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AP Human Geography

Chapter Eleven - Industry

Seth Adler

Seth Adler
I. Where Is Industry Distributed?
a. Originated in northern England and southern Scotland in the latter 18
b. Diffused to Europe and North America in the 19

A. Origin of Industry
a. Industrial Revolution Series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the
process of manufacturing goods.
(1) Resulted in new social, economic, and political inventions
(2) Started in the UK in the late 1700s
b. Cottage Industry Manufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory.
(1) Before the Industrial Revolution
c. The most important invention was the steam engine.
(1) James Watt
(2) 1769
(3) Scotland

a. The first industry to benefit from the steam engine.
(1) The engine provided heat for the ovens
b. Henry Cort established an iron forge near Fareham, England.
(1) He shaped iron into useful things

a. The source of energy to operate the ovens and steam engines.
b. Wood was becoming scarce.
(1) Used to be the most popular source of energy
(2) Being used for ships, buildings, heat, and furniture
c. Abraham Darby produced high-quality iron smelted with purified carbon made from coal,
called coke.
(1) Coke is richer in carbon and more combustible than coal

a. Critical for diffusing the Industrial Revolution.
(1) First canals then railroads
b. Europes political problems slowed down the diffusion of the railroad.
(1) Small states did not cooperate with each other

a. Came from the cottage industry in the late 18
(1) Before the Industrial Revolution, thread was spun at home
i. People known as putters-out would drop off the wool at homes and then buy
the finished product
b. Richard Arkwright invented machines to untangle cotton.
Seth Adler
(1) 1768 in Preston England
(2) They were placed in factories near the water because they were to large
i. The factories were known as mills

a. An industry created to bleach and dye cloth.
b. John Roebuck and Samuel Garbett established a factory in 1746 to bleach cottons with
sulfuric acid.
(1) When sulfuric acid is mixed with other metals, it creates and acid, known as vitriol,
that makes different colors
i. Blue vitriol mixed with copper
ii. Green vitriol mixed with iron
iii. White vitriol mixed with zinc

Food Processing:
a. Essential to feed factory workers not living on farms.
b. Nicholas Appert sterilizes glass bottles for canned food.
(1) 1810
(2) Sterilized bottles with boiling water

B. Industrial Regions
a. Concentrated in three main areas: Europe, North America, and East Asia.
(1) Oldest to newest
(2) Other areas are Brazil and India

1. Europes Industrial Areas

United Kingdom:
a. Dominated world production of steel and textiles in the 19
(1) First country to enter the Industrial Revolution.
b. No longer a world leader.
(1) Attracts high-tech industries
i. Japan has built factories here

Rhine-Ruhr Valley:
a. Western Europes most important and centrally located industrial area.
(1) Dispersed area
b. Iron and steel are concentrated here because of large coalfields.
(1) Stimulated other heavy metal industries
i. Railroad
ii. Machinery
iii. Armaments
c. Rotterdam is the worlds largest port.
Seth Adler

a. Western Europes second most important area.
(1) The German portion lacks raw materials
i. Three largest cities: Frankfort (financial and commercial center), Stuttgart
(high value goods), and Mannheim (chemical industry)
(2) The French portion contains iron-ore fields and produces steel
i. Two largest cities: Alsace and Lorraine

Po Basin:
a. Southern Europes oldest and most important area.
(1) Italy does its manufacturing here
b. 2 key assets:
(1) Inexpensive hydroelectric power
i. Alps
(2) Large labor supply
i. Italys poor south

Northeastern Spain:
a. Western Europes fastest growing industrial area in the late 20
b. The leading industrial area is Catalonia in Barcelona.
(1) Textile industry
(2) Motor-vehicle industry

a. Russias oldest industrial area.
b. Specializes in fabrics and products that require skilled labor.

St. Petersburg:
a. Eastern Europes second largest city.
b. Specializes in shipbuilding and other industries that support Russias navy and ports.

a. Russias largest petroleum fields.
b. Motor-vehicle Togliatti
c. Oil Kuybyshev
d. Chemicals Saratov
e. Metal Volgograd
f. Leather and fur Kazan

a. Many types of minerals.
(1) Encouraged Communists to look for iron and steel
Seth Adler

a. Russias most important area east of the Ural Mountains.
b. There is coal and iron.

a. Located in Eastern Ukraine.
b. Rick in iron, coal, and natural gas.

a. Includes Poland and the Czech Republic.
b. Important steel producing center.

