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ASSESSMENT OF ACCESSIBILITY, AVAILABLITY

AND CONSUMPTION OF DRINKING WATER IN


HARAMAYA TOWN , EAST HARARGHE ZONE OF
OROMIA NATIONAL REGIONAL STATE, EAST
ETHIOPIA

BY:
 HAKIM YUSUF

A Research Proposal Submitted to the Department of


Environmental Health, Faculty of Continuous and Distance
Education, Summer in Service Program, Haramaya University
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Degree of
Bachelor of Science in Environmental Health (BSc)

July 2009
Harar, Ethiopia
ASSESSMENT OF ACCESSIBILITY, AVAILABLITY
AND CONSUPTION OF DRINKING WATER IN
HARAMAYA TOWN, EAST HARARGHE ZONE OF
OROMIA NATIONAL REGIONAL STATE, EAST
ETHIOPIA

BY:
 HAKIM YUSUF

Advisor: Binyam Negussie (BSc)

July 2009
Harar, Ethiopia
Abstract

Background: Water is one of the basic necessities of life. It is impossible to survive


longer with out water. Around 97% of the total water coverage is not immediately
available to human use. Only 0.8% of the total water is useful for domestic purpose of
human life. Globally more than one billion people lack access to clean and safe water.
Due to this problem around five million people are died every year associated with water
related disease & makes it is among one of the leading three of top ten diseases in out
patient department. In Ethiopia, water supply coverage was estimated around 36.7% with
urban coverage of 82.5% and only 24.2% in rural since 2004.
Objective: To assess accessibility of water, its consumption, availability and other
related factors in Haramaya town.
Method: Community based cross-sectional study will be employed in six ketenas out of
fourteen ketena of the town from 10/7/2009 to 30/11/2009. The study will be conducted
in 389 HH which is selected using systematic sampling technique and distributed to each
randomly selected six ketenas proportionally. Interview will be conducted with the head
or spouse of the HH using a structured and pre-tested questionnaire & check list will also
used during observation. Data will be summarized in tables and analyzed manually using
scientific calculators.
Expectation: The study will be expected to find out relevant accessibility, consumption
and other water related findings of the town. Conclusion and recommendation will be
drawn based on the result obtained from the study and help in solving water related
problems of the town through providing scientific data to improve their program.
Budget: A total budget needed for the study is 14962.00. Including, 7620 for personnel
cost, 1140 for transportation cost, 2745 for stationery cost and 712.50 for contingency.
The study will be conducted from 10/7/2009 to 30/11/2009 in two kebeles of Haramaya
town.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT

I would like to thanks Haramaya University in the first place, I would also thanks my
adviser Ato Biniyam Negussie for his best comment and constructive ideas. I would also
express my deepest gratitude to Haramaya town health office, Haramaya town
municipality and Haramaya health center staffs for supporting me in stationery,
transportation, typing the draft and delivering the town’s information. I will also never
forget my friends and my collegeus who put their efforts and contribute on fruitful ideas
& information for the success of this research proposal.
TABLE OF CONTENT

Abstract----------------------------------------------------------------------I
Acknowledgement---------------------------------------------------------II
Table of contents-----------------------------------------------------------III
List of tables----------------------------------------------------------------IV
Acronyms--------------------------------------------------------------------V
1. Introduction---------------------------------------------------------------1
1.1Back ground----- --------------------------------------------------------1
1.2 Statement of problem --------------------------------------------------3
1.3 Significance of the study ----------------------------------------------4
2. Literature review----------------------------------------------------------5
3. Objectives------------------------------------------------------------------8
4. Methodology---------------------------------------------------------------9
4.1Study area and population-----------------------------------------------9
4.1.1. Study area--------------------------------------------------------------9
4.1.2. Source population-----------------------------------------------------9
4.1.3. Study population------------------------------------------------------ 9
4.2 Study design and period------------------------------------------------- 9
4.3 Sampling techniques and sample size --------------------------------10
4.4 Data collection method--------------------------------------------------11
4.5. Data processing and analysis-------------------------------------------12
4.6. Data quality management-----------------------------------------------12
4.7. Study variables-----------------------------------------------------------13
4.8. Operational definition---------------------------------------------------14
4.9. Ethical consideration----------------------------------------------------15
5. Plan of utilization of the study--------------------------------------------15
6. Work plan--------------------------------------------------------------------16
7. Budget------------------------------------------------------------------------17
8. Reference--------------------------------------------------------------------19
9. Annexes (Questionnaire) --------------------------------------------------21
(Dummy table)--------------------------------------------------29
LIST OF TABLES

Table 1 Distribution of the major socio-demographic characteristics of the studied


population on availability of water. July 2009 Haramaya------------------------------------ 29
Table 2. Distribution of the study subject by their number of source, frequency of
water supply and other factors. July 2009, Haramaya---------------------------------30

