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MINI INSTRUCTIONAL PROJECT

By

Karima Mohammed


A Paper Presented in Partial Fulfilment
Of the Requirements of

EDID6505 Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials
Trimester 2 (2014)






Email: karima.mohammed@my.open.uwi.edu
University: University of the West Indies
Open Campus
Facilitator: Dr. Leroy Hill
Course Coordinator: Dr. Camille Dickson-Deane
EDID6505 -Page 2



Table of Contents
Needs Assessment Plan.......................................................................................................................... 3
The Project: ......................................................................................................................................... 3
Procedures: ............................................................................................................................................. 4
The Workshop ........................................................................................................................................ 6
Goals: .................................................................................................................................................. 6
Objectives: .......................................................................................................................................... 6
The Target Audience .......................................................................................................................... 7
The Topic For Instruction ................................................................................................................... 7
The Optimals, Actuals, Feelings, Causes, and Solutions ................................................................... 7
Target Population: .......................................................................................................................... 7
What the Trainers Need to Know? ................................................................................................ 7
What are the data collection techniques? .................................................................................... 9
How will I use the information? .................................................................................................... 9
Learner and Contextual Analysis ........................................................................................................... 9
The Procedural Task Analysis ............................................................................................................... 10
Analogies .......................................................................................................................................... 15
Assessment ........................................................................................................................................... 15
Reflections ............................................................................................................................................ 16
References: ........................................................................................................................................... 17
Appendix: .............................................................................................................................................. 18
Appendix I The Project .................................................................................................................. 18
Appendix IIa Task Analysis Worksheet ......................................................................................... 24
Appendix IIb - Procedural Analysis for the Workshop .................................................................... 26
Appendix IIC - Procedural Analysis for the Workshop .................................................................... 27
Appendix III Contextual Analysis Worksheet ............................................................................... 28
Appendix IV The Lesson ................................................................................................................ 30
Appendix V - Organizer .................................................................................................................... 34
Appendix VI - Assessment Items ..................................................................................................... 35
Appendix VII Analogies ................................................................................................................. 40




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Needs Assessment Plan
In Education for All in the Caribbean: Assessment 2000, Social Studies in Caribbean
Schools: Some Challenges for Instruction and Assessment (Griffith, 1999), the challenges
perceived by teachers in the teaching of Social Studies in primary schools were identified.
Problems such as teachers attitudes, lack of adequate resources, lack of variety in the use of
teaching skills, and lack of administrative support emerge as the major problems perceived by
the teachers. These factors not only affect the performance of students in the primary
schools, but they also affect learners perceptions of the subject area. In order to rectify
these issues, a needs assessment plan for identifying all of the needs for primary school
learners in Eastern Caribbean Schools is being proposed (Appendix I). It is necessary to
collect data from various stakeholders and analyse this data to determine all the needs which
should be addressed. Before the data can be collected, there is the need to train personnel in
data collection techniques and procedures. This project is being proposed to undertake the
training of the required personnel.
The Project:
A workshop to train personnel to collect data to be used to overcome the challenges for
instruction and assessment of students in the area of Social Studies in Caribbean Primary
Schools
The Target Audience:
*Teachers (primary and secondary schools) * Parents
*Ministry of Education Officials (Curriculum Officers)
*Social Studies examiners from CXC * Learners
*Curriculum developers * School Administrators

