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CO-ORDINATE GEOMETRY

1

To change from Cartesian coordinates to polar coordinates, for X write

2

r

cos θ

and for y write

r sin θ

.

To change from polar coordinates to cartesian coordinates, for r 2 write

X 2

+ y 2 ;

for r cos θ

write X, for r sin θ

. Write y and for tan

θ

write

.

3

4

Distance between two points (X 1, Y 1 ) and (X 2 , Y 2 ) is

x 2 x 1

y 2 y 1

Distance of ( x 1 , y 1 )

from the origin is x

2

1

y

2

1

5

6

7.

Distance between

(r 1 ,

θ 1 ) and

(r 2 , θ 2 ) is

r

2

1

r

2

2

2

r 1 r 2

cos θ 2

θ 1

Coordinates of the point which divides the line joining (X 1 , Y 1 ) and

(X 2 ,

Y 2 )

internally in the ratio m 1 : m 2 are :-

, ( m 1

+ m 2

0 )

Coordinates of the point which divides the line joining (X 1 , Y 1 ) and

(X 2 , Y 2 ) externally in the ratio m 1 : m 2 are :-

, (m 1 – m 2 0)

8. Coordinates of the mid-point (point which bisects) of the seg. Joining

(X 1 ,

y 1 ) and (X 2 y 2 ) are :

,

9. (a) Centriod is the point of intersection of the medians of triangle.

(b) In-centre is the point of intersection of the bisectors of the angles of the triangle.

(c)

Circumcentre is the point of intersection of the right

(perpendicular)

bisectors of the sides of a triangle.

(d)

Orthocentre is the point of intersection of the altitudes (perpendicular drawn from the vertex on the opposite sides) of a

triangle.

10.Coordinates of the centriod of the triangle whose vertices are

(x 1 , y 1 ) ;

(x 2 , y 2 ) ;

( x 3

, y 3 ) are

11.

Coordinates of the in-centre of the triangle whose vertices are A

(x 1 ,y 1 ) ; c.

B (x 2 ,y 2 , ) ;

C (x 3 ,y 3 )

and

1 (BC ) a,

1 (CA) b,

1 (AB)

12

13.

are

.

Slope of line joining two points (x 1 ,y 1 ) and (x 2 ,y 2 )is

m

Slope of a line is the tangent ratio of the angle which the line makes

with the positive direction of the x-axis. i.e. m tan θ

14.

Slope of the perpendicular to x-axis (parallel to y –axis) does not

exist, and the slope of line parallel to x-axis is zero.

15.

Intercepts: If a line cuts the x-axis at A and y-axis at B then OA is

Called intercept on x-axis and denoted by “a” and OB is called

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

intercept on y-axis and denoted by “b”.

X a is equation of line parallel to y-axis and passing through (a, b)

and y b is the equation of the line parallel to x-axis and passing

through (a, b).

X 0 is the equation of y-axis and y 0 is the equation of x-axis.

Y mx is the equation of the line through the origin and whose slope

is

m.

Y mx +c is the equation of line in slope intercept form.

+

1 is the equation of line in the Double intercepts form,

where “a” is x-intercept and “b” is y-intercept.

X cos a + y sin a p is the equation of line in normal form, where “p”

is the length of perpendicular from the origin on the line and α is the

angle which the perpendicular (normal) makes with the positive

direction of x-axis.

Y – Y 1 m (x –x 1 ) is the slope point form of line which passes through

(x 1 , y 1 )and whose slope is m.

Two points form: - y-y 1

(x –x 1 ) is the equation of line which

Passes through the points (x 1 , y 1 ) and (x 2, y 2 ).

Parametric form :-

r is the equation of line which

passes through the point (x 1 y 1 )makes an angle θ with the axis and r is

the distance of any point (x, y) from ( x 1, y 1 ).

25. Every first degree equation in x and y always represents a straight line

ax + by + c 0 is the general equation of line whose.

(a) Slope -

-

(b)

X - intercept -

(c)

Y- intercept -

26. Length of the perpendicular from (x 1, y 1 ) on the line

ax + by + c

0 is

27. To find the coordinates of point of intersection of two curves or two

lines, solve their equation simultaneously.