Table 3. Distribution of the accessibility and adequacy of water over the study
subject. July 2009, Haramaya. -----------------------------------------------------------31
Table 4. Distribution of the house hold and personal consumption of water over
the study subject. July 2009, Haramaya. -----------------------------------------------31
Table 5. Distribution of the study subject in terms of their temporary storage and
collecting equipments. July 2009, Haramaya. -----------------------------------------32
Table 6. Distribution of the cost of water over the study subject. July 2009,
Haramaya. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------32
Table 7. Association of income and family size with having pipe line or well in the
study subject. July 2009, Haramaya. ----------------------------------------------------33
Table 8. Association of type of water source of house hold with level of protection
in the study subject. July 2009, Haramaya. --------------------------------------------33
Table 9. Association of type of water source of house hold with level of protection
in the study subject. July 2009, Haramaya----------------------------------------------34
Acronyms

ADF ----------------------------------------- African development fund


GOE ---------------------------------------- Government of Ethiopia
HEW ---------------------------------------- Health extension worker
HHC ----------------------------------------- Haramaya Health center
HH ------------------------------------------- House hold
Ho -------------------------------------------- Health officer
Km ------------------------------------------- Kilo meter
Lt -------------------------------------------- Liter
L/c/d ---------------------------------------- Liter per capita par day
MOH --------------------------------------- Ministry of health
MDGs -------------------------------------- Millennium development goals
MWR --------------------------------------- Ministry of water resource
NGO ---------------------------------------- Non government organization
NWSSP ------------------------------------ National water supply & sanitation program
RHB ---------------------------------------- Regional health bureau
SNNPR ------------------------------------ Southern nation and nationality peoples region
UNICEF ----------------------------------- united Nations children’s fund
USA --------------------------------------- United states of America
USD --------------------------------------- United states dollar
WASH ------------------------------------ Water supply, sanitation and hygiene
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Back ground
Water is one of the basic necessities of life with constituting around 60% of the body cell.
It is essential for growth, development and creation of life. Including human being every
life in the earth could not exist longer with out water. Water is the most widely occurring
natural resource occupying over 72% of the earths surface. Regarding its distribution
97% of the total water coverage is not immediately available to human use, including a
polar ice cap which is about 2% of the water body. Useful water of the earth is only about
0.8% of the total which distribute unevenly over the world. (1)
There are four types of water sources which is found to be necessary for human use.
These includes ground water like wells and springs, surface water including rivers,
streams, lakes, dums and ponds which is supplied for the large community by pipe and
other means of transportation after treated for its impurity. The rest source includes rain
water which is collected over impermeable and non-absorbent surfaces for use and sea
water which is suitable for use after removing the salt through desalination and delivered
to public. (2)
Water supply is varying from place to place and defined according to the satisfaction of
the communities. In much of rural Africa, a hand pipe 500 meter from the house hold is a
luxury, but most residents in urban Latin America would not consider them selves served
by a water supply unless they had a house connection. In Asia, urban planners would
consider a community as a served if they were sufficient stand posts on the street corner.
(3)
Globally over one billion people lack access to clean and safe water; due to this
numerous of water related disease in developing countries kills around 5 million people
every year from which 6000 children were died every day. Global warming is
exacerbating these crises as sever, prolonged droughts were also dry up water supplies
and heavy rains causes sewage over flow. In terms of the sheer a number of people
affected and the lack of access to safe water is a massive problem. (4)
In Latin America coverage of water supply were different among countries; in Paraguay
only 37 – 50% of the population has access to potable water. In El Salvador 57% of the
country has access to clean water with 78% of urban population and 46% of rural
population separately. Concerning treatment only 2% of all municipal and industrial
discharges were receive some kind of treatment before reaching a receiving body of
water. About 90% of the country surface water is contaminated & unsafe for human
consumption. In Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Guatemala and Honduras only 39%, 84%, 78%
and 79% of their rural population had access to water supply respectively. (5)
The demand of water varies from place to place based on their standard of living and
degree of culture. For domestic purpose including; drinking, cooking, bathing washing
hands and HH sanitation is considered as a basic for daily requirements in every society.
In majority of developed nation daily requirements of water were rise more than 150
Lt/c/day, while in developing nations, especially sub-Saharan countries and rural areas of
Asia & South America the daily requirement were felt below these figures. (6)
According to the African development fund (ADF) 2004/2005 report Ethiopia is one of
the least in water supply coverage even compared with sub-Saharan Africa countries. The
report were also mentioned that, the country is planning to develop its water sector by
increasing rural water supply coverage from 24% to 45% in 2010, decrease water born
disease by half in 2015, minimize average distance to the water point from 3 Km to 1 Km
in 2010 and rise average per capita consumption from 10 Lt/c/day to 20 Lt/c/day in 2010
to achieve millennium development goals (MDGs) by the finance of government of
Ethiopia (GOE) and through support of other donors to address reasonable access and an
improved supply of water. (7)
1.2 Statement of problem
Daily life of human being is highly tied with the supply and utilization of water for
different purpose. It is impossible to have a sanitary environment with out water. Water is
important for cooking, drinking, promoting personal hygiene and in cleaning the
surrounding. Health can not maintained with out adequate and wholesome supply of
water for the community. The provision of clean, safe & adequate supply in the
community is there fore a vital importance in public health service.
Due to shortage and consumption of untreated & contaminated source water numerous
diseases were occurred and endangering human life. Water related disease is among the
leading of out patient morbidity in health institutions. Among these; water born infection
like cholera, typhoid, shigellosis and amoeba are affecting health & leading to
malnutrition. Other disease including skin infection and trachoma are caused due to
shortage of water. Chemical constitution in water either in excess or due to shortage, it
harms human health.
Impurities of water are affected as it goes through its natural cycle and man made
problems. Under ground water is polluted by minerals in the ground & other organic
substances including human excreta. Surface water polluted by organic and inorganic
substances including untreated sewage, factory waste products, animal wastes and others.
Rain water also affected by absorbed dusts & gases as it falls to ward the earth and its
reservoir or collecting equipments. Water also contaminated during collection from
source point, transportation, and handling.
In Ethiopia supply of water varies from place to place with urban residents has better
access when compared to the rural areas. Regarding consumption average daily
consumption per person were about 15 Lt/c/day which is inadequate compared with
standard. In Haramaya town water born disease were among the three leading of top ten
diseases according to 2007/2008 Haramaya health center reports. Haramaya town were
obtained drinking water from Haramaya Lake through municipal pipe previously. But
now due to sweep of the lake the town get water supply from temporary well constructed
apart from the lake through municipal pipe. Concerning supply coverage, access, level of
consumption and status of water collecting & storing equipment in the town there is no
data obtained. Therefore it is crucial to study with this regard.
1.3 Significance of the study

