COORDINATE GEOMETRY
1
To change from Cartesian coordinates to polar coordinates, for X write
2
r
cos θ
and for y write
r sin θ
.
To change from polar coordinates to cartesian coordinates, for r ^{2} write
X ^{2}
+ y ^{2} ;
for r cos θ
write X, for r sin θ
. Write y and for tan
θ
write
^{}
^{.}
3
4
Distance between two points (X _{1}_{,} Y _{1} ) and (X _{2} , Y _{2} ) is
_{} x _{2} x _{1} _{} ^{}
_{} y _{2} y _{1} _{} ^{}
Distance of ( x _{1} , y _{1} )
from the origin is x
2
1
y
2
1
5
6
7.
Distance between
(r _{1} ,
θ _{1} ) and
(r _{2} , θ _{2} ) is
r
2
1
r
2
2
2
r _{1} r _{2}
cos _{} θ _{2}
θ _{1} _{}
Coordinates of the point which divides the line joining (X _{1} _{,} Y _{1} ) and
(X _{2} ,
Y _{2} )
internally in the ratio m _{1} : m _{2} are :
_{} _{}
_{}
_{} _{}
_{}
_{} _{}
_{}
_{} _{}
_{}
_{} , ( m _{1}
+ m _{2}
0 )
Coordinates of the point which divides the line joining (X _{1} , Y _{1} ) and
(X _{2} _{,} Y _{2} ) externally in the ratio m _{1} : m _{2} are :
_{} _{} _{}
_{} _{} _{}
_{} _{} _{}
_{} _{} _{}
_{}
, (m _{1} – m _{2} 0)
8. Coordinates of the midpoint (point which bisects) of the seg. Joining
(X _{1} ,
y _{1} ) and (X _{2} y _{2} ) are :
_{}
_{}
^{,}
_{}
_{}
9. (a) Centriod is the point of intersection of the medians of triangle.
(b) Incentre is the point of intersection of the bisectors of the angles of the triangle.
(c) 
Circumcentre is the point of intersection of the right 

(perpendicular) 
bisectors of the sides of a triangle. 

(d) 
Orthocentre is the point of intersection of the altitudes (perpendicular drawn from the vertex on the opposite sides) of a 
triangle.
10.Coordinates of the centriod of the triangle whose vertices are
(x _{1} , y _{1} ) ;
(x _{2} , y _{2} ) ;
( x _{3}
_{} _{}
_{}
_{}
_{}
_{}
, y _{3} ) are
11.
Coordinates of the incentre of the triangle whose vertices are A
(x _{1} ,y _{1} ) ; c.
B (x _{2} ,y _{2} , ) ;
C (x _{3} ,y _{3} )
and
1 (BC ) a,
1 (CA) b,
1 (AB)
12
13.
are _{} _{} _{}
_{}
_{} _{}
.
Slope of line joining two points (x _{1} ,y _{1} ) and (x _{2} ,y _{2} )is
m
_{}
_{}
_{}
_{}
Slope of a line is the tangent ratio of the angle which the line makes
with the positive direction of the xaxis. i.e. m tan θ
14.
Slope of the perpendicular to xaxis (parallel to y –axis) does not
exist, and the slope of line parallel to xaxis is zero.
15.
Intercepts: If a line cuts the xaxis at A and yaxis at B then OA is
Called intercept on xaxis and denoted by “a” and OB is called
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
intercept on yaxis and denoted by “b”.
X a is equation of line parallel to yaxis and passing through (a, b)
and y b is the equation of the line parallel to xaxis and passing
through (a, b).
X 0 is the equation of yaxis and y 0 is the equation of xaxis.
Y mx is the equation of the line through the origin and whose slope
is
m.
Y mx +c is the equation of line in slope intercept form.
^{}
+
^{}
1 is the equation of line in the Double intercepts form,
where “a” is xintercept and “b” is yintercept.
X cos a + y sin a p is the equation of line in normal form, where “p”
is the length of perpendicular from the origin on the line and α is the
angle which the perpendicular (normal) makes with the positive
direction of xaxis.
Y – Y _{1} m (x –x _{1} ) is the slope point form of line which passes through
(x _{1} _{,} y _{1} )and whose slope is m.
Two points form:  yy _{1} ^{} ^{} ^{}^{} ^{}
_{} _{}
(x –x _{1} ) is the equation of line which
Passes through the points (x _{1} , y _{1} ) and (x _{2}_{,} y _{2} ).
Parametric form : ^{}^{}^{} ^{}
_{}
r is the equation of line which
passes through the point (x _{1} y _{1} )makes an angle θ with the axis and r is
the distance of any point (x, y) from ( x _{1}_{,} y _{1} ).
25. Every first degree equation in x and y always represents a straight line
ax + by + c 0 is the general equation of line whose.
(a) Slope 

