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Modified Sine wave UPS

Submitted by:

Ali Ibrahim 2007-Elect-204
Ahsan Mubashir 2007-Elect-203
Bilal Ahmed 2007-Elect-132


Supervised by:

Mr. Syed Ali Mohsin


Department of Electrical Engineering
University of Engineering and Technology Lahore





Modified Sine wave UPS

Submitted to the faculty of the Electrical Engineering Department of the University of
Engineering and Technology Lahore in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree
of

Bachelor of Science

In

Electrical Engineering.





________________ _____________________

Internal Examiner External Examiner





________________________

Director
Undergraduate Studies






Department of Electrical Engineering
University of Engineering and Technology Lahore




i


Declaration

We declare that the work contained in this thesis is our own, except where explicitly stated
otherwise. In addition this work has not been submitted to obtain another degree or
professional qualification.



Signed by group member 1: _____________
Signed by group member 2: _____________
Signed by group member 3: _____________

Date: _____________













ii

Acknowledgments
In the name of Allah, who is the most merciful, the most compassionate; the one and
only supreme power, the one whose will makes everything possible, and the one
without whose will the simplest is impossible.

We are all thankful and highly obliged to all our family members who have been a
source of great courage and support throughout this work and especially to our project
advisor Mr. Syed Ali Mohsin who has provided us the guidance and technical route to
make our work more smooth and timely.

















iii


Dedications

We dedicate our work to our beloved parents, families and all our
hardworking and skilled teachers who guided us, polished our rough
knowledge about technical terms and finally made us capable enough
to achieve this far.




















































iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS..........iii
DEDICATIONS.....iv
LIST OF FIGURES....................................................................................................viii
ABBREVIATIONS....................................................................................................ix
ABSTRACT................................................................................................. x
Chapter 1 Introduction .................................................. 1
1.1 Inverter......................................................................................................... 1
1.1.1 Applications...........
1.1.1.1 Dc Power source utilization
1.1.1.2 Uninterruptable power supplies
1.1.1.3 Induction Heating
1.1.1.4 HVDC Power transmission
1.1.1.5 Variable frequency drives
1.1.1.6 Electric vehicle drives
1.1.1.7 Air conditioning
1.1.1.8 The General case
1.1.2 Types of inverters
1.1.2.1 The Pure sine wave inverters
1.1.2.2 Modified sine wave inverters
1.1.2.3 Advantages of sine wave inverters
1.1.3 Problem statement
1.2 Pulse width modulation


Chapter 2 Operational Analysis...................... 5
2.1Selection between Mains and inverter .............................................................. 5
2.2 Adjustment variables ....................................................................... 6
2.3 Trickle charging................................................ 6
2.4 Display & LEDs........................................................... 7
2.5 Working.......................................................................................................... 7


Chapter 3 MOSFETs and H-bridge
........................................
9
3.1 MOSFETSs.................................................................................................. 9
3.2 H-Bridge..................................................................................................... 9


Chapter 4 Optocouplers.......................................................................... 13
4.1 Introduction................................................................................................. 13
4.2 Functions of optocouplers........................................................................... 14
4.3 Special response of silicon..........................................................................

14
4.4 Construction............................................................................................. 15
4.5 Principle of operation............................................................................... 16
4.6 Outputs. 16
4.6.1 Photo diode output. 16
4.6.2 Photo transistor output. 17
4.6.3 Photo darlington output 18
4.6.4 Photo SCR output. 18
4.7 Key Parameters.. 19
4.8 How theyre used. 19



Chapter 5 PIC microcontroller ........................................................... 21
5.1 Introduction............................................................................................. 21
5.2 Core Architecture..................................................................................... 21
5.3 Data space (RAM).................................................................................... 22
5.4 Code Space.............................................................................................. 23
5.5 Word Size. 23
5.6 Stacks. 23
5.7 Instruction Set 23
5.8 Performance 24
5.9 Advantages.. 25
5.10 Limitations.. 25



Chapter 6 Transformer........................................................................ 26
6.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 26
6.2 Basic Principle........................................................................................ 27
6.2.1 Induction Law.......................................................................... 28
6.3 Applications............................................................................................ 28


Chapter 7 Useful Components............................................................ 30
7.1 Heat Sink................................................................................................. 30
7.1.1 Basic heat sink operating principle............................................ 30
7.1.2 Design factors which influence the thermal performance of heat sink 32
7.1.2.1 Material. 33

7.1.2.2 Fin efficiency 33
7.1.2.3 Spreading resistance. 34
7.1.2.4 Fin arrangements 34
7.1.2.5 Surface color 35
7.2 Buzzer 36
7.3 Fuses. 36
7.3.1 Operation.. 37
7.3.2 Characteristic parameters..... 38
7.3.2.1 Rated current I
N .......... 38
7.3.2.2 Speed.. 38
7.3.2.3 The I
2
t value 38
7.3.2.4 Breaking capacity. 39
7.3.2.5 Rated voltage.. 39
7.3.2.6 Voltage drop.. 39
7.3.2.7 Temperature derating 40






References...........................................................................................................

