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1. What is Cocolisap?

Coconut scale insect Aspidiotus destructor Signoret (Hemiptera:Dispididae) (CSI) is recorded in tropical
and subtropical regions worldwide and is present in nearly all countries where coconuts are grown. It is also
known as armored scale, transparent scale, bourbon scale, bourbon aspidiotus, and sometimes called red flies
because of the abundance of male flies during late afternoons in case of severe outbreaks. CSI infests stems,
branches, leafpetioles, leaves and fruits of their host plants. It is found mostly on the undersides of leaves. During
severe outbreaks, scale insects completely cover the underside of leaves and defoliate and even kill their host
plants. After accidental introduction to some Pacific islands, CSI became a very serious pest of coconuts until the
initiation of biological control, following which, almost invariably, its pest status in many countries has been
greatly reduced. Recently it has spread to new areas and in the absence of natural enemies it has become a serious

Rank & Taxon
Family Diaspididae
Mature females can be 1-3.5 mm in length, but most are 1.5-2 mm long. Adult females secrete a waxy coating that
functions like a suit of armor; it may be circular to pyriform to elongate in shape, reflecting the form of the insect
inside. They may be white, yellow, purple, red, or orange in color. The protective coating is not a part of the body
and can be removed. All stages of armored scale insects are legless with the exception of the first- instar crawlers
and the third, fourth, and adult male. The crawlers are very small, oval and flattened in form, with very short but
functional legs.
Worldwide; 400 genera, representing over 2,650 described species
Biology/Life cycle
Life cycles vary among species. Females may lay eggs or give birth to live young under the scale cover. The first
instar, or crawler stage, emerges from the cover through a small posterior opening and may disperse either
passively by wind or actively by walking. Females have 3 instars while males have 5 instars which include two
"pupal" instars. The female scale cover is formed through the incorporation of the first- and second- instar skins as
they are shed, while males only incorporate the shed exuviae of the crawler stage. The family encompasses a
variety of life histories; there may be 1 to 6 generations per year, and overwintering may occur in any instar except
the third, fourth, or adult male.
Palms: a wide variety of palms
Other: a wide variety of species, but generally found on long lived species such as trees and shrubs.
Representative taxa on palms
Aspidiotus destructor, the coconut scale insect, is a flat, circular, transparent scale commonly found on coconut
palms but also occurs frequently on other palm species.
Ischnaspis longistoris, the black-thread scale insect, has a distinctive body form in the female, with a shiny, black,
and extremely long and narrow scale cover. This species is one of the most frequently encountered armored scales
on a variety of decorative palms, and it thrives under greenhouse conditions.
2. What are the causes and effects of Cocolisap in a coconut and other fruit bearing plant?

Being equipped with specialized mouthparts for sucking, this small yet terribly voracious pest, feed on sap directly
from the trees vascular system. CSIs feeding causes yellowing or chlorosis, wilting, premature nutfall and low

Experts explained that as CSI sucks the sap, it also injects toxic enzymes, resulting to discolored leaves and
deformed plant tissues.

Usually a minor pest of young coconut in nurseries, CSI is also considered as a destructive pest to mature coconut
palms. As they settle on the leaves, they continuously suck the sap that is essential for the growth of the crop.

In young palms, this pest appears underside of the coconut palms, but in bearing palms it appears not only in the
underside of the coconut palms but also in the surface of the fruits and the petioles.

