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1. What is Cocolisap?

a. Background

As a background, coconut scale insects are pests that are common in coconuts
as its name suggests but in severe infestation could spread to perennial fruit trees.
Damages to leaves, stalks and branches cause stunt growth, defoliation and dieback.
Damages to fruits cause blemishes, deformed and unmarketable. Coconut scale
insects are recorded in both sub tropical and tropical regions and is usually present in
all countries where coconut trees are present. It is also known as armored scale,
transparent scale, bourbon scale, bourbon aspidiotus and is sometimes called red flies
because of the abundance of male flies in severe outbreaks. CSI is present in most of
the Pacific Island countries particularly the atoll countries; Tuvalu and Kiribati.

CSI host are typically perennial species such as; avocado, breadfruit, mango,
guava and papaya. However, coconut is the preferred host and they are found mainly
on the underside of the leaflets. In severe cases, CSI infestation are seen all over the
entire plant.

Scales feed by sucking sap from the plant cells whilst secreting toxins from
their salivary glands in the process. Continuous feeding causes drying up of leaflets
giving a yellow colour initially then turning brown in advance cases eventually killing
the plant by total cessation of the photosynthesis process.

b. Lifespan

CSI life cycle lasts 32-35 days. The larvae (crawlers) and adult males are the
mobile stages of the scale. The female lays 20-50 eggs over a period of few days and
hatches into crawlers in 7-8days. Crawlers (both sexes are mobile) colonize the plant
and feed using feeding tubes inserted into the cells. Females have two nymph stages
while the male have four, two larval stages, pre-pupa and pupa stages respectively.
The scale cover of adult female is oval in shape, flat, thin and translucent. Males have
a pair of wings and are motile.

2. What are the causes and effects of Cocolisap in a coconut and other fruit bearing plant?

Scales feed by sucking sap from the plant cells whilst secreting toxins from their
salivary glands in the process. Continuous feeding causes drying up of leaflets giving a
yellow colour initially then turning brown in advance cases eventually killing the plant by
total cessation of the photosynthesis process.
The coconut scale is among the most damaging of all armored scale insects
(Beardsley, 1970). This pest is usually found in densely massed colonies on the lower
surfaces of leaves, except in extremely heavy infestations where it may be present on both
sides. It may also be found on petioles, peduncles and fruits. Mature scales are found on the
older leaves. Infestations are typically associated with yellowing of the leaves in areas where
the scales are present. The yellowing is caused by the removal of sap by the sucking mouth
parts and the toxic effects of the saliva that kills the surrounding tissues at the feeding site
(Waterhouse & Norris, 1987). This yellowing is distinct from and less mottled than that
caused by another armored scale, Chrysomphalus ficus (Beardsley, 1970).
The coconut scale is classified as an armored scale. Unlike other scales, armored
scales do not produce honeydew (Beardsley and Gonzalez, 1975). Armored scales feed on
plant juices. Feeding sites are usually associated with discolorations, depressions and other
host tissue distortions (Beardsley and Gonzalez, 1975).
3. Give at least 5 issues and concerns about Cocolisap in our country.

