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A glass of fresh water from the tap - a In nature there is (6) ...... such thing as
luxury? The reality is that for some 1.1 billion either a beneficial or an undesirable wild
people access to safe drinking water is (1) animal. In Georgia, (7) ......, where quail are
...... they can only dream about. Some 2.4 valued as game birds, sportsmen once shot
billion people worldwide similarly do not have marsh hawks (8) ...... the hawks sometimes
access to adequate sanitation. Yet access to killed quail. But the shooting of marsh hawks
safe drinking water and sanitation is not just failed to increase the numbers of quail.
a luxury. It often makes the difference (2) Examination of stomach contents showed
...... life and death. Half of the world's that the marsh hawk feeds mainly upon the
hospital beds are occupied by (3) ...... of cotton rat, which eats the eggs of quail and
waterbome diseases. And an estimated 6,000 other ground-nesting birds. By being a (9)
children die each day from diseases caused ...... greater enemy of cotton rats than of
by poor sanitation and hygiene. Add to this quail, the marsh hawk proves (10) ...... to
the increasing pressure (4) ...... the world's be a friend of the quail. The killing of marsh
freshwater supply over the last 50 years, and hawks has now largely ceased in Georgia,
the continuous degradation of water quality and marsh hawks and quail are growing more
in many regions around the world, and there numerous side by side.
is no doubt that the challenge before us is
(5) ...... .

1- A) anywhere B) something 6- A) any B) many

C) someone D) anyone C) no D) none
E) everything E) some

2- A) between B) from 7- A) at once B) for instance

C) along D) in C) on average D) at the time
E) about E) in short

3- A) victims B) residents 8- A) while B) yet

C) supporters D) mortals C) even though D) because
E) disasters E) before

4- A) about B) in 9- A) much B) more

C) at D) on C) too D) the most
E) for E) such

5- A) excellent B) bearable 10- A) rarely B) slightly

C) supporting D) weak C) anxiously D) barely
E) immense E) actually

(11) ...... of our knowledge of dinosaurs No one knows when or where the first circus
comes from North America. From 1870 into act (16) ...... place. It's probable that
the early 1900s, two men dominated the displays of physical skill and animal training
search for dinosaurs in the western United (17) ...... people for many thousands of
States, and their rivalry became a bitter years. Some circus acts are so old that even
conflict. One was Othniel Charles Marsh, of the ancient Romans, who coined the word
Yale University, and (12) ...... was Edward circus, did not know where they originated. It
Drinker Cope. (13) ...... man controlled (14) was not (18) ...... the late 1700s that the
...... scientific journal, and it is reported that modem circus began to take form. It is
their field crews would occasionally shoot at believed that the modern circus originated in
one another and destroy each other's fossils. the exhibitions of horsemanship that became
Still, (15) ...... men made lasting and popular in England. A former cavalryman,
valuable contributions to our knowledge of Philip Astley, was presenting such feats in
dinosaurs, though their conflict caused them London in 1768. Astley put his horses
to work hurriedly and in many instances to through their paces in a large circle, or ring.
forego the customary patience and caution (19) ...... his time, the ring has been the
required in the science of paleontology. central performance area of the circus. Astley
embellished his London show with music,
acrobats, tumblers, ropewalkers and a clown.
In 1783 he built the first real circus in France.
Soon circuses similar to the Astley pattern
(20) ...... across the continent of Europe and
in the United States.

11- A) A great deal B) Just one 16- A) made B) did

C) As many as D) Everything C) got D) had
E) A large number E) took

12- A) someone B) another 17- A) were thrilling B) are thrilling

C) the other D) each one C) thrill D) thrilled
E) the whole E) have thrilled

18- A) until B) while

13- A) Each B) All C) when D) since
C) Some D) Any E) yet
E) None

19- A) As soon as B) Ever since

14- A) themselves B) his own C) Even when D) Once
C) itself D) them E) The moment
E) theirs

20- A) perform
15- A) all B) every B) have performed
C) some D) both C) were performing
E) either D) have been performing
E) are performing

Known primarily for his watercolours of Like the land (26) ...... the people of Ladakh
Australian landscapes, Albert Namatjira was are generally quite different from those of the
an aboriginal artist (21) ...... successfully rest of India. The faces and physique of the
combined modern European painting Ladakhis, and the clothes they wear, are
techniques (22) ...... subject matter from his more (27) ...... those of Tibet and Central
native land. A member of the Aranda tribe, Asia (28) ...... those of India. The original
Namatjira was born at a Christian mission in population may have been Dards, an Indo-
Hermannsburg in the Northern Territory (23) Aryan race that moved down from the Indus
...... July 28. 1902. He received his education and Gilgit area. But immigration from Tibet,
at the mission. He later worked at a number perhaps a millennium or so (29) ...... largely
of menial jobs (24) ...... he discovered overwhelmed the culture of the Dards and
painting at a 1934 exhibition of works by Rex changed their racial characteristics. In
Battarbee. Although unschooled in art, eastern and central Ladakh, today's
Namatjira tried his hand at drawing. In 1936 population seems to be mostly of Tibetan
he again met Battarbee, who tutored origin. Further west, in and around Kargil, the
(25) ...... in watercolours. He was soon able people's appearance suggests a mixed origin.
to produce works of merit and sell them. In The exception to this generalization is the
1938 the first exhibit of his works was held in Arghons, a community of Muslims in Leh,
Melbourne. It was so successful that all 41 who originated as a result of marriages (30)
paintings on display were sold. Later ...... local women and Kashmiri or Central
exhibitions followed in Adelaide, Sydney, Asian merchants.
Perth and Alice Springs.
26- A) them B) their
21- A) where B) who C) their own D) itself
C) when D) what E) its own
E) how

22- A) about B) to 27- A) the same B) similar to

C) for D) from C) except for D) so much
E) with E) much as

23- A) at B) in 28- A) as B) than

C) since D) on C) like D) that
E) till E) how

24- A) until B) during 29- A) after B) yet

C) while D) just as C) since D) though
E) since E) ago

25- A) him B) his own 30- A) between B) for

C) he D) his C) along D) with
E) himself E) among
Throughout history, numerous laws have
been passed in an attempt to ban the game The image of pop stars is often considered to
of football: in England alone, over thirty be as important as their actual music. (6)
times since the 14th century. King Edward III, ......, pop stars and their managers make
(1) ...... released a statement that banned elaborate efforts to project the desired image
football on 12 June, 1349. His concern was a through their clothing, music video clips,
practical one. Over the previous two years, manipulation of the popular press and similar
England (2) ...... more than 25% of its tactics. Indeed, many pop acts are focussed
population to the epidemic called the Black primarily on (7) ...... the desired image, and
Plague, and King Edward, at the time of the music is considered as of secondary
statement, (3) ...... France in the Hundred importance. Boy bands and girl bands, (8)
Years' War; (4) ......, he needed more ...... NSync and the Spice Girls, are
archers. As the popular game of football (5) particularly carefully (9) ...... in this manner,
...... people from practising archery, the only with members chosen and groomed to fill
solution was to forbid it. Needless to say, certain stereotypes (10) ...... they will
however, this ban didn't work. appeal to the broadest range of fans and fan
1- A) on no account B) in advance
C) by all means D) for example 6- A) As long as B) Even when
E) at once C) Whereas D) In order to
E) As a result

2- A) has been losing B) had lost 7- A) achieve B) being achieved

C) was losing D) had been losing C) to achieve D) achieving
E) has lost E) achieved

3- A) was fighting 8- A) such as B) on behalf of

B) has fought C) by means of D) as regards
C) has been fighting E) much more
D) fought
E) had fought

4- A) because B) however 9- A) put on B) dug out

C) therefore D) on account of C) set up D) shown off
E) though E) given away

5- A) encouraged B) charged
C) recovered D) engaged 10- A) so that B) for whom
E) distracted C) while D) ever since
E) how

Because of the rapid technological advances A great part of the city of New Orleans is
in Japan, an extensive miniaturization culture located below sea level and lies (16) ...... the
has developed. For example, a foldable Mississippi River and Lake Pontchartrain, so
umbrella (11) ......size is just a quarter of a the city is (17) ...... by levees, that is,
usual umbrella's size has been developed, not barriers constructed to stop the flow of water
to mention miniaturization in cellular into the city. Until the early 20th century,
telephony. (12) ...... call this process, construction was largely limited (18) ......
another example of which is bonsai, the slightly higher ground along old natural
"minimization". It may also be interesting to river levees, since (19) ...... of the rest of
(13) ...... that miniaturization also occurs in the land was swampy and subject to frequent
living spaces, such as hotels for business flooding. In the 1910s engineer and inventor
workers which are often the size of a single A. Baldwin Wood enacted his ambitious plan
cubicle. Such phenomena occur (14) ......due to drain the city, including large pumps of his
to technological advances, but are also own design, which are still used (20) ......
motivated by the strong concern for space in heavy rains hit the city.
(15) ...... populated areas.
16- A) between B) at
11- A) which B) that C) within D) through
C) how D) whose E) across
E) what

12- A) All B) One 17- A) represented B) filled

C) Both D) Each C) surrounded D) identified
E) Some E) exaggerated

13- A) show round B) go down 18- A) over B) about

C) make up D) get across C) out of D) to
E) point out E) with

14- A) neither B) not only 19- A) few B) many

C) as well as D) both C) enough D) both
E) either E) much

15- A) barely B) densely 20- A) then B) during

C) constantly D) randomly C) by the time D) whenever
E) hardly E) whereas

The term "TV addiction" is imprecise and "Extreme sports", also known (26) ......
loaded with value judgements, but it captures action sports, is a general term for a
the essence of a very real phenomenon. All collection of newer sports (27) ...... involve
people (21) ...... suffer from substance adrenaline-inducing action. They often
dependence have certain symptoms (22) feature a combination of speed, height,
...... .They spend (23) ...... of time using the danger and spectacular stunts. (28) ......
substance; they use it more often than they levels of danger vary greatly among the
intend to; they often think about reducing different sports, there is always an element -
their use and even make repeated (but an "extreme" factor -that causes adrenaline
generally unsuccessful) efforts to do so; they to flow. Some extreme sports, such as rock-
(24) ...... important social, family or climbing and ice-climbing, have been around
occupational activities (25) ...... using the (29) ...... many decades. Another example is
substance; and they report withdrawal surfing, which was originally invented
symptoms when they actually stop using. centuries (30) ...... by the native inhabitants
Studies have shown that all of these of Hawaii.
characteristics apply also to so-called "TV

21- A) whom B) which 26- A) by B) in

C) who D) whose C) with D) as
E) what E) under

22- A) in common B) at random 27- A) where B) what

C) rather than D) such as C) how D) who
E) similar to E) that

23- A) a great deal B) much 28- A) In spite of B) However

C) a little D) several C) Yet D) Although
E) a number E) Since

24- A) come across B) give up 29- A) in B) since

C) put out D) throw away C) for D) by
E) get down E) on

25- A) in favour of B) all at once 30- A) since B) while

C) by means of D) on the tip of C) after D) before
E) the same as E) ago



In 1971, motivated by their vision of a green Greenpeace's tradition of "bearing witness" in

and peaceful world, a small team of activists a non-violent manner continues today, and
set sail from Vancouver, Canada, in an old their ships are an important part of (6) ......
fishing boat. These activists, the founders of their campaign work. They exist to expose
Greenpeace, believed that even (1) ...... crimes against the environment, and to
individuals (2) ...... a difference. Their challenge government and corporations when
mission was to "bear witness" to US they fail to (7) ...... their duty to safeguard
underground nuclear testing at Amchitka, a our environment and our future. In
tiny island (3) ...... the west coast of Alaska, performing their mission, Greenpeace has no
which is one of the world's most earthquake- permanent allies or enemies. They promote
prone regions. Amchitka was the last refuge open, informed debate about society's
for 3000 endangered sea otters, and home to environmental choices, and use research,
bald eagles, peregrine falcons and other lobbying and quiet diplomacy to (8) ......
wildlife. (4) ...... their old boat, the Phyllis their goals, (9) ...... high-profile, non-violent
Cormack, was stopped before it got to conflict to raise the level and quality of public
Amchitka, the journey sparked a flurry of debate. Greenpeace speaks for 2.8 million
public interest. The US still detonated the supporters worldwide, and encourages many
bomb, but the voice of reason had been millions more than that to take action every
heard. Nuclear testing on Amchitka ended day. One of the longest banners they've
that (5) ...... year, and the island was later made (10) ...... sums up their viewpoint:
declared a bird sanctuary. "Source: "When the last tree is cut, the last river
Greenpeace (" poisoned, and the last fish dead, we will
discover that we can't eat money." "Source:
1- A) every B) a lot Greenpeace ("
C) a few D) a little
E) many 6- A) much B) some
C) many of D) all
E) enough of

2- A) will make B) would rather make 7- A) come up with B) try out for
C) are making D) must have made C) think back on D) go along to
E) could make E) live up to

8- A) abolish B) incite
3- A) about B) between C) pursue D) inspire
C) off D) in E) persuade
E) through

9- A) not only B) owing to

4- A) Accordingly B) Although C) no matter D) as well as
C) Whenever D) In spite of E) in spite of
E) So long as

10- A) never B) rather

5- A) over B) similar C) as D) like
C) any D) same E) so far
E) once

For more than a century, people have relied (16) ...... burning fossil fuels, humans pump
on fossil fuels such as oil, coal and gas for billions of tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) and
their energy needs. Now, worldwide, both other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.
people and the environment (11) ...... the These gases create a "greenhouse effect",
disastrous consequences of this. Global thickening the natural canopy of gases in the
warming, caused by burning fossil fuels, is atmosphere and causing more heat to
(12) ...... environmental problem we face become trapped on the Earth's surface. (17)
today. People are changing the climate that ......, the global temperature is increasing,
made life on earth possible and the results throwing the world's climate out of its natural
are catastrophic - extreme weather balance into chaos. The main source of these
conditions causing droughts and floods; a human-produced greenhouse gases is the
disruption of water supplies; the melting burning of large amounts of fossil fuels for
polar regions and the consequent rising sea energy production and transport. Changes in
levels; the loss of coral reefs; and many land use and deforestation also release more
more. Scientists and governments worldwide CO2 into the environment. Trees, (18) ......
have agreed on the latest evidence of are natural "carbon sinks", absorbing CO2,
human-induced climate change, its impacts and when they are destroyed, CO2 is
and predictions of (13) ...... is to come. It is released back into the atmosphere. Although
not (14) ...... to slow global warming and many greenhouse gases occur naturally, the
(15) ...... the climatic catastrophe that rate (19) ...... humans are adding them to
scientists predict, and in fact the solutions the atmosphere is far from natural. It is
already exist: renewable energy sources, estimated that concentrations of CO2 are 30
such as wind and solar power, offer abundant percent higher than before the industrial
clean energy that is safe for the environment revolution, when the large-scale burning of
and good for the economy fossil fuels (20) ...... .
"Source: Greenpeace (httpj/www, "Source: Greenpeace (ht tp://www.
greenpeace. org)" greenpeace. org)"

11- A) are experiencing 16- A) Since B) Except

B) experience C) By D) About
C) have experienced E) With
D) has been experiencing
E) experienced

12- A) badly B) the worst 17- A) As a result B) So that

C) the bad D) bad C) Despite this D) Because
E) worse E) On the contrary

13- A) how B) which 18- A) on average B) at least

C) that D) what C) for example D) for short
E) where E) for once

14- A) later B) too late 19- A) for what B) such as

C) so late D) as late as C) when D) in that
E) such a late E) at which

15- A) avoid B) utilize 20- A) started

C) dub D) induce B) has started
E) hasten C) would be starting
D) is starting
E) will have started

The latest report from the International Panel Wind power is already a significant source of
on Climate Change (IPCC) says that energy in many parts of the world. It can
hundreds of technologies are (21) ...... supply 10 percent of the world's electricity
available, (22) ...... very low cost, that can (26) ...... two decades from now. Over the
reduce climate-damaging emissions, and that past years, solar power (27) ...... globally by
government policies need to remove the 33 percent annually. Greenpeace and
barriers to using these technologies. industrial research show that with some
Implementing these methods will not require government support, the solar power
humans to make sacrifices or otherwise industry could supply electricity to over 2
hinder their quality of life. (23) ...... it will billion people globally in the next 20 years,
enable people to usher in a new era of energy and by 2040, solar panels (28) ...... to a
(24) ...... will bring economic growth, new capacity large enough to supply nearly 25
jobs, technological innovation and, most percent of the global electricity demand. A
importantly, environmental protection. report conducted by global financial analysts
However, for green solutions to global KPMG shows that a solar power plant could
warming to find a foothold in the market, become cost-competitive with traditional
governments and corporations need to lead fossil fuels (29) ...... the production of solar
the shift (25) ...... polluting technologies. At panels was increased to 500 megawatts a
present, fossil fuel industries are provided year. (30) ...... renewable power plant could
with billions of dollars of government support have the same costs and provide the same
so that dirty energy is able to stay cheap. jobs as a coal-fired plant, but with significant
This means that while polluting industries are environmental advantages. "Source:
allowed to pollute for free, clean technologies Greenpeace ("
are left under-funded. "Source: Greenpeace

21- A) rather B) already 26- A) beyond B) throughout

C) many D) any more C) towards D) within
E) even E) between

22- A) at B) over 27- A) grew

C) to D) upon B) was growing
E) around C) grows
D) will have been growing
E) has been growing

23- A) Despite B) Even so 28- A) has increased

C) Accordingly D) Instead B) must have increased
E) Though C) is increasing
D) increased
E) may have increased

24- A) when B) whose 29- A) until B) when

C) that D) what C) if D) ever since
E) who E) therefore

25- A) into B) away from 30- A) So B) Like

C) seeing as D) than C) Such a D) Many
E) towards E) Which



Of all North American birds, by far the most The only bird of prey that lives and hunts
famed (1) ...... its vocal imitations is the primarily on the ground is the secretary bird.
mockingbird. (2) ...... its own cheerful song, It is best known as a killer of snakes. In its
the common mockingbird's repertoire (3) native home in the dry uplands of Africa, it is
...... to include the songs of 39 other species sometimes kept around farms to catch
of birds, 50 different call notes, the cackling snakes, rodents, reptiles and large insects.
of a hen, and the barking of a dog.The The secretary bird hunts on foot and kills its
mockingbird is the (4) ...... of a robin- about prey (6) ...... kicking, stamping or flailing it
27 centimetres long with a wingspan of about against the ground. The bird is very (7) .......
36 centimetres. It is coloured ashen gray moving around quickly and easily, and with
above, paler below, with conspicuous white its long legs it can deliver blows from a safe
wing patches. The long, rounded tail is edged distance. If its victim does not succumb, the
with white. Mockingbirds feed on insects - bird may snatch the animal, take flight and
primarily grasshoppers and beetles - as well drop the victim from aloft. In most African
as on seeds and berries. They are active, nations, the birds (8) ...... legally.
aggressive and inquisitive. In the vigorous The secretary bird is (9) ...... named because
defense of their young, they will attack dogs, the tuft of stiff feathers that projects from the
cats or (5) ...... humans. back of its head and neck makes it look (10)
...... an old-time secretary with a bunch of
1- A) for B) to quill pens stuck behind an ear.
C) around D) against
E) with 6- A) over B) by
C) about D) towards
E) at

2- A) Otherwise B) As though 7- A) shy B) clumsy

C) Whereas D) Despite C) agile D) idle
E) Besides E) crude

3- A) knows B) will be known 8- A) protect

C) has been known D) knew B) had been protected
E) was being known C) are protecting
D) are protected
E) have been protecting

4- A) size B) arrangement 9- A) as B) so
C) fit D) measure C) just D) how
E) enemy E) what

5- A) yet B) even 10- A) like B) about

C) ever D) rather C) through D) as
E) still E) forward

The "man-of-war bird," (11) ...... the frigate A bird (16) ...... tail has brought it fame is
bird is sometimes called, (12) ...... a the lyrebird of Australia. (17) ...... the 16
feathered airplane. Seemingly without effort strange tail feathers of the male, this bird is
it floats high in the air for hours (13) ....... not (18) ...... being similar to other birds in
altering its course by movements so slight as most respects. Both male and female are of
to be almost invisible. There are five species ordinary form, about the size of a hen, and of
in this unusual family. All are tropical. The a sooty brown colour with a few red
largest occurs in (14) ...... hemispheres, markings. The tail feathers are about 2 feet
mainly north of the equator, and has been long. When relaxed, they droop like a
seen on rare occasions as far north as Nova peacock's train. When they are raised,
Scotia. Other species appear in the Central however, they take the shape of a lyre. The
Pacific and Indian Oceans. The frigate bird tail does not fully attain (19) ......
has a long, stout, hooked bill. The tail is characteristic shape (20) ...... the bird is
extremely long and deeply forked. The birds' about 4 years old. It is shed in the fall and
bones are of a structure that makes their renewed in spring.
bodies (15) ...... than that of any other bird
of equal wing size. When spread, the long
narrow wings measure 3 metres from tip to
tip. The bird has very small legs, however,
and so it is almost helpless on land.

11- A) like B) so 16- A) whose B) which

C) as D) such C) what D) how
E) when E) that

12- A) replaces B) reacts 17- A) In addition to B) Except for

C) remains D) recites C) By means of D) Along with
E) resembles E) In case of

13- A) by the time B) in time 18- A) common B) gorgeous

C) out of time D) on time C) evolved D) unusual
E) at a time E) native

14- A) all B) both 19- A) its B) their

C) neither D) many C) it D) itself
E) either E) theirs

15- A) more lightly B) as light 20- A) during B) after

C) light D) lighter C) until D) by the time
E) lightly E) since

The Portuguese call it beija-flor, meaning In some parts of Europe the white stork (26)
"kiss-flower". The Aztecs decorated their ...... to bring (27) ...... good luck ...... people
emperors' ceremonial cloaks with its feathers. fix platforms and baskets to their rooftops in
The dazzling hummingbird (21) ...... order to (28) ...... the birds to nest there.
captures people's fancy. A hummingbird can When a child is born, some people say that
hover in the air (22) ...... special flight the parents have had a "visit from the stork".
muscles that allow it to beat its wings 38 to It is largely because of these myths that
78 times per second, and it is the only bird storks (29) ...... from destruction up to now.
that can fly backward. The smallest Storks are large, long-legged birds that (30)
hummingbirds can attain wing-beat ...... in height from about 0.6 metres to more
frequencies of 200 per second (23) ...... than 1.5 metres. Their pointed bills are long
courtship flights, when the males (24) ...... and heavy, and all or part of their head and
their brilliant feathers. The female builds a neck may be bare of feathers and brightly
cup-shaped nest from moss, seed down and coloured. They fly, alternately flapping and
spider webs. She alone incubates the tiny soaring, with legs trailing and necks
eggs, of which there are usually only two, outstretched.
and raises the young (25) ...... .