41



















vii
LIST OF FIGURES


Fig. 1.1: PWM technique
Fig. 3.1: MOSFET symbols
Fig. 3.2: How a MOSFET is turned ON
Fig 3.3: structure of H-bridge
Fig 4.1 Response of silicon
Fig. 4.2: Opto-coupler cross-section and schematic
Fig. 4.3: Optocouplers
Fig. 4.4: optocoupler with Photo Diode Output
Fig. 4.5: optocoupler with Photo Darlington Output
Fig 4.6: optocoupler with Photo SCR Output
Fig. 4.7 operational view of optocoupler
Fig. 7.1: Sketch of a heat sink in a duct used to calculate the governing equations from conservation of energy and
Newtons law of cooling














viii

ABBREVIATIONS

UPS-uninterruptible power supply
PWM-pulse width modulation
DC-direct current
AC-alternate current
WAPDA-water and power development authority
LED-light emitting diode
MOSFET-metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor
IGFET-insulated gate field effect transistor
SCR-silicon controlled rectifier
IC-integrated circuit









ix
ABSTRACT

The project is confined to single phase modified sine wave UPS (1kW, 220V output) which aims to
efficiently transform a DC power source (12V battery) to a high voltage AC source, similar to power that
would be available at an electrical wall outlet and vice versa. This close to sine wave UPS is able to run
more sensitive devices that a simple square wave may cause damage to such as: laser printers, laptop
computers, power tools, digital clocks and medical equipment. This form of AC power also reduces audible
noise in devices such as fluorescent lights and runs inductive loads, like motors, faster and quieter due to the
low harmonic distortion. Another edge which this type of modification achieves is to provide a constant
voltage of 220V irrespective of load burden and less fluctuations are observed as compared to square wave
inverter.
Prominent features of this UPS to be highlighted compromise of trickle charging circuit which
reduces the current to a very small value when the battery is fully charged hence enhancing both the
performance and life time of the battery attached. This circuit operates on 160V taken directly by the
secondary of transformer by a different number of turns for those used in 220V. UPS includes a segment
display which consistently displays the present terminal voltage of the battery available and thus can be
operated accordingly. Besides the battery status several LEDs indicate the current state of operation like
mains, UPS, full battery, battery charging etc. Another distinguishing feature that puts it ahead is the
overload tripping action. At overload it trips and turns an LED on the front panel to ON state thus protecting
any damage to the connected equipment. It then automatically re-accesses for an overload every 20 seconds
and if the load drops to normal value only then the system retains its original functionality.
The operation is roughly a straight line approximation of sine wave. The inversion is carried out by an
H bridge comprising of N-type IRF150 MOSFETs. The charging is carried out by diodes which can handle
high ratings of power and current up to 4A to prevent any abnormal behavior. These two circuits are placed
on separate boards close to transformer for compact packing. An extra 1k resistor is employed to protect
short circuit currents.
Speaking of the class of sine wave inverters and their modifications our initial work explored pure
sine wave UPS but the shortage of time and factors regarding the components unavailability, we switched our
focus to this form of modification which mainly covers all the positive prospects a sine wave UPS can offer.




x
Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION



1.1 Inverter:
An inverter is an electrical device that converts direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC); the
converted AC can be at any required voltage and frequency with the use of appropriate transformers,
switching, and control circuits.
Solid-state inverters have no moving parts and are used in a wide range of applications, from small
switching power supplies in computers, to large electric utility high-voltage direct current applications that
transport bulk power. Inverters are commonly used to supply AC power from DC sources such as solar
panels or batteries.
1.1.1 Applications:

1.1.1.1 DC power source utilization:

Inverter designed to provide 115 VAC from the 12 VDC source provided in an automobile. The unit shown
provides up to 1.2 amperes of alternating current, or enough to power two sixty watt light bulbs.
An inverter converts the DC electricity from sources such as batteries, solar panels, or fuel cells to AC
electricity. The electricity can be at any required voltage; in particular it can operate AC equipment
designed for mains operation, or rectified to produce DC at any desired voltage.
Grid tie inverters can feed energy back into the distribution network because they produce alternating
current with the same wave shape and frequency as supplied by the distribution system. They can also
switch off automatically in the event of a blackout.
Micro-inverters convert direct current from individual solar panels into alternating current for the electric
grid. They are grid tie designs by default.