Disease occurred due to shortage and impurities of water are one of the primary public
health problems in our country and are responsible for increment of gross morbidity and
mortality rate .It also affects economic activity of the community. Women and older
children were spent much of their time in collecting water from distant sources when
shortage occurred. Due to water related illness most of the families in developing
countries spend their saving and capital asset for treating their member. Assessing supply,
consumption, access and method of storing of the community is crucial for the prevention
and control of water related diseases and relief burden of women & children. The studies
conducted at national level indicated that the supply of water varies from place to place
based on residence and consumption was low compared with other countries. However
there was no previous study done in Haramaya town with this regard. This study helps in
designing and modifying the town’s water supply program based on evidence and
contributes to the improvement in prevention & control of water born diseases.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
A study conducted in 2002 showed that, around 1.1 billion people have no access to safe
drinking water. According to the united nation report every day more than 6500 children
die from diarrhea illness. Many researches were also showed that, storing water in the
House hold leads to deterioration in quality because of increased recontamination in the
home. Due to poor handling and utilization of drinking water stored water become more
contaminated than the source one. (8)
A study conducted in San Julian, El Salvador South America showed that, most of the
population (96%) has access to the municipal water system; every HH connection is
metered and service is provided 24 hours per day. Similar study conducted in two rural of
Nicaragua showed that, water supply coverage in the area is 35%. Another case study
conducted in Marinilla, North west Colombia indicated that water supply coverage were
reaching 99% of the population with all metered connection & provided service of 24
hours a day. (9)
A study conducted in Honduras, Latin America since 2004 indicated that, 79% of the
people have access to drinking water. According to this study rural population of the
country has supplied with different source points including; piped connection 63.2%,
public tap 6.5%, public well with hand pipe 4%, public well with out hand pipe 4.4%,
purchased from tank 0.6%, and use unprotected source 21.3%. (10)
Studies done in Colombia showed that, potable water coverage were about 76% and
supply has increased significantly over a decades. According to this study around 10
million people (24%) still lack access to water service and only 5% of the population has
access to waste water treatment. It is also estimated that only 60% of water distributed in
urban area meets the standard defined by Colombian ministry of health. Comparing urban
and rural areas there is a difference in water supply coverage; in urban average water
coverage were 90%, while in rural areas average coverage were remains 44% with poor
quality of service. (11)
According to WHO, 1993 census in Saudi Arabia 97% of urban area had covered with
water supply, with an average consumption of 200-280 liter per capita per day, similar
like that of USA and cost of water supply were provided almost for free. In rural area
only 63% of the population had access to improved source of water supply. According to
a 2004 study of Elie Elhdj from school of oriental and Africa studies, one half of Saudi
Arabia house holders still have no municipal water connection. Discontinuity of the
service was also among the serious problem. (12)
A study conducted in developing community of South Africa to examine the relation ship
between quality of water and health out comes in 300 HH showed that more than one
third of the population used communal tap water and significant contamination occurred
during handling and storage of water compared to the point of source. (13)
A study done in Ethiopia showed that, national water supply coverage in 2004 was
estimated at 36.7% with urban water supply coverage estimated at 82.5% and rural water
supply were at 24.2% which indicates that among the lowest in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Access close to home is also low in urban with only 4% of the urban population having
access to in-house supplies and another 23% having access to water in their own yard,
while the rest depend on communal supplies. Recent studies showed that, water
consumption in urban area is also low with averaging 15 Lt/c/day, due to the price for
collecting it both in terms of the time & money spent. The survey also showed that, the
larger the town, the higher the number of HHs with access to safe supplies of water. (14)
According to the studies conducted in rural part of Ethiopia in 2004 indicated that, an
average per capita water consumption were about 10 Lt/c/day and average distance to the
nearest water point were also 3 km with an average travel time of 3 hrs for women and
children. The study also showed that 33% of the rural water services are established to be
non-functional due to lack of funds for repairing and maintenance. (15)
A study conducted in different region of Ethiopia revealed that rural water supply
coverage is lowest in the smaller, lower capacity and drier low-lying region of Somalia
(7%), Gambella(14%), Benishangul (18%), and Harari (19%) and higher in the large &
higher capacity high land region of Amhara (23%), SNNPR (24%), Oromia (25%) &
Tigrai (25%). The study also showed that, 8 million nomadic people who live in arid &
semi-arid low lands of Afar and Somali region, Borena zone of Oromia region, and
Debub Omo zone of SNNPR were among the worst affected areas. (16)
A community based cross-sectional study conducted in Nekemte, Western Ethiopia from
October 15 – November 26, 2007 to asses the relation ship between hygienic behavior of
maternal care giving and the occurrence of diarrhea in children. According to these study
from 477 selected HH, majority of them 88.3% used covered container during
transportation of drinking water from the sources & only a small proportion 11.7% did
not cover their drinking water container during transportation to their home. Further
more, 94.1% of them has separate storage container and 94.3% cover their storage
container in the home. Regard drawing method 80.5% draw water by pouring and 19.5%
draw water from the storage container by drawing. (17)
Many studies were conducted in different part of Ethiopia on water handling practice and
sanitation behavior, a study conducted in 2003 at Agaro town of Jimma zone showed
that, 83% of the respondents use cover material during transportation & 83.7% of them
store water at home. Also 75.6% of the HH practice dipping method to draw water from
container. Another study conducted in Jimma town since 1997 showed that, only 58% of
the respondents cover the collection container during transportation to their house, 85%
rinse/wash the container before collection and 52.5% used dipping cup with handle &
42.5% with out handle to draw water from the container. (18)
3. OBJECTIVES