28. The equation of any line through the point of intersection of two

given lines is

(L.H.S. of one line) +K (L.H.S. of 2nd line) 0

(Right Hand Side of both lines being zero)

TRIGONOMETRY

29.

30.

SIN 2

Cos 2

+ Cos 2

1;

1 – Sin 2

Sin 2

1

- Cos 2 ,

tan θ ;

Cosec

cot

;

cot

; sec

;

31. 1 + tan 2

sec 2 ;

tan 2

sec 2 - 1 ;

Sec 2 - tan 2

1

32. 1

+

cot 2

cosec 2 ;

cot 2

cosec 2 -1;

Cosec 2 - cot 2 1 33. Y Only sine and cosec all trigonometric are
Cosec 2
- cot 2
1
33.
Y
Only sine and cosec
all trigonometric
are positives
ratios are positives
O
X
X 1
III
IV
Only tan and cot
only cos and sec
are positives
are positives
Y 1

34.

angle ratio
angle
ratio
 

30

0

45

0

60

0

90

0

120

0

135

0

150

0

 

180

0

 
 

0

0

 

2

 

3

 

 

O

6

 

3

3

4

Sin

 

0

 

1

 

 

1

 

 

 

0

 

2

 

 

Cos

 

1

 

   

 

1

 

-

 

 

 

-1

 

     

 

-

 

2

 

0

 

 

Tan

 

0

 

1

 

√3

 

-√3

 

-1

 

1

 

0

 

     

√3

 

35.

Sin (- ) = - Sin

;

cos (- ) = cos

 

;

tan (- ) = - tan .

 

36.

 

sin (90 – )

cos

 

sin (90 + )

 

cos

 

sin (180 – )

sin

 

cos (90 – )

sin

 

cos (90 +

sin

 

cos (180 –

cos

tan

(90 )

cot

tan (90 + )

 

cot

tan

( 180 )

tan

cot (90

)

tan

 

cot (90+

)

tan

cot

(180

) cot

sec (90 ) cosec

 

sec (90 + ) cosec

sec

(180

)

sec

cosec (90 ) sec

cosec (90 + ) =

sec

cosec (180 ) cosec

37. Sin (A + B) = SinA

CosB + CosA

SinB

Sin (A - B) = CosA

SinB - SinA CosB

Cos (A + B)

=

CosA CosB -

SinA CosB

Cos (A – B) = CosA CosB

+

SinA SinB

38.

tan (A + B) =

tan (A - B) =

tan

tan

A

A

39. SinC + SinD = 2 sin

cos

SinC - SinD = 2 cos

sin

CosC + CosD

= 2 cos

cos

CosC

-

CosD = 2 sin

sin

40.

2

sin A cos B = sin (A + B) + sin (A-B)

 

2

cos A sin B = sin (A + B) - sin (A-B)

2

cos A COS B

cos ( A +B) + cos

(A-B)

2

sin

A

sin B

cos (A-B) -

cos

(A + B)

41.

Cos (A +B).

cos ( A

- B )

=

cos 2 A

-

sin 2 B

Sin (A +B).

sin (A – B) = sin 2 A

-

sin 2 B

42. Sin 2θ = 2 sinθ

cosθ =

43. Cos2

θ =cos 2 θ - sin 2- θ

=

;

= 2cos 2

θ -1

=

44. 1 + cos 2θ

= 2 cos 2

θ; 1 – cos 2 θ

= 2 sin 2

1 – 2 sin 2 θ

θ

 

45. tan 2

θ

=

;

46. = 3 sin

sin 3

- 4 sin 3 ;

 

cos 3

= 4 cos 3

- 3 cos

;

tan

3 =

47.

=

=

48.

