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AP Human Geography

Chapter Ten - Agriculture

Seth Adler

Seth Adler
I. Where Did Agriculture Originate?
a. Began before recorded history.

A. Origins of Agriculture.
a. Agriculture Modification of Earths surface through cultivation of plants and rearing of
animals for sustenance or economic gain.
(1) Originated when humans domesticated plants and animals.
b. Crop Any plant cultivates by humans.

1. Hunters and Gatherers.
a. Lived in small groups (<50).
(1) Large groups would use up more resources.
b. Men hunted and women gathered.
(1) Based on archaeology and anthropology, not stereotypes.
c. Kept peace by steering clear of each others territory.
d. Less than a quarter million (0.005%) still hunt and gather.
(1) Spinifex (Pila Nguru)
i. Australias Great Victorian Desert
(2) Sentinelese
i. Indias Andaman Islands
(3) Bushmen
i. Botswana and Namibia

2. Invention of Agriculture
a. Originated in multiple hearths.
(1) Southwest Asia
i. Barely, rice, lentil, and olive
ii. 10,000 years ago
iii. Diffused East, rice, millet, sorghum, and yam
(2) Latin America
i. 4,000 to 5,000 years ago
ii. Mexico beans and cotton, Peru potato
iii. Maize
b. Animals were also domesticated in many hearths.
(1) Southwest Asia
i. Cattle, goats, pigs, sheep
ii. 8,000 to 9,000 years ago
iii. Dog 12,000 years ago
iv. Horse Central Asia
Seth Adler
c. First used animals to cultivate the land and were later used to sell leather and milk.
d. Both environmental and cultural factors contributed to agriculture.
(1) Those who favor environmental reference climate change around 10,000
years ago. (End of last ice age)
(2) Those who favor cultural say that humans preferred living in a fixed place.
e. People noticed that discarded food and berries grew into new plants. Later
generations learned to use water and manure.
f. Improved communications have increased diffusion of plants around the world.

B. Subsistence and Commercial Agriculture
a. Farmers in LDCs practice subsistence farming, whereas farmers in MDCs practice
commercial agriculture.
b. Subsistence agriculture production of food for the farmers family.
c. Commercial agriculture production of food for sale.
d. The most widely used map of agriculture was done by Derwent Whittlesey.
(1) 11 regions
e. Because of environmental determinism, geographers do not place too much emphases on
the climate determining what is grown.
f. 5 features that determine commercial farming from subsistence:
Purpose of farming
Percentage of farmers in the labor force
Use of machinery
Farm size
Relationship of farming to other businesses

1. Purpose of Farming
a. In LDCs, farmers grow food for themselves. Excess food may be sold to the
b. Agricultural products from commercial farming are not sold directly to the
consumer, but to food-processing companies, such as General Mills and Kraft.

2. Percentage of Farmers in the Labor Force
a. MDC 5% of workers
(1) North America 2% of workers
(2) Number of farmers declined in the 20
i. 1940 6 million
ii. 1960 4 million
iii. Today 2 million
(a) Because of push and pull factors
Seth Adler
b. LDC 50% of workers

3. Use of Machinery
a. MDCs can feed a lot more people because they use machines, whereas in LDCs,
farmers much work by hand.
b. First equipment was made by wood.
(1) All-iron plow was made in the 1770s
c. Transportation improvements have aided commercial farming.
(1) Cattle arrive healthy because they are not driven on hoof
(2) Crops reach the market without spoiling
d. Commercial farmers use scientific research.
(1) Hybrid plants, fertilizers, animal breeds
e. Electronics help commercial farmers.
(1) GPS
i. Coordinates for spreading fertilizers
ii. Monitoring cows

4. Farm Size
a. Commercial farms are large.
(1) 180 hectares (449 acres)
(2) Family owned
(3) Frequently rent nearby fields
b. Farms are larger because of newer equipment.
c. Although the US has fewer farmers, the amount of farmland is increasing.
(1) Declined from its all-time peak in 1960s because of expansion of urban
d. Prime Agricultural Land The most productive farmland.