3. Give at least 5 issues and concerns about Cocolisap in our country.

KONTRA COCOLISAP | Fighting coconut scale insect infestation of 1.8 million trees
TAYABAS, Quezon -- The Office of the Presidential Adviser on Food Security and Agriculture Modernization
(PAFSAM) on Friday launched what it termed as the most comprehensive and most intensive control program to
combat the rapid spread of coconut scale insect infestation in the provinces of Batangas, Laguna, Quezon, Cavite,
and Basilan.
PAFSAM Secretary Francis Pangilinan led the launching of the "Sama-samang Aksyon ng Gobyerno, Industriya at
Pamayanan sa Malawakang Pagsugpo ng Pesteng Cocolisap" (SAGIP) in Barangay Potol, Tayabas, Quezon.
Pangilinan said the program is an area-wide strategy that would apply proactive solutions with the support of all
stakeholders in the coconut industry to bring the infestation to manageable levels.
The former senator-turned-food security adviser said the program, which will run for six months, has a P750-
million budget and will utilize five protocols to eradicate coco infestation "Aspidiotus Rigidus," which has already
destroyed almost two million trees.
These are pruning of heavily infected leaves; injecting a systemic insecticide to tree trunks; spraying organic
insecticides to coconut leaves that are slightly infested; fertilization for faster recovery; and the introduction of bio-
control agents.
Aside from these, a quarantine program would also be in effect to prevent the transport of infected coconut fruits
to unaffected areas.
What we have here is an aggressive approach designed to nip the problem in the bud before it spreads to other
provinces -- particularly Bicol, Region 4-B, and the Zamboanga Peninsula -- and become an epidemic, Pangilinan
He said that based on records of the Philippine Coconut Authority - one of four Department of Agriculture
attached agencies now under PAFSAM -- the damaged wrought by cocolisap in Region 4-A alone has almost
doubled since the start of May this year.
Nationwide, the number of infected trees stands at an estimated 1.8 million, up from the estimated 1.2 million
infected trees at the start of the year.
Although this figure is less than 1 percent of the total number of fruit-bearing coconut trees in the country, we
must institute aggressive operational interventions before infestation goes out of hand, he said as he noted the
high reproduction rate of the insect.
As per field assessments, infected trees have decreased yields by up to 60 percent - a big blow to coconut
farmers who are considered as the poorest of the poor among agricultural farmers.
For the program to succeed, Pangilinan stressed that all stakeholders, most especially the local government units
(LGUs) concerned, would have to work together to eradicate the insect once and for all.
Ground troops win wars; kayo pong mga LGUs at mga apektadong magsasaka ng niyog ang mga magiging
sundalo laban sa cocolisap, he told local officials and farmers present at the ceremonial launching.
The government aims to cover 33,000 infected trees daily for 60 days, which means we have to hire thousands of
laborers in the affected provinces, Pangilinan said.
Farmers who will take part in the program would be given cash allowances for their labor which would also serve
as a replacement income while waiting for their trees to recover.
Affected farmers would also be given free cash crop seeds -- like eggplant, tomato, string beans, lettuce, ampalaya,
and others -- to augment their daily needs and provide additional income.
Besides the PCA and LGUs, other agencies included in the program implementation are the Philippine Coconut
Authority (PCA), Bureau of Plant Industry (BPI), the Philippine National Police (PNP), the Department of Interior
and Local Government (DILG), Department of Agriculture (DA), and the Fertilizer and Pesticide Authority (FPA),
among others.
Sa tulong ng bawat isa, tayo ay magtatagumpay gamit ng mga tamang proseso at hakbang, Pangilinan said.

The Philippines is the top supplier of coconut products in the world market, with the industry having an estimated
$2 billion net foreign earnings.
It also provides livelihood to some 3.5 million coconut farmers all over the country.
According to the Bureau of Agricultural Statistics (BAS), annual production of coconut dropped by 3.3 percent --
from 15.86 million metric tons (MT) in 2012 to 15.34 million MT last year.
In its latest Non-food and Industrial Crop Quarterly report, the BAS included the infestation of coconut trees as
one of the reasons for the decrease in production.
Coconut scale insects invade Zamboanga City

Dr. Carlito Robares, chief of the Crop Division of the Zamboanga City Agriculture Office, shows a leaf infected
with coconut scale insects, and coconut trees now dead due to infestation in the village of Baluno. (Mindanao
Examiner Photo - Ely Dumaboc) ZAMBOANGA CITY (Mindanao Examiner / June 12, 2014) The invasive
species of coconut scale insects have already reached Zamboanga City in the southern Philippines and agriculture
officials expressed alarm over the infestation that is now threatening fruit trees.

Dr. Carlito Robares, chief of the Crop Division of the Zamboanga City Agriculture Office, said the infestation has
affected the village of Baluno after the insects attacked not only coconut, but other fruit trees such as Lanzones
(Lansium domesticum).

He said the same species have wrought havoc in nearby Basilan province, particularly in Isabela City where more
than half of its 33 villages where huge plantations of coconuts and rubber, and Lanzones were infected with
coconut scale insects.