(b) 
X  intercept  
(c) 
Y intercept  
26. Length of the perpendicular from (x _{1}_{,} y _{1} ) on the line
ax + by + c
0 is
^{}^{} ^{}
^{}^{}^{} ^{} ^{}^{}
^{}
√ ^{}
27. To find the coordinates of point of intersection of two curves or two
lines, solve their equation simultaneously.
28. The equation of any line through the point of intersection of two
given lines is
(L.H.S. of one line) +K (L.H.S. of 2nd line) 0
(Right Hand Side of both lines being zero)
TRIGONOMETRY
29.
30.
SIN ^{2}
Cos ^{2}
+ Cos ^{2}
1;
1 – Sin ^{2}
Sin ^{2}
1
 Cos ^{2} ,
tan θ _{}_{}_{} _{} ;
Cosec
_{}_{}_{} _{}
cot
;
cot
_{}_{}_{} _{}
; sec
^{;}
31. 1 + tan ^{2} 

sec ^{2} ; 
tan ^{2} 

sec ^{2}  1 ; 

Sec ^{2}  tan ^{2} 
1 

32. 1 
+ cot ^{2} 
cosec ^{2} ; 
cot ^{2} 

cosec ^{2} 1; 
34.
angle
ratio

30 
^{0} 
45 
^{0} 
60 
^{0} 
90 
^{0} 
120 
^{0} 
135 
^{0} 
150 
^{0} 
180 
^{0} 

0 
^{0} 




2

3




O 
6 

3 

3 
4 


Sin 
0 
1 

√ 

1 
√ 



0 

2 
√



√ 



Cos 
1 


1 
 


√ 

1 

√

√ 
 

2 
0 




Tan 
0 

1 
√3 
∞ 
√3 
1 
1 
0 

√


√3 

35. 
Sin ( ) =  Sin 
; 
cos ( ) = cos 
; 
tan ( ) =  tan . 

36. 

sin (90 – ) cos 

sin (90 + ) 
cos 
sin (180 – ) 
sin 

cos (90 – )

sin 
cos (90 + 

sin 
cos (180 – 
cos 

tan 
(90 – ) cot 
tan (90 + ) 

cot 
tan 
( 180 – ) 
tan


cot (90 
– 
) 
tan 
cot (90+ ) 
tan 
cot 
(180 
– 
) cot 

sec (90 – ) cosec 
sec (90 + ) cosec 
sec 
(180 – 
) 

sec 

cosec (90 – ) sec 
cosec (90 + ) = 
sec 
cosec (180 – ) cosec 
37. Sin (A + B) = SinA
CosB + CosA
SinB
Sin (A  B) = CosA
SinB  SinA CosB
Cos (A + B)
=
CosA CosB 
SinA CosB
Cos (A – B) = CosA CosB
+
SinA SinB
38.
tan (A + B) =
tan (A  B) =
tan
tan
A
A
39. SinC + SinD = 2 sin
_{} ^{} ^{}^{}
_{}
cos
_{} ^{} ^{}
^{}
SinC  SinD = 2 cos
_{} ^{} ^{}
^{}
_{}
sin
_{} ^{} ^{}
^{}
CosC + CosD
= 2 cos _{} ^{} ^{} ^{} _{}
cos
_{} ^{} ^{}
^{}
CosC

CosD = 2 sin _{} ^{} ^{} ^{} _{}
sin
_{} ^{} ^{}
^{}
40. 
2 
sin A cos B = sin (A + B) + sin (AB) 

2 
cos A sin B = sin (A + B)  sin (AB) 

2 
cos A COS B 

cos ( A +B) + cos 
(AB) 