5. Relationship of Farming to Other Businesses
a. Commercial farming is closely tied to other businesses.
b. Agribusiness Commercial farming method by using many different steps in
making food.
(1) Common in the US
(2) Includes tractor manufacturers, fertilizer production, and seed

II. Where Are Agricultural Regions in LDCs?

A. Shifting Cultivation
Seth Adler
a. Humid Low-Latitude , or A, climate regions.
b. High temperatures and rainfall
c. Tropical rainforests of South America, Central and West Africa, and Southeast Asia.

1. Characteristics of Shifting Cultivation
a. Shifting Cultivation Process of subsistence farming in which farmers use one
field to grow crops, then shifts to another field. Each field is used for a few
years, then left empty for a long time.
Farmers clear land by killing vegetation and burning the debris
a. Slash-and-burn Agriculture Another name for Shifting Cultivation because of the
method of removing crops.
Farmers grow crops on a cleared field for only a few years and then leave it fallow for
many years so the soil can recover.
b. Practiced in small villages

- The Process of Shifting Cultivation
a. Each year, villagers designate an area of land for farming.
b. Before planting, they remove the vegetation.
(1) Use axes to cut down large trees, which then bring down smaller
c. On a windless day, they burn the debris.
d. Rain then washed the ashes into the soil.
e. Swidden The cleared land
(1) Also known as lading, milpa, chena, and kaingin
f. Before planting, the cleared land is prepared by hand, not with animals.
g. The only fertilizer is potash (potassium).
h. Little weeding is done the first year.
i. The land can then support crops for 3 years.
j. Most productive harvesting comes in the second year.
k. The field is used again in 6-20 years.

- Crops of Shifting Cultivation
a. Vary by local custom and taste.
b. The Kayapo People
(1) Brazil
(2) They plant in rings (like Target logo)
c. Appear more chaotic than MDC farming.

- Ownership And Use of Land In Shifting Cultivation
Seth Adler
a. Traditionally, land was owned by the village as a whole. Today, private
individuals own the land.
b. Shifting cultivation occupies around of the worlds land area. However,
less than 5% of world practice this. The gap is because a lot of land is
required to move every few years.

2. Future of Shifting Cultivation
a. Declining in the tropics of 0.2% a year.
b. Being replaced by logging, cattle ranches, and cash crops.
c. This can only support a small population
d. This is a preliminary step in economic development.
(1) This should be replaced by more sophisticated agricultural techniques.
e. This is more environmentally friendly, though.
f. This contributes to global warming because cutting down trees release large
amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.

B. Pastoral Nomadism
a. Pastoral Nomadism Form of subsistence agriculture based on herding of domesticated
b. Pastoral means sheepherding.
c. Live in arid lands
(1) Central and Southwest Asia, and North Africa
i. The Bedouins of Saudi Arabia and North Africa
ii. The Masai of East Africa
(2) 20% of land

1. Characteristics of Pastoral Nomadism
a. Depend on animals rather than crops
(1) Animals provide milk, skin, and hair
b. Consume mostly grain
c. The bigger the herd, is a measure of power and security
d. May trade with sedentary subsistence farmers
e. Some nomads plant grain and come back later in the year.

- Choice of Animals
a. According to cultural and physical characteristics.
b. Camel is the best in North Africa and Southwest Asia, along with goats and
sheep. The horse is preferred in Central Asia.
c. Family needs 25-60 goats or sheep, or 10-25 camels
Seth Adler
a. Go long periods without water, carry heavy loads, and move fast.
b. Bothered by flies and sleep-sickness and take a long time (1
year) to give birth.
a. Tough, agile, and can survive on any vegetation
b. Need more water than camels
a. Slow, affected by climate changes, require more water, and are
picky eaters

- Movements of Pastoral Nomads
a. Do not move randomly, but have a strong sense of territory.
b. Will only invade other territory in an emergency or war.
c. Transhumance Seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and
lowland areas.
d. Pasture Grass or plants grown for feeding grazing animals.