What are the data collection techniques?
Techniques: Data collection techniques will involve a range of methods, which include
interviews, surveys, focus groups and informal discussions.
Key Concepts:
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Target group: schools from various islands of the Caribbean as the problems have been
identified as a Caribbean problem. A sample of schools from each island will be selected for
study. Representative random sampling will be used to select the schools from the given
population.
Confidentiality: all respondents must know that responses will be confidential so that they
will provide frank feedback without fear of victimization
Costs: This project will entail some costs as the work will be carried across the Caribbean
territory. Costs incurred will involve travel costs, training of personnel to conduct surveys,
interviews
Time: The project will require a minimum timeframe of one year for completion. This is
necessary to cover all the islands of the Caribbean.
Sample Selection: Simple Random Sampling a sample of schools selected from each island
that is representative of the general population.
Response Rate: A high response rate is anticipated as much of the surveys and interviews will
be done by
Procedures:
The procedures involved in this task analysis (Appendix IIa) are as follows:
Preliminary Activities
Firstly permission must be gained for this task from Ministry of Education,
participating schools etc.
Funding must also be obtained this can be gained from NGOs, Government, CXC,
or other organizations
Training of personnel in various tasks such as data collection conducting interviews,
Research Design
Formulate questionnaires, interviews etc
Run pre-tests etc to determine adequacy of the above data collection instruments
Determine sources of data primary and/or secondary
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Types of data to be used qualitative and/or quantitative
How the data will be collected
Where the data will be sourced
Will the entire population be considered or will a sample be used
If a sample is to be used, then how will the sample be selected
Data Collection
Data will be collected using trained personnel. The methods to be used are interviews,
questionnaires, discussions. Data on performance and other issues will be collected from
Government Ministries, and schools. The data will be collected from the following
stakeholders:
Teachers (primary and secondary schools)
School Administrators
Ministry of Education Officials (Curriculum Officers)
Social Studies examiners from CXC
Parents
Students
Data will be collected in the areas of attitudes, perceptions, availability of resources, time
allocated for the teaching of the subject, performance. Some of the key areas to be
investigated are:
1. What are the general performance standards or knowledge needed by learners
in each level?
2. What are the specific performance standards or knowledge needed by learners
in each level?
3. Applicability of the techniques and procedures learnt to complete the pretests
and data collection activities.
Data Tabulation
The data that is collected will be obtained mainly from interviews and discussions,
questionnaires and school and ministry records. Questionnaires will utilize largely close-
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ended questions, to facilitate ease of analysis. Computers will be used to assist in tabulation.
Tables, bar graphs, pie charts and other suitable methods will be used to illustrate the data.
Data Analysis
The data will be analysed using computers and software especially designed for the purpose.
SPSS will be used to obtain relationships between attitudes and performance, lack of
resources and performance, etc. These are just two relationships between variables that will
be suggested. Correlation between other variables in the study will be used to show/suggest
links between the variables.
Identification of Challenges
After conducting the analysis, the challenges will be identified.
Solutions:
Solutions to the problems will be identified from the analysis. The following issues will be
addressed
What gaps exist in the system
What are the problems identified by the schools
What are the problems encountered in the classroom
What are the emotive behaviours by both learners and teachers toward the subject
Is there the need for curriculum restructuring
Are there any other remedial action which must be taken to remedy the situation
The Workshop
Goals:
To train data collection personnel in the required techniques and strategies required to collect
data for a study to overcome the challenges for instruction and assessment in the area of
Social Studies in Caribbean Primary Schools (Appendix IIb).
Objectives:
Using a combination of approaches such as direct instruction, experiential learning and case
studies, in a one week workshop, participants will:
1. apply the principles which underlie good ethical behaviour when administering the
questionnaires to respondents in the field.
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2. explain the roles and responsibilities of the data collector in the data collection
process
3. understand the significance of collecting quality data during the interview process
4. explain the importance of good and timely reporting practices in the data collection
process.
5. identify and explain the common issues that may arise during survey activities in the
field,
6. administer the pretest using proper ethics, and using the appropriate techniques.
7. collect the required data from the given respondents in an ethical manner, using the
appropriate techniques

The Target Audience:
Laypersons who were recruited as data collection personnel. These would comprise mainly
young persons, and those who are looking for temporary work. This position is not a full
time permanent job and provides mainly temporary work.

The Topic For Instruction Training for data collectors

The Optimals, Actuals, Feelings, Causes, and Solutions
Target Population:
The persons recruited to collect data.
What the Trainers Need to Know?
Optimals
1. What are the general performance standards or knowledge needed by the data
collectors?
2. What are the specific performance standards or knowledge needed by the data
collectors?
3. What is the training needed to ensure data quality?
4. What is the training needed to ensure ethical behaviour?
5. What is the training required to ensure the accurate completion and recording
of the questionnaires.
Actuals
1. Deficiencies in data collectors knowledge
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2. All data collectors have a basic level of qualification of five CXC subjects. Not
all data collectors have the same level of training
3. Data collectors may be unaware of ethical responsibilities
4. Dara collectors have been selected from across the region so their culture is
very diverse.
5. Some data collectors may have previous knowledge and experience from
employment in previous data collection projects.
6. The data collectors may lack the required interpersonal skills required to
interact with the stakeholders.
Feelings
1. How do data collectors feel about the project?
2. Attitudes of stakeholders/community to the project
3. Attitudes in the community to data collectors
Causes
1. What are the challenges likely to be faced by the data collectors?
2. Are the necessary resources readily available to the data collectors?
3. The knowledge of the community about data collection exercises. Ignorance
can breed mistrust and reluctance to participate.
4. Ignorance of the data collectors on the topic under investigation
Solutions
o What measures can be taken to make data collectors more knowledgeable on
the data collection process?
o Are there any resources/mechanisms that would assist the data collectors in
better delivery?
o Data collectors should be briefed on the project. This would enable them to be
more knowledgeable on the problem, so they can address queries from
respondents
o Measures should be put in place to overcome challenges
Why you need to know
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The above information is needed as it will assist in providing adequate training for the data
collectors. This will assist in a more ethical, knowledgeable, and competent data collector.
The data collector will be alert in his/her data collection responsibilities.