Robares said they are monitoring other villages in Zamboanga City and has urged farmers and village officials to
take immediate actions or coordinate with the agriculture office to prevent the spread of the infestation.

We are now working double time here and this is very alarming now because the coconut scale insects have
reached Zamboanga City where there are many plantations not only of coconut, but various fruit trees, he told
the regional newspaper Mindanao Examiner.

The Philippine Coconut Authority has previously warned that the coconut scale insect infestation in Basilan may
spread to other areas. It has formed an inter-agency task force to address the worsening problem brought about
by the infestation in Basilan, one of 5 provinces under the Muslim autonomous region.

Rudy Corsame, the PCA provincial manager, said the task force involves various government agencies such as the
Basilan Agriculture Office, the Coast Guard, the Philippine National Police, the Maritime Industry Authority,
Department of Labor and Employment, and the Bureau of Plant Industry, among others.

He said the Task Force CSI (coconut scale insects) will quarantine all plants and seedlings coming to Basilan - one
of five provinces under the Muslim autonomous region - to ensure that no invasive species of insects such as the
coconut scale would be able to enter the island.

Efren Carba, the PCA provincial coconut development manager, said the invasive species of coconut scale have
destroyed over 76,000 coconut trees in Isabela City in Basilan alone. He said they are yet to receive funding to
control if not eradicate the coconut scale infestation in the Basilan.

The same infestation has ravaged the provinces of Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Rizal, and Quezon all in Luzon
Island and officials were trying to determine how the insects (Aspidiotus Rigidus) managed to find its way to

Carba said the infestation of the coconut scale is at the moment within Basilan and there were no reports of
attacks on coconut plantations in Sulu and Tawi-Tawi provinces, and also Zamboanga Sibugay, Zamboanga del Sur
and Zamboanga del Norte, all in western Mindanao.

He said pests attack the leaves and fruits of coconut trees and there were reports that mangoes, bananas ang other
fruit trees are also at risk of infestation in Basilan. He said there were other species of coconut scale in Basilan, but
not the same species bow wrecking havoc to coconut plantations in the province and in Luzon.

Carba said the life cycle of a coconut scale insect - a small, flat, yellowish scale with a semitransparent or whitish,
waxy covering - is 30-32 days with each insect can spawn up to 50 eggs in just one week. Eggs are laid under the
scale cover and hatch into a stage called crawlers that are dispersed by the wind, on clothing of people, or on the
feet of birds and other flying animals.

He said they are now using biological and chemical spray to kill the insects and stop the spread of the infestation.
He said the species Aspidiotus destructor is endemic in Basilan and a minor pest of coconut, but the newly
reported, Aspidiotus rigidus, is invasive and causing outbreaks and not known to be present before in the
province. (Ely Dumaboc)

PCA puts Bicol under watch vs coconut scale insect infestation
May 13, 2014 10:33 am
LEGAZPI CITY, May 12 - The Philippine Coconut Authority (PCA) has placed Bicol under watch against the
possibility that the massive scale insect infestation wreaking havoc on the coconut industry in nearby southern
Tagalog provinces may reach the region.
Recent reports said coconut scale insect (CSI) infestation in the Southern Luzon provinces of Batangas, Cavite,
Laguna and Quezon has reached alarming levels which when not contained immediately might spread up to Bicol.
According to the Philippine Coconut Authority (PCA), CSI, also known as Aspidiotus destructor Signoret
(Hemiptera: Diaspididae), are small insects which are plant parasites that usually cause problems not only in
coconut nurseries and young palms but also in those that are already bearing nuts.
They have been observed underneath coconut leaves in young palms, and in affected bearing palms, the insects are
found not only on the underside of the leaves but also on the surface of the fruits and petioles.
These insect pests cause yellowing or chlorosis, wilting, premature nutfall and low yield because it continuously
siphons off the plant sap with their specialized mouth parts.
Thick sooty molds grow on the honeydew excreted by these insects, preventing photosynthesis, and in the process,
coconut trees die because CSI block leaf pores, preventing leaves from producing nutrients for the tree.
The insect is dispersed by wind and its enigmatic nature, which is very small and remains undetected for long
periods during which it rapidly multiplies before infested leaves show signs of yellowing, is a big problem being
encountered by PCA.
Fortunately so far, coconut palms in Camarines Norte, the Bicol province closest to Quezon Province, have been
tested negative to SCI, Mateo Zipagan, PCA regional manager for Bicol based here, on Monday said.
While our wish is for these insects in its currently infested Tagalog provinces to be contained the soonest possible
time and that the do not reach any part of Bicol, our office is not letting its guard loose so that in case they
spread down to the region, we can readily act against them, Zipagan said.
PCA has solutions in containing the pest that is now being applied in the Southern Tagalog provinces like the
release of predatory coccinellids (Cryptolemus and Telsimia) beetles that eat scale insects in the affected areas.