2 
sin 
A 
sin B 

cos (AB)  
cos 
(A + B) 
41. 
Cos (A +B). 
cos ( A 
 B ) 
= cos ^{2} A 
 
sin ^{2} B 

Sin (A +B). 
sin (A – B) = sin ^{2} A 
 sin ^{2} B 
42. Sin 2θ = 2 sinθ
cosθ =
^{}
43. Cos2
θ =cos ^{2} θ  sin ^{2}^{} θ
=
^{}
^{}
^{;}
= 2cos ^{2}
θ 1
=
44. 1 + cos 2θ
= 2 cos ^{2}
θ; 1 – cos 2 θ
= 2 sin ^{2}
1 – 2 sin ^{2} θ
θ


45. tan 2 θ = 
^{} ^{;} 

46. = 3 sin sin 3  4 sin ^{3} ; 

cos 3 = 4 cos ^{3} 
 3 cos 
; 
tan
3 =
^{}
^{}
47.
^{=}
^{=}
48. ^{} ^{} ^{}
Cos A =
Cos C
^{} ^{} ^{}
;
^{;}
49. a = b cos C + c cos B;
Cos B
^{} ^{} ^{}
^{;}
b = c cos A
+ a cos C ;
c = a cos B + b cos A
50.
Area of triangle =
bc sin A =
ca
sin B =
51. 1 sin A =
(cos A/ _{2}
52.
sec A
tan A = tan _{} ^{}
ab sin c
sin A/ _{2} ) ^{2}
/2 _{}
53. Cosec A  cot A 
= 
tan A/ _{2} 
54. Cosec A + cot A = 
cot A/ _{2} 
P A I R
O F
L I N E S
1. A homogeneous equation is that equation in which sum of the powers of x and y is the same in each term.
2. If m _{1} and m _{2} be the slopes of the lines represented by ax ^{2} + 2hxy + by ^{2} = 0, then
m _{1}
+ m _{2}
+

and m _{1} +m _{2}
=
=

^{=}
^{} ^{}
^{}
3. If be the acute angle between the lines represented by ax ^{2} +
2hxy + by ^{2}
= 0, then
tan
=
^{} ^{√} ^{} ^{} ^{}^{}^{}
These lines will be co –incident (parallel) if h ^{2} = ab and perpendicular if a +b = 0.
4. The condition that the general equation of the second degree viz
ax ^{2} + 2hxy + by ^{2} +2gx +2fy + c = 0 may represent a pair of straight line is
abc
+ 2fgh – af ^{2} –bg ^{2}
 ch ^{2} = 0
i.e.
=
5. Ax ^{2} + 2hxy + by ^{2}
0.
=
pairs of parallel lines.
0 and ax ^{2} + 2hxy + by ^{2} +2gx +2fy + c = 0
are
6. The point of intersection of lines ax ^{2} + 2hxy + by ^{2} + 2gx + 2fy + c
= 0
is obtained by solving the equation ax + hy + g = 0 and hx +
by + f = 0.
7. Joint equation of two lines can be obtained by multiplying the
two equations of lines and equating to zero. (UV =0, where u =
0, v = 0).
8. If the origin is changed to (h,k) and the axis remain parallel to
the original axis then for x and y put x’ + h and y’ + k
respectively.
C I R C L E
1. X ^{2} + y ^{2} = a ^{2} is the equation of circle whose centre is (0, 0) and
radius is a.
2. (x – h) ^{2} + (y  k) ^{2} = a ^{2} is the equation of a circle whose centre is (h, k) and radius is a.
3.
X ^{2} + y ^{2} + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 is a general equation of circle, its
centre is (g ,f) and radius is g ^{} f ^{} c.
4. Diameter form:  (x – x _{1}_{)} (x – x _{2} ) + (y – y _{1} ) (y y _{2} ) = 0 is the equation of a circle whose (x _{1}_{,} y _{1} ) and (x _{2} , y _{2} ) are ends of a diameter.
5. Condition for an equation to represent a circle are :
(a) 
Equation of the circle is of the second degree in x and y. 
(b) 
The coefficient of x ^{2} and y ^{2} must be equal. 
(c) 
There is no xy term in the equation (coefficient of xy must be 
zero).
1. To find the equation of the tangent at (x _{1} , y _{1} ) on any curve rule
is:
In the given equation of the curve for x ^{2} put xx _{1} ; for y ^{2} put yy _{1} ;
for 2x put x+ x _{1} and for 2y put y +y _{1}
2. For the equation of tangent from a point outside the circle or given
slope or parallel to a given line or perpendicular to a given line use
y = mx + c
or
y – y _{1} = m
(x –x _{1} ).
3. For the circle x ^{2} + y ^{2} = a ^{2}
(a) Equation of tangent at
(x _{1} , y _{1} ) is xx _{1}
+
yy _{1}
=
a ^{2}
(b) 
Equation of tangent at (a cos , a sin ) is = a. 
x cos 
+ y sin 
(C) 
Tangent in terms of slope m is 
Y = mx
a _{√} ^{}
1
4. 
For the circle x ^{2} + y ^{2} + 2gx 
+ 
2fy + 
c 
= 
0 

