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EPITAXY EPITAXY

Epitaxy: Definition Epitaxy:Definition


Greek origin Greekorigin
epi:upon
d l d taxy:orderly,arranged
Epitaxiallayerisasinglecrystallayerona
singlecrystalsubstrate. g y
MODULEII ICTECHNOLOGY 2
Epitaxy: Purpose Epitaxy:Purpose
Barrier layer for bipolar transistor Barrierlayerforbipolartransistor
Reducecollectorresistancewhilekeephigh
breakdown voltage breakdownvoltage.
Onlyavailablewithepitaxylayer.
Improve device performance for CMOS and ImprovedeviceperformanceforCMOSand
DRAMbecausemuchloweroxygen,carbon
concentration than the wafer crystal concentrationthanthewafercrystal.
MODULEII ICTECHNOLOGY 3
Epitaxy Application, Bipolar Transistor EpitaxyApplication,BipolarTransistor
AlCuSi
Base Collector Emitter
n Epi
p n
+
n
+
p
+
p
+
SiO
2
nEpi
n
+
Electronflow
BuriedLayer
Psubstrate
MODULEII ICTECHNOLOGY 4
E it A li ti CMOS EpitaxyApplication:CMOS
Metal1,AlCu
BPSG
W
NWell
PWell
STI
n
+
n
+
USG
p
+
p
+
P type Epitaxy Silicon
PWafer
PtypeEpitaxySilicon
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Types of Epitaxy TypesofEpitaxy
LiquidPhaseEpitaxy
VaporPhaseEpitaxy
MolecularBeamEpitaxy
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Barrel Reactor BarrelReactor
Radiation
Heating
Coils
W f Wafers
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Vertical Reactor VerticalReactor
Wafers
Reactants
Heating
Coils
Reactants
Reactantsand
b d
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byproducts
Horizontal Reactor HorizontalReactor
HeatingCoils
Wafers
Reactants
Reactantsand
byproducts
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Silicon Source Gases SiliconSourceGases
Silane SiH
4
Dichlorosilane DCS SiH
2
Cl
2
Trichlorosilane TCS SiHCl Trichlorosilane TCS SiHCl
3
Tetrachlorosilane SiCl
44
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Dopant Source Gases DopantSourceGases
Diborane B
2
H
6
Phosphine PH
3
Arsine AsH Arsine AsH
3
MODULEII ICTECHNOLOGY 11
DCSEpitaxyGrow,ArsenicDoping
Heat(1100

C)
SiH Cl

Si 2HCl SiH
2
Cl
2

Si+2HCl
DCS EpiHydrochloride
Heat(1100

C)
AsH
3
As+3/2H
2
MODULEII ICTECHNOLOGY 12
Schematic of DCS Epi Grow and SchematicofDCSEpiGrowand
ArsenicDopingProcess
SiH
2
Cl
2
AsH AsH
3
HCl
H
2
Si AsH
3
As H
MODULEII ICTECHNOLOGY 13
EpitaxialSiliconGrowthRateTrends
Temperature (C)
1.0
1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700
0.5
SiH
4
0.1
0.2
SiH
4
SiHCl
3
Masstransport
limited
0.05
Surfacereactionlimited
0.01
0.02
SiH
2
Cl
2
MODULEII ICTECHNOLOGY 14
1000/T(K)
0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1
Epitaxy Process, Batch System EpitaxyProcess,BatchSystem
Hydrogenpurge,temperaturerampup
HCl clean HClclean
Epitaxiallayergrow
H d l d Hydrogenpurge,temperaturecooldown
Nitrogenpurge
OpenChamber,waferunloading,reloading
MODULEII ICTECHNOLOGY 15
SingleWaferReactor
Sealedchamber,hydrogenambient
Capable for multiple chambers on a Capableformultiplechambersona
mainframe
Largewafersize(to300mm)
Better uniformity control Betteruniformitycontrol
MODULEII ICTECHNOLOGY 16
SingleWaferReactor
HeatingLamps
Heat
Radiation
Wafer
RReactants
Reactants&
b d t byproducts
Quartz
Window
Quartz
Lift
Fi
Susceptor
MODULEII ICTECHNOLOGY 17
Fingers
Epitaxy Process, Single Wafer System EpitaxyProcess,SingleWaferSystem
Hydrogenpurge,clean,temperatureramp
up
Epitaxiallayergrow
Hydrogenpurge,heatingpoweroff y g p g , g p
Waferunloading,reloading
InsituHClclean,
MODULEII ICTECHNOLOGY 18
Why Hydrogen Purge WhyHydrogenPurge
Mostsystemsusenitrogenaspurgegas
Nitrogen is a very stable abundant Nitrogenisaverystableabundant
At>1000C,N
2
canreactwithsilicon
SiN f f ff i d i i SiNonwafersurfaceaffectsepideposition
H
2
isusedforepitaxychamberpurge
Cleanwafersurfacebyhydridesformation
MODULEII ICTECHNOLOGY 19
Properties of Hydrogen PropertiesofHydrogen
Name Hydrogen
Symbol H
Atomic number 1
Atomicweight 1.00794 Atomic weight 1.00794
Discoverer Henry Cavendish
Discovered at England
Discovery date 1766
O i i f F th G k d "h d " d" " i Origin of name From the Greek words "hydro" and "genes" meaning
"water" and "generator"
Molar volume 11.42 cm
3
Velocity of sound 1270 m/sec y
Refractive index 1.000132
Melting point
-258.99 C
Boiling point
-252.72 C
Th l d ti it 01805W
-1
K
-1
MODULEII ICTECHNOLOGY 20
Thermal conductivity 0.1805 W m
1
K
1
Defects in Epitaxy Layer DefectsinEpitaxyLayer
StackingFaultfromSurface
Nucleation
StackingFaultformSubstrate
StackingFault
Dislocation
ImpurityParticle
Hillock
Substrate
EpiLayer
AfterS.M.ZsesVLSITechnology
Substrate
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Future Trends FutureTrends
Larger wafer size Largerwafersize
Singlewaferepitaxialgrow
i Lowtemperatureepitaxy
Ultrahighvacuum(UHV,to10
9
Torr)
Selectiveepitaxy
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Summary Summary
Silicon is abundant cheap and has strong Siliconisabundant,cheapandhasstrong,
stableandeasygrownoxide.
<100> and <111> <100>and<111>
CZandfloatingzone,CZismorepopular
Sawing,edging,lapping,etchingandCMP
MODULEII ICTECHNOLOGY 23