S&T-based control strategies vs cocolisap infestation in action
Written by Sharie Al-Faiha A. Abustan, S&T Media Service Friday, 25 July 2014 13:55
LOS BAOS, Laguna -- The Department of Science and Technology-Philippine Council
for Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural Resources Research and Development (DOST-
PCAARRD) is working closely with the Office of the Presidential Assistant for Food
Security and Agricultural Modernization (OPAFSAM) and other concerned agencies
towards a common goal of curbing the coconut scale insect (CSI) or cocolisap outbreak
in CALABARZON.
To mitigate CSIs impact on the local coconut industry, DOST-PCAARRD is currently
funding and monitoring seven R&D projects to develop systematic, preventive and
immediate S&T-based control strategies against the said insect pest.
In a study on pest dynamics and ecological causes of the infestation, the project team
from the Philippine Coconut Authority (PCA) reported that cocolisap from an infested
tree can disperse up to 400 meters per month in northeast direction. The initial result of
the study is instrumental in mapping and forecasting the spread of infestation.
Experts projected that the infestation could soon reach other major coconut growing
provinces if not immediately and effectively managed.
Currently, pruning of infested leaves is being promoted as the first line of defense against
cocolisap. For certified organic farms, massive spraying of botanical and other organic
medium is advised during early stage of infestation.
As the infestation worsens however, PCA advised the emergency crop care strategy of
using registered systemic insecticides through trunk injection to control the population of
the invasive cocolisap.
Trunk injection is recommended on targeting the pest, preventing damage to
environment, and minimizing health risks as compared with other application methods
such as spraying, soil drenching and root feeding.
Scientists and researchers from different agencies crafted a general protocol for the
emergency, area-wide control of cocolisap. An Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
protocol was endorsed by DOST to OPAFSAM for distribution to farmers, local
government units, and NGOs. It includes harvesting of all harvestable nuts, pruning of
infested leaves, insecticide trunk injection, spraying of organic pesticide (if early stage of
localized outbreak is observed), release of biological control agents (BCA), field
monitoring for presence of insecticide residue, and fertilization of treated palms.
As part of the Scale Insect Emergency Action Program (SIEAP) of the CSI Task Force,
the application of insecticides will be done only to contain the high insect population.
CSI Task Force stressed that once the population reaches the manageable level where the
insect is no longer significantly damaging, organic spray materials will be used and
biocontrol agents such as predators (Telsimia nigrita and Chilocorus nigrita) and
parasitoid will be released to feed on the remaining populations.
To beef up control measures, DOST-PCAARRD also supports other research and
development (R&D) initiatives such as optimization of the mass production protocol for
BCA, upgrading of mass production facility for BCA, promotion of IPM, and
development of web-based breeding resource and Eco-TILIING towards insect resistance
breeding in coconut.
With the application of these S&T-based emergency measures, the government hopes for
the effective control of CSI infestation, high recovery of coconut trees, and a restored
livelihood for our local farmers.
The Emergency Research and Development Response Program and Management of
Coconut Scale Insect is one of the many undertakings of the Council in meeting the
challenge of DOSTs Outcome One which is to provide science-based know-how and
tools that enable the agricultural sector to raise productivity to world-class standards.
Results of PCAARRD and its partner agencies R&D efforts in the agriculture, aquatic
and natural resources (AANR) sectors shall be showcased during the upcoming National
Science and Technology Week (NSTW), on July 24-28, 2014 at the SMX Convention
Center, Mall of Asia Complex, Pasay City.
Aquino orders agencies to put up measures vs insect infestation of coconuts
Friday, June 6, 2014