Who knows that?
Teachers may have the answer to the problems. However much of the solutions would lie in
feedback from the learners themselves. The CXC officials will also be able to provide
feedback on actual performance at the examination level.
What are the data collection techniques?
Data collection techniques will involve a range of methods, which include interviews,
surveys, focus groups and informal discussions.
How will I use the information?
The data collected would be used to perform analysis and introduce statistics that would
demonstrate the existing conditions and problems in the schools. The information will be
used to identify gaps in the system which are leading to the problems identified and which are
resulting in poor performance in the Caribbean schools. The data will identify:
gaps in the system
Problems identified by the schools
Problems encountered in the classroom
Emotive behaviours by both learners and teachers toward the subject
The need for curriculum restructuring
Any other remedial action which must be taken to remedy the situation
Learner and Contextual Analysis
These participants come from different backgrounds. Their experiences and learning styles
are also different. A contextual analysis was done to determine the learner needs and
backgrounds (Appendix II). This will assist in determining instructional methods, techniques
and resources that can be combined to deliver content and attain the instructional objectives.
EDID6505 -Page 10



The Procedural Task Analysis

A series of steps have been provided which illustrates the breakdown of the steps which the
learner must complete in order to be able to perform the required task. The training for the
learners were determined by looking at the requirements which the trainees would be
required to fulfil (Appendix IIb, Appendix IIc) The steps are as follows (Figure 1):
Workshop Sessions
The workshop will comprise five sessions run over a five day period. The following sessions
will be conducted:
Day 1 Introduction purpose of the project; why collect data; role and responsibilities
of parties
Day 2 Underlying principles and concepts Identification (self and purpose),
confidentiality, consent, types of questions (open and closed)
Day 3 Completing the Questionnaire
Day 4 Troubleshooting missing data; reliability and validity issues
Day 5 Ethics and Bias
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Introduction
Recruitment
Concepts and
Principles
Completing the
Questionnaire
Troubleshooting
Ethics and Bias
Need Retraining Evaluation
Retraining
Proceed to Data
Collection
Figure 1 - Procedural Task Analysis

After having completed the workshop, the participants will undergo summative and formative
evaluation. This will be include pairing off with other participants to practise the skills
learnt. After completing the assessment participants will be asked to go out in the field and
complete the pre-test with a designated number of respondents. On successful completion,
the trainers will determine whether further training is necessary. If it is, participants will
engage in additional training in the problem areas, but if the quality of the completed
questionnaires is up to par, participants will be recruited for official duties.
Terminal Objective: After completing the five day workshop on training for data collectors,
the data collector would be able to collect the required data by interacting with the
respondents in a professional and ethical manner.

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Rubric for assessing the performance
Elements Excellent Satisfactory Fair Unsatisfactory
Professionalism
Identifies -
him/herself
Purpose
Politeness
attitude


Individual is well
poised to conduct
interview e.g.
attitude,
politeness.
Introduces
him/herself to the
respondent and
provides evidence
of identity.
Explains the
purpose of the
interview/survey
Individual explains the
purpose of the
interview but fails to
identify him/herself or
does not provide
evidence of identity or
may not explain the
purpose of the
interview/survey.
Fails to complete at
least one of the
requirements.
Individual fails
to complete
two or more of
the
requirements
e.g. fails to
provide
identification,
or fails to
explain the
purpose of the
interview.
Fails to provide
the respondent
with any of the
require
information or
lacks the desired
attitude
Ethical
Behaviour
Issues such as:
Confidentiality
Awareness
Permission
Appropriate
behaviour
toward
respondent
Explains
confidentiality;
risks; issues that
respondents
should be aware
of; obtain
permission from
minors etc.
Explains most of the
issues but may have
omitted one or even
two
Completes
some of the
requirements
but not all
Does not engage
in discourse to
ensure the
necessary
requirements
from
respondents
Recording of
Data
Completion of
questionnaire -
Content
Neatness
Accuracy
Clearly recorded
with notes
Systematically
and consistently
completes the
requirements
under each
question. Obtains
the required
information in a
manner that is
Systematically and
consistently completes
the requirements
under each question.
Obtains the required
information in a
manner that is tactful
and appropriate
without offending the
Meets most of
the
requirements
specified:
Completion of
questionnaire-
incomplete but
with only a few
missing
Not clearly
recorded.
Coding process is
held up or
questionnaire
data cannot be
used due to
insufficient
information or
EDID6505 -Page 13



where required
Organization

tactful and
appropriate
without offending
the respondent or
violating rights.
Very legible and
organized
manner;

respondent or
violating rights.
However not all areas
of the
questionnaire/survey
may be completed
minor omissions.
Legible with very little
clarification needed;
well organized;
responses.
Neatness and
Accuracy being
problematic;
Not clearly
recorded with
notes; a great
deal of
clarification
needed; little
or no
organization;

missing data, or
untidiness or
writing that is
not legible. Poor
organization
Completion of
Process
Meetings
attended;
reporting times
met;
questionnaires
completed in a
timely basis;
Quota of
questionnaires
completed
Meetings
attended;
reporting times
met;
questionnaires
completed in a
timely basis; the
entire process is
completed and
deadlines met
Meetings attended;
reporting times met;
questionnaires
completed in a timely
basis; the entire
process is completed
and deadlines met.
However the given
quota of
questionnaires may
not have been
completed 80% and
above completed
Time
constraints not
kept; Duties
not completed
in a timely
manner;
Deadlines are
met but only
60% or more of
the quota
completed
Deadlines for
meetings and
submissions etc
not met. Quotas
may also not
have been met.
< 60% of the
quota completed
in the specified
timeframe

Scenario-based questions
1. Explain the principles which underlie good ethical behaviour.
2. Outline the roles and responsibilities of the data collector in the data collection
process.
3. Explain the significance of collecting quality data during the interview process.
4. Explain the importance of good and timely reporting practices.
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Enabling Skills
1. The respondent does not complete all the questions in the questionnaire
provided. Your next step should be:
a. Complete the questionnaire and submit to your supervisor
b. Discard the questionnaire
c. Conduct a follow-up with the respondent
d. Allow another respondent to complete the missing data in a timely manner.