2. The Future of Pastoral Nomadism
a. Stage in the evolution of agriculture
(1) Between hunters and gatherers and sedentary farmers.
b. Today, it is a declining form
c. They used to be the most important people of the dry lands because they
had a lot of information. Today, they are replaced by technology.
d. Governments want to resettle these nomads in China, Kazakhstan, and
Southwest Asian countries. They want the land for themselves.
(1) Nomads do not cooperate. They are encouraged to work for
petroleum and mining industries.
e. In the future, pastoral nomadism will be confined to small areas that are
not useful for irrigation or minerals.

C. Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
a. Intensive Subsistence Agriculture A form of subsistence farming that requires
farmers to use a lot of effort to get the most food from the land.
b. Densely populated areas like East, South, and Southeast Asia.
(1) Usually smaller in Asia
i. Fragmented lots from children

1. Intensive Subsistence with White Rice Dominant
Seth Adler
a. White rice Process of planting rice on dry land and then moving it to
flooded fields.
b. Several steps to growing rice
(1) First, prepare the field using a plow by oxen or water buffalo
(2) Flood with water
i. Sawah The flooded field in the Austronesian language.
ii. Paddy Incorrectly Americans call the fields; Malay word for
wet rice.
(3) Transfer rice seedlings from fry land to submerge in water.
(4) Harvest by hand with knives
i. Separate husks from seeds
ii. Chaff The husks
iii. The heads are separated by beating them with bare feet.
iv. Threshed To beat grain from stocks
(5) The threshed rice is placed in a tray, while the lighter chaff is
i. Winnowed Blown away
(6) The hull is removed by mortar and pestle
i. Hull outer covering
c. Grown on flat lands but are forced onto mountains.
d. Double cropping Getting two harvests from one field
i. Warm winters
ii. South China and Taiwan
iii. Alternating between rice and wheat or barley

2. Intensive Subsistence with Wet Rice Not Dominant
a. Climate prevents some farmers from growing rice.
(1) Interior India and Northeast China
i. Wheat and barley
b. Land is worked by hand
c. Crop rotation Rotating use of fields from crop to crop each year.
d. Since the Communist Revolution in 1949, the Communist governments
have organized land into communes, which are several villages sharing a
big land.
(1) China hoped the sharing of scarce equipment, animals, and projects
could be shared.
(2) Instead, people didnt work as hard
e. China has stopped this.

Seth Adler
D. Plantation Farming
a. Form of commercial farming found in the tropics and subtropics.
(1) Located in LDCs, but run by European corporations for MDCs.
(2) Crops are normally processed here.
b. Plantation Large farm that specializes in one or two crops.
(1) Cotton, sugarcane, coffee, rubber, and tobacco
(2) Cocoa, jute, bananas, tea, coconuts, and palm oil
(3) Latin America Coffee, sugarcane, and bananas
(4) Asia rubber and palm oil
(5) Crops such as tobacco, cotton, and sugarcane, which can only be planted once a
year, are less likely to be on a large plantation than in the past.
c. Sparsely settled locations
(1) Import workers and provide them food, shelter, and service
d. Until the Civil War, plantations were important in the US South.
(1) Principle crop was cotton, tobacco, and sugarcane
(2) Demand for cotton increased after textile factories in Europe opened and Eli
Whitney invented the cotton gin in 1793.

III. Where Are Agricultural Regions in MDCs?

A. Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming
a. Most common form in America west of the Appalachian and east of the 98
longitude and in Europe from France to Russia.