2. North Americas Industrial Areas
a. Predominantly an agricultural society before independence.
(1) First textile mill opened in Pawtucket, Rhode Island in 1791

New England:
a. Oldest industrial area in the northeast.
b. Made cotton textiles.

Middle Atlantic:
a. Largest US market.
(1) Induces industries that need a lot of consumers and depend on foreign trade

Mohawk Valley:
a. Industrial belt in New York.
(1) Used energy from Niagara Falls
b. Attracted steel, food, aluminum, and paper industries.

Pittsburgh-Lake Erie:
a. Leading steel-producing area.
(1) Located near Appalachian coal and iron ore

Western Great Lakes:
a. Centered in Chicago.
b. Center of steel production and motor-vehicles.

Southern California:
a. Leading area outside the Northeast.
b. When the US entered WWII, the aircraft industry rose.
(1) Clear skies, light winds, and mild winters
c. More recently, it produces textiles and food-processing center.
Seth Adler

Southeastern Ontario:
a. Canadas most important Industrial area.
(1) Steel Hamilton, Ontario
(2) Motor-vehicle - Toronto

3. East Asias Industrial Areas
a. Because these areas were isolated, they took advantage of the amount of people.

a. Became an industrial power in the 1950s.
(1) Produced goods that could be sold cheaply to other countries
i. Workers received lower wages
(2) Leading manufacturer in cars, ships, cameras, stereos, and televisions
b. When Japan heard that South Korea and Taiwan were making cheaper industries, they
decided to train their workers.
(1) Made in Japan is now good on electronics
i. Central region

a. Largest supply of low-cost labor.
(1) Makes household items
b. Policy changed in the 1990s opened their market for transnational corporations.
(1) Foreign owned firms wanting low cost labor could open factories here
c. Clustered in three areas: Hong Kong, the Yangtze River valley, and the Gulf of Bo Hai.

II. Why Are Situation Factors Important?
a. Situation Factors Location factors related to the transportation to and from a factory.

A. Proximity to Inputs
a. The farther something is transported, the higher the cost. Companies try to minimize the
distance from a factory to both buyers and sellers.
o The optimum plant location is as close as possible to inputs if the cost of
transporting raw materials exceeds the cost of shipping to customers.
o The optimum plant location is as close to the customers if the weight of the product
is heavier than the raw materials.
b. Bulk-Reducing Industry An industry in which the input weigh more than the final product.
(1) Need to locate close to the source of inputs

1. Copper: A Bulk Reducing Industry

(1) Mining.
a. The first step is mining the copper ore.
Seth Adler
b. Bulk-reducing because bulky ore is mostly waste called gangue.
c. O.7% copper.
(2) Concentration.
a. Concentration mills crush and grind the ore.
b. 25% copper.
c. Near the mines.
(3) Smelting.
a. Smelting removes more impurities.
(1) Copper matte 60%
(2) Blister copper 97%
(3) Anode copper 99%
(4) Refining.
a. Produces copper cathodes (99.99% pure copper).
b. Does not need to be close to mines.

2. Steel: Changing Importance of Inputs
a. Steel is an alloy of iron that is made by removing impurities in iron, such as silicon,
phosphorus, sulfur, and oxygen, then adding manganese and chromium.
(1) The two main inputs are iron ore and coal
b. Steel was a luxury until Henry Bessemer patented an efficient process for casting
steel in 1855.
c. Steel is now important to be close to the market.
(1) Minimills
i. Main input is scrap metal

Mid-nineteenth century:
a. The US steel industry concentrated around Pittsburgh because of the iron and coal
mines. There are no longer any steel mills, but there are research centers.
Late nineteenth century:
a. Steel mills were built around Lake Erie because of the discovery of rich iron ore in the
Mesabi Range.
b. Coal was brought from Appalachia by train.
Early twentieth century:
a. New steel mills were built near the southern end of Lake Michigan because more iron
than coal was needed. To minimize transportation costs, new mills were being built
closer to the Mesabi Range.
Mid-twentieth century:
a. Factories were located on the East and West Coast. They started importing iron ore
from other countries, like Canada and Venezuela.
Late twentieth century:
a. Most steel mills are closed. The few left are in Lake Michigan along the East Coast.