2. During the conduct of an interview, the participant expresses some uncertainty
about participating in the study. You should:
a. Explain that participation is voluntary and s/he can withdraw at any time
b.Explain that s/he must continue to participate as s/he has signed the consent
form
c. Explain that withdrawal from the study has to occur through an ethics
committee
d.Explain that withdrawal can only occur by negotiating with the research
team

3. In the conduct of an interview, you can ensure confidentiality by:
a. Using identification numbers or pseudonyms for participants
b. Not discussing participants in with other data collectors
c. Keeping any identifying information separate from the data
d. All of the above

4. To ensure informed consent in your data collection, you should ensure that the
participants were:
o told they have been selected because they meet the criteria for inclusion
o told that they need to read the ethics proposal
o Informed of the risks and benefits of the study
o Informed the study has approval from administration

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Analogies
Analogies have been known to make new and unfamiliar concepts more meaningful to
students by connecting what they already know to what they are learning (TeacherVision,
2000-2014). Analogies will be used in conveying difficult or concepts that are especially difficult for
learners to grasp (Appendix VII).

Performance Objectives
After a one week training workshop has been completed, the data collector will be
able the complete the tasks listed.
1. Cognitive - At the end of the relevant session in the workshop, data collectors will be
able to explain what principles underlie good ethical behaviour when administering
the questionnaires to respondents in the field.
2. Cognitive - At the end of the relevant session in the workshop, data collectors will be
able to explain the roles and responsibilities of the data collector in the data collection
process
3. Cognitive - At the end of the respective session, data collectors will be able to explain
the significance of collecting quality data during the interview process and explain the
importance of good and timely reporting practices in the data collection process.
4. Identify - At the end of the workshop, the participants (data collectors) will be able to
identify and explain the common issues that may arise during survey activities in the
field,
5. Application - When provided with a sample of respondents, be able to administer the
pre-test using proper ethics, and using the appropriate techniques.
6. Synthesis - When provided with a group of respondents in the field, the data collector
will be able to collect the required data from the given respondents in an ethical
manner, using the appropriate techniques v
Assessment
Over the duration of the workshop, a variety of methods were used for teaching and
assessment both formative and summative. Test items included multiple choice, scenario
based questions, and application type questions (Appendix VI)

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Reflections
The participants in this workshop range in ages, but most of them have a basic five CXC O Levels.
These persons had not received any formal training in the process of data collection and many of
them have just left secondary school. This may be a first job for them and does not represent
permanent employment. Many of them may be ambitious to receive the training as this may
represent their first job, and they may hope to do well at it.
In retrospect, the assignment was quite interesting, but at first, I was a bit apprehensive. I did not
understand how to piece it together. However, under Dr. Hills guidance, the objectives became
apparent. Now that I have almost completed it, I understand how the individual parts fit together.
The effort that I have spent on this was well worth the experience and was more rewarding than
submitting separate components. I believe I learnt a lot from this holistic approach.
At first I believed I was supposed to do this assignment for the entire project. However with
persistent work I realized I was taking on too much. It was later clearer that I was supposed to
attempt only one aspect of the project. The partial submissions every week worked for me. As a
result I was able to complete the project in a timely manner. However it was only at the end of the
project I understood how some aspects fit in. If I had to do this project again, I would spend more
time compiling it from the beginning, and pay more attention to the feedback obtained. I would
spend more time on the project if I had to do it again. The peer and group feedback was helpful in
assisting me in understanding what needed to be done, and also in guiding me. From the feedback
obtained I was able to make the necessary corrections in a timely manner.

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References:


Fossey, A., April 29, 2013. Face Validity: Participants Connecting Assessments to
Constructs retrieved from http://blog.questionmark.com/face-validity-participants-connecting-
assessments-to-constructs
Griffith, D. 1999 Social Studies In Caribbean Schools: Some Challenges For Instruction and
Assessment. UNESCO 1999.