3.1 General Objective


• To assess availability of drinking water, accessibility, its consumption
and other related factors in Haramaya town.
3.2 Specifies objectives
• To assess availability of drinking water in the area from 10/7/2009 to
30 /11/2009.
• To assess consumption of water in the area.
• To assess accessibility of water in the area.
• To assess adequacy of drinking water in the area.
• To assess water handling practice of the house holds.
• To assess cleanliness of temporarily stored drinking water.
4. METHODOLOGY

4.1 Study area and population


4.1.1 Study area
The study will be conducted in Haramaya town East Hararghe Zone of Oromia national
regional state which is located 485 km from Addis Ababa and 18 km from zonal capital
town, Harar. According to the 1999 popopulation & housing census projection, the
town’s population is estimated to be 27000. There is also 5626 HH in 2 kebeles of the
town. Each kebele divided in to seven ketenas. Majorities of the residents are Oromo and
Muslim. The town is bordering with Haramaya University in North and with Haramaya
woreda kebeles in East, West & South. The main road from Addis Ababa to Harar and
from Dire Dawa to Harar passes through the center of the town. The town is mainly
“weynadega” in its climatic condition with annual average temperature ranging from 10
to 25 degree Celsius and the annual rainfall ranging from 118 to 816 ml. its altitude
ranging 1700 - 2100 meters above sea level. The town has one health centre, seven
private clinics and six rural drug vendors.

4.1.2 Source population


All House holds found in Haramaya town.

4.1.3 Study population


All House holds found in selected ketenas.