21- A) since B) so 26- A) was being believed

C) as D) such B) believes
E) still C) had been believed
D) believed
E) is believed

22- A) in order that B) with the help of 27- A) more...than B) so...that

C) in spite of D) much the same C) such...that D)
E) as a consequence E) as much... .as

23- A) during B) while 28- A) restrict B) encourage

C) when D) since C) suspect D) perceive
E) despite E) consult

24- A) show off B) allow for 29- A) have been saved

C) pull apart D) act upon B) are saving
E) set against C) have been saving
D) will have saved
E) are being saved

25- A) themselves B) hers 30- A) distinguish B) alter

C) its own D) on her own C) happen D) derive
E) theirs E) range


People have enjoyed chewing gum-like George Crum was a Native American man
substances, most of (1) ...... are made from employed as a chef at Moon Lake Lodge, an
the thickened resin and latex from certain elegant resort in Saratoga Springs, New York.
kinds of trees, in many times and many Crum prepared French fried potatoes for the
lands. Since very ancient times, the peoples resort's guests in the thick-cut French style
of Mexico have chewed chicle, a gumlike popular at the time. One evening in the
substance (2) ...... from tropical American summer of 1853, a dinner guest found
trees such as the sapodilla. In 1845, after his Crum's French fries too thick for his liking
defeat by the Americans in Texas, the and sent them back; (6) ......, Crum cut and
Mexican general Santa Anna (3) ...... to New fried a thinner batch, but these, (7) .......
York, and like many of his countrymen, he were met with disapproval. Angrily, Crum
chewed chicle. One day, he introduced it to decided to annoy the guest by producing fries
the inventor Thomas Adams, who began too thin and crisp (8) ...... with a fork.
experimenting with it (4) ...... a substitute However, the plan backfired, as the guest
for rubber. Adams tried to make toys, masks loved the browned, paper-thin potatoes, and
and rain boots out of chicle, but every soon other diners began requesting (9) ......
experiment failed. Sitting frustrated in his was to become - under the name of Saratoga
workshop one afternoon, he popped a piece chips - a house specialty. They remained a
of the surplus chicle into his mouth. As he local dish until the 1920s, when travelling
chewed, the idea suddenly hit him to add salesman Herman Lay popularized them by
flavouring to the chicle. Shortly, he opened peddling them to grocery stores from the
the world's first chewing gum factory. By the trunk of his car, building a business and a
early 1900s, with improved methods of name that would become synonymous (10)
manufacturing, packaging and marketing, ...... the thin, salty snack.
modern chewing gum was well on
(5) ......way to the popularity which it still

1- A) them B) what 6- A) accordingly B) besides

C) that D) which C) still D) on the contrary
E) whom E) however

7- A) either B) so
2- A) obtained B) mixed C) too D) neither
C) pasted D) transmitted E) well
E) spread

8- A) to have eaten B) eating

3- A) was being exiled B) exiled C) to be eaten D) eaten
C) was exiled D) had to exile E) being eaten
E) had exiled

9- A) which B) what
4- A) to B) about C) that D) when
C) from D) along E) how
E) as

10- A) around B) with

5- A) it B) them C) at D) through
C) their D) its E) alongside
E) itself
The invention of the zipper occurred
(11) ...... a man's stiff back: Whitcomb L. The invention of the ice cream cone (16)
Judson, who loved machines and ....... quite by chance, in the summer of 1904
experimented with many different kinds of at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St.
gadgets, had a friend who could not (12) Louis, Missouri. Charles Menches was an ice-
...... his shoes. Judson thought of helping his cream seller working at the fair who sold his
friend by attaching slide fasteners that could ice cream in dishes (17) ...... every other
be opened or closed with one hand to the ice-cream man did. In August, when the fair
man's shoes. This was a completely new was at its height, the heat became
idea, and in a few weeks Judson had a intolerable, and one day disaster struck Mr.
working model. On August 29, 1893, he Menches. There were (18) ...... hot and
patented his new "hookless fastener". These thirsty fairgoers wanting ice cream ...... he
early zip fasteners (13) ...... in the apparel ran out of dishes. And it wasn't even noon.
industry by 1905, but they weren't He had more than half a day of business
considered practical (14) ...... after an ahead of him and not a single dish to serve
improved version had been developed by his ice cream on. What did Menches do? He
Gideon Sundback, a Swedish scientist looked around him and thought fast. (19)
working in the United States. When the B. ...... was a stand where his friend, Ernest
Goodrich Company decided to market Hamwi, who was from Syria, was selling a
galoshes with hookless fasteners, the product Middle Eastern treat called zalabia. Zalabia
became popular. These new galoshes (15) consists of a crisp, wafer-like pastry and is
...... with a single zip of the hand, and soon sold with syrup. "Give (20) ...... Zalabia!"
hookless fasteners came to be called cried Menches. He rolled up the zalabia,
"zippers". By the 1920s, zippers had come scooped his ice cream on top, and at that
into widespread use in clothing and luggage, moment, ice cream cones were born.
and had many other applications as well.

11- A) consequently B) in order that 16- A) went under B) came about

C) in contrast D) instead of C) passed out D) got on
E) as a result of E) took off

12- A) do up B) go with 17- A) as B) so

C) take in D) put off C) than D) like
E) try out E) such

13- A) would have used 18- A) more...than B) so many...that

B) have been used C) so much...that D) as
C) were using E)
D) were being used
E) had used

14- A) until B) when 19- A) Close B) Around

C) while D) since C) Above D) Nearby
E) then E) Along

15- A) have been fastened 20- A) yourself B) it

B) could be fastened C) itself D) me
C) had been fastened E) mine
D) should have been fastened
E) have to be fastened

In the 1870s, a Connecticut baker named The modern story of the yo-yo starts with a
William Russel Frisbee (21) ...... a clever young gentleman from the Philippines named
marketing idea: he put the family name in Pedro Flores, who moved to the USA in the
relief on the bottom of the light tin pans (22) 1920s and began working as a bellhop at a
...... his company's homemade pies were hotel in Santa Monica, California. Carving and
sold. Because the pans were reusable, every playing with wooden objects similar to the
time a housewife started to bake her own pie future yo-yo was a traditional pastime in the
in one, she would see the name Frisbee and, Philippines, but Pedro found that his lunch
it was hoped, would think, "How much (23) break playing drew a/an (26) ...... crowd to
...... it would be just to buy one!" Eventually the hotel. While playing, he would shout out
Mr. Frisbee's pies were sold (24) ...... most "Yo! Yo!" - meaning "Come! Come!" in the
of Connecticut. It was at Yale University in Pilipino language - (27) ...... attract even
this same state that, sometime in the 1940s, more people. He eventually started a
students began throwing the pie tins through company, the Flores Yo-Yo Company, to
the air and catching them. A decade later, make the toys. Donald F. Duncan, an
out in California, a UFO enthusiast named entrepreneur, first encountered the yo-yo
Walter Frederick Morrison designed a saucer- (28) ...... a business trip to California in
like disk for playing catch. It was produced 1928, and returned a year later to buy the
by a company named Wham-O. On a company from Flores, thus acquiring
promotional tour of college campuses, the (29) ...... a unique toy ....... the magic name
president of Wham-O encountered the pie- "yo-yo". In the 1950s, Duncan introduced the
plate-tossing craze at Yale. And so the flying first plastic yoyos and in 1962, (30) ...... yo-
saucer from California was renamed yo boom in history hit the nation thanks to
(25) ...... the pie plate from Connecticut. the innovative use of TV advertising.

21- A) broke away from 26- A) exhausted B) indifferent

B) fell back on C) fascinated D) unamused
C) came up with E) battered
D) looked down on
E) gave up on

22- A) for what B) by whom 27- A) in order to B) so that

C) in which D) at what C) because of D) while
E) with whose E) due to

23- A) easier B) easy 28- A) when B) during

C) easily D) easiest C) since D) while
E) too easy E) unless

24- A) outside B) throughout 29- A) whether...or B) either...or

C) with D) at C) neither...nor D) such...that
E) alongside E) not only...but also

25- A) on B) to 30- A) the biggest B) as big as

C) in D) about C) so big D) bigger than
E) after E) big enough


"A life is not important except in the impact it
has on other lives," reads the tombstone of With a win in the men's singles event at the
Jackie Robinson, the first Black athlete (1) US Open tennis championship in 1968, Arthur
...... in baseball's major leagues in the 20th Ashe became the first Black American to win
century. By breaking the color barrier in a Grand Slam, one of the four major tennis
1947, Robinson made great strides (2) ...... tournaments. Five years earlier, in 1963, he
for black athletes ...... for all concerned with had broken the color barrier in tennis when
racial justice. When Jackie, who had in high he became the first Black man selected to
school excelled at (3) ...... sport he played, (6) ...... the United States as a member of
began playing baseball professionally, he had the Davis Cup team. In his career, he used
to play with the Negro Leagues because the his grace and power to stun opponents, and
major leagues were closed to Black players racked up a total of 33 professional
(4) ....... Branch Rickey, president of the tournament titles before his retirement in
Brooklyn Dodgers team, thought that this 1980. Ashe was much more than (7) ...... a
was wrong, and wanted to find someone who tennis player, though: he was also an
could successfully integrate the sport. He met eloquent spokesman who worked to effect
with Jackie and, impressed by both his skill social change both on and off the tennis
and his courage, put him on the field with the court, using the wealth he amassed from
Dodgers in April 1947. The chief problem tennis to champion and support (8) ......
Jackie had to overcome was controlling his causes ...... the antiapartheid movement in
fiery temper in the face of continual racial South Africa, the plight of inner-city children
slurs from the crowds and the other and Haitian refugees in the United States,
ballplayers, including some of (5) ...... and the education of people about AIDS.
teammates. Jackie never broke his promise Sadly, AIDS was (9) ...... claimed his life in
to Rickey to remain silent, even though the end: he (10) ...... the disease during
pitchers sometimes deliberately threw the double bypass heart surgery in 1983, and he
ball at him, hotels often would not died on 6 February 1993, in New York City.
accommodate him, and he and his family
received death threats. Instead, he let his
playing speak for him, and went on to have a
fantastic first season and, in the end, a Hall
of Fame career.

1- A) playing B) played
C) being played D) to play 6- A) rejoice B) renovate
E) play C) represent D) remove
E) recover
2- A) not only...but also
B) either...or
C) so much...that 7- A) not only B) such
D) such...that C) barely D) also
E) neither...nor E) just

3- A) all B) many 8- A) either...or B) neither...nor

C) both D) every C) so...that D) as
E) some E)

9- A) that B) what
4- A) in time B) at the time C) why D) how
C) over time D) at times E) when
E) out of time
10- A) had contracted
5- A) them B) his own B) was contracted
C) him D) himself C) was contracting
D) had been contracted
E) has contracted

"Float like a butterfly, sting like a bee." This Few people may remember the names Tommie
is how Muhammad Ali, one of the greatest Smith and John Carlos, yet (16) ...... they did
boxers in history, described his fighting style. during the medal award ceremony for the 200-
Nearly as famous (11) ...... his poetic way meter race in the 1968 Summer Olympics in
with words as his spectacular abilities, Ali was Mexico City will never be forgotten. As the flag
born with the name Cassius Clay in Louisville, rose up the pole and the American national anthem
Kentucky. He first gained the heavyweight began, Smith and Carlos closed their eyes, bowed
championship belt in 1964 with a surprise their heads and raised one black-gloved fist (17)
victory (12) ...... then-champion Sonny ......- a symbol of the Black Power movement.
Liston. Around the same time, he became The two athletes were protesting the failure of
known for other reasons (13) ......: he joined the United States government to do anything to
the Nation of Islam and adopted the name truly eliminate the injustices Black Americans
(14) ...... he is now remembered, and he were facing. Smith later told the media that his
also refused to serve in the American army right, black-gloved fist represented Black power
during the Vietnam War. For this action he in America, while Carlos' left fist represented
was stripped of his championship belt, Black unity: together they formed an arch of
banned from boxing and sentenced to five unity and power. The black scarf around Smith's
years in prison. When he was finally allowed neck stood for Black pride and their black socks
to fight again, he soon managed to regain the (they wore (18) ...... shoes) represented Black
championship belt, and he would go on to win poverty in racist America. For their actions, the
the belt twice more before finally (15) ...... men were rewarded by being stripped of their
in 1981. After his retirement, he continued as medals, forced to leave Mexico and banned from
a hero to millions around the world: in 1985, ever again participating in the Olympics. In the
he was asked to negotiate for the release of end, (19) ......, the event turned out to be
kidnapped Americans in Lebanon, and he also (20) ...... one of the most memorable events in
lit the Olympic flame at the 1996 Summer Olympic history ...... a milestone in America's
Olympics in Atlanta, USA. civil rights movement.

11- A) for B) in 16- A) that B) how

C) with D) about C) when D) which
E) to E) what

12- A) around B) by 17- A) each B) all

C) over D) for C) some D) none
E) towards E) either

13- A) despite B) as well 18- A) all B) no

C) therefore D) in addition C) some D) either
E) although E) none

14- A) to whom B) for whose 19- A) though B) hence

C) about what D) by which C) despite D) although
E) the fact that E) moreover

15- A) to be retired B) to retire 20- A) so...that B) either...or

C) retiring D) retired C) such...that D) both...and
E) retire E) neither...nor
C) By the time D) Afterwards
E) When

The fact that Tommie Smith, in winning the When we think of basketball legend Michael
200-meter race in 1968, had set a world Jordan, we think of a man soaring through
record is now largely forgotten as a result of the air, his tongue hanging from his mouth in
the medal ceremony protest, but not (21) concentration as he defies gravity to score
...... with the record of another American two (26) ...... points for the Chicago Bulls.
athlete -Bob Beamon; who specialized in the His face is known throughout the world, from
long jump. Beamon had considered taking Baltimore to Bangladesh, and the image of
part in Smith and Carlos's Black Power him leaping upwards, basketball in hand, was
protest, but eventually (22) ...... doing long used as a symbol for the Nike company.
something just (23) ...... memorable. Prior He played college ball at the University of
to Beamon's long jump in Mexico City in North Carolina, (27) ...... in 1982 he won the
1968, the world record in that event (24) championship game with a last-second shot.
...... 13 times since 1901, with an average Professionally, he played for the Bulls for
increase of 0.06 meters and the longest thirteen seasons and won numerous honors,
increase being 0.15 meters. As Beamon not to mention six NBA championships.
prepared, the world record stood at 8.35 Though he was unstoppable on the court, he
meters - and then he jumped 8.90 meters, was not immune to tragedy (28) ...... it: in
shattering the record by 0.55 meters. (25) August 1993, his father, James Jordan, was
...... the defending Olympic champion, Lynn murdered. (29) ...... returning from the
Davies of England, told Beamon, "You have funeral of a friend, he had decided to pull
destroyed this event," and in track and field over onto the side of the road to take a nap.
jargon a new adjective - "Beamonesque" - As he slept, two local criminals pulled up,
came into use to describe spectacular feats. killed him, and stole his car - the car which
Beamon's record wasn't broken until 1991, Michael had recently bought him as a gift.
twenty-three years later, when Mike Powell The men were soon caught, but Michael
jumped 8.95 meters at the Track and Field -understandably traumatized by the incident
World Championships in Tokyo. - retired soon after. However, (30) ...... a
he was back on the court, dominating the
21- A) like B) so game as he had always done.
C) what D) such
E) though 26- A) much B) most
C) so D) more
E) same

22- A) cut into B) put off

C) broke in D) went down 27- A) that B) which
E) ended up C) why D) what
E) where

23- A) such B) when

C) much D) like 28- A) off B) from
E) as C) in D) with
E) upon

24- A) had been broken

B) broke 29- A) Upon B) As well as
C) had broke C) So that D) While
D) was being broken E) During
E) was breaking

25- A) After B) While 30- A) over B) within

C) through D) at
E) about


"I GOT MY HONOR AND I GOT MY GUN": E) such a large

The prototypical film genre, the Western is GANGSTER FILMS
devoted to telling romanticized tales of the
American West. The fundamental plots of Crime and gangster films are developed
Westerns are simple. Life is reduced to its around the actions of such people as bank
elements: no computers, no cellphones, no robbers, Mafia men and ruthless gangsters,
cars, no electricity; in fact, no twenty-first (6) ...... of them stealing and murdering
century technology and (1) ...... no "modern their way through life. Films in this genre
life." The high technology of the era - such as often highlight the life and career of a crime
the telegraph, the printing press and the figure, detailing his rise and fall through his
railroad - does sometimes appear, but power struggles and conflicts with law-and-
primarily in order to symbolize the fact that order figures or rival gangs. (7) ...... films
this idealized frontier lifestyle is transitory, tend to be set in large, crowded cities and
soon to give way to "civilization", (2) ...... provide a window onto the secret world of the
advent is generally portrayed as regrettable. criminal. The gangsters (8) ...... are usually
Using the simple elements (3) ...... above, materialistic, street-smart, violent and self-
the Western tells a simple morality tale set destructive. They rise to power in a tough
(4) ...... the spectacular scenery of the cruel manner, showing an ambitious desire
American West. The Western portrays a for success and recognition, but underneath
society in which individuals have no social they can also express sensitivity and
order (5) ...... the family or the town, or gentleness. (9) ...... Westerns, gangster
sometimes just themselves, and hence - in films are basically morality tales: they are
order to survive- they must live by a certain success stories turned upside-down, with the
self-imposed code of honor, which is criminals living in a dream world of their own,
sometimes violent and sometimes generous, destined for eventual failure and inevitable
but always individually chosen. death. (10) ...... as the stories are told from
their point of view, they usually end up being
1- A) in order for B) so that seen as sympathetic characters.
C) therefore D) because
E) however
6- A) all B) every
C) either D) both
E) much
2- A) that B) where
C) who D) whose
E) when 7- A) Like B) Such
C) As D) So
E) Just

3- A) recommended B) scheduled
C) ordered D) proposed
E) outlined 8- A) them B) they
C) theirs D) their
E) themselves

4- A) out of B) amidst
C) towards D) along
E) about 9- A) Such B) As
C) So D) Such as
E) Like

5- A) so large that B) the largest

C) larger than D) large enough
10- A) For fear that B) Because 15- A) what else B) for which
C) Nonetheless D) Despite the fact C) from whom D) wherever
E) As well E) anything


Action movies usually (11) ...... a fairly The so-called "Buddy Cop" genre of films are
straightforward story of good guys versus action films (16) ...... plots involving two
bad guys in which most disputes are resolved men of very different and conflicting
by using physical force. The basic plot of an personalities who are forced to work together
action movie is usually so simple that the (17) ...... a crime and/or defeat criminals.
whole movie (12) ...... in a simple sentence. Many consider the 1982 film 48 Hours,
(e.g., "A scientist brings dinosaurs back to starring Eddie Murphy and Nick Nolte, to
life only to find them trying to dominate the have started the genre. In that film, a white
Earth, again," for the film Jurassic Park.) cop teams up with a black convict to try to
(13) ...... exactly the good guys are differs catch a murderer. Frequently, the two heroes
from film to film, but in Hollywood films they in Buddy Cop films are of different ethnicities
are usually patriotic and rather conservative or cultures. (18) ...... the two men do have a
Americans, (14) ...... the bad guys are similar ethnic background, one of them is
usually either criminals or agents of foreign often "yvilder" than the other: a hot-
powers. In the 1980s and before, the bad tempered rebel paired with a more even-
guys were very often Communists, Since the tempered partner. Another frequent plot
fall of Communism, Communists are no device of this genre is to have one of the men
longer the villains, and so the focus has be removed from his natural element, usually
turned to America's newest scapegoats: drug by being forced to operate in a different
lords and Middle Eastern terrorists. Action country. When this is done, the other man
movies also tend to have a single heroic acts as a guide to the unfamiliar (19) ..... .As
protagonist and often portray institutions evidenced by 48 Hours, a Buddy Cop film
such as the military or police as limited by (20) ...... always involve two policemen.
rules and regulations (15) ...... the Films that do not specifically involve two
protagonist has no regard. cops, but otherwise have many of the
characteristics of a Buddy Cop film, are
sometimes considered to be members of an
even larger genre of "Buddy" films.
11- A) infect B) reduce
C) capture D) involve 16- A) for B) from
E) consume C) into D) with
E) among

12- A) can be summarized 17- A) solving B) to be solved

B) was being summarized C) to solve D) solved
C) has been summarizing E) having solved
D) is summarizing
E) should have summarized

18- A) That B) If only

13- A) When B) Who C) Whether D) Even if
C) Why D) That E) However
E) How

19- A) another B) such

14- A) yet B) whereas C) one D) them
C) as though D) despite E) someone
E) in order that

20- A) needn't B) can't

C) ought not to D) could not E) either
E) doesn't need


The basic plot of a romantic comedy, which
can be considered as a sub-genre of comedy In the late 1960s and 1970s, a public
films (21) ...... as of romance films, is that fascination with the supernatural was fed by
two people meet each other, but do not serious, often bloody horror movies. Roman
become romantically involved (22) ...... Polanski's Rosemary's Baby (1968) was a
some internal factor (e.g., on the surface critical and popular success and (26) ......
they do not like each other) or an external the groundwork for the important horror film
barrier (e.g., one is romantically involved The Exorcist (1973). These films had
with another person). At some point, after production values equal to those of (27) ......
various comic scenes, they are parted for serious film of the time. Similar to these was
some reason. One partner then realizes that George Romero's groundbreaking 1968 film,
they are perfect for each other, and Night of the Living Dead, which introduced
eventually they meet again, often after some the modern zombie drama. (28) ...... later,
spectacular effort and/or an incredible in 1978, the slasher genre was created with
coincidence. They then proceed to declare John Carpenter's excellent shocker film
undying love for each other, and finally Halloween, which introduced the teens-
disappear off into the sunset together. Of threatened-by-superhuman-evil theme, with
course, there are innumerable variations on its imitators in the 1980s becoming
this basic plotline, and it is not (23) ...... increasingly bloody and poorly made.
essential for the two lead characters to end Following this, in the 1990s - with (29) ......
up in (24) ...... arms. The basic format of a left to go in the realm of explicit violence
romantic comedy predates the cinema by -horror films turned to self-mocking irony and
centuries. For instance, (25) ...... of William outright parody, as exemplified by Wes
Shakespeare's plays, such as Much Ado Craven's Scream, (30) ...... menaced teens
About Nothing, fall squarely within the often make reference to horror film history
bounds of the romantic comedy. and mix ironic humor with the shocks.

21- A) the same B) also 26- A) lay B) laid

C) that D) similar C) lied D) led
E) as well E) leaned

22- A) accordingly B) however 27- A) any B) several

C) because of D) in spite of C) some D) all
E) so that E) many

23- A) how B) what 28- A) Too much B) Whenever

C) even D) already C) So many D) Somewhat
E) any E) Quite

24- A) one another B) their own 29- A) anything B) wherever

C) themselves D) their C) nowhere D) someone
E) each other's E) whomever

25- A) one B) every 30- A) whose B) which

C) much D) many C) what D) that
E) whom


Two main social systems seem to have
dominated Western Europe during the Middle Humanism (6) ...... the essence of the
Ages: the Catholic Church, and the feudal Renaissance. The word "renaissance" is
system. (1) ...... of these were structured French for "rebirth", and in a sense that is
with an extreme hierarchy and rigidity which exactly what the Renaissance was: a rebirth
eventually ended up commanding many of the ideas and ideals of the ancient Greeks
aspects of the lives of the individuals and Romans after the Middle Ages, (7) ......
associated (2) ...... them. Many historians Renaissance thinkers thought of as a time of
say that the spirit and work of the Catholic ignorance and mere superstition. The name
Church were the great civilizing influences of of the humanist movement derives (8) ......
medieval times, and it could be said that its the Roman statesman Cicero's use of the
promise of paradise for the faithful offered word "humanity" to indicate the cultivation of
hope to millions. Of course, as nine-tenths of the human mind via a kind of broad
the population were serfs (3) ...... a education in a variety of different subjects.
miserable life under the iron boot of the This type of education is still referred to as
feudal system, most of the population needed "the humanities" even today. For the
such hope. The feudal system required the Renaissance humanists, humanism meant
serfs -who were bound to their lord's land - (9) ...... knowledge to open up new
to give about half of their labour and produce possibilities for mankind. A major new
to their lord. Luckily, there were many direction in which they explored was science,
holidays, or holy days, (4) ...... they at least and the investigations of (10) ...... men ......
had a chance to enjoy themselves (5) ...... Galileo, Copernicus and Newton paved the
by listening to minstrels, dancing, and way for an entirely new vision of the
participating in various games and sports. universe.

1- A) Both B) Every
C) Some D) All 6- A) focuses B) constitutes
E) Many C) differs D) undermines
E) convinces

2- A) between B) to
C) with D) along 7- A) what B) whom
E) from C) when D) that
E) which

3- A) lived B) to live
C) to be living D) living 8- A) towards B) about
E) be living C) from D) over
E) for

4- A) when B) why
C) which D) how 9- A) having used B) to be used
E) whom C) being used D) using
E) to be using

5- A) rather B) somewhat
C) little D) quite 10- A) both...and B) so...that
E) very C) too D) any...for
E) E) so


Though the term "the Enlightenment" refers The Romantic movement was in many ways a
specifically to an intellectual movement in reaction (16) ...... the Enlightenment. There
18th-century Europe, the effects of this is no universal agreement on exactly (17)
movement extend far (11) ...... that time ...... Romanticism was, but basic to it was
and place. (12) ...... out of Renaissance certainly a measure of distrust of the
Humanism, the Enlightenment's main goal Enlightenment's worship of reason and
was to understand the natural world and science. Romanticism began during the first
humanity's place in it solely on the basis a stirrings of the Industrial Revolution, and
reason and without turning to religious belief. therefore, its proponents (18) ...... some of
Although the movement was extremely wide- the more harmful effects of science: the
ranging, (13) ..... of its proponents had exploitation of the individual worker and the
several beliefs and values in common. Firstly, destruction of nature in the name of
they believed that religious dogma was "progress". Romantics therefore, in
inferior to logic and rational philosophy, and opposition to this, developed a sort of cult of
(14) ......, that the scientific method was the nature and of the more irrational, creative
best possible way for human beings to aspects of humanity. In the arts, it was
understand (15) ...... the natural world ...... characterized by the use of more popular
humanity itself. They also believed in the aspects of culture - such as folk music and
dignity of the individual, and so claimed that everyday normal speech - . (19) ...... by a
all individuals had certain rights. stronger emphasis (20) ...... upon powerful
Furthermore, they were confident that emotions, the imagination, and rebellions
science was necessarily a positive good for against social conventions.
humanity. Such ideals - which have not
always been lived up to - continue to inform
Western and Western-influenced societies
even today.