Tall, G, September 2003. The Concept of Research and the "Scientific"Y Paradigm retrieved
from http://www.grahamtall.co.uk/Scientific%20paradigm.htm

TeacherVision 2013-2014. Retrieved from https://www.teachervision.com/

Understanding Validity and Reliability: Key Points (nd) Retrieved from
http://blog.questionmark.com/face-validity-participants-connecting-assessments-to-
constructs
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Appendix:

Appendix I The Project
The Project:
To design a plan to overcome the challenges for instruction and assessment of students in the
area of Social Studies in Caribbean Primary Schools
The Stakeholders:
Teachers (primary and secondary schools)
School Administrators
Ministry of Education Officials (Curriculum Officers)
Social Studies examiners from CXC
Parents
Learners
Curriculum developers
The Information Needed:
Optimals
1. What are the general performance standards or knowledge needed by learners
in each level?
2. What are the specific performance standards or knowledge needed by learners
in each level?
3. Applicability of the current course structure to the wider society
Actuals
1. Deficiencies in what learners know
2. Previous knowledge that can be safely assumed not all learners may be at the
same level, when they enter primary school
3. Syllabus completed or not
4. Lack of resources for the teaching of Social Studies
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5. Level of training of teachers
Feelings
1. How do learners feel about Social Studies lessons
2. The significance the school places on the teaching/learning of Social Studies
3. The emphasis the teacher places on the teaching of Social Studies
4. The resources dedicated to the teaching of Social Studies
5. The emphasis placed by the State/Government on the teaching of Social Studies.
6. Attitudes of the teachers
7. Attitudes of other stakeholders to the subject e.g. Government ministries,
curriculum officers, parents, etc
Causes
1. What is responsible for the poor success rate at the CXC level
2. What are the challenges faced by the teachers in delivering the content?
3. Are the necessary resources readily available?
4. Are the available resources relevant to Caribbean schools?
Solutions
o What measures can be taken to make learners more interested in Social
Studies?
o Are there any resources that would assist in better delivery?
o Can the content of the Social Studies curriculum be made more applicable to
the daily lives of learners?
Why you need to know
The above information is needed as it may be necessary to restructure the curriculum if the
curriculum is the problem. It is necessary to determine where the problem lies in the
schools, the education system, or the available resources. It is necessary to know where the
problem lies.

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Who knows that?
Teachers may have the answer to the problems. However much of the solutions would lie in
feedback from the learners themselves. The CXC officials will also be able to provide
feedback on actual performance at the examination level.
What are the data collection techniques?
Techniques: Data collection techniques will involve a range of methods, which include
interviews, surveys, focus groups and informal discussions.
Key Concepts:
Target group: schools from various islands of the Caribbean as the problems have been
identified as a Caribbean problem. A sample of schools from each island will be selected for
study. Representative random sampling will be used to select the schools from the given
population.
Confidentiality: all respondents must know that responses will be confidential so that they
will provide frank feedback without fear of victimization
Costs: This project will entail some costs as the work will be carried across the Caribbean
territory. Costs incurred will involve travel costs, and trained personnel (to conduct surveys,
interviews).
Time: The project will require a minimum timeframe of one year for completion. This is
necessary to cover all the islands of the Caribbean.
Sample Selection: Simple Random Sampling a sample of schools selected from each island
that is representative of the general population.
Response Rate: A high response rate is anticipated as much of the surveys and interviews will
be done by

EDID6505 -Page 21




How will I use the information?
The data collected would be used to perform analysis and introduce statistics that would
demonstrate the existing conditions and problems in the schools. The information will be
used to identify gaps in the system which are leading to the problems identified and which are
resulting in poor performance in the Caribbean schools. The data will identify:
gaps in the system
Problems identified by the schools
Problems encountered in the classroom
Emotive behaviours by both learners and teachers toward the subject
The need for curriculum restructuring
Any other remedial action which must be taken to remedy the situation
Task analysis
Goal: To design a plan to overcome the challenges for instruction and assessment of students
in the area of Social Studies in Caribbean Primary Schools
Facts:
1. Teachers do not place high emphasis on the teaching of Social studies
2. Teachers teach social studies after they have devoted the time to mathematics, science
and more important subjects.
3. Teachers see Social Studies as a subject for students who are unsuccessful at the more
important subjects such as mathematics.
4. Students do not see Social Studies as a subject which the brighter students engage in
5. Teachers dislike for the subject contribute to students negative perceptions
6. Teachers lack resources for the teaching of the subject
7. Administration place emphasis on the science subjects
Concepts:
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Instruction - detailed information about how something should be done. This may
take the form of direct instruction, videos, lectures, discussions, demonstrations,
simulations, collaborative learning, cooperative learning, case studies, role play,
problem based and inquiry learning
Assessment it is important that teachers and students do not view assessment as
having to do with final examinations only. Assessment may include: Thinking
critically and making judgements; Developing arguments, reflecting, evaluating,
assessing, judging; Essay, Report, Journal, Book review (or article), Solving
problems and developing plans, Identifying problems, posing problems, defining
problems, analysing data, reviewing, designing experiments, planning, applying
information; Problem scenario, Group Work, Work-based problem, Prepare a
committee of enquiry report, Analyse a case, Conference paper, Performing
procedures and demonstrating techniques, Computation, taking readings, using
equipment, following laboratory procedures, following protocols, carrying out
instructions; Demonstration, Role Play, Make a video (write script and produce/make
a video), Produce a poster, Lab report, Prepare an illustrated manual on using the
equipment, for a particular audience, among others methods.
Principles and Rules:
This paper aims to overcome the challenges for instruction and assessment of students in
the area of Social Studies in Caribbean Primary Schools. Assessment must be reflective of
objectives and aims of the curriculum. Instruction has a definite link with assessment and
they must both be in line with each other.
Procedures:
The procedures involved in this task analysis are as follows:
Preliminary Activities
Firstly permission must be gained for this task from Ministry of Education,
participating schools etc.
Funding must also be obtained this can be gained from NGOs, Government, CXC,
or other organizations
EDID6505 -Page 23