1. Characteristics of Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming
a. Most of the crops are fed to animals, rather than humans.
(1) Gets its sales from eggs, beef, and milk.
b. Distribute workload throughout the year.
c. In the US, corn is the most common type of crop
d. Soybeans are second most important
(1) Most is fed to pig and cattle
e. Corn belt Ohio to Dakotas

1. Crop Rotation
a. The farm is divided into multiple fields that are planted on a planned cycle, often
several years.
b. Helps maintain fertility of a field.
c. Overall production in shifting cultivation is lower than commercial mixed farming
because not all of the fields are being used.
Seth Adler
d. Cereal grain Oats, wheat, rye, or barley.
e. A two-field crop-rotation system was developed in Northern Europe in the 5

(1) A cereal grain was planted in Field A one year, while Field B was left fallow.
The next year, Field B was planted and A was not.
f. In the 8
century, a three-field system was used.
(1) The first field was planted with a winter cereal, the next with a spring
cereal, and the other left fallow.
(2) This led to each field giving four harvests in 6 years instead of only three.
g. A four-field system was used in Europe in the 18
(1) Field A Root (turnip)
Field B Cereal (wheat)
Field C Rest (regains nutrients, clover)
Field D Cereal (barley)

B. Dairy Farming
a. Most important commercial farming near large urban areas (NE US, SE Canada, and NW
(1) Important also in South and East Asia
b. Rising incomes allowed people to buy milk, which was once a luxury.

1. Regional Distribution of Dairying
a. For most of the 20
century, the worlds milk came from MDCs
(1) Risen in LDCs
(2) India, US, China, Pakistan, Russia
b. Most important type of agriculture in the first ring outside cities.
(1) Highly perishable
c. Milkshed The ring surrounding a city in which the milk does not spoil.
d. Before railroads, milksheds were within 50km. Now milk can be up to 500km.
e. Farmers sell milk to whole sellers, and butter factories.
f. The farther a farm is from a milkshed, the smaller chance they will have fresh milk.
(1) They will most likely get cheese, butter, or condensed milk.
g. The proximity of northeastern farms to large cities is an example of the regional
h. New Zealand 5% fresh milk
i. UK 50% fresh milk

2. Challenges for Dairy Farmers
a. Declining revenue and raising costs.
Seth Adler
a. Cows must be milked twice a day, every day. They always need attention.
Winter Feed
a. Need to fed cows in winter when they cannot graze.

C. Grain Farming
a. Grain Seeds from various grasses, such as wheat, corn, oats, barley, rice, millet, and
b. Mostly the major crop on most farms.
c. Grown for humans rather than livestock.
d. Most important crop is wheat.
(1) Sold for a higher price because it is used more.
e. Worlds leading export crop.
f. Largest producer of grain is the US.
(1) Also in Canada, Argentina, Australia, France and the UK.
g. Winter-wheat Wheat planted in the autumn and harvested in the early summer.
h. Spring-wheat Wheat planted in the spring and harvested in the late summer.
i. Within North America, farming is concentrated in 3 area:
The Winter Wheat Belt through Kansas, Colorado, and Oklahoma. Survives winter
because it is insulated under the snow.
The Spring Wheat Belt through the Dakotas, Montana, and Southern Saskatchewan in
Canada. Winters are to severe so they are planted in the spring.
The Palouse region of Washington State.
j. Reaper To cut grain standing in the field.
k. The McCormick reaper (1830s) allowed large-scale wheat production.
l. Combine Reaping, threshing, and cleaning.
m. Some firms may have 2 sets of fields in the spring and winter belt.
(1) The same machinery can be used in both places so it wont cost as much.

D. Livestock Ranching
a. Ranching Commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive area.
b. Semiarid land in MDCs where soil is too poor for crops.
c. Dominated commercial agriculture from 1867 to 1885.
d. Expanded during the 1860s.
(1) East coast cities would pay $30 instead of $3.
(2) Driven by hoof until they got to the railroad.
i. Most famous route was the Chishlom Trail
(i) Began near Brownsville at the Mexican border through Texas
e. Declined in importance during the 1880s.
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(1) Came into conflict with sedentary farmers
(2) The Code of the West
ii. Ranchers had range rights
(i) Their cattle could graze on open land and scarce water.
iii. When the government started selling land, ranchers did not have any right to
(i) They tried to get their land back, illegally.
((i)) They cut down fences
(((i))) Farmers would use barbed wire (1873) and won.
f. With new irrigation, land in the US was converted to crop growing.
g. Commercial ranching is also done in Australia
(1) Interior during the 19
(2) Used sheep
h. Also grown in Spain, Portugal, Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay.
(1) Argentina has access to the ocean.
i. Similar stages over the world
(1) First, heard animals in a nomadic way
(2) Then, transformed into fixed farming by making ranches
(3) Then, confined to drier land because farms were being built
(4) To survive, they experimented