B. Proximity to Markets
Seth Adler

1. Bulk-Gaining Industries
a. Bulk-Gaining Industry Industry that makes something gain volume or weight during
- Fabricated Metals
a. A fabricated-metal factory brings together metals such as steel and previously
manufactured parts as inputs and makes a more complex item.
b. Fabricating shapes pieces of metal by bending, forging, stamping, and forming.
(1) Separate parts are joined by welding, bonding, and bolts and rivets.
c. Steel fabricators are located near markets.
d. The largest market is the motor vehicles.
o At a global scale: vehicles sold in the US are made in the US.
o At a national scale: Most assembly plants are located in the interior of the US,
between Michigan and Alabama.
i. Known as auto alley
- Beverage Production
a. Beverage bottling is an industry that adds bulk.
(1) Empty cans and bottles are brought in, filled with drink, then shipped to the
b. Because water is located where consumers live, they build factories closer to
where people live so they dont have to ship water.

2. Single-Market Manufacturers
a. Single-market manufacturers are manufacturers with only one or two customers.
(1) They are located close to them
b. An example is a producer for car parts.
(1) They will sell directly to Ford or Toyota
c. They need to be as close as possible to the customers.
(1) Seats and engines are too bulky to waste inventory space

3. Perishable Products
a. Bakers and milk bottlers must be located as close as possible to their customers.
b. Processors of food into frozen or cans are located farther.
c. The daily newspaper is also perishable.
(1) Difficulty with timely delivery is one of the factors in the decline of newspapers.

C. Ship, Rail, Truck, or Air?
a. The farther something is transported, the lower is cost per kilometer
(1) This is because companies have to pay workers to load and unload weather the package
going 10km or 1000km

a. Most often used for short deliveries.
Seth Adler
(1) They can be loaded and unloaded easily
b. Better if the driver can reach the destination within a day, before having to stop for a

a. Often used to ship to destinations that are over a day away.
(1) East and West Coast
b. They take longer to load and unload, but they do not have to stop for rests.

a. Good for very long distances because the cost per kilometer is very low.
b. Slower, but it is used for transporting stuff that cant be done by truck or train.

a. Most expensive.
b. Used for speedy deliver of small, high-value items.

b. Modes are often mixed.
(1) Air freight companies pick up packages in the afternoon and transport them to the
nearest airport. They are packed at night and flown to an airport hub. They are then
flown on another plane to a closer airport and unloaded onto a truck.
c. Containers may be packed into a rail car, transferred to a container ship and shipped over
the ocean.
(1) Some large ships are made for rectangular containers
d. Break-Of-Bulk Point Location where transfer among transportation modes is possible.
(1) Important points are airports and seaports.

III. Why Are Site Factors Important?
a. Site Factors Location factors relating to the costs of factors of production inside the plant.
(1) Land, labor, and capital

A. Labor
a. The most important factor at a global scale is lobor.
b. Worldwide, about one-half billion people are engaged in industry.
(1) China
(2) India 1/5
(3) Other MDCs 1/5

1. Labor-Intensive Industries
a. Labor-Intensive Industry An industry in which the wages paid to the workers make
up a high percentage of the overall expenses.
(1) The US has an average of 11% of the overall manufacturing costs in the US. A
labor-intensive industry would have much higher.
Seth Adler
b. The average wage of a manufacturing worker in North America is over $20 an hour.
(1) In LDCs, they are less than $5
c. A labor-intensive industry is not the same as a high-wage industry.
(1) Labor-intensive is measured as a percentage
i. Motor-vehicle workers are paid much higher than textile workers are, but
they do not use up a large amount of the expenses. More money is used
buying the parts than for paying the workers. In the textile industry,
more money is used to pay the workers than buying the supplies.