Scale insects infest coco trees in 9 Batangas towns

MANILA, Philippines - Coconut plantations in nine towns in Batangas are still grappling with scale insect
infestation but efforts have made to control the spread of the insects, according to the Philippine Coconut
Authority (PCA).
PCA Administrator Euclides Forbes said his agency has put up five laboratories for the mass rearing of predators
to be used as biocontrol agents and for the field testing of both chemical and non-chemical pest control agents.
Forbes said the affected coconut plantations in Batangas comprise less than one percent of the total 350 million
trees nationwide.
We are now increasing interventions and many have joined in the fight against the infestation. This effort is to
prevent the spread of the infestation to other areas and prevent damage to young coconuts, he said.
The towns affected by the scale insect infestation are Tanauan, Calaca, Lemery, Sto. Tomas, Malvar, Agoncillo,
Talisay, Laurel, and Balete. The average infestation rate in these areas is placed at 31.25 percent.
The government has so far spent P5.2 million to reduce the population of the coconut scale insects that have
spread in the nine towns since May.
Nation ( Article MRec ), pagematch: 1, sectionmatch: 1
The PCA has asked farmers to limit the use of pesticides on coconut trees to prevent adverse effects on the nuts,
and instead spray vinegar or liquid soap on the infected trees.
The scale insects attacking coconut trees in Batangas feed on sap drawn from the plants vascular system, resulting
in the yellowing of leaves.
Thousands of predator coccinellid insects have been released to control the population of the scale insects.
Experts believe it would take three years before the coconut trees in Batangas could return to their normal
production capacity.