E. Mediterranean Agriculture
a. Lands that border the Mediterranean Sea and also in California, Chile, South Africa,
and Australia.
b. All on the west coast of continents.
(1) Sea winds provide moisture and temperature
(2) Hilly regions
c. Get most of the income from crops than animals. That is because it is hard to raise
animals during the winter.
d. Although less common, transhumance is the practice of moving animals to coastal plains
in the winter and hills in the summer.
e. Most crops are grown for human consumption, rather than animals.
f. Horticulture Growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers.
g. A combination of physical and cultural characteristics determine what is grown.
h. In the lands bordering the Sea, the most important crops are olives and grapes. Wine is
also produced. Half of the land is also used for growing grains for pasta and bread.
i. Seeds are planted in the fall and harvested in early summer.
j. Cereal is grown the least in California.
Seth Adler
(1) Grow fruits and vegetables.
(2) Rapid growth of urban areas have converted high-quality land into housing

F. Commercial Gardening and Fruit Farming
a. Most common form of agriculture in the US Southeast.
b. Long growing season and humid climate.
c. Truck farming Commercial gardening and fruit farming because truck was a Middle
English term for bartering.
d. Grow apples, lettuce, cherries, and tomatoes.
(1) Some are sold fresh, but most are sold to large processors.
e. Highly efficient and take advantage of machinery.
(1) Experiment with new fertilizers and seeds
(2) Higher immigrants
f. Specialty farming has spread to New England
(1) Limited but increasing demand.
(2) Asparagus, cherries, peppers, mushrooms, and strawberries.

IV. Why Do Farmers Face Economic Difficulties?

A. Challenges for Commercial Farmers
b. Because they can make so much food, they receive little money.

2. Importance of Access to Markets
a. Geographers use the Von Thunen model to explain the importance of proximity
(1) Johann Heinrich von Thunen first made the model in 1826 in the book called
The Isolated State. According to the model, a commercial farmer considers
which crops to cultivate and animals to raise based on location. The farmer
compares 2 costs, the cost of land versus the cost of transportation.
(2) Based on his experience as an owner of a large estate in northern Germany in
the 19
i. The first ring was milk and gardens.
(i) It is close because they perish
ii. The next ring was wood lots.
(i) It is close because it is expensive to transport heavy items
iii. The next rings were used for various crops and pasture.
iv. The outermost ring was for grazing, which requires a lot of space.
(3) The model assumed that all land was uniform quality.

Seth Adler
3. Overproduction in Commercial Farming
a. They have low incomes because they produce much more food than is demanded.
(1) Although food supply has increased, demand has stayed the same
i. Demand stays the same because there is little growth in MDCs
b. The US has 3 policies that are supposed to address this problem:
(1) Farmers are encouraged to avoid producing crops that are in excess supply.
i. Because of soil erosion, the government encourages the planting of fallow
crops, such as clover, that restores nutrients to the soil.
(2) The government pays farmers when certain commodity prices are low.
i. The government sets a target price for the commodity and pays the
farmer the difference.
(3) The government buys surplus production and sells or donates it to foreign
ii. In addition, low-income Americans receive food stamps to stimulate the
purchase of surplus food.
c. The government has spent an average of $1.6 billion a year on food subsidies
(1) Higher when there is poor weather
(2) More farmers in Europe receive more subsides

3. Sustainable Agriculture
a. Sustainable agriculture Agricultural processes that enhances environmental quality.
b. Typically generate lower costs but costs less.
c. Organic Farming
(1) Large farms rely on nonsustainable practices such as burning fossil fuels.
(2) Worldwide 0.24% of farmland is organic
i. Australia is the leader
Sensitive land management
Limited use of chemicals
Better integration of crop and livestock

- Sensitive Land Management
a. Ridge tillage System of planting crops on ridge tops.
(1) Plant crops on 10-20cm ridges
(2) Lower production costs and greater soil conservation
b. Lower production costs because there are less investments in tractors
(1) The primary tool is a row-crop cultivator that forms ridges
c. Minimum soil disturbance
Seth Adler
(1) Because there are more nutrients, there are more earthworms, which
cause better drainage.
b. More labor intensive, but more money per acre.