PRESIDENT Benigno Aquino III has ordered the Philippine Coconut Authority (PCA) to
come up with measures to prevent the widespread scale insect infestation of coconuts in
the country.
This was contained in Executive Order 169 dated June 5, 2014 establishing emergency
measures to control and manage the spread and damage of aspidiotus rigidus in the
Philippines and designating the PCA as the lead agency for the purpose.
Aspidiotus rigidus, an insect pest attacking plant leaves, feeding on sap directly drawn
from form the plant's vascular system, with a distinct characteristic of secreting a waxy
coating for defense which resembles fish scales, has been tremendously infesting bearing
and non-bearing coconut trees and has devastated a significant number of coconut farms
in the Calabarzon Region, the EO said.
It added that there were verified reports of scale insect infestation in other island
provinces, even in the Mindanao areas, and the pest has been attacking other high-value
crops (like coffee, cacao, and mangosteen) that are cultivated under coconuts or near
coconut plantations.
"This massive infestation of scale insect poses a very serious threat to the coconut
industry and to the livelihood of those who depend thereon," Aquino said.
Thus, he tasked the PCA to be assisted by the Office of the Presidential Assistant for
Food Security and Agricultural Modernization (OPAFSAM), Department of Agriculture
(DA), Department of Science and Technology (DOST), Department of the Interior and
Local Government (DILG), University of the Philippines in Los Banos (UPLB) and
National Crop Protection Center (NCPC), with the support of the appropriate Local
Government Units (LGUs), in formulating and prescribing the necessary and appropriate
emergency measures and methodologies in the treatment of infested coconut trees and
other host plants.
The Bureau of Plant Industry (BPI) may deputize PCA and the Philippine National Police
(PNP) and other law enforcement offices to investigate and apprehend those caught
violating the emergency and quarantine measures, including the confiscation of
unprocessed/untreated parts of coconut, coco seedlings and seednuts, and other
host/vector plant, the EO said.
"No coconut leaves/fronds, young coconut and other raw or unprocessed/untreated
coconut products, coco seedlings, and seedlings of other scale insect host plants shall be
transported outside of barangays, municipalities or provinces duly declared under
quarantine due to scale insect infestation, except when supported by a Permit to Transport
duly issued by the PCA providing, among others, that appropriate preventive measures,
such as washing and spraying of appropriate chemicals, have been instituted," it said.
The PCA shall have the exclusive authority to grant Permits to Transport for the shipment
or movement of coconut planting materials from and to any points of the country.
The EO imposes administrative penalties for those found violating the quarantine
declaration. For the first offense, there will be confiscation of the illegally transported
materials; second offense, confiscation of the illegally transported materials, and payment
by the violator of a fine of P1,000; and third and subsequent offenses, confiscation of the
illegally transported materials, and payment by the violator of a fine of P5,000.
The responsible PCA personnel found to have permitted, allowed or otherwise tolerated
any violations of the provision of the emergency measures or its implementing rules or
have connived or conspired with violators shall be proceeded with administratively.
Aquino said the PCA shall allocate funds to support the nationwide implementation of
the emergency measures to control and manage the infestation of Aspidiotus rigidus.
(SDR/Sunnex)
Local scientist develops organic insecticides for coconut scale insect
Written by Alladin S. Diega / Correspondent
SCALE insect infestation is threatening the coconut production in the entire
Region 4-A, or the Calabarzon area and there is an urgent need to address the concern,
according to a crop scientist from the University of the Philippines Los Baos (UPLB).
For years, the standard pest control against scale insect in coconut trees has been
the concoction of coconut oil and dishwashing liquid or the cochin oil, but experience has
shown that the insects are somewhat resistant; in many instances, the spraying of the oil
during daylight burns parts of the coconut trees, Candida B. Adalla of the UPLB College
of Agriculture said on Tuesday.
Adalla recently developed a botanical insecticide, from Gliricidia sepium, locally
known as kakawate, which is proven to be effective at 97-percent mortality rate for the
insect scale, which can be sprayed to coconut tress once in every three months, until the
infestation became manageable.
There is a strong pressure to me to release the product to the market but the Food
and Drug Administration has yet to release an approval pending toxicology test, Adalla
explained.
The budget of the research, around half-a-million-pesos, was provided by the
Department of Science and Technology, under its small- enterprises technology
upgrading program, while the test for the botanical spray was conducted at the Lipa
Agricultural Experiment Station and at the Philhybrid Makapuno Farm, also in Lipa,
Batangas.
The intended immediate beneficiaries were the Department of Agriculture (DA)
Region 4 and the Southern Tagalog Integrated Agricultural Research Center, and later on,
all the coconut farmers nationwide.
According to the Bureau of Agricultural Statistics (BAS), annual production of
coconut dropped by 3.3 percent, from 15.86 million metric tons (MMT) in 2012 to 15.34
MMT last year.
In its latest Non-food and Industrial Crop Quarterly report, the BAS included the
infestation of coconut trees in Batangas by scale insects as one of the reasons only 4.00
MMT coconut were harvested for the period of October to December 2013, 6.1 percent