Scale insect infestation solution

Scale insects are killing the coconut industry. We offer a four-part solution that we reported at a May 12 Senate
Agriculture Committee hearing chaired by Senator Cynthia Villar.
Many insights were gotten from Alyansa Agrikultura members such as Centro Saka (Omi Royandoyan: 0917-
5286001), and Coconut Industry Reform Movement (Joey Faustino: 0917-8205027), as well as scientists such as the
UPLB Volunteers to Fight Scale Insects (former UPLB Agriculture Dean Ayds Adalla: 0920-9009104).
Only P50 million out of the Department of Agricultures (DA) 2014 budget of P65 billionor less than 1/10 of 1
percenthas been allocated to address this unfolding agricultural disaster. At an earlier briefing, it was reported
that the scale insects had reached 46 municipalities in Calabarzon and travel at 0.4 kilometer per month. These
numbers should be reviewed. These insects have already penetrated Region 1 (e.g. Ilocos Norte) and Region 3 (e.g.
Bulacan). Furthermore, they have also attacked banana and mangosteen plants, and have already been found
infesting the ornamental palms in Greenbelt, Makati.
In response to this massive infestation, the government has provided a measly total of 225 sprayers. Why so few?
The coconut farmers have been contributing all these years to a coconut levy that has reached at least P90 billion
today. Now that the farmers need resources to survive, not one centavo is coming from this levy. This is indeed a
travesty of justice.
LGU involvement
The Local Government Autonomy Code stipulates that it is now the local government unit (LGU), not the DA, that
is primarily responsible for agricultural development. But the DA has failed to give the LGUs the support they
need to stop this agricultural decline.
Other countries cordon off an identified area and simultaneously destroy the insects. Here, we do it municipality
by municipality. The insects therefore just escape to the adjoining municipality, ironically hastening the infestation
spread. When the first municipality has finished its action, some of these escaped insects just return, with the
resulting double infestation. Indeed, the LGUs should be more involved in planning and implementing these
measures. Adjoining LGUs and communities should likewise participate so that they can take the necessary
preventive actions.
Some LGUs are being dissuaded from declaring their communities as calamity areas. One department official
stated that it might impact our coconut exports. Other agencies say that it might tarnish our governments
reputation. But by being so dissuaded, LGUs will not get the necessary attention, and will be deprived of additional
resources given to calamity areas.
Task force composition
The Coconut Scale Insect (CSI) Task Force is chaired by the PCAs Calabarzon regional director. It is composed of
government agencies and business organizations, some of which have vested interests. On the other hand, not a
single farmer representative has been included.
The insect infestation is akin to the deadly germ warfare banned by international bodies. Because of the severity of
this problem which is impacting other regions and crops, this task force should now be headed by an agriculture
undersecretary, with at least one farmer representative. This way, the task force will be able to address this crisis
more comprehensibly.
Organic law implementation
Chemical pesticides are being recommended to address the scale insects. If unnecessary, their use will adversely
affect our coconut exports which are currently chemical free. We may then not be able to export any longer our
high-value organic coconut products, such as virgin coconut oil, coconut water and coconut sugar. There are at
least four companies offering organic non-chemical solutions which can be sprayed over an identified quarantine
area that will simultaneously kill these scale insects and consequently stop their spread.
However, this cannot be done quickly because organic products have to be approved by the Fertilizer and Pesticide
Authority (FPA), whose procedures are appropriate only for chemical products. Not only are these the wrong
procedures; they also take too much time to address an emergency crisis.
This current practice also violates the Agriculture Organic Law, which states that it is the Bureau of Agriculture
Fisheries Product Standards, not the FPA, that should do organic product certification. This should be corrected
immediately. There is no time to lose during this crisis.
Frustrated farmers
The coconut farmers have contributed to a P90-billion coconut levy that is doing nothing to help them in their
hour of need. But even if government authorities choose to leave this levy untouched, it can still implement the
four-part solution that is identified here. It is high time the government does its job of saving our coconut
industry and our coconut farmers. Otherwise, we will have the opposite of inclusive growth.

4. What are the preventive measures to avoid Cocolisap?

"We are already looking for sustainable long term solutions such as biological control which takes time to be
established and be effective, for the reason that natural enemies become absent as a result of extreme conditions
such as drought and typhoons," Forbes bared. He also added that PCA already released 700 individuals of
predatory coccinellids (Cryptolemus and Telsimia), beetles that eat scale insects in the affected areas. It will be
done continuously until all scale insects in the affected areas have been treated.
PCA is also pursuing the mechanical control. In young palms, the scale insects and mealybugs can be controlled
manually by scraping them off or spraying them off with a jet of soapy water. Washing infested plant parts or a
brisk wash spray of water can be helpful in reducing populations, particularly in cases of small infestations and/or
in young palms. Administrator Forbes also added that part of this mechanical control is leaf pruning and disposal
of pruned leaves by burning, reducing the reproducing population of the scale insects and mealybugs and prevents
the spread to other areas.
Chemical control with contact or systemic insecticides can be used but is effective only for the 'crawler' stage of
the pest (or the very young scale insect). Furthermore, the use of insecticide spraying is applicable only for young
palms and seedlings. "It is important to select appropriate insecticides, timing and application methods to reduce
negative impact on the natural enemies but still get maximum control," he noted.

5. What are the Biological Methods to be applied to prevent Cocolisap?

Biological control which takes time to be established and be effective, for the reason that natural enemies become
absent as a result of extreme conditions such as drought and typhoons," Forbes bared. He also added that PCA
already released 700 individuals of predatory coccinellids (Cryptolemus and Telsimia), beetles that eat scale insects
in the affected areas. It will be done continuously until all scale insects in the affected areas have been treated.

6. What are the factors might influence a change in the population?

The growing condition of the trees is also a factor in scale development. Trees in thrifty growing condition
with a high percentage of green leaves are more suitable for scale development than trees that are hard or have a
large percentage of bronzed and frenched leaves.

Seasonal conditions also play an important part in scale development. During the past three years scales have
increased very materially between October and February, a period when scale development is ordinarily slow.