(a) 
Equation of tangent at (x _{1} , y _{1} ) is 

Xx _{1} + 
yy _{1} + 
g 
(x + x _{1}_{)} 
+ 
f 
( y + y _{1} ) 
+ 
c 
= 
0 

(b) 
Length of tangent from (x _{1} , y _{1} ) is 
_{1} ^{2} ^{2}
_{1} 2 _{1} 2 _{1}
10. For the point P (x, y) , x is abscissa of P and y is ordinate of P.
P A R A B O L A
1. Distance of any point P on the parabola from the focus S is always equal to perpendicular distance of P from the directrix i.e. SP = PM.
2. Parametric equation of parabola y ^{2} = 
4ax is x 
= at ^{2} , 
y = 2at. 

Coordinates of any point (t) is (at ^{2} , 2at) 

3. Different types of standard parabola 

Parabola 
Focus 
Directrix 
Latus 
Axis of 

rectum 
Parabola 

(axis of 

symmetry) 
Y 
^{2} 
= 4ax 
(a, 0) 
X 
= 
 a 
4a 
Y 
= 
0 
Y 
^{2} 
=  4ax 
(a, 0) 
X 
= 
a 
4a 
Y 
= 
0 
X 
^{2} 
= 4by 
(0, b) 
Y 
=  
b 
4b 
X 
= 0 

X 
^{2} 
=  4by 
(0, b) 
Y 
= 
b 
4b 
X 
= 0 
4. For the parabola y ^{2} = 4ax
(a) 
Equation of tangent at (x _{1} , y _{1} ) is 

Yy _{1} 
= 2a (x 
+ x1 _{)} . 

(b) 
Parametric equation of tangent at (at ^{2} _{1} , 
2at _{1} ) is 

yt _{1} = x 
+ 
at ^{2} _{1} 

(c) 
Tangent in term of slope m is y = mx + _{} and its point of 

contact is (a/m ^{2} , 2a/m) 

(d) 
If P (t _{1} ) and Q (t _{2} ) are the ends of a focal chord then t _{2} t _{1} = 
1 

(e) 
Focal distance of a point P (x _{1} , y _{1} ) is x _{1} + a. 

E L L I P S E 

Ellipse 
Foci 
Directrices 
Latus 
Equation 
Ends of 

Rectum 
of axis 
L.R 
^{} 
^{} 
( ae, 
X = ^{} 
^{} 
major axis Y = 0 minor axis x 


^{+} 
^{} 


(ae, ^{}

^{)} 

=1 
0) 

(a b) 
1. 
Distance 
(ae, ^{}^{} ^{}


of any 

point on 
= 0 
) 

an ellipse 

^{} 
^{} 
from the 
2a ^{} 

^{+} 
major axis x = 0 minor axis y = 0 


^{} 
e (Perpendi cular distance focus = 
b 
( ^{} _{} , be ) 

=1 
(0, 


(a b ) 
be) 
( ^{} ,be 

of the point from the correspon ding Directrix) i.e. SP = e PM. 
) 