lower compared to 4.26 MMT last year of the same period. Supertyphoon Yolanda,
which battered coconut trees in Eastern Samar last year, and Typhoon Pablo in Mindanao
in 2012 were also listed as major contributors to the drop in the production.
Asked whether the government should consider chemical insecticides to prevent a
full-blown infestation in the region, Adalla responded in the negative, saying that the
main reason why our coconut water, virgin coconut oil and coco sugar are in-demand in
the world market is the fact that we do not use chemical fertilizer nor insecticides.
In fact, our farmers, as a practice, do not even fertilize their coconut trees,
organic or otherwise, resulting in the declining health of the tress over the years, and,
hence, the effect in production, with or without small-scale insect, the expert said.
A former head of the biotechnology program of the DA and currently the head of
the crop protection cluster of the UPLB, Adalla said a few years ago, several sections in
the industry have refused to immediately address seriously the problem of the scale
insect, saying that the problem is not that yet alarming and that nature will heal itself.
Another reason of the spread of the infestation, the crop scientist said, is that we
cannot expect the farmers to spray insecticides because many of them still believe that
coconut trees are self-sustaining and do not need any input, much less insecticides, and,
hence, this infestation.
Recently, the Philippine Coconut Association (PCA) has allotted P1.4-million
budget to implement immediate and extensive measures to mitigate the scale-insect
infestation in affected areas in 41 barangays of seven municipalities in the province of
Batangas, according to the agencys web site.
PCA is continuously taking actions to prevent infestation to reach epidemic level
so as not to affect nearby provinces like Laguna and Quezon, PCA Administrator
Euclides G. Forbes said in a statement.
The coconut scale insects, known as Aspidiotus destructor Signoret (Hemiptera:
Diaspididae), are small insects which are plant parasites, according to PCA, adding that
the insect pests cause yellowing or chlorosis, wilting, premature nutfall and low yield
because it continuously siphons off the plant sap with their specialized mouthparts.
We are already looking for sustainable long-term solutions, such as biological
control which takes time to be established and be effective, for the reason that natural
enemies become absent as a result of extreme conditions, such as drought and typhoons,
Forbes was quoted as saying.
According to Forbes, the PCA has already released 700 individuals of predatory
coccinellids (Cryptolemus and Telsimia), beetles that eat scale insects in the affected
areas. It will be done continuously until all scale insects in the affected areas have been
treated.
Chemical control with contact or systemic insecticides is also being considered by
the coconut agency, but added that the measure is only effective during the crawler
stage of the pest, when the scale insect is very young and can only be safely administered
for young palms and seedlings.
Scale insects infest 115,000 coconut trees in Batangas, threaten Calabarzon
By: Philippine News Agency May 1, 2012 10:31 AM
BATANGAS CITY -- Coconut pests known as "scale insects" have infested
thousands of coconut trees in more than 10 towns and cities in this province, threatening
the coco industry here and other provinces in the Calabarzon region.
Philippine Coconut Authority (PCA) regional director Joselito Jojo Alcantara
said some 115,000 coconut trees planted to 1,700 hectares of land have been afflicted by
scale insects, and are now the primary concern of the provincial government.
Alcantara said that so far, the province through its provincial agriculture office
has already treated 26,000 coco trees, and coco farmers are hoping for faster actions
because the coconut pests are moving widespread in other provinces due to the windy
atmosphere.
Provincial and municipal agriculturists in Batangas have stepped up monitoring of
localities where coconut trees are exposed and prone to be affected by the scale insects,
he said.
Alcantara also said that the drive against scale insects (coco pests) has been
launched in Batangas and other Southern Tagalog provinces not only to help farmers
determine signs of coco pests infection but to also assist agricultural workers in fighting
the scale insects.
He said coco farmers in Batangas revealed they started noticing coconut tree
leaves becoming yellowish in 2010 but this was not given immediate action because they
thought the unusual condition was due to the El Nino phenomenon.
Alcantara said PCA personnel together with agricultural officers advised farmers
and owners of coconut plantations to prune affected (yellowish) coco leaves and burn
them to prevent other coco plants from being affected by the spread of the coconut pests.
He said PCA and local agriculturists are currently drafting a Pest Management
Action Plan including pest mapping activities to ensure protecting provinces and towns
that could be affected by the spread of coco pests.
He also advised farmers to keep close watch of coco pests spread and be more
vigilant against the transfer of the scale insects to their coconut plantations.
Officials of the Sangguniang Panlalawigan appealed to the PCA and other
concerned agencies to help them bring the matter to the attention of the Provincial
Governor for the issuance of an executive order directing "quarantine" of coconut
plantations to protect them from being affected by the spread of coco pests.
He said PCA personnel together with local agriculturists are currently undergoing
seminars to acquire more knowledge on how scale insects (coco pests) multiply in
affected barangays, including possible solutions to the problems of coconut farmers and
the coco industry in Calabarzon.
PH to take measures vs. spread of coco pest
June 6, 2014 8:01 pm by CATHERINE S. VALENTE