1.1.1.2 Uninterruptible power supplies:
An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) uses batteries and an inverter to supply AC power when main power
is not available. When main power is restored, a rectifier supplies DC power to recharge the batteries.
1.1.1.3 Induction heating:
Inverters convert low frequency main AC power to higher frequency for use in induction heating. To do this,
AC power is first rectified to provide DC power. The inverter then changes the DC power to high frequency
AC power.

1.1.1.4 HVDC power transmission:
With HVDC power transmission, AC power is rectified and high voltage DC power is transmitted to another
location. At the receiving location, an inverter in a static inverter plant converts the power back to AC.

1.1.1.5Variable-frequency drives:
A variable-frequency drive controls the operating speed of an AC motor by controlling the frequency and
voltage of the power supplied to the motor. An inverter provides the controlled power. In most cases, the
variable-frequency drive includes a rectifier so that DC power for the inverter can be provided from main AC
power. Since an inverter is the key component, variable-frequency drives are sometimes called inverter
drives or just inverters.

1.1.1.6 Electric vehicle drives:
Adjustable speed motor control inverters are currently used to power the traction motors in some electric
and diesel-electric rail vehicles as well as some battery electric vehicles and hybrid electric highway vehicles
such as the Toyota Prius and Fisker Karma. Various improvements in inverter technology are being
developed specifically for electric vehicle applications.
[2]
In vehicles with regenerative braking, the inverter
also takes power from the motor (now acting as a generator) and stores it in the batteries.

1.1.1.7Air conditioning:
An air conditioner bearing the inverter tag uses a variable-frequency drive to control the speed of the
motor and thus the compressor.

1.1.1.8 The general case:
A transformer allows AC power to be converted to any desired voltage, but at the same frequency.
Inverters, plus rectifiers for DC, can be designed to convert from any voltage, AC or DC, to any other
voltage, also AC or DC, at any desired frequency. The output power can never exceed the input power, but
efficiencies can be high, with a small proportion of the power dissipated as waste heat
1.1.2 Types of Inverter:
The two basic types of inverters include:
Pure sine inverters
Modified sine inverters

1.1.2.1 The Pure Sine Inverter:
The pure sine inverter, which is also referred to as a "true" sine wave, utilizes sine wave in order to provide
your appliances with power. A sine wave, which is produced by rotating AC machinery, is the type of wave
that is generally provided by the utility company with the help of a generator.
The benefits of using a pure sine inverter include:
- All equipment currently on the market is designed for use with sine waves.
- Some appliances, particularly microwaves and variable speed motors, will not produce full output if they
do not use sine wave power.
- Some appliances, such as light dimmers and bread makers, will not work at all without sine wave power.
On the downside, pure sine wave inverters are more expensive than the other two types of inverters. By
looking out for discount inverters that are on sale, however, you can keep your costs down.


1.1.2.2 The Modified Sine Inverter:
The modified sine inverter is different from a pure sine power inverter because the wave is in more of a
step wave and because appliances are not specifically designed to work with this type of inverter. Although
many appliances will still work with a modified sine inverter, some may not work as efficiently. As such, it
may take more power to run appliances with a modified sine inverter.
Using fluorescent lighting can be problematic when using modified sine power inverters. For example, they
may not get as bright and some may make buzzing noises when on. Certain appliances with digital clocks or
electronic timers may also work improperly with this type of inverter because the waves are rougher and
cause extra "noise" to be created in the line. Furthermore, appliances that use electronic temperature
controls will not be able to properly control the temperature when using modified sine wave marine
inverters, RV inverters or car inverters.
Despite the few problems associated with them, most equipment can run just fine with modified sine wave
inverters. In addition, since they are less expensive than the pure sine wave inverters, they are the most
commonly used inverter. In fact, it can sometimes be difficult to find options other than modified sine wave
inverters.
Regardless of the type of inverter you use, you will also need to acquire the proper power inverter cables.
Your power inverter cables need to be the proper size in order to guarantee damage does not occur. For
most people, pure sine wave inverters are the best choice for meeting all of their on-the-road needs.