Cos A =

Cos C

;

;

49. a = b cos C + c cos B;

Cos B

;

b = c cos A

+ a cos C ;

c = a cos B + b cos A

bc sin A =

ca

sin B =

51. 1 sin A =

(cos A/ 2

52.

sec A

tan A = tan

ab sin c

sin A/ 2 ) 2

/2

53. Cosec A - cot A

=

tan A/ 2

54. Cosec A +

cot A =

cot A/ 2

P A I R

O F

L I N E S

1. A homogeneous equation is that equation in which sum of the powers of x and y is the same in each term.

2. If m 1 and m 2 be the slopes of the lines represented by ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0, then

m 1

+ m 2

+

-

and m 1 +m 2

=

=

-

=

3. If be the acute angle between the lines represented by ax 2 +

2hxy + by 2

= 0, then

tan

=

These lines will be co –incident (parallel) if h 2 = ab and perpendicular if a +b = 0.

4. The condition that the general equation of the second degree viz

ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 +2gx +2fy + c = 0 may represent a pair of straight line is

abc

+ 2fgh – af 2 –bg 2

- ch 2 = 0

i.e.

=

5. Ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2

0.

=

pairs of parallel lines.

0 and ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 +2gx +2fy + c = 0

are

6. The point of intersection of lines ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 + 2gx + 2fy + c

= 0

is obtained by solving the equation ax + hy + g = 0 and hx +

by + f = 0.

7. Joint equation of two lines can be obtained by multiplying the

two equations of lines and equating to zero. (UV =0, where u =

0, v = 0).

8. If the origin is changed to (h,k) and the axis remain parallel to

the original axis then for x and y put x’ + h and y’ + k

respectively.

C I R C L E

1. X 2 + y 2 = a 2 is the equation of circle whose centre is (0, 0) and

radius is a.

2. (x – h) 2 + (y - k) 2 = a 2 is the equation of a circle whose centre is (h, k) and radius is a.

3.

X 2 + y 2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 is a general equation of circle, its

centre is (-g ,-f) and radius is g f c.

4. Diameter form: - (x – x 1) (x – x 2 ) + (y – y 1 ) (y- y 2 ) = 0 is the equation of a circle whose (x 1, y 1 ) and (x 2 , y 2 ) are ends of a diameter.

5. Condition for an equation to represent a circle are :

(a)

Equation of the circle is of the second degree in x and y.

(b)

The coefficient of x 2 and y 2 must be equal.

(c)

There is no xy term in the equation (coefficient of xy must be

zero).

1. To find the equation of the tangent at (x 1 , y 1 ) on any curve rule

is:

In the given equation of the curve for x 2 put xx 1 ; for y 2 put yy 1 ;

for 2x put x+ x 1 and for 2y put y +y 1

2. For the equation of tangent from a point outside the circle or given

slope or parallel to a given line or perpendicular to a given line use

y = mx + c

or

y – y 1 = m

(x –x 1 ).

3. For the circle x 2 + y 2 = a 2

(a) Equation of tangent at

(x 1 , y 1 ) is xx 1

+

yy 1

=

a 2

(b)

Equation of tangent at (a cos , a sin ) is

= a.

x cos

+ y sin

(C)

Tangent in terms of slope m is

Y = mx

a

1

4.

For the circle x 2 + y 2 + 2gx

+

2fy +

c

=

0

(a)

Equation of tangent at (x 1 , y 1 ) is

 
 

Xx 1 +

yy 1 +

g

(x + x 1)

+

f

( y + y 1 )

+

c

=

0

 

(b)

Length of tangent from (x 1 , y 1 ) is

 

1 2 2

1 2 1 2 1

10. For the point P (x, y) , x is abscissa of P and y is ordinate of P.

P A R A B O L A

1. Distance of any point P on the parabola from the focus S is always equal to perpendicular distance of P from the directrix i.e. SP = PM.

2. Parametric equation of parabola y 2 =

4ax is x

= at 2 ,

y = 2at.

Coordinates of any point (t) is (at 2 , 2at)

 

3. Different types of standard parabola

 

Parabola

Focus

Directrix

Latus

Axis of

rectum

Parabola

(axis of

symmetry)

Y

2

= 4ax

(a, 0)

X

=

- a

4a

Y

=

0

Y

2

= - 4ax

(-a, 0)

X

=

a

4a

Y

=

0

X

2

= 4by

(0, b)

Y

= -

b

4b

X

= 0

X

2

= - 4by

(0, -b)

Y

=

b

4b

X

= 0

4. For the parabola y 2 = 4ax

(a)

Equation of tangent at (x 1 , y 1 ) is

 

Yy 1

= 2a (x

+ x1 ) .