Training of personnel in various tasks such as data collection conducting interviews,

Research Design
Formulate questionnaires, interviews etc
Run pre-tests etc to determine adequacy of the above data collection instruments
Determine sources of data primary and/or secondary
Types of data to be used qualitative and/or quantitative
How the data will be collected
Where the data will be sourced
Will the entire population be considered or will a sample be used
If a sample is to be used, then how will the sample be selected

EDID6505 -Page 24



Appendix IIa Task Analysis Worksheet

Figure 1 - Task Analysis Worksheet for the Workshop
Criteria for
Task
Selection
Worksheet
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TASKS #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8
Preliminary
Activities pre-
planning;
X X X 60 Id the critical tasks;
determine the base
qualification for
personnel.
prioritize them.
Provide a timeline.
One time activity;
Decisions on time
and venue
5
Prepare the
research design
X X X 60 This is a onetime
activity
6
Conduct a Gap
Analysis
x x x x 90 3
Determine
Content

Design data
collection
instruments
X X X X 90 Critical; review
needed
4
Determine the
tasks to be
performed by
the data
collection
personnel
X X X 60 One time activity,
provides feedback
on problems to be
ironed out before
actual process of
data collection
begins
7
Preplanning
Activities for
Training
Workshop
X X X 60 8
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Design
workshop
resources
X X X X X 100 1
The Workshop X X X X X 100 2
The Pretest X X 50 Administration of
the Data collection
Instruments
9
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Appendix IIb - Procedural Analysis for the Workshop

Training and supervision of survey personnel is an essential part of survey planning. A
comprehensive training is required to ensure data quality. All training must be done
prior to data collectors entering the field.

Task
To train personnel in data collection procedures.

Procedural Analysis -
Pre Planning Activities - Hire personnel this would have been done under the major
project. It will be included in the pre-planning activities. A base level of qualifications will
be set for personnel to ensure they are all at the same level
Needs Analysis conduct a needs analysis to determine the qualification of the trainees, and
what is actually needed
Gap Analysis The level of qualifications possessed by data collectors and what the project
requires
Time the time for training will be determined.
Content Determination of the content to be delivered determined by the gap analysis
Media determination of the media to be used for training
Training the actual training sessions to be conducted to deliver the content
Pretest the completed instruments will be provided to the trainees so that they can go out in
the field and conduct a pre-test. This will serve two purposes. It will assist in finding flaws
in the instruments, and it will determine the trainees readiness for the fieldwork.
Feedback - feedback will be provided by trainees on their return from the field, in the form
of experiences and the results of the pre-test. Feedback will also be provided by the trainee
during the field activities, since training will be ongoing whilst they are in the field. They
will be reporting their experiences to the supervisors/trainers.
Ongoing Training training will be ongoing whilst the data collectors are in the field.

The data collectors will be ready for the data collection exercise.


EDID6505 -Page 27



Appendix IIC - Procedural Analysis for the Workshop

Conduct Needs Analysis
Identify Data
Collection Needs
Outline Time
required for training
Select Content
required for training
Determine Media to
be used in training
Apply Ongoing
Training
Collect Feedback
Organize Preplanning
Activities
Schedule Training
Conduct of Pretest
Procedural Analysis For Training
of
Data Collection Personnel

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Appendix III Contextual Analysis Worksheet
Directions: Identify relevant factors in categories (only where and when appropriate) and
indicate the effect they will have by circling appropriate number.

-2 Greatly impedes
-1 Slightly impedes
+1 Slightly facilitates
+2 Greatly facilitates

Orienting Context
Learner Factors
Learners have some basic knowledge (5 CXC subjects) -2 -1 +1 +2
All learners are literate in standard English 2 -1 +1 +2
Why has the learner come on board, goal? e.g. money? -2 -1 +1 +2
Learners are selected by their attitudes/personality -2 -1 +1 +2
Learners perceptions of the process 2 -1 +1 +2

Immediate Environment Factors
Learners are from the communities in which they will interact -2 -1 +1 +2
The community to which the learner is assigned is receptive -2 -1 +1 +2
The community to which the learner is assigned is safe -2 -1 +1 +2
Learners have easy access to the population/schools -2 -1 +1 +2

Organizational Factors
How the organization/institution is viewed in the community -2 -1 +1 +2
The rewards for achievement are desirable -2 -1 +1 +2
Organizational Support is adequate -2 -1 +1 +2
Learners perceptions of the organization -2 -1 +1 +2

Instructional Context
Learner Factors
Learner ability t0 assimilatw - 2 -1 +1 +2
Adequate preparation of the learner -2 -1 +1 +2
Learner interest in the subjecy matter -2 -1 +1 +2
Learner background and previous knowledge -2 -1 +1 +2
EDID6505 -Page 29