1.1.2.3 Advantages of Sine Wave Inverters
Pure and modified sine wave inverters have many advantages over the conventional square wave inverters.
Some of the major advantages they provide are as follows
a) They have very low harmonic distortion in the output voltage waveform.
b) The power generated by these inverters is similar in nature to the utility companies (in our country
WAPDA)
c) They greatly reduce noise in amplifiers, TV etc.
d) They run inductive loads smoothly and at the rated speed.
e) They are able to run more sensitive devices that a simple square wave may cause damage to such
as: laser printers, laptop computers, power tools, digital clocks and medical equipment.


1.1.3 Problem statement:
The high end pure sine wave inverters tend to incorporate very expensive, high power capable digital
components. The square wave units can be very efficient, as there is not much processing being performed
on the output waveform, but this results in a waveform with a high number of harmonics, which can affect
sensitive equipment such as medical monitors. Many of the very cheap devices output a square wave,
perhaps a slightly modified square wave, with the proper RMS voltage, and close to the right frequency.
Our goal is to fill a niche which seems to be lacking in the
power inverters market, one for a fairly efficient, inexpensive inverter with a pure sine wave output.
Utilizing PWM and analog components, the output will be a modified sinusoid, with very little switching
noise, combined with the inexpensive manufacturing that comes with an analog approach.


1.2 Pulse Width Modulation:

In electronic power converters and motors, PWM is used extensively as a means of powering alternating
current (AC) devices with an available direct current (DC) source or for advanced DC/AC conversion.
Variation of duty cycle in the PWM signal to provide a DC voltage across the load in a specific pattern will
appear to the load as an AC signal, or can control the speed of motors that would otherwise run only at full
speed or off. This is further explained in this section. The pattern at which the duty cycle of a PWM signal
varies can be created through simple analog components, a digital microcontroller, or specific PWM
integrated circuits. Analog PWM control requires the generation of both reference and carrier signals that
feed into a comparator which creates output signals based on the difference between the signals. The
reference
signal is sinusoidal and at the frequency of the desired output signal, while the carrier signal is often either
a saw tooth or triangular wave at a frequency significantly greater than the reference. When the carrier
signal exceeds the reference, the comparator output signal is at one state, and when the reference is at a
higher voltage, the output is at its second state. In order to source an output with a PWM signal, transistor
or other switching technologies are used to connect the source to the load when the signal is high or low.
Full or half bridge configurations are common switching schemes used in power electronics. Full bridge
configurations require the use of four switching devices and are often referred to as H-Bridges due to their
orientation with respect to a load.

Fig 1.1
Chapter 2
Operational Analysis

2.1 Selection between mains and inverter:
In order to determine whether the UPS should operate on its own or take input from main supply from a
utility company depends on the appropriate selection which in normal operating conditions acts as follows:
When supply is coming from mains (wapda), it turns the inverter off and puts the battery in a
charging state if not charged fully.
When supply is cut off as in the case of a load shedding the basic operation lies in turning the
inverter to operating condition and simultaneously putting battery from charge to a discharge state.
Whole of this selection process is carried out by two relays one is named as mains and other is charging
relay. Basic operation of main relay is focused in connecting the output of UPS to main supply or the
one from the inverter depending on the disconnection of supply from wapda the terminals of this relay
operates accordingly and in the former case of supply connects the main supply to charging relay as
well. The charging relay now getting the supply from main operates in such a manner that it connects
the supply from wapda to an idle pin for a predefined amount of time .this intentional time delay is
required to wash away any residual charge on the wires of inverter plates.
This operation carries on for a predefined period of time depending on relay settings and
manufacturer operatability limits , after which it connects the main supply to transformers primary
.here several loops are taken out for safety purposes because voltage in most realized cases do not
remain stable and change with load fluctuations, different loops taken out are for 0,220,240,260,280
volts where over voltage conditions are taken care of transformer then steps down this voltage to 12v
which then rectified is used to charge the battery.
In the inverse process of switching the mains off forces the main relay to cut off the supply to charging
relay and connecting the output of UPS to the inverter bridge.