2.Different 

types of 

ellipse 

Y = ^{} 


3
Parametric equation of ellipse ^{} ^{} ^{+}
^{}
^{}
= 1 (a b) is x = a cos θ
and y = b sin θ .
4. For the ellipse
And ^{} ^{} ^{+}
^{}
^{}
^{}
^{}
^{+}
_{} = 1, a b,
b ^{2} =a ^{2} (1 =e ^{2} )
= 1, a b, a ^{2} = b ^{2} (1 – e)
5. For the ellipse ^{} ^{}
^{}
^{+} ^{}
^{}
=1 (a b )
(a) Equation of tangent at x _{1} , y _{1} ) is
_{}
^{}
+
_{}
^{}
=
1.
(b ) Equation of tangent in terms of its slope m is
y =
mx
_{√}_{a} ^{} m ^{} b ^{}
(c) Tangent at (a cos , b sin θ) is
+
= 1
6. Focal distance of a point P (x _{1} , y _{1} ) is SP
and
SP = ex _{1}
a
=
a ex _{1}
H Y P E R B O L A
1. Distance of a point on the hyperbola from the focus = e (Perpendicular distance of the point from the corresponding directrix) i.e. SP =ePM
2. Different types of Hyperbola
Hyperbola 
Foci 
Directrices 
L.R 
End of L.R 
Eqn of axis 

^{} 
^{} 
( ae, 0) 
X= ^{}

2b ^{} 
(ae, ^{} 

Transverse 

^{} 

_{} = 1 

^{)} 
axis y= 0 conjugate axis x = o 

a 




(ae,  
^{)} 

^{} 

Transverse axis x=0 conjugate axis y =0 


^{} 

^{} _{} =1 
Y = ^{} 
( ^{} _{} ,be) 

^{–} 

(0, be) 



( ^{} _{} ,be) 
3. For the hyperbola ^{} ^{}
^{}
^{}
^{}
= 1,
^{}
^{–}
^{}
^{}
= 1, a2 =
b ^{2} (e ^{2} – 1).
b ^{2}
= a ^{2} (e ^{2} 1) and for
4. Parametric equations of hyperbola ^{} ^{}
^{}
^{}
_{} = 1 are
X = a sec ,
y = b tan
5. the hyperbola ^{} ^{}
For
^{}
^{}
(a) Equation of tangent at (x _{1} , y _{1} ) are
=
1
_{}
^{}
_{}
^{}
^{}
= 1
Equation of tangent in terms of its slope m is
Y
=
mx
√ ^{} ^{}
^{}
(c)
Equation of tangent at (a sec, b tan ) is
^{}
= 1
(d) Focal distance of
S P
= ex _{1} + a 
P
(x _{1} , y _{1} ) is S P =  ex _{1} – a  and
1. Distance
S O L I D
between ( x _{1} ,
G E O M E T R Y
y _{1} _{,} z _{1} )
and ( x ^{2} , y ^{2} , z ^{2} ) is
_{2} _{1} ^{}
_{2} _{1} ^{} _{2} _{1} ^{}
2. Distance of (x _{1}
, y _{1} ,
z _{1} )
from origin
^{} 1 ^{} 1 ^{} 1
3. Coordinates of point which divides the line joining (x _{1} , y _{1} , z _{1} ) and ( x _{2} , y _{2} , z _{2} ) internally in the ratio m:n are
4. Coordinates of point which divides the joint of (x _{1}_{,} y _{1} , z _{1} ) and
(x _{2} ,y _{2} , z _{2} ) externally in the ratio m:n are
_{} _{}
^{,}
_{} _{}
^{,}
_{} _{}
m  n
O
5.
Coordinates of mid point of join of ( x _{1} , y _{1} , z _{1} ) and
( x _{2} , y _{2} , z _{2} )
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
^{} ^{} ^{} ^{} ^{}
^{,}
_{} _{}
^{,}
_{} _{}
.
are
Coordinates of centriod of triangle whose vertices are (x _{1} , y _{1} , z _{1} ) ,
(x _{2} _{,} y _{2} , z _{2} )
and
(x _{3} , y _{3} , z _{3} )
are
_{} 
_{} 
_{} 
_{} _{} _{} 
_{} _{} _{} 



^{,} 

^{,} 

Direction cosines of x –axis are
Direction cosines of y –axis are
Direction cosines of z – axis are
1,
0,
0,
0,
1,
0,
0
0
1
If OP = r, and direction cosines of OP are l, m, n, then the
coordinates of P are
If 1, m, n are direction cosines of a line then l ^{2}
(
l
r,
mr, nr)
1
If l, m, n, are direction cosines and a ,b, c, are direction ratios
+ m ^{2}
+ n ^{2}
=
of a
n =
line then
√ ^{} ^{} ^{}
^{,}
l
=
√ ^{} ^{} ^{} ^{,}
^{m} ^{=}
√ ^{} ^{} ^{} ^{,}
If l , m, n, are direction cosines of a line then a unit vector
along
the line is l ı
+
m
+
n k
If a, b, c are direction ratio of a line, then a vector along the line
is
a ı +
b +
c k
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
V E C T O R S
a
·
b
=
ab cos θ = a _{1} a _{2}
projection of a on b =
+
·
b _{1} b _{2}