2. Textiles: Labor-Intensive
a. Textiles Woven fabrics.
b. 3 steps:
o Spinning of fibers to make yarn from natural materials
o Weaving or knitting yarn to make fabrics
o Cutting and assembling fabrics to make the clothing or products

- Textile And Apparel Spinning
a. Fibers can be spun from natural or synthetic elements.
(1) The principle fiber is cotton
b. Before the Industrial Revolution, the spinning of cotton was for unmarried
women, called a spinster.
(1) Children performed carding, which is the untangling of fibers and putting
them onto rolls, called cards
c. Because it is still labor intensive, it is done in low-wage countries.
(1) China produces 2/3 of the worlds cotton thread
d. The first commercially successful regenerating synthetic fiber was rayon, made
by processing the cellulose in wood pulp.
e. The first true synthetic fiber was nylon, produced from petroleum in 1937.
f. Polyester is the leading synthetic.

- Textile And Apparel Weaving
a. For thousands of years, thread was woven with a loom.
(1) One set of threads, warp, is strung lengthwise and the other, weft, is
inserted over and under and over and under
(2) This was for men because it was physically hard
b. For mechanized weaving, labor is a high percentage of the cost.
(1) 93% is done in LDCs
i. China 60%
ii. India 30%

- Textile And Apparel Assembly
a. Sewing is the oldest activity.
b. The first sewing machine was invented by Barthelemy Thimonnier in 1830.
Seth Adler
(1) He installed 80 machines to sew uniforms for the French army. Fearing that
he would put them out of business, Parisian tailors stormed the factory.
c. The first successful sewing machine in the US was invented by Isaac Singer
during the 1850s.
(1) He was convicted of infringing a patent filed by Elias Howe in 1846
d. Four main types of textiles:
(1) Garments
(2) Carpets
(3) Home products (bed linen, curtains)
(4) Industrial items (headliners inside cars)
e. MDCs play a larger role in assembly.

B. Land

1. Rural Sites
a. A city offers an attractive situation.
(1) Close to a local market and convenient means of shipping to a national market by
b. A city offers an attractive site.
(1) Close to a large supply of labor as well as people to sell it to
(2) There is not a lot of land, though
i. Early factories were multistory.
(1) Raw materials were hoisted up to become smaller, then they were sent
down through a chute
(2) Water was stored in tanks on the roof
c. New factories are more efficient as one story.
(1) Raw materials are sent in at one end and move through the factory on conveyors
or forklifts.
d. In the past, the railway would come by the factory. Now they dont rely on trains.

2. Environmental Factors
a. Not all locations are the same.
(1) Factories are built depending on the climate, topography, cultural reasons, sports
franchises, and cost of living
b. Factories used to be built near forests and rivers because water and wood were the
most important sources for energy.
(1) Now, they are concentrated near coalfields
c. A factory also chooses its location based on the cost of electricity.
d. The aluminum industry requires a lot of electricity to separate bauxite ore.
(1) They will locate near dams to use hydroelectric power
(2) The oldest aluminum factory in the US is at Massena, New York est. 1902 by the
Pittsburgh Power Co. (now Alcoa, inc.) near a dam on the St. Laurence River

Seth Adler
C. Capital
a. The US motor-vehicle industry is located in Michigan because banks up there were more
willing to give them money.
(1) The banks in Californias Silicon Valley also provides money for new software
b. Because LDCs do not have money from banks, they are forced to borrow money from
(1) Some MDCs will not lend money to a country that has an unstable economy, high debt
levels, or bad economic policies.

IV. Why Are Location Factors Changing?
a. Changing site factors have been important in stimulating industrial growth in new regions.