 

(b)

Parametric equation of tangent at (at 2 1 ,

2at 1 ) is

 

yt 1

= x

+

at 2 1

(c)

Tangent in term of slope m is y = mx + and its point of

 
 

contact is (a/m 2 , 2a/m)

 

(d)

If P (t 1 ) and Q (t 2 ) are the ends of a focal chord then t 2 t 1 =

-1

(e)

Focal distance of a point P (x 1 , y 1 ) is x 1 + a.

 
 

E L L I P S E

 

Ellipse

Foci

Directrices

Latus

Equation

Ends of

Rectum

of axis

L.R

( ae,

X =

 

major axis Y = 0 minor axis x

   

+

(ae,

)

=1

0)

   

(a b)

1.

Distance

(ae,

of any

point on

= 0

)

an ellipse

 

from the

2a

+

 

major axis x = 0 minor axis y = 0

 

e (Perpendi cular distance

focus =

b

(

, be )

=1

(0,

(a b )

be)

 

(

,be

of the point from the correspon ding Directrix) i.e. SP = e PM.

 

)

2.Different

 

types of

ellipse

Y =

 

3

Parametric equation of ellipse +

= 1 (a b) is x = a cos θ

and y = b sin θ .

4. For the ellipse

And +

+

= 1, a b,

b 2 =a 2 (1 =e 2 )

= 1, a b, a 2 = b 2 (1 – e)

5. For the ellipse

+

=1 (a b )

(a) Equation of tangent at x 1 , y 1 ) is

+

=

1.

(b ) Equation of tangent in terms of its slope m is

y =

mx

a m b

(c) Tangent at (a cos , b sin θ) is

+

= 1

6. Focal distance of a point P (x 1 , y 1 ) is SP

and

SP = ex 1

a

=

a ex 1

H Y P E R B O L A

1. Distance of a point on the hyperbola from the focus = e (Perpendicular distance of the point from the corresponding directrix) i.e. SP =ePM

2. Different types of Hyperbola

Hyperbola

Foci

Directrices

L.R

End of L.R

Eqn of axis

( ae, 0)

X=

2b

(ae,

Transverse

-

= 1

)

axis y= 0 conjugate axis

x = o

     

a

 
 

(ae, -

 

)

Transverse axis x=0 conjugate axis y =0

=1

Y =

( ,be)

(0, be)

 

(- ,be)

3. For the hyperbola

-

= 1,

= 1, a2 =

b 2 (e 2 – 1).

b 2

= a 2 (e 2 -1) and for

4. Parametric equations of hyperbola

-

= 1 are

X = a sec ,

y = b tan

5. the hyperbola

For

-

(a) Equation of tangent at (x 1 , y 1 ) are

=

1

-

= 1

Equation of tangent in terms of its slope m is

Y

=

mx

(c)

Equation of tangent at (a sec, b tan ) is

-

= 1

(d) Focal distance of

S P

= |ex 1 + a |

P

(x 1 , y 1 ) is S P = | ex 1 – a | and

1. Distance

S O L I D

between ( x 1 ,

G E O M E T R Y

y 1 , z 1 )

and ( x 2 , y 2 , z 2 ) is

2 1

2 1 2 1

2. Distance of (x 1

, y 1 ,

z 1 )

from origin

1 1 1

3. Coordinates of point which divides the line joining (x 1 , y 1 , z 1 ) and ( x 2 , y 2 , z 2 ) internally in the ratio m:n are

, , m + n O (x 1 ,y 1 , z 1 ) m
,
,
m
+
n
O
(x 1 ,y 1 , z 1 )
m
n
(x 2 , y 2 , z 2 )

4. Coordinates of point which divides the joint of (x 1, y 1 , z 1 ) and

(x 2 ,y 2 , z 2 ) externally in the ratio m:n are

,

,

m - n

O

5.