2.2 Adjustment Variables:
Another prominent feature which our UPS offers is several adjustments are made flexible which can be changed
according to the requirement and operating conditions .some of them to mention are:

Overload
Since the ups trips in an overloading condition as specified by the user, this particular value of the overload can be set
during the testing period of the device by connecting loads of several watts. a simple rotating coil can be used to set
the value where it trips to prevent further damage and thus a lower value for a safe operation can be selected
depending on the life time condition this value can be decreased later on if some heating or other issues relating to
components of lower power handling capabilities occur.
Mains
To make our UPS operate at some nominal value of voltage from the supply and in order to prevent it from damaging
in under voltage conditions we have provided an adjustment to main voltage under which it will break the normal
operation and shifts the output to inverter. This action prevents the sensitive devices such as computers and medical
equipment to stay in a safe zone of operation since lower voltages have equal damaging effects as those of over
voltages. The ups in this particular operation completely cut off the main supply and operate on the power being
delivered by the battery.
Charging
This adjustment is particularly important for the level up to which battery should be charged .the ideal case for a 12v
battery should be 14.4v. thus this variable may be used to change the battery charging level and can be set to any
value depending on the required gravity of the acid to be achieved for an efficient process.
Frequency
Another quantity that can be slightly matched with that coming from a power utility company is frequency and
voltage level which deviates from the standard 50 hertz.

2.3 Trickle charging:

A distinguishing feature that sets this UPS apart from its class is the charging that enhances the battery life time,
protection of its plates and the current level with which it is being charged, it charges the battery at a rate equal
to its self discharging rate.
For a faster charging operation we require a higher current level that can be availed by this variable. Also when
the battery is charged to full required voltage level this circuit maintains a constant minimum level of current
pulses which keep that charged level constant and allows the attached battery to be used for a longer period.
LM324N containing dual operational amplifiers are used for changing the required current level.

2.4 Display & LEDs
8 segment digital displays are used to show the current voltage level of battery .PIC controller is used to interface the
segment display. Only battery terminals are directly connected to the respective board. A heat sink is attached as well
for any damage due to overheating.
Several LEDs showing the current the current status of operation of the device are used as follows:
1. Main
2. UPS
3. Charging
4. Full battery
5. Overload tripping

2.5 Working:
MOSFETs forming an H bridge for the inversion process are connected to two plates B1 and B2 which
simultaneously operate to create a 2 pole operation used for the main operation of the circuit. Controller then
performs the required PWM which then drives the gates of MOSFETs... Two plates are provided with negative
battery voltage. One winding of the transformer is connected at both ends to these two plates thus getting 12V.this
winding is tapped from center to give the positive output and negative ground of output is common to whole
circuitry.
As soon as the voltage from utility company deviates the respective loop of transformer is selected and then
stepped down. The MOSFETs selected are of 240W each and each of them has a built in diode for rectification
purposes though in our circuit separate diode for rectification are provided for larger power handling purposes. Two
optocouplers are used for isolation purposes and to convert the required voltage level in order to operate the
controller at 5V. a differential comparator is employed in order to achieve the operation of PWM which then later on
is sent to MOSFETs plates.







Chapter 3

MOSFETs and H-bridge





3.1 MOSFETs:
The metaloxidesemiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET) is a transistor used
for amplifying or switching electronic signals. The basic principle of this kind of transistor was first proposed
by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld in 1925. In MOSFETs, a voltage on the oxide-insulated gate electrode can induce a
conducting channel between the two other contacts called source and drain. The channel can be of n-type
or p-type (see article on semiconductor devices), and is accordingly called an nMOSFET or a pMOSFET (also
commonly nMOS, pMOS). It is by far the most common transistor in both digital and analog circuits, though
the bipolar junction transistor was at one time much more common.
The 'metal' in the name is now often a misnomer because the previously metal gate material is now often a
layer of polysilicon (polycrystalline silicon). Aluminium had been the gate material until the mid 1970s,
when polysilicon became dominant, due to its capability to form self-aligned gates. Metallic gates are
regaining popularity, since it is difficult to increase the speed of operation of transistors without metal
gates.
IGFET is a related term meaning insulated-gate field-effect transistor, and is used almost synonymously with
MOSFET, being more accurate since many "MOSFETs" use a gate that is not metal and a gate insulator that
is not oxide. Another synonym is MISFET for metalinsulatorsemiconductor FET.
Usually the semiconductor of choice is silicon, but some chip manufacturers, most notably IBM and Intel,
recently started using a chemical compound of silicon and germanium (SiGe) in MOSFET channels.
Unfortunately, many semiconductors with better electrical properties than silicon, such as gallium arsenide,
do not form good semiconductor-to-insulator interfaces, thus are not suitable for MOSFETs. Research
continues on creating insulators with acceptable electrical characteristics on other semiconductor material.
In order to overcome power consumption increase due to gate current leakage, high- dielectric replaces
silicon dioxide for the gate insulator, while metal gates return by replacing polysilicon (see Intel
announcement).
The gate is separated from the channel by a thin insulating layer, traditionally of silicon dioxide and later of
silicon oxynitride. Some companies have started to introduce a high- dielectric + metal gate combination in
the 45 nanometer node.
When a voltage is applied between the gate and body terminals, the electric field generated penetrates
through the oxide and creates an "inversion layer" or "channel" at the semiconductor-insulator interface.
The inversion channel is of the same type, P-type or N-type, as the source and drain, thus it provides a
channel through which current can pass. Varying the voltage between the gate and body modulates the
conductivity of this layer and allows to control the current flow between drain and source.
A variety of symbols are used for the MOSFET as shown below