A. Attraction of New Industrial Regions
a. Labor is the most dramatic change.
(1) Companies want cheaper labor in LDCs

1. Changing Industrial Distribution Within MDCs

2. Interregional Shift in the United States
a. Industrialization during the late 19
century largely bypassed the South because they were
recovering from the Civil War.
- Right-To-Work Laws
a. Right-To-Work Laws A law that prevents a union and company from forcing the
worker to join the union.
(1) By enacting these laws, Southern states made it more difficult for companies
to organize factory workers, collect dues, and bargain with employers from a
power of strength
(2) Also attracted companies that did not want unions
i. Did not want workers striking for safer conditions and higher wages
b. The Gulf Coast has become an important industrial area because of its access to
oil and natural gas.
- Textile Production
a. Heavily concentrated in the Northeast and diffused to the South and West.
b. New Yorks Garment District at 7
Avenue and 33
Street once housed a large
percentage of the nations textile manufacturers.
(1) Large supply of European immigrants
c. During the mid-nineteenth century, most textile production moved to the
(1) North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama
i. 99% of US sock production.
- Interregional Shifts In Europe
a. European government encourage the industrial relocation.
Seth Adler
Convergence Regions: Eastern and Southern Europe, where income lags
behind Europes average.
Competitive and Employment Regions: Western Europes traditional core
industrial areas, which are experiencing job losses.
b. The country in Western Europe with the most improvement is Spain.
(1) Administered to the EU in 1986
(2) Before that, it was geographically and politically isolated
(3) Second leading car manufacturer behind Germany
c. Poland, Hungary, and Czech Republic consider themselves Central Europe.
(1) It is close to labor and market proximity.

3. International Shifts in Industry
a. In the 1970s, Europe had of the worlds industry and North America had 1/3. Now they
only have each.

East Asia.
a. Rapid industrial growth in China means an increasing share of the worlds industry.
b. In addition to China and Japan, there is also South Korea.
(1) Worlds leading producer of large container ships, helpful for international trade.

South Asia.
a. Led by India, which is one of the fastest growing economies.
(1) Textiles are the dominant industry, but they also produce motor-vehicles
(2) GDP is supposed to equal the US by 2050

Latin America.
a. Maquiladora plants are located in Northern Mexico.
b. Brazil is the leading industrial center in Latin America.
(1) Also clustered in Sao Paulo and Rio De Janeiro

- Changing Distributions
a. MDCs have been losing the steel and textile industries to LDCs.
(1) In 1980, 80% of the worlds steel was produced in MDCs. By 2008, MDCs
only produced 40% of the worlds steel.
i. Europe 50% to 23%
ii. North America 20% to 8%
iii. China 38%
(2) Between 1990 and 2009, most apparel sold in the US switched from
domestic-made to foreign-made
i. US mills pay workers $10-$15
ii. European mills pay workers $30
iii. LDC mills pay workers $1
- Outsourcing
Seth Adler
a. Transnational corporations are aggressive when using LDC workers.
b. New International Division Of Labor The transfer of jobs from more developed
to less developed countries.
(1) Typically low-paid and less skilled workers
c. Outsourcing Turning over much of the responsibility for production to
independent suppliers.
(1) Contrary to vertical integration, in which a company controls all phases
(2) For example, carmakers have outsourced the production of seats to foreign
countries and then installed in the US.

B. Renewed Attraction of Traditional Industrial Regions
a. Companies stay in their original locations for skilled labor and speedy delivery.

1. Proximity to Skilled Labor
a. Henry Ford once said that he can take people off the street and get them to work in a
factory. This has now changed since many want skilled workers.
b. Computer Manufacturing requires skilled labor.
(1) Near the Bay Area of California and the University of Texas
c. Fordist Production Workers performing one specific task to perform repeatedly.
(1) Ford Motor Company was one of the first to organize its production this way in the
early twentieth century
d. Post-Fordest Production Workers follow a lean or flexible production approach.
(1) Teams.
a. Workers are placed in teams and told to figure things out for themselves.
(2) Problem solving.
a. A problem is addressed within themselves, rather than writing a complaint to the
head office.
(3) Leveling.
a. Factory workers are treated the same as managers and veterans.

2. Just-in-Time Delivery
a. Because of the rise in just-in-time deliveries, proximity to the market is very important.
b. Important for the delivery of inputs.
(1) Arrive at factories daily or hourly
(2) Suppliers are told a few days notice.
i. Sometimes, only a few hours notice
c. Reduces the money that would have been spent on inventory.
(1) Reducing the size of the factory
d. Wal-Mart has little inventory, but its suppliers have a lot, just in case a sudden surge is
e. The only problem with this are 2 disruptions:
Labor unrest.
a. A strike at a plant or truck union can shut down production.
Seth Adler
Acts of God.
a. Includes weather-related events.
(1) Blizzards or floods that close highways
b. 9/11 stopped all air traffic in the United States.