11- A) beyond B) among 16- A) with B) towards

C) with D) about C) alongside D) through
E) between E) against

12- A) To have developed 17- A) where B) when

B) To be developing C) why D) which
C) Develop E) what
D) Having developed
E) To be developed

18- A) were able to witness

13- A) little B) any B) had been witnessed
C) both D) all C) have witnessed
E) none D) ought to witness
E) used to be witnessed

14- A) despite the fact B) because 19- A) subsequently B) as well as

C) therefore D) however C) because D) however
E) on the contrary E) consequently

20- A) having laid

15- A) neither...nor B) not only...but also B) laying
C) so much...that D) either...or C) to be laying
D) being laid
E) to lay

Realism and its successor, naturalism, were Exactly (26) ...... the modernist period in art
artistic movements that arose in late 19th- and literature began is not entirely certain:
century Europe as a reaction against most critics claim it first emerged in the late
Romanticism, which in the course of (21) 19th and early 20th centuries, but some have
...... later development had degenerated into stated that eaiiier 19th-century writers such
an obsession (22) ...... fantasy, mythology as French poet Charles Baudelaire and
and nationalism. Realist novels, (23) ...... Russian novelist Fyodor Dostoevsky are
tended to focus on ordinary people and entirely "modern". (27) ...... the
ordinary events. Some of the authors definition of the word "modern" is uncertain,
considered to be reaiists include Balzac, but generally speaking, any art or literature
Flaubert and Tolstoy, who is perhaps (24) known as "modernist" can be said (28) ......
...... realist novelist of them all. Naturalism certain elements (29) ....... First, modernist
developed from realism at the very end of the works deal more freely with things that are
19th century, and - influenced by the theory not beautiful or pleasant, such as ugliness
of evolution - claimed that the novel ought to and violence, or previously taboo subjects,
resemble a kind of fictional case study similar such as sex and drugs. Also, modernist art
to the nonfictional case studies of sociology. and literature are very technically
Naturalist authors tend to depict human sophisticated as artists have discovered new
beings as being at the mercy of social forces expressive techniques; such techniques,
(25) ...... their control. Zola is the most however, often make great demands on the
famous naturalist author, but the movement audience. Hand-in-hand with this, the
was widespread, and even made an meanings of modern art have also become
appearance in Turkey with Ahmet Mithat more complex (30) ...... be able to
Efendi's novel, “Henüz Onyedi Yaşında”. appropriately express the greater
complexities of modern life.

21- A) them B) there 26- A) what B) why

C) its D) itself C) which D) when
E) theirs E) that

22- A) with B) to 27- A) Quite B) Whereas

C) for D) from C) Even D) Just
E) under E) Whether

23- A) by all means B) in contrast 28- A) to have B) having

C) on no account D) over and over C) have had D) have
E) at their leisure E) to be having

24- A) much greater B) so great 29- A) on average B) at length

C) as great D) the greatest C) for short D) at most
E) too great E) in common

25- A) towards B) beyond 30- A) instead of B) in order to

C) upon D) along C) in addition to D) nevertheless
E) between E) owing to


An expatriate - which is often (1) ...... to In 19th-century France, the term "bohemian"
"expat" - is someone who is either arose - owing to the mistaken French
temporarily or permanently residing in a perception that gypsies had originated in
country or culture other than (2) ...... of Bohemia, a Czech province - (6) ......
their upbringing and/or legal residence. The describe a group of artists, writers, and
term comes from a combination of the Latin disenchanted people of all sorts who wished
roots ex, (3) ...... "out of", and patria, or to live a nontraditional lifestyle of the sort
"country",and is most commonly used in the that the French associated vaguely with the
context of Westerners living in non-Western gypsies. Thus, bohemians were seen as
countries. An expatriate is different from an outsiders (7) ...... apart from conventional
immigrant in that unlike immigrants, who society and untroubled by its disapproval; as
commit to becoming a part of their country of possibly possessing very obscure knowledge;
residence, expatriates do no such thing, but and as being rather neglectful (8) ......
instead hold (4) ...... detached from the personal hygiene. With (9) ...... these
"natives" (5) ...... they are living, choosing connotations, the term continues to be in use
instead to associate primarily or even today to define a certain variety of artistically
exclusively with fellow expatriates. Thus, inclined intellectual. Bohemians have
they generally remain ignorant of the local traditionally been placed in opposition to the
language, and have a tendency to adopt a bourgeois, though in fact many of the most
rather patronizing attitude towards the local talented European and American artists and
culture. writers over the last 150 years (10) ...... one
foot in "bohemia" and the other in the
bourgeois world.
1- A) justified B) rationalized
C) abbreviated D) extended 6- A) for B) just as
E) inscribed C) in order to D) in addition to
E) so that

2- A) that B) what 7- A) lived B) living

C) which D) those C) to be living D) to live
E) their own E) having lived

3- A) having meant B) to mean 8- A) at B) from

C) being meant D) meaning C) under D) among
E) to be meaning E) of

4- A) it B) themselves 9- A) all B) many

C) their D) them C) most D) much
E) itself E) some

5- A) for what B) to which 10- A) are having B) have

C) by whom D) among whom C) have had D) were having
E) upon which E) had

Hippies were members of the 1960s The so-called "New Age" movement is very
counterculture movement (11) ...... adopted difficult to define (16) ....... as it
a communal or nomadic lifestyle, renounced encompasses a wide variety of different
capitalist nationalism and the Vietnam War, beliefs and practices. To some extent, it can
embraced Eastern and Native American be said (17) ...... out of one particular aspect
religious culture, and were in general at odds of the hippie subculture; namely, the hippies'
(12) ...... traditional middle-class Western turn towards Eastern and Native American
values. Although the hippie movement religious culture. The movement is broadly
exhibited a great deal of variety, most of its characterized by alternative approaches to
adherents shared several things (13) ......: traditional Western culture, and is particularly
they tended to have long and somewhat concerned (18) ...... differing varieties of
unkempt hair; they wore brightly-coloured spiritual exploration, holistic medicine, and
clothes; they used drugs partly for recreation mysticism. Some practitioners utilize a sort of
and partly in the hope of spiritual "do-it-yourself" approach, adopting from a
enlightenment; they listened to certain grab bag of sources whatever practices they
varieties of music, especially (14) ...... which feel inclined to, whereas (19) ...... groups
might induce trance-like states; and they have actually formulated coherent belief
often (15) ...... society and lived in systems resembling those of traditional
communes of like-minded people. The term religion. They differ from their hippie
"hippie" was first used in 1965 to describe an forebears in generally putting (20) ...... less
already large subculture centered in San emphasis on drug use and in living more
Francisco, but by 1970 the entire hippie often among mainstream society rather than
subculture had largely been swallowed up by apart from it.
the mainstream.

11- A) where B) what 16- A) rather B) scarcely

C) who D) whose C) obscurely D) precisely
E) whom E) somewhat

12- A) over B) through 17- A) growing B) having grown

C) with D) upon C) grown D) being grown
E) against E) to have grown

13- A) in common 18- A) to B) about

B) by mistake C) around D) with
C) for a change E) between
D) under the impression
E) at most

14- A) them B) those 19- A) other B) both

C) they D) what C) anything D) another
E) it E) each

15- A) dropped out of 20- A) much B) more

B) came back with C) so D) such
C) looked forward to E) many
D) put up with
E) measured up to

The punk movement, which arose (21) ...... The meaning and implications of the term
in New York and Britain in the mid-1970s, "goth" have evolved (26) ...... the years,
expressed a wholehearted and somewhat though it seems (27) ...... initially to
violent rejection of both the hippie subculture describe 1980s post-punk musical groups
which had preceded it and the capitalist value which, though close to the rebellious spirit of
system which prevailed at the time. British punk, expressed a more despairing and
punk was generally (22) ...... overtly political introverted form of anger. One major
...... its New York counterpart, and was influence (28) ...... the goth subculture - and
responding to the terrible problem of urban the source of its name -was the gothic
blight and rising unemployment in the UK. literature of the 19th century, exemplified by
Musically, punk scorned the pretension and writers such as Edgar Allan Poe, who dealt
commercialism of contemporary rock music with horror, darkness, and the supernatural;
(23) ...... the more concise and simple style 20th-century horror films also exerted some
of early rock and roll, and often adopted a influence. Goths are, according to some,
DIY ("do-it-yourself") approach which defined by black clothes and hair dye, silver
announced that musical ability was basically jewellery, horror, and a fascination with
less important than passion. The DIY death, darkness, and depression. Others,
approach also dictated punk fashion, which however, claim that this list of traits is
consisted of (24) ...... things ...... spiked and stereotypical and patronizing to what is
dyed hair; deliberately cut, torn, or written- actually a subculture full of a great variety
on pants and shirts; safety pins used as face- and richness of expression. For example,
piercing jewellery; and black garbage bags television shows such as Buffy the Vampire
used as clothing. True punk is still alive and Slayer and Angel show that goth, (29) ......
well today, despite mainstream culture's its morbidly serious reputation, is perfectly
attempts to commercialize (25) ....... . capable of poking fun at (30) ....... .

21- A) barely B) exactly 26- A) along B) through

C) simultaneously D) constantly C) at D) among
E) considerably E) between

22- A) so...that B) more...than 27- A) having been using

C) D) enough...for B) being used
E) the C) to have been used
D) to be using
E) having been used

23- A) on the tip of

B) in store for 28- A) upon B) above
C) over and above C) around D) to
D) side by side E) towards
E) in favour of

24- A) so...that B) both...and 29- A) despite B) in order that

C) the D) C) accordingly D) for fear that
E) either...or E) because of

25- A) it B) themselves-s 30- A) their B) themselves

C) its D) them C) itself D) its
E) itself E) it


Sometimes it seems (1) ...... criminals are From the state of Kentucky come two
fond (2) ...... being caught. Once, a man in examples of criminals who got a bit too
Belgium was arrested because police frightened for their own good. Late one night,
suspected that he had robbed a jewellery two men tried to pull the front off an ATM
store. The man, however, swore to them that machine (6) ...... a chain from the machine
he did not do it. When the police asked if he to the bumper of their pickup truck, instead
had an alibi, he helpfully explained that on of pulling the panel off the machine,
the night of the jewellery store robbery, he however, they pulled the bumper off the
had been busy breaking into a school. truck. (7) ......, they left the scene of the
Surprised yet content, the police gladly crime. Their bumper, (8) ...... their license
dropped the jewellery store charges, plate, was still attached to the ATM. It didn't
arresting him for breaking into the school (3) take long for the police to find them. Another
....... Similarly, in Chicago one afternoon, a frightened Kentuckian criminal was the one
man carrying a woman's purse was picked up who broke into the basement of a jewellery
on the street by a policeman, as he matched store (9) ...... a street-level window. In the
the description of a purse snatcher that had process, he managed to cut (10) ......
been reported just a few seconds earlier. The severely on the glass. Fearing that, as he was
policeman told the thief that he (4) ...... him wounded, he would neither be able to get the
to the woman for positive identification. money nor climb back, the robber panicked.
When they returned to the scene of the Realizing he was going to bleed to death if he
crime, the criminal said, "Yes, officer, that is did not get help, he located a phone and
definitely the lady (5) ...... I robbed." called 911. The rest, as they say, is history.

1- A) just as B) as if 6- A) connected B) to connect

C) like D) so C) connecting D) about connecting
E) such E) by connecting

2- A) around B) to 7- A) To scare B) Having scared

C) about D) of C) To be scared D) Scaring
E) with E) Scared

3- A) instead B) too 8- A) as well B) however

C) consequently D) rather C) thus D) along with
E) as well E) accordingly

4- A) would be taking B) will have taken 9- A) between B) through

C) was taken D) has taken C) towards D) among
E) had been taking E) alongside

5- A) which B) what
C) whom D) whose 10- A) its B) another
E) where C) himself D) it
E) his own

24-hour convenience stores seem to attract Dennis Newton of Oklahoma City was on trial
their fair share of foolish people. An for the armed robbery of a convenience store
apparently thirsty man in New York City once when he suddenly decided that his lawyer
walked into a 7-11 store with a shotgun late was not doing a (16) ...... job in defending
at night and demanded all the money from him; (17) ......, he fired him in order to
the cash register. After the cashier put the defend himself. The Oklahoma City District
money in the bag as (11) ......, the man Attorney, (18) ...... was prosecuting the
made (12) ...... demand: he also wanted the case, said Newton was doing a decent job
bottle of Scotch whisky (13) ...... he saw until the store manager came onto the
behind the counter. The cashier refused to witness stand and testified (19) ...... Newton
hand over the Scotch because he did not was indeed the robber. At that moment,
believe the man was 21, (14) ...... is the Newton jumped up in court, accused the
legal drinking age in the United States. The woman of lying, and shouted, "I should have
robber swore that he was, but still the shot you when I had the chance!" The
cashier refused to give him the whisky. defendant paused thoughtfully, then added,
Finally, the robber handed over his "If I (20) ...... the one that was there." The
identification card, (15) ...... that he was jury deliberated for twenty minutes before
indeed 21 years old. As soon as he left, the returning a verdict of guilty, and
cashier called and gave the police the name recommended a sentence of thirty years.
of the man who had just robbed the store.
The suspect was arrested two hours later.

11- A) to instruct B) being instructed 16- A) better B) so good

C) instructed D) to be instructing C) such good D) the best
E) instructing E) good enough

12- A) any B) what else 17- A) in order that B) thus

C) another D) the other C) because D) also
E) something E) so that

13- A) - B) where 18- A) who B) whom

C) what D) whose C) that D) which
E) when E) how

14- A) who B) that 19- A) whom B) what

C) what D) when C) that D) why
E) which E) which

15- A) proved B) prove 20- A) would be B) used to be

C) to have proven D) proving C) have been D) had been
E) being proven E) must have been
In England once, a particularly idiotic gang of
Bank robbers, too, have been known to be thugs planned (26) ...... they thought would
not always the most clever of people. Once be a brilliant series of daring bank robberies.
upon a time, a man from the town of Grand To drive their getaway car, they hired a man
Forks, North Dakota, decided to travel to the (27) ...... they knew. Going into the first
city of Fargo (21) ...... he could rob the First bank, they managed to get the money
Community Bank there. Upon entering the without any problem (28) ...... As they came
bank, the criminal quickly wrote a note fleeing out of the bank, holding several bags
demanding money and gave it to the bank full of cash, the man waiting there in the car
teller. (22) ...... she gave the man (23) ...... panicked and caused the car to stall. He
he asked for and watched him run out of the desperately tried to get the car started again
door. The police were called and searches of (29) ...... his criminal genius friends waited
the surrounding area were made, but with no in the back seat. Before he could get the car
results. When they reviewed the note that going again, however, the police arrived and
the man had handed to the teller, however, arrested the whole lot of them. During the
they realized that the criminal had written his men's trial later on, it was revealed that the
message on his own bank deposit slip, which man (30) ...... to drive the getaway car not
contained his full name and address. The only didn't have a driver's license, but he had
police travelled to the man's house and found also never operated any sort of motor vehicle
him (24) ...... on his front porch, auite before in his life.
satisfied with (25) ...... . They arrested him
on the spot.

21- A) accordingly B) for 26- A) when B) that

C) in order that D) so as to C) where D) what
E) for fear that E) which

22- A) Frighten 27- A) whose B) whom

B) Frightened C) how D) which
C) Being frightening E) what
D) Having frightened
E) Frightening

23- A) why B) that 28- A) at all B) however

C) when D) which C) for once D) somewhat
E) what E) such

24- A) sitting B) to sit 29- A) as soon as B) when

C) having sat D) to be sitting C) after D) during
E) to have sat E) while

25- A) himself B) there 30- A) to hire B) hiring

C) theirs D) him C) to be hired D) having hired
E) those E) hired


Marshall Mathers - better known as Eminem The Eminem Show and the soundtrack to 8
-emerged in 1999 as one of the most Mile - are somewhat less satirical as a whole
controversial (and popular) rappers ever to than his first two masterpieces, but his talent
grace the genre, using his biting wit and is as clear on (5) ...... as it ever was. The
incredible skills to rap about everything from goth-inspired rock band Evanescence -
his troubled childhood to his contempt for the (6) ...... name means "gradual
mainstream media and to offend (1) ...... of disappearance" - easily made it to the top of
people along the way. He is (2) ...... an the charts in 2003 with their second full-
excellent rapper ....... a gifted producer, and length album, Fallen. Singer Amy Lee and
sometimes the furious controversy over his guitarist Ben Moody formed the band after
lyrics has threatened to overshadow how (7) ...... at a youth camp at the end of the
talented he really is and how much his music 1990s, when (8) ...... were in (9) ...... early
has changed the face of hip-hop. For one teens. A few years and one self-produced
thing, he was the first big name to bring the album (10) ......, the band was discovered
world of white lower-class Americans into by producer Pete Matthews, who helped them
rap, a fact which accounts for (3) ...... of his get onto soundtrack of the 2003 film
popularity. Perhaps even more important, Daredevil, which featured two of their songs,
however, he was one of the first rappers to "Bring Me Into Life" and "My Immortal". The
introduce satire and parody into hip-hop, (4) soundtrack catapulted the group to stardom,
...... demonstrated especially on his first two and their album Fallen eventually went on to
albums, The Slim Shady LP and The Marshall sell more than two million copies.
Mathers LP. His most recent albums – Evanescence's signature musical style is
ballad-like piano accompanied by crunching
1- A) some B) enough guitars, eery orchestral strings, and the now
C) lot D) many 20-year-old Amy Lee's soaring vocals.
E) plenty
6- A) what B) whose
C) which D) whom
E) that

2- A) the B) neither...nor

C) so D) either...or 7- A) being met B) met
E) not only...but also C) meeting D) meet
E) to have met

3- A) much B) several 8- A) both B) all

C) lot D) less C) each D) either
E) few E) neither

4- A) if B) so 9- A) his B) themselves
C) as D) like C) herself D) her
E) such E) their

10- A) then B) as well

5- A) it B) them C) too D) later
C) itself D) himself E) after
E) theirs

(11) ...... any other single artist, Britney Rock-and-roll wild child Avril Lavigne hit big
Spears was the driving force (12) ...... the in summer 2002 with her fun debut song,
return of teen pop in the late 1990s. Her "Complicated", moving pop music (16) ......
1999 debut album, ...... Baby One More a different direction. Lavigne - only 17 years
Time, established her trademark image as old (17) ...... - didn't seem as concerned
the teen girl who wanted to be naughtier with the glamour of the pop world as other
than she was allowed to be. She became an pop stars, like Britney Spears, and such
international sex symbol, yet the people who confidence allowed her star power (18) .......
managed her - not to mention Britney herself A large part of Lavigne's appeal is that she's
- claimed in interviews that she was really a brat, acting even younger and more
just a normal, everyday girl. Her second childish than she actually is. This attitude
album continued in (13) ...... style ...... her came through on her first album, Lef It Go,
first, but with 2001's Britney, she began and (19) ...... much of her success: she sang
trying to craft her image as a more mature in a flat, undistinguished voice that only drew
young adult. Not surprisingly, perhaps, the attention to her silly, shallow lyrics. But the
album failed to be as successful as the first music was catchy. On her newest album, the
two had been: after all, when superstars try recently released Under My Skin, she tries to
to change their image and style, the fans be a bit less silly and a bit more serious, and
often respond (14) ...... away. (15) ....... though the results are at times awkward and
with her newest album, In the Zone, Spears unsure, only time will tell if (20) ...... her old
continues to stress the fact that she has fans will desert her because of the change.
matured out of her teens - and even though
her idea of maturity is really rather
immature, she should at least be respected
for trying to change.

11- A) The most B) So that 16- A) above B) about

C) As if D) Such as C) into D) among
E) More than E) alongside

12- A) between B) over 17- A) over time B) by the time

C) behind D) onto C) on time D) in time
E) around E) at the time

13- A) B) as...if 18- A) soar B) to have soared

C) the D) more...than C) soaring D) to soar
E) different...from E) being soared

14- A) to stay B) by staying 19- A) cut across B) poured out

C) to be stayed D) about staying C) accounted for D) chanced
E) having stayed upon
E) brought up

15- A) Nonetheless B) Therefore 20- A) a number B) any of

C) Despite D) In addition C) many D) enough of
E) Because E) plenty

In recent years, the boy band Blue - who Anastacia is a little lady with a big, big voice.
originally come from London - have become Raised in New York City, she comes from
one of (21) ...... chart successes of all. Their (26) ...... entertainment-oriented family: her
music combines smooth, soulish vocals with father was a singer and her mother an
R&B and dance music. The group formed actress in musical theater. At the age of 13,
when singers Duncan James and Anthony she was diagnosed with a chronic intestinal
Costa teamed up with their housemates, Lee illness, Crohn's disease, (27) ...... she
Ryan and Simon Webbe, and a deal with the managed to overcome as she developed a
Virgin music company's Innocent label soon career as a dancer, appearing on Club MTV as
followed. (22) ...... of their songs have been well as in several music videos. Record labels
hits: in fact, the first three singles of their grew interested in her after she appeared as
career - "All Rise", "Too Close", and "If You a 1999 finalist on the MTV talent contest The
Come Back" - all made it onto the UK charts. Cut, and her debut album, Not That Kind,
Recently, the group released their third was released in 2000 to massive international
album, Guilty, (23) ...... some of the music success. (28) ...... this album ...... her
industry's biggest producers made a second - 2002's Freak of Nature -consist
contribution. Even more than that, however, primarily of soulish, danceable pop music,
the group's cover version of Stevie Wonder's with some ballads and rock influence also
classic song "Signed, Sealed, Delivered (I'm seen. Her newest album, Anastacia, is (29)
Yours)" features Stevie Wonder (24) ...... as ...... more rock-oriented, perhaps leaving
a guest star. Of course, he performs a number of her old fans scratching their
(25) ...... better than the four lads, but he's heads in confusion, but overall, it is a solid
been doing this for forty years. collection of songs, with Anastacia sounding
(30) ...... a white Tina Turner on the up-
tempo songs and a young Madonna on the
21- A) so big B) too big ballads.
C) big enough D) such big
E) the biggest 26- A) an B) the
C) such D) those
E) what

22- A) A number B) Few 27- A) when B) that

C) Lot D) Quite C) what D) which
E) A little E) how

23- A) about whom B) to which 28- A) Neither...nor B) Either...or

C) for what D) in that C) Both...and D) More...than
E) by then E)

29- A) as much B) so
24- A) him B) their C) much D) as if
C) they D) his own E) such a
E) himself

30- A) as if B) rather
25- A) most B) enough C) such a D) so much
C) a lot D) more E) like
E) the much


Sandwiched (1) ...... Switzerland and The second smallest republic in the world,
Austria, 160-square-kilometre Liechtenstein San Marino - (6) ...... wonderful official name
is a country with tax rates (2) ...... low - the is The Most Serene Republic of San Marino -
maximum rate is 18 percent-...... thousands is completely surrounded by Italy and has an
of foreign companies have established their area of only 61 square kilometres and a
headquarters there. The fees paid by these population of less than 30,000. It claims to
companies to work from the country provide be the world's oldest republic still in
30 percent of Liechtenstein's income. The existence, as it was founded in 301 AD by a
mountainous country is also a skiers' blacksmith known as Saint Marinus. The
paradise, and a large part of the rest of the country is situated in the Apennine
country's money comes from tourism, while Mountains, which run the length of the Italian
another significant percentage is derived peninsula. Tourism is the major source of San
from the sale of postage stamps. Though Marino's revenue, but postage stamps (7)
Liechtenstein (3) ...... a sovereign state (4) ...... by stamp collectors also contribute
...... 1719, the area has been ruled by the greatly to the country's wealth. (8) ...... it is
Liechtenstein family since the Middle Ages. technically an independent nation, San
About half of the country's land area is Marino is heavily dependent on Italy: for
devoted to crops and pasture -producing instance, Italy provides the San Marinans
corn, grapes, and potatoes - yet since the with most of their food. An interesting fact
end of World War II, Liechtenstein has about the country is that, (9) ...... 1648 al!
developed into a highly industrialized, the way...... 1996, San Marino was at war
prosperous nation. (5) ......, its citizens have with Sweden. (10) ...... fighting was actually
one of the highest standards of living in the done, though, because San Marino doesn't
world. have an army.

1- A) among B) through 6- A) that B) whose

C) towards D) between C) where D) which
E) about E) what

2- A) the B) such a...that 7- A) purchasing B) purchased

C) so...that D) both...and C) have purchased D) to have purchased
E) barely...when E) to purchase

8- A) Accordingly B) Despite
3- A) didn't become B) hasn't become C) In order that D) Since
C) wasn't becoming D) doesn't become E) Even though
E) wouldn't have become

9- A) from...until B)
4- A) while B) when C) D) around...up
C) about D) by E) about...towards
E) until

10- A) All B) Any

C) No D) Some
5- A) Even though B) However E) Much
C) Consequently D) Whereas
E) In addition to

"Tuva-who?" you may be tempted to say. Like Tuvalu, Nauru is an island nation in the
Well, there really is a country called Tuvalu: South Pacific Ocean. With only 10,000 people
it is an island nation 4000 kilometres and 21 square kilometres of land, it is the
northeast of Australia and (11) ...... of nine world's smallest republic. The country
small islands with a total area of only 26 consists of only one island, which has vast
square kilometres. Moreover, only about deposits of phosphate, a mineral used in
10,000 people live in Tuvalu, (12) ...... it one fertilizers, which is Nauru's only export. (16)
of the two independent nations with the (13) ...... the revenue from such an export, the
...... inhabitants apart from Vatican City. inhabitants of Nauru once had one of the
Tuvalu's main forms of income are technically highest per capita incomes on earth, although
tourism and fishing, yet since hardly any now all that is changing: the phosphate is
tourists come and most of the fish are eaten (17) ....... (18) ...... phosphate mining,
locally, in practical terms foreign aid is (19) ...... has 90 percent of the country been
actually (14) ...... most of the money comes turned into a wasteland, but the country's
from. The islands have almost no drinkable only real source of income has also been
water and no soil suitable for agriculture, so nearly exhausted. (20) ....... the huge
almost all of their food - except for fish - and earnings from the phosphate mining were
water are imported. The country, which had squandered by a corrupt government, and
been a British protectorate since 1892, the island went broke. With essentially no
became independent in 1978. In 2001, money left, and no conceivable way to
Tuvalu's government announced that the acquire any more money, Nauru faces a very
islands - whose highest point is 5 metres uncertain future, as evidenced on 1 October
above sea level - may need to be evacuated 2004, when the president of the country
(15) ...... that rising sea levels will engulf the declared a state of emergency and dissolved
entire country. parliament.

