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In addition to the general principles for area planning in Section 4.1, URA_PCH
can decrease the overall UL signaling load from area updates if some additional
principles are utilized.
?URAs can overlap LA and RA borders if they are within the RNC area, as shown in
Figure 10. This kind of overlap can be used to spread out area updates geograp
hically. In Figure 10 URA3, URA4 and URA5 are overlapping the LA border. If the
re is ping-pong LAU between LA borders such a URA planning would remove the ping
-pong in the LA border area for UEs in state URA_PCH. The ping-pong could occur
in the borders between the URA areas instead, but then LAU, RAU and URAU are spr
ead out geographically, meaning a more distributed RBS UL load on air interface
and processors.
?LAU will be spread geographically with URA_PCH due to another reason as well: W
hen a URA connection times out due to expiration of InactivityTimerPch the UE wi
ll make a LAU if the LA is new compared to last time the UE was in state Idle. T
his means that less UEs are doing LAU at the LA border, and instead doing it at
any position in the RNC, meaning a better geographical distribution of UL signal
ing load than without URA_PCH.
?URAs can overlap each other. The advantage is that overlap could prevent URAU p
ing-pong by creating a hysteresis zone with cells belonging to two to four URAs.
Another advantage is that UEs moving in one direction will make URAU in a diffe
rent cell than UEs moving in the opposite direction, thus spreading the UL signa
ling load geographically. The disadvantage is that paging areas become slightly
bigger than without any URA overlap.