ad, ' rae health E'ffE'cts .- When e xpressed 8S 8 t~ m e weighted aver age , the

l'Onct'ntration is considered over a normal eight- hour workday a nd a forty-hour workweek.

Permissible Exposure Limit- Time Weighted Average (PEL-TWA) TIlt'penn issible exposure limit (PEL) ofa substance is a designati on used by the Occupational Sa fety an d Health Administration (OSHA) and the United States Coast Guard (USCG). The PEL represents a regulatory

valu e (as opposed to a re commended guid elin e>t ha t mu st not he exceeded

in the workplace. For

benzene regulation is 1 ppm.

example, th e PE L-TWA for cargoes covered by the

that n

Threshold Limit Value- Short-Term Exposure Limit (TLV·STEL)

The thre shold limit valu e-short-term exposure limit (TLV-STEL) defines the concentration of a s u bsta nce to which work ers ca n be e xpo sed contin uo c usly for a short period of time, provided th at the da ily TLV is not al so ex- ceeded. The STEL is a fifteen-minu te time weighted average exposure that should not be exceeded at any time during t he workday, even if the

eight-h our time weigh ted average is within

Exposures at the STEL may not be longer th an fifte en minutes and can- not be repeated more than four tim es per workday. There mu st also be at least sixty minu tes between successi ve exposu res at the STE L.

th e nv.

Threshold Limit Value-Ceiling (TI v-C) The thresh old limit val ue-ceiling (TLV-C) is th e maxim um concentration of vapor in air, expresse d as either a TLV or PEL th at mu st not be ex- ~eed?d~venfor an instant. In situations when there is no es ta blished ceil- 109limit , the TLV-STEL is used.

Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH)

The .designation IDLH (immediately dangerous to life or heal th ) was es- tabhshed by the Nation al Institute for Occup ational Safety and Health (NIOSH1, an agency of the Public Health Servic e

IDLW

t_

IS

d

e ined by NIOSH as a condition "that poses a threat of expo-

at exposure IS . likely . to cause death

permanent a dverse health effects or prevent ee-

f

.

sure W airborne contamina' ~

'

.

n

w

h

r ca to
r
ca
to

en t

h

mrmedlateor delayed

such an environme nt:

rllct~calapplication of th e IDLH designati on is to provide a baste ejectum of an appropriate respirator.

37

SOURCESO FCARGOIN FOa~TION

Odor Threshold

Expressed in parts per million by volume in air, the odor threshold is the

smallest concentration of a

through the sense of smell. It is not an ab solute valu e as it can vary considerab ly among individu- als. Some odors are also capable ofdeadening the sense ofsmell. It is there- fore not advisable to rely on the sense of smell as an indicator of the presence ofa dan gerous vapor . Knowing th e odor thre shold of a toxic substance is important . If, for ex- a mple, a liq uid ~~s a TL V- C of 20 ppm and an odor th res hold of 5 0 ppm , b y the time an individu al detects the presence of this substance by the sense of smell, harmful exposure has alrea dy occurred.

Given th e number of differ ent liquid cargoes transported on ta nk vessels. it is not possible for one person to know all the details concerning a particular product. It is a daunting task to become familiar with all the products a PIC might be expected to handle and transpo rt; therefore, it is vital that th e PIC kn ow where to turn for accurate, reliable information.

gas th at can he detected by most individuals

SOURCES OF CARGO INFORMATION

There are various sources of inform ation regard ing the physical properties and hazar ds of cargoes. Th e need for curre nt, accurate cargo infonnation is

essential for t he safety of tho se in volved in the transport ofbulk liquid car- goes. Some of the more common sources of cargo specificinformation avail-

able to the

per son-in-charge include the following:

Material Safety Data Sh eets (MSDS) prod uced by t he manufacturer of the substance Chemical Data Guide for Bu lk Shipment by Water (former CG·388), figure 2-2, a nd Chemical Hazards Response Information System (CHRIS), figure 2-3, from th e United States Coast Guard . As of thi s writing, the United States Coast Guard has revised th e CHRIS da- tabase and made it available to th e public in a number of ways:

CD·ROM, the Intem et (www.chrismanual.com).and in hard copy. The CD-ROM contains physical , chemical, toxicological , and com- bustion pr operties for over 1,300 chemical s and mixtures in addition to pollution resp onse and regulatory information. In the event that th e listed sources of in formation do not address the substance being handl ed or tra nsported , in an emergency, the PIC shou ld contact CHE MTREC or the National Response Center. Tank er Safety Guide Data Sheets from the Intemational Chamber of Shipping (lCS)

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