Figure 3.1 MOSFET Symbols
When a voltage is applied across a MOS structure (as shown in the figure below), it modifies the distribution
of charges in the semiconductor. If we consider a P-type semiconductor (with N
A
the density of acceptors, p
the density of holes; p = N
A
in neutral bulk), a positive voltage, V
GB
, from gate to body (see figure) creates a
depletion layer by forcing the positively charged holes away from the gate-insulator/semiconductor
interface, leaving exposed a carrier-free region of immobile, negatively charged acceptor ions (see doping
(semiconductor)). If V
GB
is high enough, a high concentration of negative charge carriers forms in an
inversion layer located in a thin layer next to the interface between the semiconductor and the insulator.
Unlike the MOSFET, where the inversion layer electrons are supplied rapidly from the source/drain
electrodes, in the MOS capacitor they are produced much more slowly by thermal generation through
carrier generation and recombination centers in the depletion region. Conventionally, the gate voltage at
which the volume density of electrons in the inversion layer is the same as the volume density of holes in
the body is called the threshold voltage.
This structure with p-type body is the basis of the N-type MOSFET, which requires the addition of an N-type
source and drain regions.


Figure 3.2 How a MOSFET is turned ON
MOSFETs have very wide range of applications. But in our project we are using them for purpose of power
inverter (DC to AC) by applying appropriate gate signals to them.
MOSFETs when used in power inverters
1) Can be used with a wide range of supply voltages by using appropriate transformers.
2) Can be used to deliver a wide range of output voltages by using appropriate turns ratio.
3) Output Frequency is Adjustable and Stable.
4) A Standard Step Down transformer (Reverse connected) can be used with Excellent Results.
5) With the addition of "Parallel Output Fets" and a Large Transformer, Power can be GREATLY Increased.

3.2 H-Bridge
We have used IRF150 N-type MOSFETs in our power inverter. These MOSFETs are connected in an H-
Bridge configuration running a motor load as shown in the figure below


Figure 3.3 structure of H-bridge is highlighted in red
An H bridge is an electronic circuit that enables a voltage to be applied across a load in either direction.
These circuits are often used in robotics and other applications to allow DC motors to run forwards and
backwards. H bridges are available as integrated circuits, or can be built from discrete components.
The term H-bridge is derived from the typical graphical representation of such a circuit. An H bridge is built
with four switches (solid-state or mechanical). When the switches S1 and S4 (according to the first figure)
are closed (and S2 and S3 are open) a positive voltage will be applied across the motor. By opening S1 and
S4 switches and closing S2 and S3 switches, this voltage is reversed, allowing reverse operation of the
motor. Using the nomenclature above, the switches S1 and S2 should never be closed at the same time, as
this would cause a short circuit on the input voltage source. The same applies to the switches S3 and S4.
This condition is known as shoot-through.
A common use of the H-bridge is an inverter (which we have used in our project). The arrangement is
sometimes known as a single or three phase bridge inverter (our project is single phase). The H-bridge with
a DC supply will square wave voltage waveform across the load. For a purely inductive load, the waveform
would be a triangle wave, with its peak depending on the inductance, switching frequency, and input
voltage.
Because our UPS gives modified sinusoidal output we have used PWM to generate the gate signals for the
MOSFETs in the H-Bridge using a PIC controller.