11- A) made up B) turned off 16- A) Because B) Despite

C) grown out D) worn out C) Thanks to D) Therefore
E) brought up E) Besides

12- A) to have made B) makes 17- A) turning off B) putting in

C) to be making D) making C) taking up D) running out
E) being made E) breaking through

13- A) fewer B) least 18- A) Lest B) Instead of

C) less D) fewest C) As a result of D) Consequently
E) lesser E) Inasmuch as

14- A) how B) which 19- A) only if B) not only

C) whom D) that C) neither D) whether
E) where E) as though

15- A) so B) for fear 20- A) Furthermore B) On account of

C) as a result D) in order C) As well as D) As a consequence
E) owing to E) Otherwise

A tax-free nation and a gamblers' paradise, The only independent nation contained
Monaco - located (21) ...... the entirely (26) ...... the boundaries of a single
Mediterranean coast of France, near the city – Rome - Vatican City is the world's
Italian border - is the world's second smallest smallest country, (27) ...... in terms of area
independent nation at only 1.9 square (44 hectares) ...... in terms of population
kilometres and with only about 30,000 (only 890 people live therE). Vatican City is
people. It is, (22) ....... very old: it was home to the Pope and headquarters of the
founded in 1215 as a colony of Genoa, and Roman Catholic Church, and (28) ...... nearly
has been ruled by the royal House of Grimaldi all of its residents are church officials: high
since 1297. The current prince is Rainier III, dignitaries, priests, and nuns, not to mention
(23) ...... acceded to the throne in 1949. the Pope (29) ...... .Also dwelling in Vatican
Monaco's population may seem small, but City is the famous Swiss Guard, a voluntary
(24) ...... the extremely limited area of the military force which essentially serves as the
country, it is also one of the most densely Pope's formal bodyguard. (30) ...... its small
populated nations in the world. Monaco is size, however, Vatican City is quite rich in
home to the world-famous Monte Carlo artistic significance and history, with
casino, and a large portion of the country's buildings such as St. Peter's Basilica and the
income comes from the tourist trade. Most of Sistine Chapel housing works by such
the country's residents are French or Italian, important artists as Botticelli, Bernini, and
and indeed Monaco is practically unique in Michelangelo.
the world in that its native inhabitants -
called Monagesques - are actually a minority
in (25) ...... country.

21- A) about B) in 26- A) within B) under

C) to D) among C) about D) throughout
E) on E) towards

27- A) whether...not B) not only...but also

22- A) despite B) therefore C) hardly...when D) neither...nor
C) however D) accordingly E) the
E) although

28- A) in spite of this B) because

23- A) which B) who C) while D) accordingly
C) when D) what E) yet
E) whom

29- A) him B) his

24- A) because of B) whereas C) his own D) he
C) as though D) since E) himself
E) thus

30- A) Even so B) Due to

25- A) its B) themselves C) Whereas D) Despite
C) theirs D) it E) As a consequence
E) their own


In European mythology, a dragon is a snake- The griffin is a legendary creature with the
like legendary creature which is winged but is body of a lion, the head of an eagle, and the
most often to be found deep (1) ...... of its ears of a horse or donkey. The female also
cave or underground lair, thus identifying it has the wings of an eagle, (6) ...... the male
as an ancient creature of the earth. In the - which is less frequently depicted - has
modern period, the dragon is typically projecting spikes (7) ...... wings. Some
depicted as a huge, scaly, horned, dinosaur- writers have described the griffin as having a
like creature with leathery wings and the tail which is actually a snake. The griffin was
ability to breathe fire. The lair (2) ...... he said to build a nest like (8) ...... of an eagle,
dragon lives is most often filled with gold and but rather than eggs, it laid agates, a kind of
treasure that the dragon protects. Many precious stone similar to chalcedony.
stories with dragons involve a great hero (3) Additionally, the animal was supposed to
...... to kill the dragon, (4) ...... in watch (9) ...... gold mines and hidden
some stories the dragon is an extremely treasures. This aspect of the myth probably
ancient, wise, and helpful creature with comes from the Scythian culture: the
magical powers and the ability to speak, and Scythian steppes -stretching from the
(5) ...... the hero can go for advice. modern Ukraine to central Asia - were rich in
gold and precious stones, and it was said that
when strangers approached (10) ...... the
treasures, the guardian griffins would leap on
and tear them to pieces. The griffin was
1- A) within B) alongside frequently depicted on Scythian coins.
C) among D) inside
E) under
6- A) as well as B) in spite of
C) therefore D) because
E) whereas

2- A) inside what B) to which 7- A) anyhow B) instead of

C) in which D) into it C) due to D) more than
E) through which E) rather

3- A) attempting 8- A) that B) this

B) being attempted C) the D) -
C) having been attempted E) those
D) to attempt
E) to have attempted

9- A) out B) about
4- A) so B) moreover C) over D) to
C) besides D) although E) among
E) nonetheless

5- A) between whom B) from whom 10- A) having been gathered

C) about what D) at which B) gathered
E) to whom C) to gather
D) being gathered
E) to be gathered

In Greek mythology, the Gorgons were In Irish mythology, a leprechaun is a type of

vicious female monsters with razor-sharp elf native to the island of Ireland. A few Irish
teeth and hair (11) ...... of living, poisonous people believe in the reality of leprechauns,
snakes. They are also sometimes depicted but most people treat (16) ...... merely as
(12) ...... having wings of gold and claws of charming pieces of folklore. (17) ......solitary
brass. According to the myths, seeing the by nature, leprechauns live in remote places
face of a Gorgon turned the viewer to stone. and make shoes; they can sometimes be
Moreover, blood taken from a Gorgon's right detected by the rhythmic tapping of the
side could bring the dead back to life, (13) shoemaker's hammer. In appearance, they
...... blood from the left side was an instantly take the form of a quite short old man (the
fatal poison. Homer, in the Iliad, mentions a word "leprechaun" is the Irish Gaelic (18)
Gorgon symbol being fixed in the center of ......"small body"), usually bearded and
Zeus' shield, and in fact in Greek times, a smoking a pipe. Leprechauns know the
drawing or stone carving of a Gorgon's face location of buried treasure, often in a pot of
was frequently placed on doors, walls, gold. They will reveal the location of the
shields, and coins in the hopes of warding off treasure if (19) ...... but will not give it up
evil. After Homer, the Greek poet Hesiod easily; hence there is a saying that a
increased the number of Gorgons to three, leprechaun's treasure is "at the end of the
(14) ...... the queen was the famous rainbow" (that is, unobtainablE). By nature,
Medusa. Medusa was also the only mortal leprechauns are quite mischievous, and they
Gorgon, and (15) ...... the hero Perseus was like nothing (20) ...... a well-crafted, ironic
able to kill her by cutting off her head while practical joke.
looking at her reflection in a mirrored shield.

11- A) to be made B) making 16- A) themselves B) it

C) having made D) to have made C) its D) them
E) made E) him

12- A) as B) from 17- A) Being B) Been

C) such D) so C) To be D) To have been
E) like E) Be

13- A) in order that B) still 18- A) with B) about

C) rather than D) while C) from D) to
E) for fear that E) for

14- A) for what B) of which 19- A) having caught B) catching

C) among them D) with whose C) caught D) to be caught
E) from that E) have caught

15- A) nevertheless B) thus 20- A) the best B) so good as

C) in contrast D) however C) better than D) well
E) because E) too good

In folklore and mythology, a werewolf is a A vampire is a mythical or folkloric creature

person who changes into a wolf, (21) ...... by said to live by drinking human or animal
purposefully using magic ...... by being blood and often having magical powers and
placed under a curse. Most European the ability to transform itself, most often
countries and cultures have stories of (26) ...... a bat, a wolf, or mist. Usually the
werewolves in one form or (22) ....... and in vampire is the corpse of a dead person,
France in the 16th century, many people were reanimated or made undead by some means.
even put to death (23) ...... suspicion of In popular Western culture, they are believed
being werewolves. In fictional treatments to have long, sharp teeth, and to cast no
starting in the 19th century, (24) ...... in reflection; this (27) ...... belief is (28) ......
popular modern superstition, the the traditional belief that mirrors reflect one's
transformation from man to wolf is said to soul, and creatures of evil have no soul. It is
take place at full moon and last for a few considered extremely difficult to kill a
nights every month. It is said that a werewolf vampire, and special means must be used to
may be killed if it is shot with a silver bullet. do so. Some of these means include ramming
The transformation (25) ...... is supposed to a wooden stake (29) ...... a vampire's heart,
be painful, and the resulting wolf is typically exposing a vampire to sunlight, and removing
cunning but merciless, and often much larger and burning a vampire's internal organs. In
and more powerful than an ordinary wolf. addition, vampires can be (30) ...... by
means of a number of items, such as crosses,
bibles, holy water, and garlic, all of which
21- A) instead...of B) nor...either force them to draw back.
C) either.. .or D) too much.. .for
E) so much...that 26- A) into B) with
C) through D) in
E) for

22- A) another's B) other 27- A) better B) former

C) others D) another C) latter D) later
E) the others E) more

23- A) from B) under 28- A) instead of B) rather than

C) to D) about C) other than D) owing to
E) among E) at once

24- A) yet
B) so that 29- A) through B) with
C) furthermore C) from D) for
D) due to the fact that E) about
E) as well as

30- A) called upon B) looked after

25- A) theirs B) itself C) brought up D) tied up
C) them D) its E) kept away
E) it


A cockfight is a contest held in a pit (1) ...... (6) ...... is referred (7) ...... as the
two roosters ("cock" is an alternate term for "Mesoamerican ballgame" was a sport with
a rooster) trained to severely injure and/or ritual associations played for over 3000 years
kill one another. Usually wagers are made on by the peoples of Central America in Pre-
the outcome of the match, with the surviving Columbian times. As might be expected with
bird being declared the winner. Roosters a game (8) ...... over such a long time-span
intended to participate in cockfights are often in several different cultures, details of the
specially bred and trained for attacking and games varied greatly over time and place, so
killing. In some regional variations of the Mesoamerican ballgame might be more
cockfighting, the birds are equipped with accurately seen as a family of related games.
artificial steel spurs known as gaffs, which Some versions were played between two
allow the birds to kill much (2) ...... . individuals, others between two teams of
However, in (3) ...... variations, the bird's players. (9) ...... the games, however,
feet are wrapped to lengthen the bouts. shared the characteristics of being played
Cockfighting has a very ancient history, and with a hard rubber ball in a sunken or walled
is considered to be a traditional sporting court. (10) ...... the game was played
event by some, but a barbarous case of casually for simple recreation, it also had
animal cruelty by others. In many places important ritual aspects, and major formal
around the world, cockfighting - (4) ...... any ballgames would be considered ritual events.
other kind of animal fighting – has been In some of the ritual games, the leader of the
outlawed, either on the grounds of the losing team would be decapitated as a human
gambling that usually occurs at such events, sacrifice. His skull would then be used as the
or (5) ...... opposition ...... animal cruelty, or core around which a new rubber ball would
both. be made.

1- A) about B) among 6- A) However B) Which

C) towards D) through C) What D) That
E) between E) Whom

2- A) very quickly B) as quickly 7- A) about B) in

C) quick enough D) more quickly C) to D) with
E) so quick E) from

3- A) other B) the others 8- A) having played B) played

C) a lot D) another C) to be played D) to have played
E) some of E) playing

9- A) Some B) Much
4- A) owing to B) as well as C) That D) Those
C) furthermore D) nevertheless E) All
E) although

10- A) Still B) Because

5- A) B) with...from C) As a result D) While
C) at...among D) about...against E) Despite
E) towards...of

Buzkashi is a traditional Afghan sport played Iaido, also sometimes called iaijutsu, is the
on horseback. The name translates literally art of drawing the katana - the actual word
as "goat-grabbing", implying that the game for a "samurai sword" - cutting (16) ...... the
developed from the ancient Mongolian opponent, flipping blood from the blade, and
practice of stealing a goat while riding at full then putting the katana back in its case,
gallop. The goal of a buzkashi player is (17)
(11) ...... the dead body of a calf, and then ...... in one smooth movement. The main
either (12) ...... it ....... from the other emphasis is on drawing the sword and
players or pitch it across a goal line. attacking as quickly as possible. Starting
Competition is typically fierce, as other positions can be from either typical
players may use any force short of tripping combative postures, or from everyday sitting
the horse in order to thwart scoring attempts or standing positions. Practitioners,
(the use of knives or guns, however, is not traditionally, were trained to suspect a
looked (13) ...... kindly). Riders usually wear surprise attack (18) ......, and the ability to
heavy clothing and head protection to protect react quickly from an everyday starting
themselves from players' whips and boots, position was (19) ...... considered essential.
and games can last for several days. Serious It is this traditional, specifically combat-
buzkashi players train intensively for years, oriented form that is known as iaijutsu, while
and many of the game's masters are over 40 the term iaido is more often reserved
years old. Playing well also requires specially (20) ...... the modern self-improvement-
trained oriented form, which focusses on a
horses that know to gallop forcefully (14) practitioner's ability to concentrate and to
...... their rider gets hold of the calf. These integrate his or her mind, body, and soul.
horses can sell for (15) ...... $2500, which is
just under the average five-year salary of a
typical Afghan.

11- A) to grab B) grabbing 16- A) among B) down

C) to be grabbed D) grab C) between D) outside
E) having been grabbed E) with

12- A) take...on B) 17- A) some B) whole

C) get...away D) make...out C) most D) all
E) put...up E) much

13- A) over B) after 18- A) at a time B) by the time

C) through D) to C) at any time D) on time
E) upon E) for a time

14- A) whichever B) whenever 19- A) thus B) so that

C) whoever D) whatever C) still D) because of
E) whomever E) despite

15- A) alike B) the same as 20- A) at B) about

C) similar to D) as much as C) with D) towards
E) too many E) for

Oil wrestling, sometimes known as grease The modern sport of skateboarding has its
wrestling, is the Turkish national sport, and is origins in surfing, and (26) ...... was
(21) ...... called because the wrestlers douse originally called "sidewalk surfing". Moreover,
themselves with olive oil. The wrestlers are just as surfing originally influenced
known as pehlivan and wear a type of hand- skateboarding methods, now the reverse is
stitched lederhosen called kispet, which were also true: surfers are performing moves
traditionally made of water buffalo hide, but created and perfected by skateboarders, and
can now also be made of calf leather. The the result has been evolution in both sports.
sport in its modern form comes originally Skateboarding began to develop from a
from India, (22) ...... it is known as playful pastime into a serious sport (27) ......
pehalwani. From India it travelled to the great skill in the 1970s, when eager
neighbouring Persians, who called it skateboarders began using drainage ditches
pahlavani, and from them it (23) ...... and empty swimming pools to perform tricks
into the Ottoman Empire. In the Ottoman in. Eventually, what is known as the halfpipe
Empire, wrestlers learned the sport in special was invented: this was basically two ramps
schools called tekke, which were (24) ...... stuck (28) ...... at the bottom, allowing
athletic centres ....... spiritual centres. In skaters to skate continually up and down
modern times, the most important oil (29) ...... sides of the halfpipe. In the
wrestling tournament, the Kırkpınar Games in beginning, skating tricks were fairly simple,
Edirne, is (25) ...... for three days every but that all changed in 1978 with the creation
summer, with around 1000 wrestlers of the "ollie", which involves flying off of the
competing. These games have been held ground into the air, but without holding (30)
there annually since 1362. ....... the skateboard with your hands at all.

21- A) such B) as 26- A) on time B) at a loss

C) more D) that C) on the spot D) at once
E) so E) in fact

22- A) where B) what 27- A) demand B) demanded

C) which D) why C) demanding D) to be demanded
E) that E) being demanded

23- A) has been introduced

B) introduced 28- A) within B) together
C) was introducing C) towards D) alongside
D) was introduced E) apart
E) had introduced

24- A) so...that 29- A) some B) both

B) whether...or C) most D) either
C) not only...but also E) each
D) such...that
E) too...for

30- A) off B) against

25- A) held out B) put on C) with D) onto
C) pulled up D) taken in E) over
E) looked after


It is not known whether the tea plant is Coffee probably originated in the Ethiopian
indigenous to China or India, or (1) ....... but province of Kaffa, though Yemen has also
the use of tea as a beverage drunk for been (6) ...... as a possible area of origin.
pleasure on social occasions is certainly The substance first became popular in Arabia
Chinese in origin, dating back to the Tang around the 13th century, its popularity
Dynasty (618-907) or earlier. The first probably enhanced by Islam's prohibition (7)
Europeans to encounter tea were Portuguese ...... alcoholic drinks. Before 1600, coffee
explorers (2) ...... Japan in 1560. Soon, production was a jealously guarded secret
imported tea was introduced to Europe, (3) and fertile beans were not found outside
...... it quickly became popular among the Arabia, but sometime after that year, coffee
wealthy in France and the Netherlands. trees (8) ...... in India, possibly (9) ...... the
English use of tea began a bit later, around smuggling of fertile beans. Around 1650,
1650, but became so popular in (4) ...... coffee importation to England began and
short time that it created a huge trade deficit coffeehouses sprang up in Oxford and
with China. The British set up tea plantations London. Coffee planting began in the English
in colonial India to provide their own supply, colonies, but a disease (10) ...... the
as well as trying to balance the trade deficit plantations, leading them to be replanted
by selling opium to the Chinese, which led to with tea instead. By the 18th century, the
the First Opium War of 1838-1842. In the beverage had become popular throughout
American colonies, just before the Europe, and European colonists had
Revolutionary War, the Americans stopped introduced the coffee plant to tropical
drinking tea as an act of protest against high countries worldwide as a plantation crop in
British taxes on the product, and (5) ...... order to supply domestic demand.
then coffee has been far more popular than
tea in the United States.

1- A) whether B) either 6- A) counted out B) put forth

C) never D) both C) touched up D) gone against
E) also E) got into

2- A) visited B) to have visited 7- A) with B) towards

C) visiting D) to visit C) through D) among
E) being visited E) against

8- A) were being grown

3- A) where B) which B) have been grown
C) whether D) that C) are growing
E) what D) had grown
E) have been growing

4- A) many B) so 9- A) accordingly B) in spite of

C) such a D) much C) due to D) as a consequence
E) so much E) whereas

10- A) took over B) played up

C) spun off D) wiped out
5- A) for B) since E) provided for
C) while D) during
E) after

The English word "yoghurt" comes from the The ancient world was generally ignorant of
Turkish "yoğurt", which (11) ...... may be soap as we know it today; the ancient Greeks
derived from the verb "yogurtmak", meaning used olive oil to clean themselves, while the
"to blend" - a reference to how yoghurt is Romans, although they did make a variety of
made. Yoghurt-making involves the soap from animal fat and wood ashes, used it
introduction of specific kinds of bacteria into for medicinal (16) ...... cleaning purposes.
pasteurized milk under very carefully The ancient Gauls used soap as well - as a
controlled temperature and environmental pomade to keep their hair shiny. Beginning in
(12) ....... Yoghurt is traditionally believed the Middle Ages, soap began (17) ...... in the
(13) ...... by the Bulgar people of central home by mixing animal fats with lye for use
Asia, although there is evidence of cultured in cleaning laundry. This was a very
milk products in other cultures as far back as dangerous procedure, (18) ...... handling lye
2000 BC. The earliest yoghurts were probably can result in serious chemical burns and even
spontaneously fermented, perhaps by wild blindness. Bar soap, such as that often still
bacteria residing inside goatskin bags used used today for washing hands, was a luxury
for transportation. In Europe, yoghurt product that didn't come into common use
remained primarily a food of the central and (19) ...... the late 19th century. Soon after,
eastern parts of the continent until the advertising campaigns in Europe and the
1900s, when a Russian biologist theorized United States began to insist on the
(14) ...... heavy yoghurt consumption was relationship between cleanliness and health,
responsible (15) ...... the unusually long and by the 1950s, soap (20) ...... public
lifespans of the Bulgar people. Soon after, acceptance as a means of personal hygiene.
yoghurt began to be promoted as a healthy
snack, and in 1919 the widespread industrial
production of yoghurt in Europe began in

11- A) them B) its 16- A) rather than B) accordingly

C) theirs D) it C) thanks to D) instead
E) itself E) otherwise

12- A) situations B) occurrences 17- A) to make B) to be made

C) results D) conditions C) to be making D) making
E) disturbances E) having been made

13- A) invented 18- A) so that B) though

B) to have invented C) despite D) as
C) having been invented E) while
D) inventing
E) to have been invented

14- A) that B) what 19- A) since B) after

C) which D) where C) until D) in
E) whose E) around

15- A) to B) among 20- A) was gained

C) over D) for B) has gained
E) through C) had gained
D) has been gaining
E) gained

More than 200 different plant species produce Centuries before the first synthetic plastics
a milky, viscous sap called latex, (21) ...... is were made, several naturally occurring
the source for natural rubber. In its native substances were used as plastic material,
Central and South America, rubber (22) ...... including shellac - a substance made from
for thousands of years. The ancient the secretions of a tiny insect - as well as
Mesoamerican civilizations played (23) ...... from the horns of animals, which had to be
of different ballgames using rubber balls, and "plasticized", or softened, by (26) ...... in
a few Pre-Columbian rubber balls have been water first. The first synthetic plastic was
found, with the earliest dating to about 1600 made from the plant material cellulose by
BC. The Spanish conquistadors who invaded John Wesley Hyatt in 1869. Hyatt found that
modern-day Mexico in the 16th century were one form of cellulose could be used as an
so (24) ...... by the vigorous bouncing of the inexpensive substitute (27) ...... the natural
Aztecs' rubber balls that they wondered if the material ivory, (28) ...... it had been
balls were enchanted by evil spirits. The chemically plasticized. The new material,
earlier Mayan civilization had made a sort of called celluloid, came into use for eyeglass
temporary rubber shoe by dipping their feet frames, combs, buttons, dentures, and
into a latex mixture, and they had a great photographic film. Later, in 1909, Leo H.
many other uses for the substance as well. Baekeland developed the first plastic made
Soon after samples of rubber first arrived in entirely from synthetic materials, naming it
England in the late 18th century, the chemist Bakelite, (29) ...... honour ...... himself.
Joseph Priestley noticed that dried latex was Bakelite and similar compounds are still used
capable of rubbing out pencil marks - and today in wiring devices, power brakes on
(25) ...... the word "rubber", and eventually automobiles, telephone relay systems, and
the modern rubber industry, was born. electrical switch gear. Since then, a great
variety of new plastics (30) ....... .

21- A) why B) which 26- A) boiling B) being boiled

C) what D) where C) boiled D) to be boiled
E) that E) having boiled

22- A) has been collected 27- A) through B) on

B) would be collecting C) for D) between
C) used to collect E) in
D) is being collected
E) would have collected

28- A) once B) suddenly

23- A) a number B) variety C) eventually D) while
C) enough D) many E) during
E) some

24- A) reacted B) interested 29- A) through.. .on B) for.. .about

C) disappointed D) betrayed C) in...of D) to...with
E) astounded E)

30- A) are being developed

25- A) although B) since B) are developing
C) instead D) thus C) were developed
E) in case D) developed
E) have been developed


The hippopotamus - whose name means The baboon is a type of ground-dwelling

"river horse" in Greek - is a large, plant- primate found in savannas, open woodlands,
eating African mammal. Hippos are (1) ...... and hills across the continent of Africa. Unlike
creatures, living in groups of up to twenty most other primates, they have longish, dog-
animals. Because they are extremely (2) like faces, as well as close-set eyes, heavy
...... to sunburn, they spend most of the day and powerful jaws, thick fur, a short tail, and
up to their nostrils in the waters of tropical often brightly coloured faces and behinds.
rivers, coming onto land for food only at They are (6) ...... of walking on two legs,
night, when they (3) ...... up to 50kg of and so get around on all fours. Their diet is
vegetation per day. Despite their size, they omnivorous but usually vegetarian, and they
are very skilled and graceful in the water. forage for their food at (7) ...... times
Hippos are territorial creatures, with the male throughout the day and night, rather than
hippo marking his land along a riverbank and (8) ...... to any set schedule. They are quite
drawing in a harem of females while noisy creatures, and also quite (9) ......: they
defending it against other males; male hippos have been known on occasion to raid human
challenge one another with threatening dwellings and attack people, as well as
stares. Although the hippo has an image as a occasionally preying on (10) ...... sheep and
peaceful and easygoing animal, it is actually goats from farms. Baboons typically live in
among the most dangerous in Africa, hierarchical troops of 5 to 250 animals, with
accounting for more human deaths than any 50 being the average, and can live for as
other animal except the lion. Its front teeth many as thirty years. They are highly
are 50cm long, and it can use its head as a intelligent creatures, and early Egyptians
battering ram, especially when fighting (4) seem to have trained baboons to serve food
...... males attempting to (5) ...... its and perform other low-level tasks.