4.1.4 Sampling unit


All selected House holds in each six ketenas
.
4.2 Study design and period
A descriptive community based cross-sectional study will be employed from 10/7/2009
to 30/11/2009.
4.3 Sample size and sampling technique
The sample size is calculated using a single population proportion formula
n = (Zα/2)2 .Pq, where
d2 n=sample size
P= Proportion
Zα/2 =confidence interval
d= margin of error
n = (1.96)2 x 0.36 x (1 – 0.36)
(0.05)2

= 3.8416 x 0.36 x 0.64


0.0025

= 354.04 + 35 (10% for non-response) = 389.04


Assuming 95% confidence interval, 5% margin of error and considering the proportion of
36 % from the national water supply coverage in 2004. The final sample size including
10% for non-response is 389 households.

4.4 Sampling procedure


A total of six ketenas (three from each kebele) were selected by lottery method and then
the calculated sample size were distributed to each selected ketenas based on their
proportion showing that; ketena two, three and six with sample size of 54 HH, 66 HH and
58 HH respectively from one kebele and ketena one, four & seven with their sample size
of 70 HH, 67 HH and 74 HH respectively from another kebele. The HH will be selected
using systematic sample technique by selecting the first house randomly and then go
every fixed interval.
4.5 Data collection technique
4.5.1 Data collection tools
A structured and pre-tested questionnaire will be used to collect quantitative data of
community survey. The question which is initially prepared in English will be translated
to Afan Oromo. The questionnaire are adopted from study on water supply and sanitation
in Jimma area and modified based on local setting. The question has 5 parts including:
socio- demographic, access & water supply related, water consumption related, affecting
factor related and questions filled during observation parts. Check list will also used for
observation parts.

4.5.2. Data Collectors


Six high school completed data collectors who have previous experience in data
collection and knowledge of the local language will collect the quantitative community
survey data. Two environmental health workers who have experience will supervise over
all activities of the data collection. Two days training will be given for each of the group
by senior environmental health worker and statistician regarding this activity.

4.5.3 Data collection process


Quantitative data will be collected by house to house survey. Interview will be conducted
with the spouse or head of the house or above 15 years old female children during the
absence of the spouse in the house. The interview will take 30-40 minutes and conducted
in the respondents preferred language. Temporary water collection equipment and private
water source in the compound will be inspected by data collectors for their cleanness.
Over all data collection process will take ten days.
4.6 Data processing and analysis
After cleaning & compiling the data, analysis will be performed manually using scientific
calculator. Univariant & bivariant analysis will be used to describe data and examine
association between essential variables. Simple descriptive statistics and other relevant
methods will also used to describe independent variables. Percentage, p-values and chi-
square tests will be determined where appropriate. For the presence or absence of
association between any appropriate variables of the study chi-square test will be
performed at a level of significance of 5% and p-value will used to decide whether the
observed difference is statistically significant or not. Tables & figures which support the
description will also be used.

4.7. Data quality management


The questionnaire developed based on objectives. Pre-test will be conducted in 5% of
sample size in adjacent kebeles. Modification and adjustment will be made on questions
and their responses based on lessons from the pretest. Before data collection three days
training including field practice will be given to data collectors by professionals.
Supervision will be conducted by experienced supervisors and 10% of the collected data
will also counter checked.
4.8 Study Variables
Dependent Variable
 Availability of water
 Consumption of water
 Adequacy of water
 Accessibility of water

Independent Variables
 Age
 Sex
 Knowledge
 Income
 Cost of water
 Type of water source (eg. Pipe, well, bono, etc)
 Water storing equipment
 Water drawing equipment
 Family size
 Water handling practice
4.9 Operational definition

Water: - is a clear colorless liquid, odorless and taste less when pure, that occurs as rain,
snow, and ice. It forms rivers, lakes, and seas and is essential for life. Naturally occurring
water picks up color and taste from substances in its environment.
Source of water: - is defined as the process of water delivery system to an area through
different mechanisms including; reservoirs, pipe, purified plants and etc.
Consumption of water:-is the amount of water used in daily bases per individual for
different purpose.
Adequacy: - is sufficient amount in quality or quantity to meet the need of human life.
Accessibility: - easily available, able to be obtained, used or experienced with out
difficulties.
Income: - is the revenue or benefit that an individual or house hold earns over a period of
time to change their life.
Cost: - is the amount of money to be paid to get some thing or the amount of money
spent in producing some thing.
Temporary storage of water: - is equipment used for storing water temporarily after
collecting from distribution site and before using for different purpose.
Domestic utilized purpose: - is the demand of water used in everyday life with in house
holds. It includes; drinking, cooking, bathing, washing hands and house hold sanitary
purposes. (For the purpose of this study only).
Water drawing equipment: - is equipment used for drawing water from storage
equipment for drinking and other HH purpose. (For the purpose of this study only).
Family size: - is the total number of people who live in the same (one) house hold
regardless of their age and sex.
Water handling practice: - is the way of keeping, using and managing of the daily bases
of house hold water. (for the purpose of this study only).
4.10 Ethical Considerations

Ethical clearance will obtain from ethical clearance committee of Haramaya University
faculty of hearth science; permission letter will obtain from Haramaya town municipality
and Hearth office. Verbal consent will also obtained from each respondent before
conducting interview and explanation of the purpose of the study will held. The
information obtained from each respondent will be kept confidentially.