Immediate Environment Factors
Learning is well supported with adequate resources -2 -1 +1 +2
The instructional environment - venue e.g. conference room -2 -1 +1 +2
The instructional environment access -2 -1 +1 +2
Accommodation of the process -2 -1 +1 +2
Access to Equipment -2 -1 +1 +2
Physical conditions e.g. noise, lighting, temperature -2 -1 +1 +2
Use of technology -2 -1 +1 +2

Organizational Factors
Learning is well supported with adequate resources -2 -1 +1 +2
How the organization/institution is viewed in the community -2 -1 +1 +2
The rewards for achievement are desirable -2 -1 +1 +2
Organizational Support is adequate -2 -1 +1 +2
Scheduling of the course -2 -1 +1 +2
Adequate planning and preparation -2 -1 +1 +2
No certification is provided -2 -1 +1 +2
Transfer Context
Learner Factors
The learners perception of the value of the content -2 -1 +1 +2
The importance placed by the learner on the content -2 -1 +1+2
Commitment of the learner to the project -2 -1 +1+2
Learners perception of the relevance of content to the job at hand -2 -1 +1 +2
Immediate Environment Factors
The level of support provided -2 -1 +1 +2
Opportunities for practice of skills/content learnt -2 -1 +1 +2
Commitment of the learner to the project -2 -1 +1 +2
Learners access to resources for practice -2 -1 +1 +2
Organizational Factors
Organization provides opportunities for the learner to practice -2 -1 +1 +2
Organization provides resources for supervision of practice -2 -1 +1 +2
Organization provides support for additional practice -2 -1 +1 +2
Encouragement for learners to practice -2 -1 +1
+2

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Appendix IV The Lesson







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Appendix V - Organizer

Lesson: Completing the Pretest
Target Group: Participants in the Training Workshop

Advance Organizers
Enabling Objective:
After completing workshops on basic skills and concepts for conducting a successful
interview, the participants will be able to conduct the required pre-test of the designated
questionnaire

Resources:
Questionnaires, sample frame, clipboard, pen, pencil, notepaper, identification,
introductory letter.


Expository Advance Organizer:
You have each been provided with fifteen copies of the questionnaire. By successfully
conducting the required pretests of these questionnaires, data analysts will be able to
identify problems areas on the questionnaire.
You will use the given list of fifteen respondents and you will identify their locations.
You have a period of five days to locate your respondents and to complete the required
pretests.
Firstly, locate your sample. Contact the respondents and schedule a convenient time.
Visit the respondent at the agreed time and place.
Introduce yourself and your purpose.
Conduct the interview using the given questionnaire, and using the appropriate guidelines,
techniques.
Cleanup your questionnaire with your notes.
Return the completed questionnaires to the office in a timely manner.


EDID6505 -Page 35



Appendix VI - Assessment Items
Terminal Objective: After completing the five day workshop on training for data collectors,
the data collector would be able to collect the required data by interacting with the
respondents in a professional and ethical manner.
Rubric for assessing the performance
Elements Excellent Satisfactory Fair Unsatisfactory
Professionalism
Identifies -
him/herself
Purpose
Politeness
attitude


Individual is
well poised to
conduct
interview e.g.
attitude,
politeness.
Introduces
him/herself to
the respondent
and provides
evidence of
identity.
Explains the
purpose of the
interview/survey
Individual explains
the purpose of the
interview but fails to
identify him/herself
or does not provide
evidence of identity
or may not explain
the purpose of the
interview/survey.
Fails to complete at
least one of the
requirements.
Individual
fails to
complete two
or more of the
requirements
e.g. fails to
provide
identification,
or fails to
explain the
purpose of the
interview.
Fails to provide
the respondent
with any of the
require
information or
lacks the
desired attitude
Ethical
Behaviour
Issues such as:
Confidentiality
Awareness
Permission
Appropriate
behaviour
toward
respondent
Explains
confidentiality;
risks; issues that
respondents
should be aware
of; obtain
permission from
minors etc.
Explains most of the
issues but may have
omitted one or even
two
Completes
some of the
requirements
but not all
Does not
engage in
discourse to
ensure the
necessary
requirements
from
respondents
Recording of Systematically Systematically and Meets most Not clearly
EDID6505 -Page 36



Data
Completion of
questionnaire -
Content
Neatness
Accuracy
Clearly
recorded with
notes where
required
Organization

and consistently
completes the
requirements
under each
question.
Obtains the
required
information in a
manner that is
tactful and
appropriate
without
offending the
respondent or
violating rights.
Very legible and
organized
manner;

consistently
completes the
requirements under
each question.
Obtains the required
information in a
manner that is
tactful and
appropriate without
offending the
respondent or
violating rights.
However not all
areas of the
questionnaire/survey
may be completed
minor omissions.
Legible with very
little clarification
needed; well
organized;
of the
requirements
specified:
Completion
of
questionnaire-
incomplete
but with only
a few missing
responses.
Neatness and
Accuracy
being
problematic;
Not clearly
recorded with
notes; a great
deal of
clarification
needed; little
or no
organization;