1- A) imaginative B) crafty 6- A) unforgettable B) unimaginable

C) sociable D) cowardly C) immeasurable D) incapable
E) repellent E) undependable

2- A) creditable B) transferable 7- A) unworthy B) irregular

C) coincidental D) treatable C) immobile D) inaccessible
E) susceptible E) unsatisfied

3- A) consume B) irritate 8- A) adhering B) administering

C) evaporate D) settle C) adjoining D) addressing
E) preserve E) admiring

4- A) tasteful B) assistant 9- A) dependent B) nervous

C) rival D) avoidable C) disqualified D) indicative
E) available E) ferocious

5- A) impose B) elect 10- A) cultured B) intended

C) conserve D) invade C) recommended D) promoted
E) classify E) domesticated

The curious mammals called sloths (11) ...... When a platypus skin was sent back to
their name from the fact that they usually England from Australia in the late 1700s, the
appear lazy and sluggish, though at times scientists who analyzed it thought it was a/an
they can be (12) ...... fast. The animals have (16) ....... because they believed no animal
rounded heads, tiny ears, and flattened could really be so odd-looking as that. Its
faces. Measuring up to 70cm long, their body is quite flat and squat, its feet are
forelimbs are longer than their hindlimbs and webbed, and for a mouth it has a bill similar
have long, curved claws. Sloths are nocturnal to a duck's, and yet it is a mammal and has
and usually silent and (13) ....... spending fur. Unlike other mammals, however, it lays
most of their lives alone and clinging to tree eggs. The adult male platypus produces a
trunks or hanging upside down from kind of venom during the breeding season,
branches, moving extremely slowly through which is (17) ...... into enemies by a strike
the trees. They have made extraordinary from one of the animal's hindlegs. The
(14) ...... to their browsing lifestyle. Eating poison is not (18) ...... to humans, but
mostly leaves, which provide very little produces a torturous pain which can last for
energy, they have extremely low metabolic days or even months. The platypus is
rates and body temperatures, and two-thirds nocturnal and partially aquatic, living usually
of the weight of a well-fed sloth consists of in small streams and rivers and spending
the contents of its stomach, with the most of its time in the water. When
digestive (15) ...... taking a month or more swimming, it keeps its eyes closed and relies
to complete. Their moist fur is host to a on its other senses for (19) ......, including
variety of blue-green algae which provide its ability to (20) ...... electrical sources from
camouflage, thus protecting them from a great distance. This latter ability allows the
predators. platypus to locate its prey - usually worms,
insect eggs, and small shrimp - by sensing
their body electricity
11- A) compel B) derive
C) hinder D) pertain 16- A) concept B) guide
E) accomplish C) garment D) theft
E) fake

12- A) conceptually B) considerately 17- A) indented B) included

C) considerably D) consequently C) infected D) injected
E) conceitedly E) intended

13- A) preserved B) gregarious 18- A) lifeless B) fatal

C) formal D) solitary C) personal D) preventive
E) sympathetic E) compulsory

14- A) exceptions B) mutations 19- A) decision B) shape

C) adaptations D) inflations C) direction D) function
E) reservations E) inspiration

15- A) process B) occasion 20- A) perceive B) nullify

C) justification D) agent C) fortify D) react
E) motive E) victimize

The anglerfish is a unique (21) ...... of deep- The octopus is a sea animal best (26) ......
sea fish named for its (22) ...... method of by its eight arms - which usually have
catching prey: the word "angler" means poisonous sucker cups on them - and entirely
"fisherman", and indeed this is a fish which soft body. This latter feature enables the
essentially fishes for other fish. The animal to squeeze into the smallest, tightest
anglerfish has a gigantic mouth with quite crevices between rocks when fleeing from
sharp teeth, and (23) ...... from its forehead other predatory sea creatures. Three
is a curious growth which is quite long and defensive mechanisms are typical of
thin. This growth can be shaken so as to octopuses. First, they can (27) ...... a thick,
resemble prey, and is also able to light up - a blackish ink in a large cloud out into the
phenomenon known as bioluminescence, water, aiding them in escaping predators.
which is very useful in the pitch black of the Also, they have specialized colour-changing
deep sea. The anglerfish itself is either dull skin cells which they can use to blend into
gray, dark brown, or black, and so cannot be the environment or to warn off enemies.
seen when it shines its light. Other predators Finally, octopuses can (28) ...... their arms,
are (24) ...... to the anglerfish's wiggling, which continue to move about though no
glowing growth, and (25) ...... close enough longer connected to the body; this can serve
for the anglerfish to devour them whole, as a/an (29) ...... to predators, enabling the
which it can do by disconnecting its jaw, octopus to escape. Octopuses can regenerate
much as snakes do, and swallowing prey up their arms, so this ability poses no real
to twice as large as its entire body. problems for them. Octopuses are highly
intelligent creatures, and have been shown
able to easily distinguish between and
remember colours and shapes in laboratory
experiments. They can also express a great
(30) ...... of emotions, from basic fear and
21- A) region B) abundance joy through to embarrassment, trust, and
C) variety D) amount curiosity.
E) extension
26- A) glorified B) distinguished
C) criticized D) accorded
E) realized

22- A) accessible B) rebellious 27- A) formalize B) encircle

C) substantial D) compassionate C) jeopardize D) activate
E) characteristic E) eject

23- A) decorating B) evolving 28- A) detach B) extend

C) interrupting D) projecting C) abbreviate D) require
E) rejoicing E) broaden

24- A) abolished B) attracted 29- A) awareness B) incentive

C) occupied D) consulted C) distraction D) diversity
E) divided E) intention

25- A) vanish B) approach 30- A) receipt B) drought

C) approve D) retreat C) deceit D) range
E) embark E) content


The Chinese peasantry were in a paradoxical The Chinese were an extremely inventive
position, partly (1) ...... yet, at the same people, displaying a greatly sophisticated (6)
time, partly respected. Though their feudal ...... which took little or nothing from outside
overlords worked them mercilessly at times, (7) ....... .One Chinese invention was the
the peasants were nonetheless (2) ...... as crossbow, a deadly weapon not yet
one of the two essential pillars of Chinese completely out of date today. Another was
society. The other was the ethical philosophy paper, an essential item for a highly literate
of Confucius (551-479 BC). Though the society which left minutely detailed records.
peasants received state aid, including Printing, also a Chinese invention, was the
technical aid, to produce food, peasant first mechanized industry in the world. The
rebellions (3) ...... quite often throughout Chinese learned early on how to make silk,
Chinese history. Peasant life was hard and and had highly developed smelting and
could be gruelling. Poverty, despite state metal-working industries as well. They used
help, was common, and it was said that a paper money, (8) ...... a system of weights
Chinese peasant could work all year round and measures, (9) ...... a calendar and
and still not (4) ...... enough to feed himself discovered the secret of making gunpowder,
and his family. Quite apart from farming, the the oldest known explosive. A further
peasants were (5) ...... by law to work on invention was a "weathercock", an early
public building projects and do military warning system which could (10) ......
service as well. earthquakes.

1- A) consistent B) internal 6- A) participation B) creativity

C) divided D) exploited C) document D) diversion
E) dominant E) region

2- A) concerned B) concentrated 7- A) elevations B) exceptions

C) distressed D) noticed C) influences D) implements
E) regarded E) regulations

3- A) erupted B) sustained 8- A) estimated B) respected

C) performed D) confronted C) devised D) overturned
E) extended E) depended

4- A) win B) assert 9- A) counted B) persisted

C) found D) earn C) contrasted D) characterized
E) attempt E) established

10- A) augment B) reform

5- A) designed B) bound C) depict D) detect
C) composed D) checked E) esteem
E) reserved

The Chinese did not discover that there were Uncharacteristically for Chinese rulers, the
other civilizations on Earth until about 126 emperors of the Tang dynasty (AD 618-907)
BC; when they did so, their (11) ...... was were very (16) ...... to foreign ideas and
not one of interest, but rather of mistrust. imports, and so opened their doors to trade.
They soon developed a strong dislike of (17) ...... .Arabian, Persian, Korean and
foreigners – or "foreign devils" - together Japanese merchants brought spices - which
with a (12) ...... insistence on self- soon found their way into Chinese food - and,
sufficiency, which even today makes the as a special delicacy, Persian cakes and
Chinese (13) ......outside aid in times of sweetmeats. Before long, tales of the gold,
trouble.' Despite their many wars, the jewels and other luxuries in China (18) ......
Chinese were suspicious of regular standing the interest of European merchants, for
armies, and had contempt for merchants. In whom the imported spices - (19) ...... for the
fact, a young man aiming for high office in preservation of meat in the days before
China's highly developed civil service system refrigeration - were of as much interest as
would (14) ...... avoid working in a trade in the luxuries. This trade -carried out along the
case it ruined his (15) ....... .As Chinese famous Silk Road -became a rich one,
society developed in these inward-looking although Islamic powers blocked the route at
ways, it became both feudal and hierarchical, times. After the Europeans entered the
with great importance laid on the family and Indian Ocean in the sixteenth century, sea
on respect for age. (20) ...... from Europe to China developed.

11- A) reaction B) approximation 16- A) uniform B) hostile

C) distraction D) promotion C) receptive D) divisive
E) association E) structured

12- A) considerate B) current 17- A) Previously B) Currently

C) stubborn D) neutral C) Spontaneously D) Subsequently
E) loose E) Convincingly

18- A) defined B) excluded

13- A) occupy B) administer C) restricted D) comprised
C) distinguish D) rival E) aroused
E) reject

19- A) dependent B) vital

14- A) vaguely B) cautiously C) outlined D) extensive
C) lazily D) randomly E) narrow
E) heedlessly

20- A) distinctions B) capitals

15- A) prospects B) excuses C) degrees D) links
C) effects D) detachments E) borders
E) hardships

The nomadic Mongols first came to Chinese In 1839-42, the British went to war with
(21) ...... as hit-and-run raiders swooping China over Chinese reluctance to open its
down to create mayhem, then (22) ...... just ports to the valuable trade in Indian opium,
as suddenly. There was, however, a great which the British (26) ...... to use as
deal more to the Mongols, who began as currency for imports such as Chinese
nomads wandering the grassy plains of porcelain, silk and tea. China, hopelessly
Mongolia with their sheep, camels, goats and outclassed by modern weapons, had to
cattle. In time, the Mongols developed into (27) ...... .Hong Kong to the British and open
fierce and skilful warriors, fighting on five "treaty" ports. Another Opium War, in
horseback with a speed and agility that 1860, (28) ...... even more concessions from
(23) ...... their enemies. The Mongols proved the Chinese emperor, who now had to allow
so (24) ...... that they created the largest the British, French and other foreigners to
land based empire ever known, conquering create their own districts on Chinese
lands that (25) ...... from eastern Europe to (29)......, where they were immune from
the Pacific Ocean. After 1211, when the Chinese law. Later, wiping out this
Mongols broke through the Great Wall, China humiliation became a strong (30) ...... for
became part of this empire and the legendary the communist Mao Zedong (1903-76), who
Kublai Khan (1216-1294) became the first became ruler of China in 1949 and made it
Yuan emperor of China. into a world power once again.

21- A) climate B) impact 26- A) involved B) measured

C) attention D) tradition C) sought D) merged
E) faith E) specified

22- A) departing B) innovating 27- A) sentence B) yield

C) providing D) violating C) refer D) renovate
E) daring E) compare

23- A) diversified B) promoted 28- A) obtained B) intended

C) soothed D) startled C) exported D) cultivated
E) circulated E) repelled

24- A) frequent B) subsequent 29- A) currency B) territory

C) spiritual D) oppressive C) investment D) province
E) invincible E) suspension

25- A) designated B) absorbed 30- A) response B) supremacy

C) emitted D) witnessed C) declaration D) motive
E) stretched E) intensity


An eight-month pregnant Russian woman and An elderly Chinese pensioner (6) ...... a
parachuting enthusiast, Marija Usova was hospital after she had (7) ...... a painting of
warned by friends not (1) ...... parachuting. a tiger for the real thing. The woman, who is
Nevertheless, she arranged to do the jump in her seventies, spotted the "tiger" in a dark
anyway, saying that she wanted her baby to alleyway while returning from a shopping trip
have the wonderful feeling of falling freely to a nearby supermarket. According to the
through air before it was born. While in mid- Shanghai Evening Post, the woman
air, halfway through the jump, she went into screamed, turned around, and ran because
labor. As she describes the experience: "I she saw the "tiger" coming towards her. But
was in the air when I suddenly felt a massive while running, she slipped (8) ...... some ice
pain, and I realized that it (2) ....... I cried and fell heavily, injuring her hip. Passersby
out, 'Oh God! help me!' and kept my legs rushed to her aid and found her nervously
held tightly together, but (3) ...... that there stammering, "Tiger, tiger, there's a tiger" and
really wasn't much more I could do. Every pointing into the alleyway. The "tiger",
second of that descent felt (4) ...... an though, was actually a painting (9) ...... in
eternity." She also said that, as she fell, she the window of a calligraphy and painting
nearly passed out (5) ...... times from the supplies shop. (10) ...... raw business to his
pain. Upon landing, she immediately began to shop, the owner had put a light behind the
give birth, and doctors who were on hand picture, so as to create a lifelike impression.
immediately arrived to help her. It was a It seems that, from at least one elderly
baby girl, and Ms. Usova has decided to woman's point of view, he succeeded.
name it Larisa, because she says: "It means
'seagull' in ancient Greek."

1- A) going B) being gone 6- A) would have taken

C) to have gone D) to go B) had to be taken
E) having gone C) ought to be taken
D) could have taken
E) used to be taken

2- A) has started B) will have started 7- A) mistaken B) mislaid

C) had to start D) is starting C) misunderstood D) mistrusted
E) was starting E) mismatched

3- A) along B) apart 8- A) within B) about

C) beyond D) among C) on D) for
E) towards E) alongside

4- A) as though B) as 9- A) hanging
C) so D) like B) to have been hanged
E) more C) hang
D) having hung
E) hanged

5- A) plenty B) several
C) a number D) lots 10- A) Much as B) So that
E) much C) Consequently D) For fear of
E) In order to

Hollywood actress Nicole Kidman, it seems, is A chicken named Lucky, which helped its
afraid (11) ...... butterflies. She apparently owner pick (16) ...... winning lottery
developed the phobia when she was a child in numbers, has been eaten by a fox. The
Australia and, despite endless attempts to owner, Billy Gibbons, originally
(12) ...... the problem, she still absolutely (17) ...... .Lucky close to death when he was
cannot stand the insects. "Sometimes," she out walking through the fields in 2003. Mr.
says, "when I would come home from school, Gibbons rescued the chicken, brought it to his
the biggest butterfly or moth you could home, and nursed it back to health. While
(13) ...... see in your life would be sitting the bird was (18) ...... it for some reason
there on our front gate. I would climb over tapped five numbers into a calculator
the fence, or maybe crawl around to the side (19) ...... its beak. Mr. Gibbons decided to
of the house -anything to avoid having to go play those numbers in the lottery, and he
through the front gate. I've tried to get over won £1300 for doing (20) ......."I named him
my fear," she continues. "For instance, I Lucky, and he was obviously a very special
walked into the big butterfly cage at the chicken," Mr. Gibbons says. "I rescued him
American Museum of Natural History from certain death. I think he knew that, and
(14) ...... the butterflies could land on my so he followed me everywhere." Lucky,
body, but that just didn't work. It's a bit however, ended up not so lucky after all: last
strange: I can jump out of airplanes with no week he got snatched and eaten by a fox. Mr.
problem; I can be covered in cockroaches Gibbons is now trying to train his remaining
without worrying myself much; I can do (15) hens to peck numbers out on a calculator,
...... sorts of things. However, I just cannot but he admits that it's just not the same, and
deal with the feel of butterflies' bodies." that he dearly misses Lucky.

11- A) from B) about 16- A) on B) apart

C) of D) through C) at D) out
E) upon E) through

12- A) run up against B) make up with 17- A) went at B) happened upon

C) pick up on D) get rid of C) marked up D) passed out
E) come down with E) came through

18- A) refurbishing B) reforming

13- A) just B) ever C) recovering D) resurfacing
C) quite D) rather E) restoring
E) soon

19- A) from B) on
C) through D) with
14- A) so that B) because of E) towards
C) nonetheless D) in order to
E) however

20- A) so much B) so many

C) same D) such
15- A) all B) every E) so
C) many a D) each
E) either

A Mexican man has astounded doctors by Garbagemen in Frankfurt, Germany, are

successfully performing surgery on being sent back to school after accidentally
(21) ......39-year-old Pedro Lopez was destroying an important piece of modern art.
having difficulty (22) ...... and managed to According to the Guardian newspaper, the
drain the fluid that was (23) ...... his lungs. men collected, crushed, and burned a stack
Specialists said he performed the operation of plastic yellow sheets. It (26) ......
almost perfectly, and that it was an absolute however, that the sheets were actually part
miracle. Alfonso Torres Aguilar, the director of a city-wide exhibition of modern sculpture,
of San Cristobal de Las Casas Hospital, said: and (27) ...... by Michael Beutler, a graduate
"We, as professionals, do this sort of surgery of Frankfurt's Stâdel art school. Thirty of the
by draining liquid only in small quantities. But garbagemen are now being sent to modern
this man introduced a needle through his own art classes to (28) ...... that the same
belly and into his lungs, and drained three mistake never happens (29) ...... The head
whole liters of the liquid. And without of Frankfurt's sanitation department, Peter
anesthesia! It's almost (24) ...... he were a Postleb, took personal responsibility for the
trained surgeon." Mr. Lopez stayed in hospital mistake, saying that he had seen the sheets
for just one day after his autosurgery, and is (30) ...... on the street, thought construction
already back home, doubtlessly quite workers had dumped them there, and so
satisfied with (25) ...... he has done. called his employees to take them away. He
only realized his mistake a few days later,
when he read about the exhibition in a local

21- A) theirs B) himself 26- A) turns out B) opens up

C) they D) him C) falls through D) gets off
E) his E) puts in

22- A) breathing B) to breathe 27- A) are being constructed

C) breathe D) having breathed B) had been constructed
E) being breathed C) have been constructed
D) were constructing
E) had constructed

23- A) enduring B) persuading 28- A) affect B) ensure

C) approving D) confirming C) relieve D) develop
E) obstructing E) accomplish

24- A) like B) so 29- A) ever B) just

C) such D) as if C) again D) so much
E) though E) yet

25- A) this B) that 30- A) to lie B) to be lying

C) what D) which C) lying D) lay
E) why E) having lain


Hiberno-English is the form of the English Scouse is the accent or dialect of English
language used in Ireland; it is (1) ...... called found in the northern English city of Liverpool
Anglo-Irish or Irish English.The basis for the and (6) ...... urban areas of Lancashire and
type of English spoken in Ireland is said to be the Wirral region of Cheshire. The Liverpool
a mixture of the language of Shakespeare accent is highly distinctive, and (7) ......
and the Irish of the Gaelic earls, as modern different from the accents used in
Irish-English does bear the marks of two neighbouring regions of Lancashire and
major historical events. First, we have the Cheshire.The word Scouse was originally a
various types of English and Scots that variation of "lobscouse" (probably from the
(2) ...... to Ireland during the English and north German sailor's dish Labscaus), the
Scottish colonization in the sixteenth and name of a traditional dish of mutton stew
seventeenth centuries. Secondly, there is an mixed with hardtack and eaten by sailors.
early hybrid jargon (3) ...... arose as a result Lancashire has one of (8) ...... diverse
of the contact between the Irish and English selections of spoken accents of any English
languages. The linguistic interference of the county or region. This is thought (9) ......
Irish language on the English spoken in due to the large amount of immigration into
Ireland is most clearly seen in those areas the Liverpool area from Ireland, Wales, the
where Irish is still spoken as a mother tongue Isle of Man, Scotland, other parts of northern
or where it (4) ...... until recently. However, England, and the Caribbean in the 18th and
this merging is minimal (but still absolute in 19th centuries. The influence of these speech
evidencE) in Dublin, where cultural influences patterns was strong in Liverpool,
(news media, music, television) from the US distinguishing the accent of its people from
and the UK have been more readily (10) ...... of surrounding Lancashire and
assimilated, (5) ...... exposure, in the Cheshire.
modern age.

1- A) neither B) so 6- A) longing B) adjoining

C) as D) also C) speaking D) populating
E) like E) binding

2- A) had brought 7- A) solely B) wholly

B) were brought C) rarely D) similarly
C) brought E) merely
D) have been brought
E) would have brought

3- A) whose B) what 8- A) the most B) much more

C) where D) which C) so much D) a more
E) however E) many

4- A) was surviving B) is surviving 9- A) being B) to be

C) had survived D) survives C) is D) was
E) survived E) been

5- A) while B) because 10- A) out B) around

C) due to D) when C) this D) those
E) for E) its

Brummie (sometimes spelt Brummy) refers to Highland English is the variety of Gaelic-
things (11) ...... with the city of Birmingham in influenced Scottish English (16) ...... in the
England, particularly its people - known as highlands of Scotland. Island English is the
Brummies - and their accent and dialect of the variety spoken (17) ...... a second language
English language. The word is derived from by native Gaelic speakers in the Outer
Brummagem (commonly shortened to Brum), Hebrides. This variety of English shows the
(12) ...... is a local name for the city. Brummie influence of Gaelic most clearly in
is a prominent example of a UK regional accent. pronunciation, but also in grammar. For
It is perceived as a perfectly legitimate version example, medial and final consonants
of the spoken English language in the Midlands. (18) ...... to be de-voiced (as is standard in
The accent is regarded as "lifting and Gaelic), so that "whatever" becomes
melodious" by overseas visitors, though it pronounced as "whateffer". Similarly, the
sometimes comes (13) ...... attack from the "parasitic vowel" that is used in some
British press due to many popular consonant combinations in Gaelic is used,
misconceptions and the obvious inability of (19) ...... "film" is pronounced as "fillum".
many non-brummie actors to grasp the unusual The grammatical effect is most apparent with
tones of the accent, which (14) ...... have verbs, as Gaelic uses the verb "to be" with
described as (15) ...... the Scandinavian the active participle of the verb to indicate a
languages in sound. Brummie should not be continuous action as in English, but also uses
regarded as the only accent of the Midlands or this construction for iterative meanings;
West Midlands, although the term is often used therefore, "I go to Stomoway on Mondays,"
by outsiders to refer to all accents of the becomes "I am going to Stornoway on
region. For example, speakers from the Black Mondays." The past tense in Highland English
County (the conurbation to the north-west of may use the verb "to be" (20) ...... by
Birmingham) have an accent which is very "after" and the participle, as in "I am after
different from Brummie in many respects. buying a newspaper," to mean "I have [just]
bought a newspaper."

11- A) connecting B) to connect 16- A) speaking B) to speak

C) connected D) connect C) spoke D) spoken
E) having connected E) speak

12- A) where B) that 17- A) much B) as

C) which D) how C) rather D) such
E) what E) alike

13- A) over B) at 18- A) somewhat B) often

C) for D) about C) as a rule D) avoid
E) under E) tend

14- A) much B) some 19- A) while B) so that

C) other D) either C) however D) whereas
E) each E) in spite of

15- A) the same B) many a 20- A) to be following B) followed

C) plenty of D) similar to C) being followed D) following
E) rather than E) to follow

Jamaican English, or Jamaican Standard Spanglish is a name used to refer to a range

English, is a dialect of English encompassing of language-contact phenomena, primarily in
in a very unique way parts of (21) ...... the speech of Hispanic Americans, (26) ......
American English and British English. are exposed to both Spanish and English.
Typically it uses British English spellings, but These phenomena are a product of close
does not reject American English spellings, border contacts or large bilingual
(22)...... .It shouldn't be confused with what communities, (27) ...... along the United
is called, in English, Jamaican Creole, or what States-Mexico border, in Florida, and in New
is called in Jamaican, Patois or "dialect". It is York City. Spanish and English have
also noted that "Patois" is a French term interpenetrated in any number of ways. For
referring to broken or improper French, but in example, a bilingual fluent speaker speaking
Jamaican it refers to Jamaican Creole, which to (28) ...... bilingual speaker may indulge
Jamaicans have traditionally seen as "broken" words from both languages as in, "yo me voy
or "incorrect" English. Jamaican is generally a get up" (as opposed to "yo me voy a
considered to be a Creole language. Modern levantar" or "I'm going to get up"). (29) ......
linguists (23) ...... the view that Creoles are than that are word borrowings from English
full languages. Jamaican Standard English is into Spanish, using false cognates with their
grammatically similar to British Standard English sense, or translating idiomatic English
English. Recently, however, due to Jamaica's expressions. For example, the word carpeta
proximity to the United States and the exists in standard Spanish, meaning "folder",
(24)...... close economic ties and high rates but in the USA it is common to see it used to
of migration, as well as the influence of mean "carpet". This is a straight borrowing of
American cultural entertainment products an English word, (30) ...... is the very
such as movies, cable television and popular common verb chequear/checar"to check", the
music, the influence of American English has noun parkin "parking", and countless others.
been increasing steadily. Thus, structures like
"I don't have" or "you don't need" are
(25) ...... universally preferred over "I
haven't got" or "you needn't".