Coordinates of mid point of join of ( x 1 , y 1 , z 1 ) and

( x 2 , y 2 , z 2 )

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

,

,

.

are

Coordinates of centriod of triangle whose vertices are (x 1 , y 1 , z 1 ) ,

(x 2 , y 2 , z 2 )

and

(x 3 , y 3 , z 3 )

are

 

,

,

Direction cosines of x –axis are

Direction cosines of y –axis are

Direction cosines of z – axis are

1,

0,

0,

0,

1,

0,

0

0

1

If OP = r, and direction cosines of OP are l, m, n, then the

coordinates of P are

If 1, m, n are direction cosines of a line then l 2

(

l

r,

mr, nr)

1

If l, m, n, are direction cosines and a ,b, c, are direction ratios

+ m 2

+ n 2

=

of a

n =

line then

,

l

=

,

m =

,

If l , m, n, are direction cosines of a line then a unit vector

along

the line is l ı

+

m

+

n k

If a, b, c are direction ratio of a line, then a vector along the line

is

a ı +

b +

c k

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

V E C T O R S

a

·

b

=

ab cos θ = a 1 a 2

projection of a on b =

+

·

b 1 b 2

|

|

+

c 1 c 2.

and projection of b on a =

 

^

 

a

b

= ab sin θ

 

n

 

   

a

b

=

- ( b

a )

 
 

a

·

b

c

=

a

b

c

=

ı

a

a

1

2

a a

1

2

a 3

b

b

1

2

b 1

b

b

2

3

Vector area of ABC is

(AB

AC ) =

And area of

( a

b

 

b c

 

a

)

+

+ c

ABC =

AC

| AB

|

c

c

c

1

2

3

k

c

c

1

2

·

|

|

6. Volume of parallelepiped :

1

3

2

1

2

3

1

2

3

=

|AB

| a

AC

b

c

AD |

|

7. Volume of Tetrahedram ABCD is =

|

AB

AC

AD

|

8. Work done by a force

in moving a particle from A to B = AB

F

· F

9. Moment of force F

acting at A about a point

B is M = BA

F

P R O B A B I L T Y

1. Probability

of an event A is P (A)

=

0

p ()

1

2.

p ( AUB )

= P (A)

+

P (B)

- P (A B). IF A and B are mutually

exclusive then P (A B) = 0

and

P (A B) = P(A) + P(B)

3

P (A)

= 1 – P (A) =

1

- P (A)

4.

P(A B)

= P(A)

· P(B/A)

= P(B)

· P(A/B).

IF A and B are independent events

P(A B)

= P(A)

· P(B)

5.

P(A)

= P(A B)

+

P(A B)

6. = P(A B)

P(B)

7.

lim

θ 0

8 .

lim θ 0

lim

θ 0

cos

.

lim

x 0

(1

+

lim

x 0

=

=

x)

(1

=

+

1 ;

P(A B)

lim

x 0

= 1

lim θ 0

m

=

m

1;

=

e ;

+ kx)

=

x

lim

a

lim

x 0

=

na n

1 kx = e K .

1.

2.

D I F F E R E N T I A L

C A L C U L A S

F(x) =

h

function

F

(a)

=

lim

where f ‘ (x) is derivative of

;

0 f (x) with respect to x.

lim h 0

(a) = 0, where

(ax)

= a,

a

=

is constant ;

;

(x)

=

= 1,

= . √ ; .√ = = . Where u = f(x) √x √u 3.
=
.
√ ;
.√
=
=
.
Where u = f(x)
√x
√u
3. x
= n x n-1
u = nu n-1
;
= ny n-1
;
4.
logx =
(logu) =
;

5.

log a x =

;

a

= a x log a ;

log a u =

a

=a u log a

6. e = e x ;

e = e u

7.

sin x

=cos x ; sin u

=cos u

, e. g.

sin (4x)

= cos 4x 4x = cos 4x 4 = 4 cos 4x

8. cos x

= - sin x ; cos u

= - sin u

9. tan x = sec 2 x ;