5. Plan of utilization of the study

The study result will be used to improve health programs of the study area, there fore it
will be utilized by Haramaya town health office, Haramaya health center, Haramaya town
water office, East Hararghae zonal health office and regional health bureau & water
bureau to understand availability, consumption and access of water in the locality.
Haramaya university faculty of health science may also use this study as a literature and a
base line for further similar studies. Non governmental organization & other concerned
governmental line department will also use this study for planning and implementing
there programs.
The study involves Haramaya town health office, local community and other stake
holders for better applicability and utilization of the research result in the future. The
final result will be presented and distributed to any concerned bodies accordingly.
6. Work plan

NO. Activities Date (Duration) Responsible body Remark


1 Proposal development 10, July-5 Aug. Research conductor
2 Submission of proposal 7, Aug. Research conductor
3 Getting permission 10.- 15, Aug. Haramaya University
4 Printing questioner 1, Oct.-3, Oct. Research conductor
5 Recruiting and training of data 5, Oct.- 10 Oct. Research conductor
collector
6 Data collection 11, Oct – 18, Oct. Data collectors &
supervisors
7 Data compiling 20, Oct. -25, Oct. Research conductor
8 Data analysis 25 – 29, Oct. Research conductor
9 Report writing 30, Oct – 5, Nov. Research conductor
10 Submission of first draft to 10, Nov. Research conductor
advisor
11 Getting feed back 11–15, Nov. Advisor
12 Cleaning the report 17 – 20, Nov. Research conductor
13 Writing the final report 21 – 28, Nov. Research conductor
14 Submission of final research 30, Nov. Research conductor
paper to the department

7. Budget break down

I/ Personnel Cost
Category Activities No. of No. of Daily Total Remark
person days allowance cost
(Birr) (Birr)
Data collectors to collect data 6 10 50 3000
Supervisor to supervise over all activities 2 10 100 2000
of data collection
Trainer(tutor) to conduct training 2 3 200 1200
Driver To facilitate transportation 1 10 70 700
Secretary typing(writing) drafts 1 6 70 420
Other costs 300
(entertainment)
Sub total I 7620

II/ Transportation cost


Item Unit Needed Unit price Total cost Remark
amount
Fuel (Benzene) Liter 100 9 Birr 900 Birr
Lubricants (oil) Kilo gram 4 60 Birr 240 Birr
Sub total II 1140 Birr

III/ Stationery cost


Item Unit Needed Unit price Total cost Remark
amount
Duplicating paper Ream 8 60 Birr 480 Birr
Photocopy paper Ream 3 80 Birr 240 Birr
Stenencils Pack 1 200 Birr 200 Birr
Printer (computer) ink Tube 1 1000 Birr 1000 Birr
Duplicating ink Tube 4 70 Birr 280 Birr
Pencils Each 30 0.50 15 Birr
Ball pen Each 30 1 Birr 30 Birr
Clipboard Each 10 25 Birr 250 Birr
Writing pad Each 10 10 Birr 100 Birr
Other stationeries 150 Birr
Sub total III 2745 Birr

IV/ Budget cost breakdown summery


Category Total cost (Birr) Remark
Personnel cost 7620.00
Transportation cost 1140.00
Stationery cost 2745.00
5% Contingency 712.50
Grand total 14962.50