21- A) both B) either 26- A) that B) where

C) all D) some C) which D) whose
E) everyone E) who

22- A) nor B) neither 27- A) whereas B) such as

C) too D) none C) where D) so
E) either E) that

23- A) say B) hold 28- A) another B) their

C) tell D) think C) none D) someone
E) believe E) them

24- A) tightening B) ending 29- A) Commonly B) More common

C) resulting D) closing C) In common D) The most common
E) reducing E) Uncommon

25- A) closely B) without 30- A) thus B) like

C) than D) almost C) and D) what
E) what E) as

The didgeridoo is a unique wind instrument of The so-called "thumb piano" is an instrument
the Aborigines of northern Australia. There played in East Africa, particularly (6) ......
aren't (1) ...... reliable sources stating the the Shona people of Zimbabwe; in the Shona
didgeridoo's exact age, but it is commonly tongue it is called mbira. It consists of a
accepted as being the world's oldest wind small wooden board (usually about 8cm x
instrument. The word "didgeridoo" is not an 10cm) to which between 20 and 24 metal
Aboriginal one, but comes from the Irish keys (7) ......; the instrument is then placed
word dudaire, meaning "trumpeter" or inside of a hollowed-out gourd, which
"hummer". The instrument is quite simple, amplifies its sound when it is played.
consisting (2) ...... a long (usually between (8) ......, shells or bottletops are affixed to
1m and 1.5m) wooden tube that comes from both the board and the gourd in order to
the trunk of a native eucalyptus tree that has create a constant buzzing sound, which adds
been hollowed out by termites. The trunk is depth and context to the clear tone; of the
cut to size, and often a rim made of beeswax mbira keys. To the Western ear, the music
is applied to the mouthpiece end of the produced by the mbira seems to be
instrument. The didgeridoo is played by extremely repetitive, and it is certainly
blowing into it with continuously vibrating cyclical, but upon close listening, minute
lips, which produces a low droning sound, variations (9) ...... of Western minimalist
and requires a technique called circular music can be heard.It has come to be known
breathing. This (3) ...... breathing in through in the West as a "thumb piano" because the
the nose (4) ...... simultaneously expelling metal keys are plucked with the thumbs, but
air from the mouth, (5) ...... allowing ; its full name in Shona is mbira dzavadzimu,
didgeridoo player to blow for up to an hour which means "mbira of the ancestor spirits".
without stopping. The didgeridoo is an This name indicates how important the
integral part of the ceremonial life of the instrument is to the Shona people, (10) ......
Aborigines of northern Australia, as it spiritual values and aspirations the mbira
accompanies singers and dancers in religious represents.

1- A) no B) some 6- A) upon B) among

C) much D) any C) between D) through
E) others E) alongside

2- A) of B) about 7- A) were attached

C) upon D) from B) attach
E) with C) have been attached
D) would be attached
E) are attaching

3- A) expects B) involves
C) consists D) resides 8- A) Accordingly B) As soon as
E) deters C) Therefore D) Despite
E) Furthermore

4- A) however B) as
C) since D) no matter 9- A) suggestingly B) suggested
E) while C) suggestion D) suggesting
E) suggestive

5- A) because B) whenever 10- A) whose B) where

C) whereas D) thus C) that D) who
E) in that E) whom

An aeolian harp is a musical instrument that Get your finger wet, then rub it (16) ...... the
is set outside and "played" by the wind, free rim of a wineglass: a haunting sound is
of the touch of human hands. It originated in produced. Now get 50 wineglasses, all of
Greece around the year 0, and is named for different sizes, and do the same thing: you
Aeolus, the ancient Greek god of the wind. have a musical instrument. This is basically
The traditional aeolian harp is essentially a what American jack-of-all-trades Benjamin
wooden box with strings stretched lengthwise Franklin did in 1761 when he invented the
from top to bottom inside the box. It is glass armonica, (17) ...... that he used glass
placed either outside or in an opened window bowls (18) ...... wineglasses. He turned the
(11) ...... the wind can blow across the bowls on their sides and through their centers
strings to produce sounds. The strings are ran a metal pole attached to a foot pedal
sometimes tuned all to the same note, and which would continuously spin them. The
sometimes to different notes. The sound player then wets his fingers, touches the
produced is random and dependent bowls, and voila! music results. The glass
(12) ...... the strength of the wind, armonica enjoyed a great vogue in America
(13) ...... from a barely audible hum to a and Europe in the late 18th and early 19th
loud scream. It was a very popular centuries, and both Mozart and Beethoven
instrument during the era of Romanticism, wrote music for (19) ...... .However,
and Romantic poets were fond of comparing for some reason, playing or listening to the
(14) ...... to aeolian harps (15) ...... they instrument was claimed by doctors to lead to
identified with how nature was in control of melancholy, depression, and (20) ......
the instrument. Also, Romantic composer insanity, and it was banned in some places,
Frederic Chopin's etude in A-flat minor was resulting in its virtual disappearance from the
nicknamed the "Aeolian Harp Etude" for its world. Recently, however, it has begun to
resemblance to the sounds produced by this enjoy a revival (now that those doctors'
lovely instrument. claims have been proven to be nothing but

16- A) through B) between

11- A) whose B) where C) without D) among
C) what D) why E) around
E) which

17- A) in order B) however

12- A) for B) over C) somehow D) except
C) from D) on E) instead
E) with

18- A) rather than B) because

13- A) ranging B) to range C) for fear that D) instead
C) to be ranging D) having ranged E) since
E) being ranged

14- A) theirs B) it 19- A) its B) it

C) themselves D) they C) itself D) them
E) itself E) they

15- A) so that B) as a consequence 20- A) together B) just

C) insofar as D) in order that C) even D) still
E) nonetheless E) already

The theremin is one of the world's earliest A prepared piano is a piano - usually a grand
fully electronic musical instruments. Invented piano - that has had its sound altered by
in 1919 by Russian Lev Sergeivitch Termen, placing objects known as "preparations"
the theremin was an accidental discovery between or atop its strings. The first
made (21) ...... Soviet government- composer to use it extensively was John
sponsored research. Consisting of a box with Cage, who is often credited (26) ......
two radio antennas, the theremin was unique inventing the instrument. Cage himself said
in that it required (22) ...... physical contact he was greatly inspired by the earlier
to produce music. Instead, a performer could experiments of Henry Cowell, who would
control both the pitch and volume of the pluck and scrape the strings directly rather
sound simply by moving their hands in the than pressing the keys. In Cage's use, the
air. It is not, however, an easy instrument to preparations are typically nuts, bolts, and
play, requiring the performer to remain pieces of rubber stuck between and entwined
absolutely still (23) ...... their body around the strings. When the keys of the
movements alter the theremin's pitch. Here's piano are (27) ...... played, some will make
how it works: the theremin's two radio duller, more percussive sounds than usual,
antennas create two different, very high (28) ...... others will produce sonorous bell-
frequency radio signals, which can then be like tones. The innovation of the prepared
altered by the close presence of a human piano later led to the creation of the prepared
body - (24) ...... a person moving about a guitar, which is a guitar with different items
room can affect television or radio reception. wedged between the guitar's strings and its
One of the antennas controls pitch, (25) ...... neck. Perhaps the most well-known name to
controls volume, and the hands are moved use the prepared guitar is the avant-garde
carefully through the air to manipulate both. rock group Sonic Youth, whose guitarists
If you have ever seen any old 1950s science delight (29) ...... preparing their instruments
fiction movies, you have probably heard the with (30) ...... hings ...... sticks and
theremin's distinct "woo-WOO-woo" sound, screwdrivers.
also used to good effect on the Beach Boys'
1966 "pocket symphony", "Good Vibrations".

21- A) during B) when 26- A) to B) upon

C) beside D) about C) around D) with
E) while E) among

22- A) a B) no 27- A) apparently B) consequently

C) any D) some C) accordingly D) timely
E) other E) subsequently

23- A) so that B) because of 28- A) because B) nevertheless

C) lest D) whereas C) despite D) while
E) therefore E) however

24- A) more so B) just so 29- A) in B) by

C) much as D) such that C) for D) to
E) so as E) with

25- A) the other B) some 30- A) such...that B)

C) any D) others C) too many.. .to D) so.. .as to
E) other E) so many...that


The largest of the cats is the tiger. (1) ...... The second largest of the big cats and the
strong and fierce as it is big, the tiger is proverbial "king of beasts", the lion has been,
rivalled only by the lion in strength and (6) ...... earliest times, one of (7) ......
ferocity. The tiger's coat is often a bright known of wild animals. It is now found mainly
golden colour. It has black stripes on the in parts of Africa south of the Sahara. A few
head, body, limbs, and tail. Stripes like these hundred lions, constituting an Asiatic race,
are sometimes found on the domestic cat (2) live under strict protection in the Gir Forest
...... which is a distant relative of the tiger. National Park in Gujarat, India. The preferred
The tiger is thought to have originated in habitats of lions are grassy plains and open
northern Eurasia and to have moved savanna. Lions are unique among cats in that
southward; its present range extends from they live in a group, or pride. A pride consists
the Russian Far East through parts of China, of several generations of lionesses - (8) ......
India, and Southeast Asia. There were once are related - their cubs, and one or two adult
about seven or eight generally accepted races male lions which defend the pride's territory
of tiger. Of (3) ...... the Javan tiger, Bali and mate with the females. Lions proclaim
tiger, and Caspian tiger are now believed to their territory by roaring and by scent
be extinct; the Chinese tiger is near marking. The lion's well-known roar is
extinction; and the Sumatran, Siberian, and generally uttered in the evening before a
Indian subspecies are listed in the Red Data night's hunting and again before getting up at
Book as definitely endangered. The tiger dawn. Lions prey on a large number of
hunts by night and preys on a variety of animals ranging in size from gazelles and
animals. Healthy, large mammals are baboons upward to buffalo and
generally avoided, (4) ...... there have been hippopotamuses, but they prefer to hunt
recorded instances of tigers (5) ...... (9) ...... medium- (10) ...... large-sized
elephants and buffalo. hoofed animals as wildebeest, zebra, and
impala and other antelopes.

1- A) So B) As 6- A) for B) in
C) Much D) More C) after D) since
E) Too E) until

2- A) too B) although 7- A) so good as B) as well

C) neither D) yet C) very good D) better
E) either E) the best

3- A) theirs B) themselves 8- A) themselves B) all of which

C) most D) whole C) some of that D) for whom
E) these E) their own

9- A) more B) many
4- A) so that B) instead of C) such D) most
C) although D) since E) as
E) as though

10- A) to B) over
5- A) being attacked B) attacked C) for D) in
C) having attacked D) to attack E) with
E) to be attacked

The name "leopard" was originally given to The jaguar is grouped - (16) ...... lions and
the cat now called cheetah, which was once tigers - as one of the big, or roaring, cats,
thought (11) ...... a cross between the lion and is the only (17) ...... cat in the Western
and the pard. The term "pard" was eventually Hemisphere. Its preferred habitats are
replaced by the name leopard. The leopard is usually swamps and wooded regions, but
found over nearly (12) ...... of Africa south jaguars also live in scrublands and deserts.
of the Sahara, in northeast Africa, and from The jaguar is virtually extinct in the northern
Asia Minor through Central Asia and India to part of its original range and survives in
China and Manchuria. It varies greatly in size reduced numbers only in remote areas of
and markings. The leopard is a solitary Central and South America; the largest
animal of the bush and forest and is mainly known population exists in the Amazon
nocturnal in habit, although it sometimes rainforest. A solitary predator, the jaguar is a
basks in the sun. It is an agile climber and stalk-and-ambush hunter; its name comes
frequently stores the remains of its kills in from the Tupi-Guramî word jaguara, meaning
the branches of a tree. It feeds upon "he who kills with one leap." Jaguars are swift
(13) ...... animal it can (14) ...... , from and agile and are very good climbers.
small rodents to waterbuck, but generally Although active during the day, jaguars hunt
preys on the small-and medium-sized mainly at night and on the ground. Capybara
antelopes and deer; it appears to have a and peccary are their preferred prey.
special liking for dogs as food and, in Africa, Occasionally, livestock (18) ...... in areas
for baboons. It sometimes takes livestock, (19) ...... ranches have replaced natural
and may attack human beings. A black form habitat. The cat is a savage fighter when
of the leopard is widely known as the black (20) ...... but does not normally attack
panther, which is (15) ...... in the Far East humans.
than in other parts of the range of the

16- A) alike B) along with

11- A) having been B) have been C) out of D) together
C) being D) to be E) in similar
E) been

17- A) as B) so
12- A) some B) a little C) like D) such
C) several D) the whole E) more
E) the most

18- A) have attacked B) attack

13- A) whole B) all C) are attacked D) are attacking
C) much D) none E) were being attacked
E) any

19- A) where B) how

14- A) fortify B) undermine C) why D) that
C) overpower D) withdraw E) whom
E) endanger

20- A) to corner B) cornered

15- A) more common C) corner D) to be cornered
B) so common E) having cornered
C) the most common
D) common enough
E) such common

The cheetah lives on the open plains of The puma is exceeded in size only by the
southern, central, and eastern Africa and in jaguar among cats of the New World. The
the Middle East, where it is all (21) ...... name (26) ...... is derived from usage by the
extinct. The African race of the cheetah is Inca Indians. The puma ranges widely from
relatively uncommon; the Asiatic race is British Columbia to Patagonia, in habitats
listed as critically endangered in the Red Data (27) ...... mountains, deserts, and jungles.
Book and is extinct in (22) ...... its former In many regions, however, local races have
range. The cheetah is (23) ...... land animal been eliminated by humans, and pumas are
in the world over short distances, capable of now generally restricted to wilderness areas.
attaining speeds (24) ...... 100 km per hour. The voice of the puma is like that of a
As its long legs and strong hindquarters domestic cat but louder. Breeding occurs at
suggest, it is built for running. The cheetah any time of year, the female usually
hunts alone or in small groups. It usually (28) ...... young every other year. The puma
hunts in the morning or late afternoon, eats a considerable range of foods; in North
cautiously stalking its prey (usually a small America it demonstrates a preference for
antelopE) and then (25) ...... it ...... in a deer when they are available. Occasionally it
final rapid sprint. The cheetah has long been kills livestock, but (29) ...... other predators
trapped and tamed in Asia, where it has been it is valuable in maintaining the balance of
used for coursing game, but it has seldom nature by preventing overpopulation of prey
bred in captivity. animals. Though attacks on people are still
rare, the growth of residential construction in
wilderness areas (30) ...... to an increase in
puma attacks in recent years.
21- A) still B) but
C) just D) though 26- A) itself B) of which
E) yet C) where D) that of
E) its own

27- A) as varied as B) more varied

22- A) many of B) several C) so varied that D) varied enough
C) a number D) a good deal E) such a varied
E) much of

28- A) to bear B) born

23- A) much faster B) as fast C) being born D) to have born
C) the fastest D) so fast as E) bearing
E) such fast

29- A) alike B) the most

24- A) up to B) throughout C) rather D) as with
C) along D) across E) throughout
E) out of

30- A) is leading B) would lead

25- A) breaking...up C) has led D) will have led
B) holding...on E) will be leading
C) putting...through
D) running...down
E) keeping...up
Most of the adventures recorded in this book Rock climbing - and developments in climbing
really occurred; one of two were experiences walls and equipment, together with changing
of (1) ...... the rest those of boys who were attitudes - have produced a new chapter in
schoolmates of (2) ...... .Huck Finn is drawn the sport's history. Many people start
from life, and so is Tom Sawyer, but not from climbing at a local climbing wall, or maybe by
an individual - he is a combination of the having a go with friends, but (6) ...... you
characteristics of three boys whom I knew, start, (7) ...... you've got the bug that's it -
and therefore belongs to the composite order there's no escape! However, climbing carries
of architecture. The odd superstitions touched intrinsic dangers, some obvious, others
upon were all prevalent among children and (8) ...... so. In order to climb (9) ......
slaves in the West at the period of this story - possible and to maximize your potential,
(3) ...... , thirty or forty years ago. Although good basic techniques are essential. There
my book is intended mainly for the are courses (10) ...... can help you improve
entertainment of boys and girls, I hope it (4) your personal climbing ability, and give you
...... by men and women on that account, for the skills which help make climbing a safer
part of my plan has been to try to pleasantly sport.
remind adults of what they once were
themselves, and of (5) ...... they felt and
thought and talked, and what queer
enterprises they sometimes engaged in.
(adapted from Mark Twain's preface to his
1876 book The Adventures of Tom Sawyer)

1- A) myself B) me
C) them D) themselves 6- A) even though B) not only
E) my own C) whether D) however
E) no matter

2- A) themselves B) their
C) mine D) myself
E) them 7- A) once B) despite
C) already D) still
E) first

3- A) for the time being

B) rather than
C) that is to say 8- A) how B) few
D) a number of C) less D) none
E) despite the fact that E) like

4- A) won't be shunned
B) hadn't shunned 9- A) safer than B) as safely as
C) wasn't being shunned C) so safely that D) too safely
D) won't have shunned E) safe enough
E) wouldn't be shunning

5- A) that B) how 10- A) where B) of which

C) which D) where C) themselves D) those
E) whose E) that
Yoga takes you deep (11) ...... the innermost (16) ...... climbing expedition to India -
recesses of the mind where the self or the whether Indian, foreign, or joint - is required
real person resides, camouflaged by the to apply to the Indian Mountaineering
forever flippant mind. Therefore, it becomes Foundation (IMF) based at Delhi, at least six
relevant for (12) ...... us in the hectic and months (17) ...... to departure, (18) ...... all
stressful life expected of us in the 21st the formalities can be completed within the
century. Yoga literally means "union". An given time frame. Leaders of returning
ancient Indian discipline, yoga seeks to unite expeditions are required to submit reports,
the individual soul (Jivatman) with the and adequate proof of the climbs, to the IMF.
universal Soul or God (Paramatama) through While Indian nationals and IMF-sponsored
rigorous mental and physical efforts. Yoga, joint expeditions (19) ...... peaks beyond the
with the rhythm of the body, the melody of "Inner Line", foreign nationals are as a rule
the mind and the harmony of the soul, not permitted to do so. (20) ....... all
creates the symphony of life. (13) ...... expeditions by foreign nationals are required
regarded as a performing art (Kala), or a to be accompanied by an Indian liaison officer
science (Shastra), yoga provides the finest at their own expense.
system of education, (14) ...... it brings out
the best in a person. (15) ...... yoga does
emancipation (Moksha) seem so close.

11- A) over B) about 16- A) Most B) Either

C) at D) upon C) All D) Every
E) into E) Both

12- A) most B) the number of 17- A) once B) before

C) a good deal of D) all of C) prior D) after
E) quite a few E) similar

13- A) Whether B) Neither

C) Whereas D) Like 18- A) in case B) whereas
E) Such as C) such as D) so much
E) in order that

14- A) for B) yet

C) such D) how 19- A) were attempting
E) just B) can attempt
C) have been attempted
D) used to attempt
E) are being attempted

15- A) Not only B) Only with

C) Only if D) Even if 20- A) As well as B) Rather more
E) Thus C) Unlikely D) Additionally
E) More than
Unaccompanied by an associated mountain
chain, Mt. Kilimanjaro is singularly An illiterate Bangladeshi woman who started
magnificent and hypnotic as it rises primary school at the age of 84 has become
majestically above the African plains something of a trendsetter to four (26) ......
(21) ...... a height of almost 20,000 feet. elderly women who have followed in her
(22) ...... the largest freestanding mountain footsteps. The five women, all grandmothers
in the world, and Africa's highest peak, in their seventies and eighties, now spend
Kilimanjaro is a challenge for mountaineers their days enthusiastically (27) ...... over
and trekkers worldwide. (23) ...... its their books in the small Jadabpur primary
immense size, Kilimanjaro's summit is school in southwestern Bangladesh. The
surprisingly accessible to those who are in grandmothers were inspired by widow
good physical condition and (24) ...... to Fatema Khatun, who (28) ...... on education
undertake the ascent. The summit is as a child after (29) ...... at the age of
permanently covered with ice and is seven. "I now have five elderly pupils
composed of three volcanic peaks, of which studying here alongside pupils aged from five
the highest, Kibo, is the most popular for to eleven," the head teacher (30) ...... he
climbers. (25) media.
...... at the top, the panoramic view of the
Rift Valley and surrounding landscape at
sunrise is truly magnificent.

21- A) to B) among 26- A) another B) the other

C) in D) for C) others D) each other
E) upon E) other

22- A) Such as B) As 27- A) poring B) to pore

C) So D) Such C) pored D) to be poring
E) More E) being pored

23- A) Even though B) Despite 28- A) missed out B) got off

C) However D) Owing to C) caught up D) grew up
E) While E) fell down

24- A) such an ambitious 29- A) married B) to marry

B) so ambitious that C) to be married D) to have married
C) ambitious enough E) being married
D) more ambitious than
E) too ambitious

25- A) As B) Whereas 30- A) asked B) said

C) Where D) Once C) told D) wondered
E) Besides E) admitted
One day, a lawyer who had just bought a
new car was very eager to (1) ...... it ...... to A man was chosen for jury duty who really
his colleagues, when (2) ...... a truck came wanted (6) ...... from serving. He tried
out of (3) ...... and took off the driver's side (7) ...... excuse he could think of, but
door as he stood right there. "Nooo!" he (8) ...... of them worked. On the day of the
screamed, because he knew that (4) ...... trial, he decided to give it one more shot. As
how hard a mechanic tried to fix it, it would the trial
never be the same. Finally, a cop came by, was about to begin, he asked (9) ...... he
and the lawyer ran up to him yelling, "My could approach the bench. "Your Honor," he
Jaguar door was just ruined by some foolish said, "I must be excused from this trial
driver!!!" "You're a lawyer, aren't you?" because I am prejudiced against the
asked the policeman. "Yes, I am, but what defendant. I took one look (10) ...... the
does this have to do with my car?!?!" the man in the blue suit with those beady eyes
lawyer screamed. "Ha! You lawyers are and that dishonest face and I said, 'He's a
always so materialistic. All you care about is crook! He's guilty!' So, your Honor, I cannot
your possessions. I bet you haven't even possibly stay on this jury!" With a tired
noticed that your left arm is missing, annoyance the judge replied, "Get back in the
(5) ......?" the cop said. The lawyer looked jury box, you fool. That man is the
down at his side and exclaimed, "My Rolex!" defendant's lawyer."

1- A) fix...up B) pull...away
C) D)
E) break...down 6- A) being dismissed
B) to be dismissed
C) having dismissed
D) to dismiss
2- A) at present B) out of sight E) dismissing
C) in contrast D) all of a sudden
E) for the time being 7- A) not only B) both
C) every D) several
E) all

3- A) everywhere B) elsewhere
C) someone D) nowhere 8- A) nothing B) little
E) whoever C) none D) every
E) many

4- A) no matter B) whenever
C) whereas D) as if 9- A) if B) that
E) even though C) what D) in case
E) even if

5- A) isn't it B) aren't you

C) do I D) hasn't it 10- A) with B) at
E) have you C) in D) through
E) to
A lawyer defending a man (11) ...... of An elderly patient needed a heart transplant
burglary tried this creative defense: "My and discussed his options with his doctor. The
client merely inserted his arm into the doctor said, "We have three possible donors.
window and removed a few trifling articles. The first donor is a young, healthy athlete
His arm is not himself, and I fail to see who died in an automobile accident. The
(12) ...... you can punish (13) ...... second donor is a middle-aged businessman
individual for an offence committed by his who never drank or smoked and who died
limb." "Well put," the judge replied. "Using (16) ...... his private jet. And the third donor
your logic, I sentence the defendant's arm to is an attorney who died after practising law
one year's imprisonment. He can accompany for 30 years. (17) ...... heart do you want?"
it or not - (14) ...... he chooses." The "I (18) ...... the lawyer's heart," said the
defendant smiled. With his lawyer's patient. After a successful transplant, the
assistance, he (15) ...... his artificial limb, doctor asked the patient (19) ...... he (20)
laid it on the bench, and walked out. ...... the lawyer's heart. "It was easy,"
explained the patient, "I wanted a heart that
hadn't been used."