- Limited Use of Chemicals
a. In conventional agriculture, seeds are genetically modified to resist
chemicals. These are called Roundup-Ready seeds because the maker,
Monsanto Corp, sells its weed killers under the brand name, Roundup.
b. Sustainable agriculture uses little to no herbicides to control weeds.
Farmers must spend more time.

- Integrated Crop and Livestock
a. Sustainable agriculture tries to integrate crops and animals as much as
(1) Number of Livestock
a. The amount and distribution of animals depends on the landscape.
b. The farmer needs to move the animals so there is no overuse.
c. Growing row crops on more level land while confining pastures to
steeper slopes will reduce soil erosion.
(2) Animal Confinement
a. There is a moral and ethical debate over animal welfare in intense
b. If animals are not confined, they can contribute to the soils
fertility but will also cause a smell to the nearby houses.
(3) Management of Extreme Weather Conditions
a. Herd size may need to be reduced during droughts.
b. Herds can also eat crops that would normally be failures.
c. Reduces fuel buildup in grasslands, less chance of fire.
(4) Flexible Feeding and Marketing
a. Feed costs are the highest cost
b. Feed can be lowered by monitoring animal condition and
understanding seasonal variations

B. Challenges for Subsistence Farmers
Must feed an increasing number of people because of population growth in LDCs.
Must grow food for export because of the adoption of the international trade
approach to development.

1. Subsistence Farming and Population Growth
Seth Adler
a. According to Ester Boserup, population determines distribution of crops. It makes
farmers think of better methods.
b. For hundreds of years, farmers were able to grow foods for villages assuming no
droughts or floods.
(1) Adoption of New Farming Methods
a. Plows replace sticks
b. More weeding is done
c. More ditches are dug
d. Additional labor comes from the growing population
(2) Land Is Left Fallow For Shorter Periods
a. 5 Stages by Boserup
Forest Fallow. Fields are used up to 2 years and left fallow for more than 20 years
(enough for a forest to grow)
Bush Fallow. Fields are used for 8 years and left fallow for 10 years (enough for small
trees and bushes to grow)
Short Fallow. Felds are used for 2 years (?) and left fallow for 2 years (enough for
grasses to grow)
Annual Cropping. Fields are used every year and rotates for a few months with roots.
Multicropping. Fields are used several times a year and never left fallow.

2. Subsistence Farming and International Trade
a. To expand production, farmers needed equipment which can be bought (very
expensive) through trading.
b. To gain funds, LDCs must produce something that MDCs want.
(1) Some sell manufactured goods, most sell crops to MDCs.
i. MDCs pay a lot for crops that are out of season or cannot be grown there
because of climate.
c. Kenya
(1) Women grow crops for the family, while men work for wages
i. Men grow crops to trade
ii. Women make clothing and jewelry to sell

3. Drug Crops
a. Some export crops from LDCs can be turned into drugs.
b. Marijuana is the leading drug
c. The UN says that 4 million people survive on the sale of opium.
d. Afghanistan is the source of 80% of the worlds opium, which is used to make heroin.
e. Most consumers are in central Asia.
f. Much of the making and processing of cocaine is done in Colombia.
Seth Adler
g. The majority of marijuana that reaches the US is from Mexico (from the Cannabis
sativa plant)
(1) Not expanding worldwide like opium poppies and coca leaves are

C. Strategies to Increase the Food Supply
Expanding land used for agriculture
Increasing the productivity of the land used for agriculture
Identifying new food sources
Increasing exports from other countries