recorded.
Coding process
is held up or
questionnaire
data cannot be
used due to
insufficient
information or
missing data, or
untidiness or
writing that is
not legible.
Poor
organization
Completion of
Process
Meetings
attended;
reporting times
met;
questionnaires
completed in a
timely basis;
Quota of
Meetings
attended;
reporting times
met;
questionnaires
completed in a
timely basis; the
entire process is
completed and
deadlines met
Meetings attended;
reporting times met;
questionnaires
completed in a
timely basis; the
entire process is
completed and
deadlines met.
However the given
quota of
Time
constraints
not kept;
Duties not
completed in
a timely
manner;
Deadlines are
met but only
60% or more
Deadlines for
meetings and
submissions etc
not met.
Quotas may
also not have
been met. <
60% of the
quota
completed in
EDID6505 -Page 37



questionnaires
completed
questionnaires may
not have been
completed 80%
and above
completed
of the quota
completed
the specified
timeframe


The following are the skills that will support the completion of the terminal objective. Some
scenario-based questions that will assess learner understanding of the enabling objectives are.

Scenario-based questions
5. Explain the principles which underlie good ethical behaviour.
6. Outline the roles and responsibilities of the data collector in the data collection
process.
7. Explain the significance of collecting quality data during the interview process.
8. Explain the importance of good and timely reporting practices.
Enabling skills (objectives) are the prerequisite skills that you identified in your prerequisites
task analysis two weeks ago. Write one item (multiple choice) for a total of 4 items that
assess a learners ability to apply knowledge (rules, principles) (not simply recall or
recognition of rules or principles) rule or principle knowledge. Again, these must not simply
be assessing the recognition or recall of a statement of the facts about a rule or principle, but
rather should assess a learners ability to understand a rule, principle, theory or model (all of
the types of conceptual knowledge from A&K EXCEPT simple and abstract concepts)

Enabling Skills
Learners must be able to
Skilled data collectors should:
1. possess the skills required to undertake each of their activities;
2. be aware of common issues
3. use troubleshooting/problem-solving strategies to address these issues; and
EDID6505 -Page 38



4. recognize the intrinsic value of good-quality data
5. be motivated to ensure data quality as part of their activities.
Training will therefore focus on teaching the participants:
1. the surveys overall purpose;
2. the consequences of poor-quality data;
3. how to complete the questionnaire/interview
4. problem-solving in the field;
5. common data collection mistakes
6. ethics in data collection

Preliminary activities - Identify themselves, overview, reassure respondents
Ask questions without prejudicing the respondent
Eliminate bias as far as possible
Ethical behaviour/conduct
Multiple Choice Questions:
1. The respondent does not complete all the questions in the questionnaire
provided. Your next step should be:
e. Complete the questionnaire and submit to your supervisor
f. Discard the questionnaire
g. Conduct a follow-up with the respondent
h. Allow another respondent to complete the missing data in a timely manner.

2. During the conduct of an interview, the participant expresses some uncertainty
about participating in the study. You should:
e. Explain that participation is voluntary and s/he can withdraw at any time
f. Explain that s/he must continue to participate as s/he has signed the consent
form
g.Explain that withdrawal from the study has to occur through an ethics
committee
EDID6505 -Page 39



h.Explain that withdrawal can only occur by negotiating with the research
team

EDID6505 -Page 40



Appendix VII Analogies
Reliability and Validity of a data collection instrument
Definition
Reliability refers to the consistency of a measure. The data collection instrument, in this
case, a questionnaire, is considered reliable if the same results are obtained every time the
instrument is administered.
Validity the instrument, in this case a questionnaire, is considered valid, if it measures what it
purports to measure. For example if the questionnaire is intended to measure attitudes, but it really
measures behaviours, then it is deemed to be not valid.


Source: http://www.grahamtall.co.uk/Scientific%20paradigm.htm
Analogies:
Reliability to explain the concept of reliability, a measuring scale can be used. If a scale is
used and a person steps on to the scale six times, and each time the scale reads 150 pounds,
then the scale is said to be reliable. However on the other hand if the scale gives a different
reading every time for example, 145 pounds, 150 pounds, 155 pounds, 160 pounds, etc.,
then the scale is said to be unreliable.
EDID6505 -Page 41



Figure 2- Reliability

Source
http://www.humtech.com/htoffice/website/sites/K606demo/K606EOT/KeyPoints/points8.htm
Validity to understand the concept of validity, if the questionnaire is designed to `collect
data on the weight of an individual but instead it collects data on the height of the individual
then the measuring instrument (the questionnaire) is not valid. It is only valid if it collects
data on weight.

Source - http://blog.questionmark.com/face-validity-participants-connecting-assessments-to-
constructs
Difference between reliability and validity:
The term reliability can be associated with the word consistency whilst the term validity
indicates whether the results obtained from the instrument meet all of the requirements of
the scientific research method. Further the instrument may be reliable but not valid. That is the
measuring scale may collect the exact weight of the individual each time (reliable), but in actual fact
the weight may not have been required. The height of the individual may have been required.
Therefore whilst the instrument was consistent it was not valid.