11- A) offended B) executed 16- A) being flown B) to be flying

C) performed D) accused C) to be flown D) flying
E) sentenced E) to have flown

12- A) what B) whose 17- A) Whose B) How

C) whom D) which C) Whom D) How much
E) how E) How many

13- A) the whole B) someone 18- A) will take B) have taken

C) those D) somewhat C) will have taken D) took
E) anyone E) was taking

14- A) wherever B) whichever 19- A) that B) which

C) with which D) the one C) why D) whose
E) that of E) whom

15- A) fastened B) soothed 20- A) will choose B) had chosen

C) detached D) flattened C) is choosing D) has chosen
E) relaxed E) chooses
A lawyer trying to get tickets to a Broadway Three men - a doctor, an accountant, and a
show finally settled for (21) ...... of seats a lawyer - are dead and they appear in front of
year (22) ...... .When the exciting first night St. Peter at the gates of Heaven. St. Peter
arrived and he sat down in his seat, a woman tells them that they have to answer just a
in front of the lawyer noticed the empty seat single question (26) ...... get to Heaven. He
next to him and asked why looks at the doctor and asks, "(27) ...... was
(23) ...... .valuable commodity was going a movie that was made about a ship that
unused. The lawyer replied that his wife sank after hitting an iceberg; what was its
couldn't make it. The woman asked him if he name?" The doctor answers, "Titanic," and he
(24) ...... relatives or friends who (25) ...... is sent through. St. Peter then looks at the
the seat. He replied, "Oh, they're all at the accountant and says, "(28) ...... people died
funeral of my wife." in that ship?" (29) ...... the accountant had
just watched the movie, and he answers,
"1,500!". St. Peter sends him through and
then finally turns to the lawyer and
commands, in a very heavy voice, "Name
(30) ......!"

21- A) all B) a few 26- A) in addition to B) as opposed to

C) much D) several C) so as to D) with the aim of
E) a couple E) in light of

22- A) in progress B) for short 27- A) How B) The one

C) under control D) up to now C) Where D) How far
E) in advance E) There

23- A) too few B) enough 28- A) What else B) How many

C) so little D) such a C) How long D) What time
E) just as E) Whenever

24- A) didn't have B) wasn't having 29- A) Eventually B) Frequently

C) won't have D) hadn't had C) Shamefully D) Fortunately
E) isn't having E) Accurately

30- A) them B) him

25- A) had used B) could have used C) theirs D) himself
C) will have used D) will be using E) itself
E) must have used


One of the most famous and moving CHAPLIN WALKS
speeches in American history was not
actually spoken as thought. Chief Seattle - Around 1915, the great popularity of Charlie
(1) ...... the West Coast city is named - was Chaplin's tramp character in the US led to a
a leader of the Suquamish and Duwamish rash of Chaplin look-alike contests (6) ......
tribes and a warrior with a great reputation across the nation. Contestants would dress
(2) ...... his people. In the mid-19th century, up with the familiar bowler hat, shabby suit,
an epidemic of smallpox wiped out (3) ...... and tiny moustache of the Tramp and
the people, and Seattle began to recognize compete (7) ...... his unique way of walking
the inevitability of the white man's advance. and moving about. According to legend,
In 1854, he concluded a land deal in which Chaplin himself once entered one of these
he sold the land to the US government, and competitions - and promptly lost. The legend
announced the sale to a mixed group of usually goes that this particular contest was
whites and Indians. The text of this speech as held (8) ...... in Monte Carlo ...... in
most people know it expresses the Switzerland, and that Chaplin took second or
connection Seattle's people felt with nature, third place. The truth about the affair,
(4) ...... contrast ...... the whites' disregard however, makes Chaplin look (9) ...... worse
for it; many environmentalists have since than the legend. The actual contest happened
used the speech to express their own views. in a San Francisco theater, and - although
However, in fact he said nothing like this, but Chaplin's final standing is not recorded - it is
simply praised the US President for his noted down in the contest's register that
generosity in buying the land. The speech Chaplin (who was competing under an
that people are familiar with was written by assumed namE) failed to make the finals.
Ted Perry, a screenwriter, for a 1972 film After the contest, Chaplin - not (10) ......
about ecology. (5) ...... this text came to be with the quality of the contestants - told
wrongly associated with Chief Seattle is reporters that he would like to take some
anyone's guess. time off to teach all his imitators, as well as
the contest's judges, how the Chaplin walk
was really done.

1- A) with which B) for whom

C) as that D) to what
E) upon whose 6- A) holding B) to hold
C) being held D) having held
E) to be holding
2- A) along B) at
C) as D) on
E) among 7- A) imitatively B) for imitation
C) imitator D) to imitate
E) as imitating
3- A) many of B) all
C) most D) the whole
E) entire 8- A) hardly...when B) neither...nor
C) so much...that D) either...or
E) whether...or
4- A) for...upon B) as...about
C) at...among D)
E) from...with 9- A) also B) such
C) even D) very
E) more
5- A) What B) Which
C) Whose D) That
E) How 10- A) to be pleasing B) pleased
C) pleasing D) to have pleased
E) having pleased


In 1970, an 8-ton, 13.7-meter-long sperm
The next time you're browsing through the whale - (16) ...... dead in the water for some
supermarket, pause a moment to read the time - washed up on a Pacific Ocean beach
ingredients labels of your favourite red- south of Florence, Oregon. At first, it was a
coloured prepared foods or cosmetics. More curiosity for local residents. But then the
likely than not, you'll notice that cochineal beached giant became a stinking mess as the
and/or carmine (or carminic aciD) are listed. foul smell of rotting whale began drifting
However, the origin of these pigments might around the area. Because the beach was
surprise and possibly disgust you: (11) ...... public land, the Oregon State Highway
cochineal ...... carmine - used to give deep Division was given the unwelcome task of
red colour to fruit juices, gelatins, candies, cleaning up the mess. After consulting
shampoos, and so on - are derived from the officials at the Department of the Navy, they
crushed bodies of a particular South and decided to blow the whale to pieces using a
Central American beetle. The secret of using half-ton of dynamite; any pieces remaining
this beetle - (12) ...... Dactylopius coccus - (17) ...... by seagulls. But the explosion
as a dye was first discovered by Mexican didn't work out too well. A crowd of people
Indians: they (13) ...... the insects, briefly came to watch the event, but the dynamite
immerse them in hot water to kill them and only destroyed a small part of the whale,
dissolve the females' waxy coating, and then sending thousands of tiny chunks of whale
dry them in the sun. The dried insects would blubber flying out to cover the crowd. Luckily,
then be ground to a fine red powder. no one was hurt, although one man's car
(14) ...... the same process is (15) ...... used (18) ...... to pieces by an especially large
today. portion of the flying whale fat. (19) ...... was
even worse, the man's auto insurance
refused to cover such damage. (20) ...... the
remains of the whale, it was slowly chopped
up and buried bit by bit by embarrassed
employees of the Highway Division.

11- A) both...and B) either...or 16- A) yet B) already

C) so many...that D) scarcely...than C) after D) such
E) neither...nor E) whatever

17- A) will eat B) have been eaten

12- A) calling B) to call C) would be eaten D) are eating
C) to be calling D) having called E) had been eaten
E) called

18- A) was smashing

13- A) have collected B) ought to collect B) had been smashing
C) may collect D) would collect C) has been smashed
E) will have collected D) was smashed
E) is being smashed

19- A) How B) What

14- A) Much B) Most C) That D) Who
C) So D) More E) Which
E) Many

20- A) As a consequence
15- A) however B) just B) By all means
C) still D) already C) In view of
E) yet D) Over and over
E) As for
25- A) his B) himself
C) he D) him
E) his own
On the night of 9-10 June 1999, a German
tourist couple spent the night in Room 112 of On 12 August 1999, the legislature of the
the Burgundy Motor Inn in Atlantic City, New state of Mississippi passed a bill legally
Jersey. During the night, they noticed a very (26) ...... fractions and decimal points from
strange and strong smell, which made them the mathematics curriculum of (27) ......
quite uncomfortable. But they were not public secondary schools in the state. The bill
(21) ...... terribly uncomfortable......they directs public secondary schools in Mississippi
were unable to sleep, and so they (22) ...... to emphasize whole number arithmetic in
their complaint to the manager (23) ...... the mathematics courses, and orders the removal
next morning. A similar thing happened at (28) ...... standardized state math tests of
the Capri Motel, just east of downtown questions involving non-whole numbers.
Kansas City, in July 2003: a man who had (29) ...... from the outcry at the continued
checked in found a foul odor in his room, but dumbing- down of American education, it was
this man immediately complained to the claimed by many that this removal was
manager. Unfortunately, he was told that motivated by religious belief, a claim denied
(24) ...... could be done about the problem, by Judith Sutpen, chairperson of the
and he spent three nights in the room before Mississippi Senate Education Committee.
checking out because he could no longer "This has nothing to do with religion," she
stand the smell. Well, when the Capri Motel's said, claiming instead that the bill was passed
cleaning staff came to make up the room to de-emphasize elements that schoolchildren
once he had gone, they lifted the mattress find confusing and adding, "It makes no
and underneath found a man's body in an sense to train our students how to think
advanced stage of decomposition. And what logically, and then present them with
about the Burgundy Motor Inn incident? Well, nonsensical concepts like irrational and
that was 64-year-old Saul Hernandez, also imaginary numbers." One member of the
dead under the bed and quite rotted Senate, though, seems to confirm the role of
(25) ...... . religion in the bill: "(30) ...... whole numbers
are good enough for the Catholic Church,
then they ought to be good enough for the
children of the great state of Mississippi."

21- A) such a...that B) too...for 26- A) eliminating

C) barely...when D) so B) having eliminated
E) so...that C) being eliminated
D) to be eliminated
E) to have been eliminated

22- A) came through B) took upon

C) got on D) put off 27- A) the most B) some of
E) went about C) whole D) all
E) much

23- A) around B) during 28- A) between B) on

C) until D) since C) from D) at
E) when E) among

24- A) nothing B) someone 29- A) Besides B) Whatever

C) anyone D) everything C) Apart D) Instead
E) somehow E) So as
30- A) Which B) Thus E) If
C) How D) That


Critic Theophile Gautier once announced that (1) ...... could create (2) ...... "all the monsters of
fantasy" than the French artist Gustave Dore, known especially for his highly imaginative book
illustrations. Paul-Gustave Dore was born on 6 January 1832, in Strasbourg, France. (3) ...... his
early teens, he had (4) ...... had some of his artwork (5) ...... .In 1847, he went to Paris, and
from 1848 to 1851 drew cartoons for the weekly magazine Journal pour Rire. He also published
books of his ink drawings. Although a good painter and sculptor as well, Dore's main success came
from his illustrations in famous books, (6) ....... he used a wood-engraving process. He produced
over 90 illustrated books. Some of the best of (7) ...... were Works of Rabe/a/s(1854), the Droll
Stories of Balzac (1855), Dante's Inferno (1861), Cervantes' Don Quixote (1863), and a Bible
(1865). His 1862 drawings (8) ...... the fairy tales of Charles Perrault were in publication for many
decades. Many of Dore's drawings were of fascinating imaginary scenes from myth and legend. He
often used religious or historical themes for his paintings, but he did not seem to bring these
subjects (9) ...... life (10) ...... he did the creatures of imagination.

6- A) with that B) of whom

1- A) whatever B) whomever C) which D) what
C) nobody D) anything E) for which
E) who

7- A) these B) which
2- A) better B) so good C) what D) themselves
C) too good D) so well that E) that
E) well enough

8- A) to be accompanied
3- A) When B) At B) accompanying
C) As D) By C) accompanied
E) While D) being accompanied
E) accompany

9- A) for B) in
4- A) thus B) since C) to D) with
C) but D) already E) during
E) than

10- A) so many as B) the best

5- A) publishing B) published C) quite well D) rather than
C) to publish D) being published E) as well as
E) publish
The story of the Hittites, nearly (11) ...... that is known of it, was recovered (12) ...... a single
lifetime. (13) ...... of it (14) ...... together between the two World Wars. The chief source of
information is the royal library of 10,000 clay tablets discovered in 1906 and, later, in the ruins of
The ancient Hittite capital Khattushash, near Boğazköy, about 145 kilometres east (15) ......
Ankara. These tablets are in cuneiform writing, and most of (16) ...... though in Babylonian
spelling, are in the Hittire language. For years, Hugo Winckler, the German archaeologist who
made the find, and other scholars laboured vainly lo get a clue to this unknown tongue. One day a
Czech archaeologist, Bedrich Hrozny, found in the same sentence with the Babylonian word-sign
for bread, the Hittite word wadar (17) ...... out. He thought this (18) ...... he same as the English
word "water". Other words seemed to have the same roots as the Latin aqua ("water") and the
English "eat". Working from these slight clues, in 1915, he announced that he (19) ...... the riddle,
and that Hittite was an Indo-European language, but a full translation of the tablets took (20) ......
ten years.

11- A) something B) a whole 16- A) which B) them

C) whatever D) any C) that D) what
E) all E) it

12- A) between B) along 17- A) spelling B) to spell

C) from D) within C) having spelled D) spell
E) among E) spelled

13- A) Most B) Many 18- A) might be B) has been

C) A few D) Only a few C) may be D) can be
E) A number E) will have been

14- A) was pieced B) is being pieced 19- A) has solved

C) had pieced D) has been pieced B) had solved
E) would have pieced C) was being solved
D) would be solved
E) is solving
15- A) with B) into
C) of D) upon 20- A) itself B) the other
E) about C) anyone D) another
E) themselves
In some literatures - (21) ...... classical Chinese, Old Norse, and Old Irish - the language
(22) ...... is quite different from that spoken or used in ordinary writing. This marks off the reading
of literature as a special experience. In the Western tradition, it is only in comparatively modern
times (23) ...... literature has been written in the common speech of "cultivated men". The
Elizabethans did not talk (24) ...... much of Shakespeare, (25) ...... did 18th-century people speak
in the stately prose of Samuel Johnson or Edward Gibbon. The so-called Augustan plain style in
literature became popular in the late 17th century and flourished throughout the 18th, but it was
really a special form of rhetoric with antecedent models in Greek and Latin. The first modern
person (26) ........major works of literature in the ordinary English language of the educated man
was Daniel Defoe (1607 1731), and it is somewhat remarkable (27) ...... the language (28) ......
since his time, relatively speaking. Defoe's Robinson Crusoe (1719) is much more contemporary in
tone than the elaborate prose of 19th-century writers like Thomas De Quincey or Walter Pater.
However, Defoe's language is not, (29) ...... so simple: simplicity is (30) ...... only one of his
forms of artistic expression.

21- A) skilfully B) ably 26- A) to write B) written

C) notably D) gradually C) being written D) wrote
E) worthily E) to be written

22- A) renovated B) adorned 27- A) much more B) very little

C) operated D) spread C) how little D) so much
E) employed E) such a lot of

23- A) which B) that 28- A) was changing B) was changed

C) where D) how C) has changed D) will have changed
E) whom E) could be changed

24- A) as B) like 29- A) at least B) so far

C) such D) such as C) for short D) in fact
E) alike E) at once

25- A) so B) like 30- A) them B) itself

C) such D) nor C) anything D) whichever
E) or E) what

Celebrate Something Bizarre

Holidays these days seem to fall into two 14 February: Horned Lizard Day
basic categories. There are those that are
over-commercialized; and there are those For anyone (6) ...... finds Valentine's Day a
that are basically ignored, Christmas is an sickeningly pointless holiday based entirely
example of the former, (1) ...... Groundhog (7) ...... superficial expressions of fraudulent
Day is an example of the (2) ...... Many of love, I lurned Lizard Day provides an
these "special days" have (3) ...... lost their opportunity to disorient our friends and loved
meaning, or had it overshadowed by ones with cheerful comments about
commercial promotion. But holidays are interesting reptiles. Are you tired of
supposed to be festive, enjoyable times, so it Valentine's Day's hopelessly tooth-rotting
seems (4) ...... a shame to just abandon the sentimentality? Are you sick of supporting the
idea. In the hopes of carrying on the spirit of flower and candy industries with hollow
celebration, I observe a wide range of bizarre gestures of false affection? Does the colour
little days. Some have their own odd little pink send you into fits of psychotic rage?
origins, but most are derived from an old Then celebrate (8) ...... worth celebrating -
Mature Company calendar. It features a plant celebrate Horned Lizard Day! I send Horned
or animal on (5) ...... page, and some of Lizard Day cards to my friends on this
them are certainly interesting enough to important occasion, both to spread happiness
deserve a special day of celebration. and to let them know (9) ...... interesting
animals horned lizards are. I feel that there's
1- A) so B) because no better way to celebrate 14 February than
C) while D) despite with an animal that squirts blood from a sinus
E) accordingly behind its eyes (10) ...... threatened.

6- A) who B) which
C) what D) how
2- A) some B) another E) when
C) many D) latter
E) other's 7- A) at B) to
C) of D) up

3- A) both B) either
C) neither D) not only
E) or 8- A) no one B) someone
C) everything D) anytime
E) something

4- A) too B) like
C) as D) with
E) for 9- A) that B) how
C) where D) what
E) why

5- A) all B) many
C) each D) much
E) some 10- A) like B) when
C) how D) as
E) which
Other February Holidays
May Holidays
Not only do duck-billed platypuses -
(11) ...... day is February 2 - look incredibly (16) ...... 19 November is the official day for
odd, they're also the world's only venomous sloth (that is, "laziness") according to a
mammal. What could be better? So, stick a calendar of (17) ...... I've been told by a
duck-bill on your face, attach some poisonous friend that 9 May has also been established
spines to your ankles, and go crazy. (Of as International Sloth Day. I've got nothing
course, if you did the first two, number three against celebrating sloth twice a year, or you
is probably already covered.) About three can choose (18) ...... date you desire. Just
weeks later, on 22 February, celebrate don't celebrate too actively, or you'll defeat
Parsley Day. Acknowledge the world's the whole purpose of Sloth Day in the first
greatest garnish by (12) ...... it ...... to total place. Later in the month of May comes an
strangers in the street! Wander into fast food actual date in history, which warrants note
restaurants, walk up to the patrons, and offer (19) ...... you care about the actual event or
to spice up the appearance of their boring not. On 23 May 1618, in Prague, a few royal
meals with a sprig of festive green. Visit your officials were thrown out of a window of
friends and bestow upon them the gift of Hradcany Castle by some noblemen, but
garnish. (13) ...... no one accepts your survived the fall by landing in a cart full of
offerings, you can always just (14) ...... a manure: this was the Defenestration of
table of (15) ...... with an elegant vase of Prague. More importantly, "defenestration" is
nice fresh parsley, brightening the room and easily one of the most totally underused
letting everyone know what a good words in the English language. For (20) ......
understanding of culinary decor you have. who are unaware, it means "the act of
throwing something or someone out of a

11- A) what B) that 16- A) Since B) Nonetheless

C) whose D) when C) Though D) Consequently
E) which E) But

12- A) doing...away 17- A) mine B) their

B) going...along C) me D) its
C) getting.. .by E) its own
D) handing.. .out

13- A) If B) Also
C) So D) That 18- A) however B) whenever
E) For C) wherever D) whichever
E) whomever

14- A) adorn B) inflate

C) intend D) outline 19- A) when B) accordingly
E) affect C) as D) whether
E) how

15- A) its B) you 20- A) them B) those

C) itself D) yourself C) that D) this
E) your own E) these
C) having eaten D) being eaten
E) to eat

December Holidays
25 June: Zoog Day
Certainly one of the most important days of
Many years ago, it was determined that there the year, Pangolin Day (8 December)
were several holidays distributed (21) ...... celebrates everyone's favourite walking
the year that revolved around candy and pinecone. For those of you unfamiliar with
greetings cards, but that all of the popular pangolins, they are ant-eating mammals
gift-giving holidays (22) ...... in winter. To (26) ......with overlapping armour scales.
create a balance, Zoog Day was established They have long prehensile tails, and they curl
on 25 June, six months away from the into an armoured ball if threatened by
popular Christmas holiday. On this day, predators. There are a lot of really fascinating
decorations tend to be in purple and orange, animals out there, (27) ...... pangolins are
and celebrants are encouraged to obtain and probably my own personal favourite.
decorate a Zoog tree. Zoog trees are spiny, (28) ...... fascinating creature is celebrated
purple, and perfectly cylindrical. Zoog the All- on 23 December; that is, Loggerhead Shrike
Nifty (23) ...... to fly around that night on Day. Displaying some of the most bizarre
the back of his magical griffin, teleporting animal behaviour I've ever heard of, this bird
presents into people's kitchens. It is only a apparently impales uneaten prey on either
coincidence that Zoog's name is shared by a thorns or barbed wire. To celebrate this, I
race of beings from the works of horror writer recommend sticking any leftovers from your
HP. Lovecraft, but (24) ....... fans of the meals onto (29) ...... sharp objects. Pens,
author are encouraged to celebrate this day pencils, coat racks, and other (30) ......
by releasing swarms of zoogs into the waking items should be ideally suited for this
world, and watching with delight as people purpose.
discover that these cute, fuzzy creatures are
carnivorous, and perfectly willing (25) ......

26- A) covering B) to cover

21- A) throughout B) alongside C) being covered D) covered
C) between D) beneath E) to have been covered
E) without

27- A) yet B) instead

22- A) may concentrate C) because D) accordingly
B) are concentrating E) so
C) have been concentrating
D) were concentrated
E) will have concentrated

28- A) Others B) Another

C) The other D) Other
23- A) will have been said E) Some other
B) would say
C) is said
D) has said
E) is saying

29- A) beside B) none

C) nearby D) tight
24- A) whereas B) despite E) less
C) nevertheless D) therefore
E) consequently

30- A) such B) lots of

C) so D) much
25- A) to be eaten B) eating E) many

New Zealand was first settled by the Maori, a

brown-skinned Polynesian people. Their
ancestors migrated from "Hawaiiki", (1) ...... The islands remained unknown to the
among the tropical islands some 2,000 miles Western world (6) ........ the Dutch sea
or more to the northeast - but not from captain Abel Tasman sailed (7) ...... the
Hawaii, (2) ...... the similarity in names. western shoreline in 1642. An attempt at
They traditionally trace their tribal origins to landing (8) ....... by the violent reception
migrants in canoes once thought (3) ...... given to his men by the Maori. (9) ...... a
about AD 1350. Archaeological evidence, century passed before the voyages of the
however, indicates that the ancestors of the English explorer Capt. James Cook, who
Maori were settled in New Zealand perhaps disproved theories that New Zealand was a
as early as AD 600, and certainly by AD great southern continent by circumnavigating
1000. These early Polynesians are now the islands in 1769-70. He made contact with
(4) ...... to as the Moahunters because they the Maori people at numerous places around
used the now-extinct moas - flightless birds the coast and was impressed by their social
ranging (5) ...... size from turkeys to huge organization and their warlike qualities, as
ostriches - for food, and they fashioned well as by their arts and crafts. The
implements and ornaments from their bones. establishment of
the close links with Great Britain (10) ........
have shaped much modern-day New Zealand
life and culture dates from Captain Cook's
1- A) where else B) however day.
C) somewhere D) wherever
E) whomever

6- A) while B) during
C) as though D) wherever
2- A) despite B) like E) until
C) such as D) owing to
E) much

7- A) between B) among
C) along D) upon
3- A) to have arrived B) arriving E) through
C) having arrived D) to be arriving
E) arrived

8- A) has been discouraged

B) was discouraging
4- A) researched B) referred C) was discouraged
C) counted D) addressed D) had discouraged
E) limited E) would have discouraged

9- A) Much more B) Such as

5- A) to B) for C) Moreover D) More than
C) with D) in E) Rather than
E) on

10- A) where B) that

C) how D) why
E) when
In the early years of European contact, the Over the years, the Maori language
Maori population declined, principally through (16)........a very troubled history, going from
diseases brought by the while immigrants. the position of the predominant language of
The native population was also affected by New Zealand to becoming, around 1860s, a
the import of firearms. (11) ...... some Maori minority language in the shadow of the
used in tribal warfare. Since the late 19th English brought by white settlers. In the late
century, however, Maori numbers (12) ......, 19th century, the English school system was
along with intermarriage. From fewer than introduced for all New Zealanders, and from
43,000 in 1892, the Maori population the 1880s the use of Maori in school was
increased to 321,000 in 1991 9.5 percent of forbidden. (17).......numbers of Maori people
all New Zealanders – or 512.000 (13) ...... learned English because it was required at
all persons with some Maori ancestry are school. Until World War II, however, most
included, which constitutes 14.9 percent of all Maori still spoke Maori as a native
New Zealanders. Today the Maori people language, (18)........the 1930s, some Maori
have four representatives in the New Zealand parliamentarians were disadvantaged
Parliament and have legal equality with because the Parliament's proceedings were at
people of European origin. There is (14) ...... that time carried on in English. In this period,
of the racial tension found in many other the number of speakers of Maori began to
lands. Maori identity is strong, but Maori and decline rapidly, until the 1980s, when less
Europeans freely intermarry and they have than 20 percent of the Maori spoke the
similar ways of life; some aspects of social language (19) be considered native
and cultural life tend to remain distinctly speakers. Around this time, Maori leaders
Maori or distinctly European (15) ...... . began to recognize the dangers of the loss of
their language and began to initiate Maori-
language (20)........programs.