Chapter 4
Optocouplers:

4.1 Introduction

An optocoupler, also called opto-isolator, is an electronic component that transfers an electrical signal or
voltage from one part of a circuit to another or from one circuit to another, while electrically isolating the
two circuits from each other. It consists of an infrared emitting LED chip that is optically in-line with a light-
sensitive silicon semiconductor chip, all enclosed in the same package. The silicon chip could be in the form
of a photo diode, photo transistor, photo Darlington, or photo SCR.
There are many situations where
signals and data need to be transferred from one subsystem to another within a piece of electronics
equipment, or from one piece of equipment to another, without making a direct ohmic electrical
connection. Often this is because the source and destination are (or may be at times) at very different
voltage levels, like a microprocessor which is operating from 5V DC but being used to control a triac which is
switching 240V AC. In such situations the link between the two must be an isolated one, to protect the
microprocessor from overvoltage damage.
Relays can of course provide this kind of isolation,
but even small relays tend to be fairly bulky compared with ICs and many of todays other miniature circuit
components. Because theyre electro-mechanical, relays are also not as reliable and only capable of
relatively low speed operation. Where small size, higher speed and greater reliability are important, a much
better alternative is to use an optocoupler. These use a beam of light to transmit the signals or data across
an electrical barrier, and achieve excellent isolation.


4.2 Functions of optocouplers:
The optocoupler application or function in the circuit is
to:

Monitor high voltage
Output voltage sampling for regulation
System control micro for power on/off
Ground isolation


4.3 SPECTRAL RESPONSE OF SILICON:
Since silicon has a response to light (spectral
response) that peaks at infrared wavelengths (between 800 and 950 nanometers), silicon devices are
preferred as the photo detector section in optocouplers in conjunction with an infrared LED emitter.
Matching the infrared LED to the silicon chip provides a maximum transfer of the desired electrical signal.
Different types of optocouplers have specific characteristics that determine suitability for each
unique application. The simplest type is the optocoupler with a photo diode output section. The
optocoupler output is often connected to an amplifier (or series of amplifiers) to change a low-level input
voltage into an appropriate higher signal level.

Fig 4.1 Response of silicon
4.4 CONSTRUCTION:
The input section of an optocoupler is an infrared LED chip. It is separated
from the output silicon diode chip by a thin, transparent, Mylar plate embedded in clear silicone (a
derivative of silicon). The assembly is sealed in a package keyed to designate pin #1. The most commonly
used optocoupler package is the plastic DIP (dual-in-line package).


Fig 4.2

Optocouplers typically come in a small 6-pin or 8-pin IC package as shown in fig 4.3, but are essentially a
combination of two distinct devices: an optical transmitter, typically a gallium arsenide LED (light-emitting
diode) and an optical receiver such as a phototransistor or light-triggered diac. The two are separated by a
transparent barrier which blocks any electrical current flow between the two, but does allow the passage of
light.

(Fig 4.3)

Usually the electrical connections to the LED section are brought out to the pins on one side of the package
and those for the phototransistor or diac to the other side, to physically separate them as much as possible.
This usually allows optocouplers to withstand voltages of anywhere between 500V and 7500V between
input and output.
Optocouplers are essentially digital or switching devices, so theyre best
for transferring either on-off control signals or digital data. Analog signals can be transferred by means of
frequency or pulse-width modulation.

4.5 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION:
When a forward bias voltage is applied to the input
terminals of the LED (positive to the anode), an input current, I (in), limited by the series resistor, RS, will
flow in the LED circuit. The current produces the infrared light emission at about 900 nanometers that
impinges on the photo-sensitive silicon chip.


4.6 OUTPUTS:
4.6.1 PHOTO DIODE OUTPUT:
With light impinging on the silicon diode in Figure 4.4, its photovoltaic characteristic will create
photo current, IL or IOUT, to flow in the silicon diode. With a load resistor, RL, connected to the
output terminals of the coupler, the photo current, IOUT, will develop a voltage, VL, across the
load. VL = IOUT x RL.


optocoupler with Photo Diode Output
Figure 4.4

As the input signal, VIN, varies, it will vary the intensity of the infrared light. The output
current, IOUT, will also change, causing the output voltage, VL, to change in the same manner.
As output current increases, output voltages will also increase, and vice-versa. A small change in
input current will produce a proportionate change in output current. This characteristic of the
optocoupler will act to couple low-level analog signals or small DC voltage variations with little or no
distortion.
In the circuit of Figure 13.3, both signal coupling and input-to-output isolation is achieved, however,
the current transfer ratio (CTR) of a diode output optocoupler is extremely low about 10% to 15%. The
term current transfer ratio (CTR) defines the relationship of output current, IOUT, to input current, IIN.