President Benigno Aquino 3rd has ordered government agencies to take measures
to prevent the spread of the insect pest Aspidiotus Rigidus in the countrys coconut
farms.
Aquino, in Executive Order 169 signed June 5, directed the Philippine Coconut
Authority (PCA) and all concerned agencies to formulate and prescribe the necessary
emergency measures and methodologiesmechanical, chemical, and biologicalin the
treatment of infested coconut trees and other host plants.
This massive infestation of the scale insect poses a very serious threat to the
coconut industry and to the livelihood of those who depend thereon, the President said.
According to him, Aspidiotus Rigidus has been tremendously infesting bearing
and non-bearing coconut trees and has devastated a significant number of coconut
farms in the Calabarzon region.
The President said there were verified reports of scale insect infestation in other
island provinces, even in Mindanao.
He said the pests have been attacking other high-value crops, such as coffee,
cacao and mangosteen, that are cultivated under coconuts or near its plantations.
If the spread of this invasive pest is not contained, it may wipe out the coconut
industry not just in Calabarzon but, eventually, in the rest of the country, Aquino added.
The Philippines is the top supplier of coconut products in the world market.
The industry has an estimated $2 billion net foreign earnings, provides livelihood
to some 3.5 million coconut farmers and serves as the economic backbone of 68 of the
eighty 80 provinces of the country.
Under EO 169, the PCA, in cooperation with the Office of the Presidential
Assistant for Food Security and Agricultural Modernization, Department of Agriculture,
Department of Science and Technology, Department of the Interior and Local
Government, University of the Philippines in Los Baos and National Crop Protection
Center, with the support of the appropriate Local Government Units, shall also be in
charge of the declaration of infested areas to be under quarantine and the establishment of
checkpoints and quarantine stations to prevent the transportation of unprocessed or
untreated parts of coconuts, coconut seedlings and other host or vector plants from such
areas.
The Bureau of Plant Industry may deputize the PCA and the Philippine National
Police and other law enforcement agencies to investigate and apprehend those caught
violating the emergency and quarantine measures, including the confiscation of
unprocessed/untreated parts of coconut, coco seedlings and seednuts, and other
host/vector plants.
No coconut leaves or fronds, young coconut and other raw or unprocessed or
untreated coconut products, coco seedlings, and seedlings of other scale insect host plants
shall be transported outside of barangays, municipalities or provinces duly declared under
quarantine because of scale insect infestation unless allowed by the PCA.
4. What are the preventive measures to avoid Cocolisap?
NON-CHEMICAL CONTROL
After accidental introduction to various Pacific islands, this scale became a serious pest
of coconuts. With the introduction of parasitoids and predators, its pest status has been
greatly reduced (Waterhouse & Norris, 1987). Largely because of efficient parasitoids
and predators this scale is generally not a problem in Hawaii.
Around 40 species of predators and parasites have been reported to attack the coconut
scale in areas outside of Hawaii (Beardsley, 1970). Several of these natural enemies have
been used to successfully control outbreaks of this scale (Sweetman, 1958). The
coccinellid beetle, Cryptognatha nodiceps (Marshall), was introduced to Fiji and
effectively controlled this scale (Taylor, 1935). Another coccinellid beetle, Chilocorus
politus (Mulsant), has also been effective in Mauritius and Indonesia (Beardsley, 1970).
Ladybird beetles have been the very effective throughout the Tropics, especially
Pseudoscymnus anomalus, Cryptognatha nodices, C. gemellata, Rhyzobius satelles,
Chilocorus nigritus and C. malasiae (the last four are non-specific predators)
(Waterhouse & Norris, 1987). Cryptognatha nodiceps has a long adult life, high
reproductive capacity, good dispersal abilities, and is a voracious predator with a
preference for the coconut scale (Waterhouse & Norris, 1987). Pseudoscymnus anomalus
is a specific predator and requires only 14 days for development to adulthood which is
much quicker than the development of other predators (Waterhouse & Norris, 1987).
Refer to Waterhouse and Norris (1987) for an extensive list of natural enemies of the
coconut scale.
In Hawaii, two coccinellid beetles, Telsimia nitida(Chapin) and Lindorus lophanthae
(Blaisdell), were introduced to control other scale pests and are the principal predators of
the coconut scale (Beardsley, 1970). Other successful introductions include Chilocorus
nigritis and Pseudoscymnus anomalus from Guam in 1970 (Waterhouse & Norris, 1987).
Other natural enemies in Hawaii are the predaceous thrips, Aleurdothrips fasciapennis
(Franklin) and two minute aphelinid wasps that are internal parasites of the coconut scale
(Beardsley, 1970).
CHEMICAL CONTROL
Chemicals used on scales are usually the same as those used on mealybugs and may
include diazinon, dimethoate, formothion, malathion and nicotine (Copland and Ibrahim,
1985). As in the use of all chemicals, consult the label or a pesticide database, to
determine what chemicals may be used on specific crops. Special care should be taken
with chemical sensitive palnts (Copland and Ibrahim, 1985).
There is no listing for malathion, diazinon and dimethoate are not labelled as of April
2007.
Sprays are only effective on the crawler stage of scales. However, control is difficult on
other life stages. Adults are firmly attached to the plant and remain so after their death
that may give a false impression of the pest status (Copland and Ibrahim, 1985).
Chemical applications should be used only when parasites are not economically effective.
The application of pesticides may kill natural enemies of the scale and result in a
resurgence of the pest.

5. What are the Biological Methods to be applied to prevent Cocolisap?

Biological control is the best way to control the scale. Ladybeetles (Coccinellidae) are
the most important biological control agents for the scales, but there are also aphelinid wasps
such as Aphytis sp. which attack the scale. The coccinellids Telsimia nitida, Pseudoscymnus
anomalus, Cryptognatha nodiceps , and Chilocorus nigritus provide excellent control of A.
destructor in Micronesia, Hawaii, and American Samoa. Rhizobius satelles was also
introduced to the Marianas but is rare. The importance of the different species of coccinellids
varies on the different islands. If the use of chemicals is required or if additional information
is de- sired, consult an Extension Agent at your local land grant institution. On Guam, you
may also consult the Guam Fruit and Vegetable Pesticide Guide for current recommendations
and permissible uses.

6. What are the factors might influence a change in the population?