11- A) who B) whose 16- A) was having B) had been having

C) that D) where C) will be having D) will have
E) which E) has had

12- A) are increasing 17- A) Appreciative B) Average

B) were increasing C) Increasing D) Declining
C) will have increased E) Enthusiastic
D) will be increasing
E) have increased

18- A) As late as B) So late that

13- A) if B) which C) Such a lale D) Much later
C) whom D) whether E) The latest
E) either

19- A) so good B) well enough

14- A) just a few B) little C) so well that D) better than
C) much D) no E) the best
E) most

20- A) posture B) recovery

15- A) either B) neither C) encounter D) jeopardy
C) thus D) though E) mending
E) so
The traditional Maori world is an oral Kapa haka is the term used for the
culture.Other cultures, (21) ...... the fact Traditional Maori Performing Arts. (26) ......
that they place emphasis on the written other indigenous dance forms, kapa haka is
word, often dismiss Maori oral tradition as it unique in (27) ...... the performers must
was not written down. One of the main sing, dance, and have expression as well as
arguments against the reliability of these oral movement - all combined into each item.
tradition is the "Chinese Whisper" theory, Kapa haka (28) ...... as a sign language, as
which works (22) ...... follows: A group of (29) ...... action has a meaning, which ties in
people sit in a circle; the first person with the words. For example, if the hand is
whispers a phrase to the person on his or her by the ear, this will probably tie in with the
side, who (23) ...... whispers to the next word whakarongo, which means "to listen".
person, and so forth around the whole circle, (30) ...... the earliest times, the haka has
(24) ...... it gets back to the original person. inspired and energized generations of Maori
There is a very high possibility that the in both peace and war. The haka was part
phrase has changed. Those who argue of the Maori warrior's conditioning for war
against the accuracy of oral traditions say and battle. Today the haka is an aspect of the
this proves that stories undergo changes as Maori culture of New Zealand that has
they are passed from person to person. become very much a national expression of
However, (25) ...... these people fail to New Zealand identity.
acknowledge is that oral traditions are not
whispered once to a person. It takes years of
training and recitation to gain the position of
historian. The memory is trained to be able to
recall accurately the histories, traditions and
genealogies word by word.

21- A) despite B) instead of 26- A) As B) Where

C) since D) because C) Unlike D) Whichever
E) due to E) While

22- A) if B) in case 27- A) whenever B) as long as

C) as D) like C) so that D) much as
E) just E) the fact that

23- A) in short B) in advance 28- A) must have seen

C) in common D) in turn B) could be seen
E) in progress C) will have been seen
D) is supposed to see
E) may have seen

24- A) by the time B) while 29- A) all of B) each

C) after D) until C) whole D) none
E) as soon as E) several

25- A) what B) how 30- A) Since B) For

C) when D) whom C) While D) During
E) that E) When


Education (1) ...... nature was the theme
around which Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (6) ...... the great German educator Froebel
(1746-1827) constructed his program to (1782-1852) was 50 years old did he find his
reform the schooling of very young children. real lifework, the kindergarten. In his early
He believed that clear thinking comes from twenties, Froebel began to teach in Anton
accurate observation of the world. His Gainer's school at Frankfurt. He realized
proposals (2) ....... the development of the immediately that he loved the work. (7) ......
mind (3) ...... physical exercise, moral great success, Froebel felt there was (8) ......
education, and vocational training. Thus, his for him to learn. He spent several more years
learn-by-doing (4) ...... emphasized writing, studying, with the Swiss educator J.H.
drawing, singing, exercise, model making, Pestalozzi and at several German
mapmaking, group recitations, and field trips. universities. In 1816, Froebel established his
He was influential in ridding schools of the first school, but it was not before 1837 that
oppressive discipline and cruel punishments he founded the sort of school that (9) ...... so
that were commonly inflicted upon children. wide an influence on education all over the
His principles were put to work in Prussia and world (10) ...... today. That was the
in some English and American schools. kindergarten - meaning "children's garden" in
Pestalozzi's ideas were (5) ...... those German - a school for children between the
later developed by Friedrich Froebel, Maria ages of 4 and 6. The great idea that he
Montessori, John Dewey, and Jean Piaget. developed in his books and in his schools was
that children must not be taught by rule but
according to their natural instincts and
activities. Froebel did not live to see his idea
1- A) by no means B) at random fully accepted, though. The Prussian
C) in return for D) for instance government abolished kindergartens in 1851
E) according to because it considered them socialistic.

6- A) If only B) Neither
C) Not only D) Not until
2- A) broke into B) dropped off E) As though
C) took after D) gave back
E) called for 7- A) Despite B) Accordingly
C) Whereas D) The moment
E) Likewise

3- A) along with B) so as to
C) as for D) up until 8- A) too many B) more than
E) far from C) so much D) just a few
E) as little as

4- A) distance B) approach
C) closure D) proximity 9- A) is having B) has
E) amount C) has had D) will be having
E) will have had

5- A) as much as B) rather than

C) similar to D) instead of 10- A) towards B) throughout
E) no more C) ever since D) even if
E) up until

The "father of the American public school", One of the most notable American
Horace Mann (1796-1859) worked to win philosophers of the 20th century, John Dewey
reforms and public support for schools in the (1859-1952) was also a pioneer in
United States. It was his opinion that, in days educational theory and method. (16) ......
to come, (11) ...... universal, nonsectarian, his ideas developed the progressive
and free. Through his influence, the first education movement that was very influential
teacher-training school in the United States in schools until about 1950. Learning by
was established in 1839. In 1843, Mann doing was the heart of his method. The
spent five months in Europe (12) ...... its children were given freedom to learn
schools. (13) ...... his return, his report to (17) ...... their needs and experiences.
the board antagonized the Boston Dewey regarded the school as a community -
schoolmasters, who considered his praise of a part of society. He looked upon education
Prussian teaching methods as criticism of as a process of living, not as preparation
(14) ...... . The report, however, made him a (18) ...... later living. In philosophy, Dewey's
national figure. Declaring his enthusiasm for pragmatic theories insisted that the way to
education as the basis of democracy, Mann test ideas was to check them against their
said, "The common school is (15) ...... consequences (19) claim their
discovery ever made by man". Antioch agreement with supposedly self-evident
College in Yellow Springs, Ohio, made Mann truth. (20)........faced with a problem, said
its president in 1853. There he sought to Dewey, a person must logically examine the
make higher education available to all on a options open to him or her to find the best
coeducational and nonsectarian basis. solution supported by the facts.

11- A) had been B) should be 16- A) Into B) Near

C) must have been D) has been C) Since D) Out of
E) used to be E) At

17- A) in return for B) in accordance with

12- A) to have studied B) being studied C) on the point of D) in the age of
C) studied D) studying E) on the brink of
E) to be studied

13- A) Upon B) When 18- A) in B) for

C) While D) By the time C) at D) on
E) Moreover E) with

14- A) their B) him 19- A) rather than B) so that

C) its own D) its C) moreover D) in case of
E) themselves E) in addition

15- A) so great B) greater than 20- A) That B) How

C) the greatest D) as great as C) Who D) When
E) much greater E) Why
The Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget (1896-
A pioneer in modern education, Maria 1980) was the first scientist to make
Montessori (1870-1952) devised the systematic studies of (26) ...... children
progressive method that (21) ...... her learn. His concept of the stages of learning
name. An Italian psychiatrist, she introduced made it necessary for scholars to reevaluate
the Montessori Method in the early 1900s. In previous information about children and the
1894, Maria Montessori became the first learning process. (27) ...... his work,
woman (22) ...... a medical degree by the teachers came to be viewed as
University of Rome. After graduation, she guides to children's discovery of (28) ......
worked with supposedly ineducable children. and the world - not just as transmitters of
Her progressive method developed from this learning. Piaget viewed children as people
work and from her experiences as director of who continually make and remake their own
Casa dei Bambini, or Children's House, a reality. They grow mentally by taking the
school for children. The method is based on a simple concepts they learn early on and
child's natural development and growing integrating them into more advanced ones.
awareness of the world (23) ...... perceived Piaget described four stages of development
through the senses. A variety of learning (29) ...... all individuals pass. In the
tools are provided, and the children sensorimotor stage, children become aware
themselves choose (24) ...... they wish to of themselves as separate beings in the
use. The interest of the students is sustained world; they try to master their reflexes, and
by their feeling of accomplishment and by the they constantly experiment. The
pleasure derived from doing things (25) ...... preoperational stage, from about 2 to 7
they have chosen themselves. years, is marked by learning language;
children are able to handle words mentally
just as they handled objects in the previous
stage. In the concrete operational stage,
21-A) gives B) adapts from 7 until 12, children begin to classify
C) bears D) supposes objects (30) ...... their similarity or
E) conducts difference. This is the beginning of logic. The
last stage is the period of formal operations,
which lasts into adulthood. It becomes
possible to make hypotheses and to master
22- A) having awarded abstract ideas.
B) to be awarded
C) having been awarded 26- A) that B) during
D) award C) whom D) those
E) to have awarded E) how

27- A) On the brink of B) In light of

23- A) as B) from C) On no account D) At any rate
C) such D) like E) Instead of
E) but

28- A) their B) wherever

24- A) what B) that C) thereafter D) themselves
C) when D) who E) its
E) why

29- A) through which B) about whose

C) to that D) with whom
25- A) whose B) where E) from what
C) - D) how
E) whom
30- A) inside B) to
C) at D) between
E) by


Apparently, it's not (1) ...... humans who can MAGNANIMOUS TONGUE
develop drug problems. Orlando, (2) ...... by
Ms. Angelica Fuentes of Santiago, Chile, is an Mitch Bonham's leg began to turn black
albino boxer dog with chronic stomach pains. following an accident he had while in the
One afternoon a while back, a friend of Ms. British Royal Navy, and he (6) ...... that he
Fuentes who was moving away asked her to would lose the leg by his doctor. But then, his
keep a plant for her. Ms. Fuentes dog Milo began to lick Mr. Bonham's leg for
wholeheartedly agreed to do so, and took the up to four hours every day. Mr. Bonham
plant into her home. (3) ...... then, her dog explains what happened next: "One day I felt
has been methodically eating leaves from the my toe move. It was (7) ...... the muscles in
plant every day. (4) ...... first noticing this my leg were being reactivated. I had been
behaviour, Ms. Fuentes thought it rather odd, told that this could happen if my leg was
as Orlando had never been so naughty before getting better, but that I shouldn't allow
- but then she noticed that the plant in myself to hope that I could ever actually
question was a marijuana plant. Ms. Fuentes recover (8) ...... my problem. When the
believes that Orlando has been medicating doctor saw my leg again, he said, 'My God
himself for those chronic stomach pains of -what have you been doing?!?' He said it was
his. Orlando seems to be quite an intelligent incredible: the dog had saved my leg.
dog as well: "I now leave the pot plant out Apparently, by licking my leg for such long
with other herbs," Ms. Fuentes says, "and he periods, Milo had stimulated the nerves and
is capable of choosing (5) ...... is the helped the oxygen get into my leg. Then the
particular herb that he requires." doctor told me that I didn't need to come
back, and that I should just let Milo (9) ......
doing what he did best. Me and my friends
1- A) already B) such had a celebration that night, and Milo had a
C) so D) just big juicy bone as a thank-you for (10) ......
E) yet that he had done to help me."

6- A) is told B) was told

C) would be told D) has been told
2- A) to own B) owning E) will have been told
C) owned D) having owned
E) to be owned 7- A) such B) like
C) even though D) more than
E) as if

3- A) For B) After
C) By the time D) Ever since 8- A) towards B) at
E) When C) to D) among
E) from

4- A) Along B) Upon
C) Within D) Of 9- A) lay off B) work for
E) To C) carry on D) set down
E) put up

5- A) which B) whose
C) where D) how 10- A) most B) some
E) whom C) however D) all
E) what
The Manchester United and Arsenal football
squads have ruled over the English In Russia, official statistics show that of the
Premiership for the last decade - but this 24,000 traffic accidents that occurred over
(11) ...... may have a scientific explanation. the past year, 38% involved drivers hitting
A report in the journal Nature by Durham pedestrians. That figure rose to 54% for the
University academics suggests that 3,700 road accidents recorded in the first
competitors who wear red - (12) ...... four months of this year. In an effort to
Manchester United and Arsenal - have an encourage people to stop driving aggressively
advantage. The researchers claim that this and to have more (16) ...... for pedestrians,
advantage may be a result of a deep-seated Moscow traffic police have launched a new
evolutionary response. Dr. Robert Barton road and safety awareness campaign called
says, "Whether red suppresses the Safe Crossing. One part of this program is
testosterone of the opponent or boosts the quite revolutionary, and -who knows? - could
testosterone of the individual wearing red, we very well end up being a very strong
don't know at the moment. We're going to encouragement for safer driving. (17) ......
look into that. My sense is that there is a bit giving fines to bad drivers, the police
of both going on." The researchers studied are instead handing out free petrol vouchers
four sports (13) ...... the 2004 Olympics - to good (18) ...... which enables those good
boxing, tae kwon do, Greco-Roman wrestling, drivers to get petrol (19) ...... having to pay
and freestyle wrestling -where contestants for it. According to representatives of the
were randomly assigned either red or blue Safe Crossing campaign, (20) ...... careful
colours. They found that, in all the events drivers can be given vouchers that are worth
studied, the contestants (14) ...... red won up to £1,500 of petrol. Perhaps now the
significantly (15) ...... contests. Looking at pedestrians of Russia will be able to sleep
results from the Euro 2004 football sounder at night.
tournament also showed that five squads had
better results when playing in red.

11- A) dominance B) reflection 16- A) proof B) intention

C) struggle D) emergency C) regard D) expense
E) innovation E) circumstance

12- A) such as B) even so 17- A) Because B) Rather than

C) as though D) much more C) Although D) According to
E) only if E) Instead

13- A) while B) since 18- A) their own B) those

C) as D) during C) ones D) another
E) when E) one another

14- A) to have worn B) worn 19- A) along B) throughout

C) wearing D) wear C) within D) without
E) to be worn E) among

20- A) scarcely B) rarely

15- A) much B) a lot C) negligently D) gradually
C) such a D) so many E) particularly
E) more

It seems that Walter Mueller, of Schleswig- 9-year-old Wang Peng, from Wuhan city in
Holstein in Germany, is not too fond central China, was a very (26) ...... boy,
(21) ...... insects. One evening, Mr. Mueller - saving his money and using it to buy 20
who was having a problem with mosquitoes - eggs. He was planning to use his family's hen
closed all of the windows in his apartment to hatch the eggs - and then disaster struck:
and emptied several cans of extra strength the hen was attacked by a neighbour's dog
insect spray into the air before sitting down and died. What could be done now? Well,
at his computer to surf the Internet. Poor Mr. Wang was also a very clever and resourceful
Mueller- he couldn't have chosen a (22) ...... boy, it seems: he put the eggs in a box and
time to take advantage of the wonders of put the box between his legs for warmth
modern technology. (23) ...... he turned on (27) ...... day, lying under a pile of quilts as
his computer, a spark of electricity ignited well. " (28) ...... time was when I was
the powerful fumes of the insect spray that asleep," Wang said. "I had to sleep under
were hanging in the air, causing an explosion really thick quilts, and dared not turn over
that demolished his apartment and blew out (29) ...... crushing the eggs." (30) ...... he
all the windows. Amazingly, Mr. Mueller had to leave the house to go to school, he
(24) ...... was not badly hurt, and was wrapped the box of eggs in the quilts to try
released from hospital after treatment for and keep them warm during his absence.
minor injuries. None of the other residents in After 20 days, one night Wang was awakened
the building were injured, (25) ...... but by some faint sounds - one of the chicks had
several apartments were damaged - to the hatched! Over the next few days, another 12
tune of £100,000 - and debris flew up to 100 of the little creatures came out of their shells
metres away. The street outside the building to greet the world. "I am very happy," says
had to be closed for several hours as a result. Wang, "since I finished the job for the hen."

21- A) in B) upon 26- A) economics B) economical

C) at D) of C) economy D) economist
E) from E) economic

22- A) worse B) many 27- A) some B) each

C) much D) worst C) a D) many
E) bad E) the

23- A) Despite B) The moment 28- A) So difficult

C) In order that D) Even though B) Difficult
E) During C) The most difficult
D) More difficult
E) As difficult as

24- A) his own B) him

C) he D) his
E) himself 29- A) for fear of B) accordingly
C) because D) instead of
E) so that

25- A) nor B) neither

C) either D) such
E) any 30- A) Whichever B) Wherever
C) Whatever D) Whenever
E) Whomever

1.B 1.D 1.C 1.A 1.D 1.D 1.C 1.A

2.A 2.B 2.E 2.E 2.A 2.A 2.D 2.C
3.A 3.A 3.C 3.C 3.C 3.D 3.E 3.D
4.D 4.C 4.B 4.A 4.E 4.B 4.B 4.A
5.E 5.E 5.D 5.B 5.D 5.B 5.C 5.B
6.C 6.E 6.D 6.B 6.A 6.C 6.A 6.B
7.B 7.D 7.E 7.C 7.C 7.E 7.B 7.E
8.D 8.A 8.C 8.D 8.C 8.E 8.E 8.C
9.A 9.C 9.D 9.B 9.B 9.B 9.E 9.D
10.E 10.A 10.E 10.A 10.B 10.A 10.C 10.E
11.A 11.D 11.A 11.C 11.E 11.A 11.D 11.A
12.C 12.E 12.B 12.E 12.A 12.C 12.A 12.D
13.A 13.E 13.D 13.E 13.D 13.B 13.B 13.D
14.B 14.B 14.B 14.B 14.A 14.D 14.B 14.C
15.D 15.B 15.A 15.D 15.B 15.C 15.B 15.B
16.E 16.A 16.C 16.A 16.B 16.E 16.D 16.E
17.E 17.C 17.A 17.B 17.A 17.A 17.C 17.E
18.A 18.D 18.C 18.D 18.B 18.B 18.D 18.A
19.B 19.E 19.E 19.A 19.D 19.A 19.C 19.B
20.C 20.D 20.A 20.C 20.D 20.D 20.A 20.D
21.B 21.C 21.B 21.E 21.C 21.B 21.E 21.C
22.E 22.A 22.A 22.B 22.C 22.E 22.C 22.A
23.D 23.A 23.D 23.A 23.A 23.E 23.C 23.B
24.A 24.B 24.C 24.A 24.B 24.A 24.E 24.D
25.A 25.A 25.B 25.D 25.E 25.D 25.D 25.B
26.D 26.D 26.D 26.E 26.C 26.D 26.B 26.D
27.B 27.E 27.E 27.C 27.A 27.E 27.A 27.C
28.B 28.D 28.E 28.B 28.B 28.A 28.D 28.A
29.E 29.C 29.C 29.A 29.E 29.D 29.C 29.E
30.A 30.E 30.C 30.E 30.A 30.B 30.A 30.B

1.C 1.B 1.E 1.D 1.D 1.E 1.D 1.C

2.A 2.D 2.E 2.C 2.C 2.D 2.C 2.E
3.D 3.A 3.A 3.A 3.A 3.A 3.A 3.A
4.B 4.A 4.C 4.E 4.D 4.B 4.C 4.C
5.D 5.C 5.B 5.C 5.E 5.A 5.B 5.D
6.C 6.E 6.B 6.B 6.E 6.C 6.B 6.D
7.B 7.E 7.C 7.B 7.B 7.C 7.E 7.B
8.E 8.D 8.A 8.E 8.A 8.B 8.A 8.A
9.A 9.B 9.E 9.A 9.C 9.E 9.C 9.E
10.C 10.C 10.D 10.C 10.C 10.D 10.D 10.E
11.C 11.C 11.E 11.A 11.E 11.A 11.E 11.B
12.C 12.C 12.C 12.D 12.A 12.C 12.D 12.C
13.A 13.A 13.C 13.D 13.D 13.E 13.E 13.D
14.B 14.E 14.B 14.E 14.B 14.B 14.A 14.C
15.A 15.D 15.A 15.B 15.B 15.D 15.D 15.A
16.D 16.E 16.C 16.C 16.D 16.B 16.A 16.E
17.E 17.B 17.E 17.D 17.A 17.D 17.B 17.D
18.D 18.A 18.D 18.C 18.E 18.C 18.D 18.B
19.A 19.C 19.C 19.B 19.C 19.A 19.C 19.C
20.A 20.D 20.B 20.A 20.C 20.E 20.C 20.A
21.C 21.C 21.E 21.E 21.C 21.E 21.B 21.C
22.B 22.B 22.A 22.C 22.D 22.A 22.A 22.E
23.E 23.E 23.B 23.B 23.B 23.D 23.A 23.D
24.D 24.A 24.E 24.A 24.E 24.C 24.E 24.B
25.A 25.A 25.C 25.E 25.B 25.B 25.D 25.B
26.B 26.D 26.A 26.A 26.A 26.E 26.B 26.B
27.C 27.B 27.D 27.B 27.C 27.C 27.C 27.E
28.A 28.A 28.C 28.D 28.D 28.B 28.A 28.A
29.A 29.E 29.C 29.E 29.A 29.B 29.C 29.C
30.C 30.E 30.E 30.D 30.E 30.D 30.E 30.D

1.D 1.D 1.D 1.D 1.B 1.E 1.C 1.B

2.E 2.E 2.B 2.A 2.A 2.C 2.D 2.E
3.A 3.C 3.D 3.B 3.E 3.C 3.D 3.A
4.D 4.D 4.E 4.E 4.C 4.A 4.A 4.D
5.B 5.B 5.C 5.D 5.C 5.B 5.E 5.E
6.B 6.B 6.B 6.B 6.D 6.D 6.B 6.C
7.C 7.A 7.B 7.C 7.E 7.A 7.C 7.D
8.C 8.C 8.A 8.E 8.B 8.C 8.C 8.D
9.E 9.A 9.B 9.E 9.C 9.B 9.A 9.C
10.D 10.E 10.D 10.A 10.A 10.E 10.B 10.B
11.A 11.C 11.C 11.B 11.D 11.E 11.D 11.A
12.C 12.D 12.C 12.D 12.D 12.D 12.E 12.E
13.E 13.B 13.E 13.A 13.E 13.A 13.A 13.D
14.B 14.A 14.B 14.C 14.C 14.A 14.B 14.A
15.A 15.A 15.D 15.C 15.A 15.B 15.C 15.C
16.C 16.D 16.D 16.E 16.B 16.D 16.D 16.B
17.D 17.B 17.B 17.D 17.D 17.C 17.A 17.C
18.E 18.C 18.E 18.A 18.C 18.E 18.A 18.D
19.B 19.D 19.B 19.B 19.A 19.B 19.C 19.B
20.D 20.E 20.B 20.C 20.B 20.D 20.B 20.E
21.C 21.B 21.A 21.A 21.B 21.A 21.E 21.E
22.A 22.A 22.E 22.B 22.E 22.B 22.E 22.D
23.D 23.E 23.B 23.C 23.C 23.B 23.D 23.C
24.E 24.D 24.C 24.C 24.A 24.C 24.A 24.A
25.E 25.C 25.D 25.A 25.D 25.D 25.B 25.B
26.C 26.A 26.E 26.D 26.A 26.E 26.C 26.A
27.B 27.B 27.B 27.E 27.A 27.A 27.E 27.D
28.A 28.B 28.A 28.D 28.E 28.A 28.B 28.C
29.B 29.C 29.B 29.A 29.D 29.E 29.D 29.C
30.D 30.C 30.E 30.B 30.C 30.C 30.A 30.E

1.C 1.C 1.C 1.E 1.D

2.A 2.D 2.A 2.E 2.C
3.D 3.B 3.A 3.A 3.D
4.D 4.B 4.B 4.B 4.B
5.B 5.C 5.D 5.C 5.A
6.E 6.A 6.E 6.D 6.B
7.A 7.E 7.C 7.A 7.E
8.B 8.E 8.C 8.C 8.E
9.C 9.D 9.D 9.C 9.C
10.E 10.B 10.B 10.E 10.D
11.E 11.C 11.E 11.B 11.A
12.D 12.D 12.E 12.D 12.A
13.A 13.A 13.A 13.A 13.D
14.A 14.A 14.B 14.E 14.C
15.C 15.E 15.D 15.C 15.E
16.B 16.C 16.E 16.D 16.C
17.E 17.A 17.C 17.B 17.B
18.A 18.D 18.A 18.B 18.C
19.B 19.D 19.B 19.A 19.D
20.D 20.B 20.B 20.D 20.E
21.C 21.A 21.E 21.C 21.D
22.E 22.D 22.C 22.B 22.A
23.B 23.C 23.D 23.A 23.B
24.B 24.C 24.D 24.A 24.E
25.D 25.E 25.A 25.C 25.C
26.A 26.D 26.C 26.E 26.B
27.C 27.A 27.E 27.B 27.B
28.C 28.B 28.B 28.D 28.C
29.D 29.C 29.B 29.A 29.A
30.B 30.A 30.A 30.E 30.D