+
c _{1} c _{2}_{.}
and projection of b on a =
^ 
^{} 

a b 
= ab sin θ 

n 



a 
b 
= 
 ( b 
a ) 




a · 
b 
c 
= 
a 
b 
c 
= 
ı
^{a}
a
1
_{2}
^{a} ^{a}
1
2
^{a} 3
^{b}
b
1
_{2}
^{b} 1
^{b}
^{b}
2
3
Vector area of ∆ ABC is
(AB
AC _{)} _{=}
And area of ∆
( a 
b 
b c 
a ) 

+ 
+ c 
ABC =
_{} _{A}_{C}
 AB
_{}
^{c}
^{c}
^{c}
1
2
3
k
^{c}
c
1
_{2}
·


6. Volume of parallelepiped :
^{} 1
^{} 3
^{} 2
^{} 1
^{} 2
^{} 3
^{}
^{}
^{}
1
2
3
_{}
_{=}
AB
 a
AC
b
c
AD _{}

7. Volume of Tetrahedram ABCD is =
^{}
AB
AC
AD
_{}
8. Work done by a force
in moving a particle from A to B = AB
F
· F
9. Moment of force F
acting at A about a point
B is M = BA
_{} _{F}
P R O B A B I L T Y
1. Probability
of an event A is P (A)
= ^{} ^{}^{}^{}
0
p ()
1
2. 
p ( AUB ) = P (A) 
+ 
P (B)  P (A B). IF A and B are mutually 

exclusive then P (A B) = 0 
and 
P (A B) = P(A) + P(B) 

3 
P (A) = 1 – P (A) = 
1  P (A) 

4. 
P(A B) = P(A) · P(B/A) = P(B) 
· P(A/B). 

IF A and B are independent events 

P(A B) = P(A) 
· P(B) 

5. 
P(A) = P(A B) 
+ 
P(A B) 
6. = P(A B)
P(B)
_{7}_{.}
lim
θ 0
_{8} _{.}
lim θ 0
lim
θ _{0}
cos
.
lim
x _{0}
^{(}^{1}
+
lim
_{x} _{} _{0}
_{=}
=
x)
(1
=
+
1 ;
P(A B)
^{l}^{i}^{m}
x 0
= 1
lim θ 0
_{} _{}
m
=
m
1;
_{}
=
e ;
+ kx)
^{=}
x
^{l}^{i}^{m}
a
lim
x _{0}
^{} – ^{}
^{=}
^{n}^{a} ^{n}
1 kx ^{} = e ^{K} .
1.
2.
D I F F E R E N T I A L
C A L C U L A S
F(x) =
h
function
F
(a)
=
^{l}^{i}^{m}
where f ‘ (x) is derivative of
;
0 f (x) with respect to x.
^{l}^{i}^{m} h 0
_{}_{} (a) = 0, where
_{}_{} (ax)
= a,
^{} ^{}
a
^{=}
is constant ;
^{;}
^{}
_{}
_{}_{} (x)
=
^{}
= 1,
5.
_{}_{} log _{a} x =
^{;}
_{}_{} a ^{}
= a ^{x} log a ;
_{}_{}
_{}_{}
log _{a} u =
^{}
_{a} ^{}
=a ^{u} log a ^{}^{}
6. e ^{} = e ^{x} ;
_{}_{}
_{}_{}
e ^{} = e ^{u} ^{}^{}
7.
_{}_{} sin x
=cos x ; _{}_{} sin u
=cos u _{}_{}
, e. g.
_{}_{} sin (4x)
= cos 4x _{}_{} 4x = cos 4x 4 = 4 cos 4x
8. _{}_{} cos x
=  sin x ; _{}_{} cos u
=  sin u ^{}^{}
9. tan x = sec ^{2} x ;
_{}_{}
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