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12. Wikipedia, Water supply and sanitation in Saudi Arabia. 2009.
13. Genthe B, Strauss N, Vundule C, Maforah F, Seager J. The effect of water supply,
handling and usage on water quality: Urbanization and health news letter, 1995, Sep;
(26): 32 – 6.
14. African development bank appraisal report: Rular water supply and sanitation
program, June 2005.
15. MPDE matrix for short-term water supply and sanitation program: Rural water
supply and sanitation program, June 2005.
16. ADB appraisal report: Access to rural water supply and sanitation service, June
2005, 12 – 14.
17. Eshete W. A step wise regression analysis on under five diarrhea disease
morbidity: East African journal of public health, vol.5, No.3, Dec., 2008, 193– 8.
18. Eshete W. A stepwise regression analysis on under five diarrhea morbidity in
Western Ethiopia: Maternal care giving & hygiene behavior determinants. African
journal of public health, vol. 5, no. 3, Dec. 2008, 193-198.
This questioner is developed by Haramaya University, faculty of health science student for
the purpose of community based water supply survey. The information gets from respondent
will kept confidentially and use can quit the interview when ever you like if not comfortable
for you.
Part I. Socio-demographic chacterstics
Respondent information
Age--------- Sex------- Responsibility------------------
101. Total member of the house hold --------
102. Sex distribution of the family member
1. Male
2. Female
103. Age distribution of the family member
1. Under one year
2. 1-4 year
3. 5-14 year
4. 15-49 year
5. above 50 years
104. Educational status
1. Can’t read and write
2. Informal education
3. 1-4 grade
4. 5-8 grade
5. 9-12 grade
6. 12+
105. Occupation of head
1. Farmer
2. Merchants
3. Gov’t employee
4. Other (specify)

106. House hold income per month


1. Less than 300 Birr
2. 300-800 Birr
3. 801-1200 Birr
4. above 1200 Birr

107. Ethnicity
1. Oromo
2. Amhara
3. Other (specify)
108. Religion
1. Muslim
2. Christian
77. Other (specify)

Part II. Availability of water and access related questions


201. Do you have water source in your compound
1. Yes
2. No
202. If yes, type of source
1. Pipe
2. Well water
3. Rain water
77. Other (specify)
203. If no, where do you get water
1. Buying from other pipe
2. Buying from public stand (bono)
3. Buying well water
77. Other (specify)

204. How far do you go for searching of water


1. Less than 200 meter
2. 201-500 meter
3. 501-1000 meter
4. Greater than 1000 meter
205. Do you get water supply regularly
1. Yes
2. No
206. If no, how frequent do you get
1. Every other day
2. Twice a week
3. Once a week
4. Once for more than a week
207. During rush out (absence) of water, where do you get
1. Buying from other place
2. Using well water
3. Buying from bono
77. Other (specify)
208. Number of public water stand (Bono) in the ketena
---------------
Part III. Water consumption related questions
301. How much water consumed in your house per day
1. 20 litter
2. 40 liter
3. 60 liter
4. 80 liter
77. Other (specify)
302. Specific consumption per day in your HH
1. For cooking ----------Lt.
2. For hand & face washing ----------Lt.
3. For drinking -----------Lt.
4. For utensil washing -----------Lt.
5. For HH sanitation -----------Lt.
6. For other -----------Lt.

303. How frequent your HH clothes are washed


1. Twice a week
2. Once a week
3. Once every two weeks
77. Other (specify)

304. Amount of water utilized for HH cloth washing


1. 40 Lt.
2. 60 Lt.
3. 80 Lt.
77. Other (specify)
305. Personal bathing habit
1. Every day
2. Every other day
3. Once a week
77. Other (specify)
306. How much water do you use when bathing
1. 10 Lt.
2. 20 Lt.
3. 30 Lt.
77. Other (specify)
307. Amount used for your daily drinking including for chat chewing
1. Two Lt.
2. Three Lt.
3. Four Lt.
77. Other (specify)

308. Amount used for your hand & face washing including for praying (salat)
1. Two Lt.
2. Three Lt.
3. Four Lt.
77. Other (specify)
309. More water consumed sex group
1. Male
2. Female
3. Both equal
98. Don’t know
310. More water consumed age group
1. Children
2. School age group
3. Adult
4. Old age
98. Don’t know
311. Do you get adequate water
1. Yes
2. No

Part IV. Water affecting factor related questions


401. Where do you store water temporarily after collection
1. In kitchen
2. In the house
3. Out side
77. Other (specify)
402. Equipment used for temporary storage
1. Plastic jar
2. Bucket
3. Barrel
77. Other (specify)
403. How frequent do you collect water from distribution site
1. Every other day
2. Once a day
3. Twice a day
77. Other (specify)
404. Do you use separate equipment for pouring/drawing water
1. Yes
2. No
405. Type of equipment used for drawing water
1. with handle
2. without handle
77. Other (specify)
406. Why don’t you have a pipe line (for those not having pipe line)
1. Can’t afford cost
2. Because of long procedure
3. Have access of water in near by
77. Other (specify)
407. How much do you pay for 20 Lt. of water (private pipe, bono, well)
1. 25 cents
2. 50 cents
3. 1 Birr
77. Other (specify)
408. Cost of water service requested by municipality (for pipe water only)
1. Cheep
2. Fair
3. Costy
98. Don’t know