1. Expanding Agricultural Land
a. World production of agriculture has increased because the amount of land devoted
to agriculture is expanding.
(1) When the population increased rapidly during the industrial revolution,
farmers could just move to uninhabited land.
b. Today, scientists do not believe that farmers can keep expanding land.
(1) Cultivated land is expanding in Africa at 1%, but the population is expanding at
c. Worldwide, agricultural land is expanding more slowly than population.
d. Some farmlands are abandoned because of lack of water.
e. Desertification Human activities that cause a land to deteriorate to a desert like
f. Excessive crop planting (34%), tree cutting (10%), and animal grazing (28%) has
depleted soil nutrients.
g. The Earth Policy Institute estimates that 5 million acres are being degraded.
h. The UN estimates 70 million acres are being desertification a year.
i. Too much water also threatens land.
(1) In land that has human-build irrigation systems, ground water can raise to
high and roots can get waterlogged.
(2) 10% of irrigated land is waterlogged
(3) Asia and South America
(4) Salt is also bad (Mesopotamia may have collapsed because of these reasons)
j. Urbanization also reduces the agricultural land.

2. Increasing Productivity
a. New agricultural practices allow farmers to harvest more crops from the same
amount of land.
b. Green revolution The invention and rapid diffusion of more productive agricultural
techniques during the 1970s and 1980s.
Seth Adler
(1) Introduction of new higher-yield seeds
(2) Expanded use of fertilizers
c. Scientists began a study in the 1950s to develop a better wheat. A decade later the
miracle wheat seed was made.
(1) Less sensitive to variation in day lengths
(2) Responded better to fertilizers
(3) Matured faster
d. The Rockefeller and Ford sponsored.
e. The programs director, Dr. Norman Borlaug, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1970.
f. The International Rice Research Institute in the Philippines worked to create a
miracle rice. During the 1960s, they created a hybrid of Indonesian and Taiwan rice.
g. Recently, scientists have developed new corn.
h. The new seeds diffused rapidly around the world.
i. Farmers have known for thousands of years that manure, bones, and ash help the
fertility of the land. Only recently did scientists identify nitrogen, phosphorus, and
potassium, as well.
j. Nitrogen
(1) Most important
(2) China is the leading producer
(3) Europe Urea
(4) America Ammonia gas
(5) Expensive for LDCs
i. LDCs need machines to make better use
k. Phosphorus is found in China, Morocco, and US.
l. Potassium is found in Canada, Russia, and Ukraine.

3. Identifying New Food Sources

- Cultivating Oceans
a. 2/3 of fish are consumed by humans, the other by pigs
b. The worlds annual fish catch increased in the late 20
century, but some
fish species declined.
c. Overfishing occurs in North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
d. The world fish catch has remained constant since the 1980s despite
population growth.
e. To protect fishing areas, countries claim control up to 200 nautical miles
- Developing Higher-Protein Cereals
a. People in MDCs get protein from meat. LDCs rely on wheat, corn, and rice.
- Improving Palatability of Rarely Consumed Foods
Seth Adler
a. People chose food based on local characteristics and religious beliefs.
b. A third way to make use of global resources is to encourage the consumption
of foods that are avoided because of social reasons.
c. The soybean in North America
(1) It is one of the leading crops
(2) Most is used for animals because humans dont eat foods that are like
(3) However, burgers, hot dogs, and oils contain soybeans
(4) In Asia, protein drinks contain soybeans.
d. Krill could be an important source of food from the ocean.
(1) They have increased because of whale hunting
(2) The Soviet Union used krill to feed animals
(3) It does not taste good.

4. Increasing Trade
a. The top three grain exports are wheat, corn, and rice.
b. Few countries are major exporters, but they make enough to cover the gap.
c. Before WWII, Western Europe used to import grains.
d. Asia became a grain importer in the 1950s.
e. Eastern Europe in the 1960s.
f. Latin America in the 1970s.
g. By 1980, North America was the only main grain exporter.
h. Because of the increasing need for food imports, the US passed Public Law 480, the
Agricultural, Trade, and Assistance Act of 1954 (PL-480)
(1) Title I Provided sale of grain at low interest rates
(2) Title II Gave grants to needy people