Part V. Question filled by interviewer observation


501. Does water source in the compound is protected
1. Yes
2. No
502. Distance of well water from latrine
1. Far enough
2. Close
3. Too close
503. Is there leakage or visible contamination surrounding the pipe line
1. Yes
2. No
504. Does temporary water stored equipment is clean
1. Yes
2. No

505. Does temporarily stored water has clean


1. Yes
2. No

THANK YOU FOR YOUR COOPERATION

Check list used by interviewer during observation


Please use this check list during observation and answer the list by circling yes for positive
result & no for negative result.
1. Type of water source in the compound
A/ Is there pipe water in the compound yes no
B/ Is there well water in the compound yes no
C/ Is there stored rain water in the compound yes no
2. Well water
A/ Is well water had cover during observation yes no
B/ Is drawing equipment hanged in clean place yes no
C/ Is there possibility of interance of flood in the well yes no
D/ Is the latrine constructed on the upper side well yes no
E/ Is distance of the latrine close to the well (< 60 meter) yes no
3. Rain water
A/ Is rain water stored in clean equipment during observation yes no
B/ Does the equipment had cover during observation yes no
C/ Is visible dirty in water during observation yes no
4. Pipe line
A/ Is there leakage of pipe line in the compound yes no
B/ Is there stagnant water around the pipe yes no
C/ Is there dirty in the main stand pipe yes no
5. Water collecting and storing equipment
A/ Does collecting equipment is clean yes no
B/ Does storing equipment is clean yes no
6. Cleanness of temporarily stored water
A/ Is there visible dirty in stored water yes no
B/ Is possibility of contamination during drawing/pouring yes no
C/ Water stored in clean equipment yes no
D/ Is covered during observation yes no
E/ Possibility of contact by domestic animal yes no

Table 1. Distribution of major socio-demographic characteristics of the study


subject. July 2009, Haramaya.

Socio-demographic characteristics
Age category No. %
< 1 years
1-4 years
5-14 years
15-49 years
>50 years
Total
Sex
Male
Female
Total
Occupation
Farmers
Merchants
Gov’t employee
Other
Total
Educational status
No read and write
1 -4 grade
5-8 grade
9-12 grade
12 +
Total
Income
< 300 Birr/month
300-800 Birr/month
801-1200 Birr/month
> 1200 Birr/month
Total
Religious group
Muslims
Christians
Total
Ethnic group: Oromo
Amahara
Other
Total
Table 2. Distribution of the study subject by their number of supply, frequency of
water supply and other factors. July 2009, Haramaya

Variables Number %
Supply:
Private pipe water supply
Public (Bono) water supply
Well water supply
Other supply
Total
Frequency of pipe water supply:
Those who get every day
Those who get twice or more a week
Those who get once a week
Those who did not get even once a week
Total
Cause for not having pipe line:
High cost
Complaining procedure
Other supply option
Other reasons
Total
Table 3. Distribution of the accessibility and adequacy of water over the study
subject. July 2009, Haramaya.
Variables Number %
Access:
Those who have source in their compound
Those who get water with in 200meter off their
compound
Those who search water beyond 200meter
Total
Adequacy:
Those who get adequate water
Those who did not get adequate water
Total

Table 4. Distribution of the house hold and personal consumption of water


over the study subject. July 2009, Haramaya.
Average HH consumption Liter %
For cooking purpose per day
For hand & face washing per day
For drinking per day
For utensil washing per day
For house & compound sanitation per day
For cloth washing in one session
Total
Average personal consumption
For bathing
For drinking & other related purpose per day
For hand & face washing per day
Total
Table 5. Distribution of the study subject in terms of their temporary storage
and collecting equipments. July 2009, Haramaya.
Variables Yes No Total
Temporarily stored water:
Stored in good place
Used clean storage equipment
Stored water with cover
Collecting & temporary storing equipment:
Plastic jar
Bucket
Barrel
Others

Table 6. Distribution of the cost of water over the study subject. July 2009,
Haramaya.
Average cost of water Cents/Birr
20 Lt. of water from private pipe
20 Lt. of water from public stand (Bono)
20 Lt. of water from wells
20 Lt. of water from other source

Table 7. Association of income and family size with having pipe line or well
in the study subject. July 2009, Haramaya.
Variables Had pipe or No pipe or Total
well well
Income:
High income
Middle income
Low income
Total
Family size:
Large family size
Small family size
Total

Table 8. Association of type of water source of house hold with level of


protection in the study subject. July 2009, Haramaya.
Variables Protected Not protected Total
Pipe water
Wells water
Other source
Total

Table 9. Association of level of consumption with age, sex and family size
over the study subject. July 2009, Haramaya.
Variables High Low Total
consumption consumption
Age group:
Children
Adolescent

Adult
Old age
Total
Sex group:
Male
Female
Total
Family size:
Large family
Small family
Total