The output voltage, VL, can be coupled to the input of an amplifier to increase its amplitude to an
appropriate level.
The input section of all optocouplers is an infrared LED; however, the output section can
be different depending on the required application. The basic principle of operation is the same, regardless
of the particular output section selected.

4.6.2 PHOTO TRANSISTOR OUTPUT:
Since the CTR of an optocoupler with a photo diode output is so
low (10 to 15%) a preferred approach is to replace the diode chip with a silicon bipolar photo transistor. The
bipolar transistor, with its inherent current gain, b, will provide a considerably higher CTR (between 50% to
100%) depending on the beta of the photo transistor. The base lead of the transistor can be reverse biased
to reduce sensitivity, or forward biased to increase sensitivity, or left "floating" (disconnected).

4.6.3 PHOTO DARLINGTON OUTPUT
If a still higher CTR is needed, the bipolar transistor can
be replaced with a Darlington transistor configuration to serve as the photo-detector output section.

optocoupler with Photo Darlington Output
Figure 4.5
http://teacher.en.rmutt.ac.th/ktw/04-710-409/OPTOCOUPLER%20APPLICATIONS.htm
In the circuits\ of Figures 4.5, the output current, IC, of the single bipolar photo transistor or the photo
Darlington will develop an output voltage, VL, across the load resistance, RL. This voltage is the product of
the output current, IC, and the load resistance, RL.
The optocoupler can be operated either as a linear
amplifier or as a digital switch, depending on the forward bias voltage applied to the base of the transistor.

4.6.4 PHOTO SCR OUTPUT:
If the output section of an optocoupler is a photo SCR, the coupler functions
to switch the positive half of the AC voltage across the load, operating under the same principle as an
ordinary SCR circuit.

optocoupler with Photo SCR Output
Figure 4.6
4.7 Key Parameters:

The most important parameter for most optocouplers is their transfer
efficiency, usually measured in terms of their current transfer ratio or CTR. This is simply the ratio between
a current change in the output transistor and the current change in the input LED which produced it. Typical
values for CTR range from 10% to 50% for devices with an output phototransistor and up to 2000% or so for
those with a Darlington transistor pair in the output. Note, however that in most devices CTR tends to vary
with absolute current level. Typically it peaks at a LED current level of about 10mA, and falls away at both
higher and lower current levels.
Other optocoupler parameters include the
output transistors maximum collector-emitter voltage rating VCE(max), which limits the supply voltage in
the output circuit; the input LEDs maximum current rating IF(max), which is used to calculate the minimum
value for its series resistor; and the optocouplers bandwidth, which determines the highest signal
frequency that can be transferred through it --- determined mainly by internal device construction and the
performance of the output phototransistor. Typical opto-couplers with a single output phototransistor may
have a bandwidth of 200 - 300 kHz, while those with a Darlington pair are usually about 10 times lower, at
around 20 - 30 kHz.



4.8 How theyre used:

Basically the simplest way to visualize an optocoupler is in terms of its
two main components: the input LED and the output transistor or diac. As the two are electrically isolated,
this gives a fair amount of flexibility when it comes to connecting them into circuit. All we really have to do
is work out a convenient way of turning the input LED on and off, and using the resulting switching of the
phototransistor/ diac to generate an output waveform or logic signal that is compatible with our output
circuitry. For example just like a discrete LED, you can drive an optocouplers input LED from a transistor or
logic gate/buffer. All thats needed is a series resistor to set the current level when the LED is turned on.
And regardless of whether you use a transistor or logic buffer to drive the LED, you still have the option of
driving it in pull down or pull up mode. This means you can arrange for the LED, and hence the
optocoupler to be either on or off for a logic high (or low) in the driving circuitry.
In some circuits, there may be a chance that at times the driving voltage fed to the
input LED could have reversed polarity (due to a swapped cable connection, for example). This can cause
damage to the device, because optocoupler LEDs tend to have quite a low reverse voltage rating: typically
only 3 - 5V. So if this is a possibility, a reversed polarity diode should be connected directly across the LED.
On the output side, there are again a number of possible connections even with a typical
optocoupler of the type having a single phototransistor receiver (such as the 4N25 or 4N28). In most cases
the transistor is simply connected as a light-operated switch, in series with a load resistor RL. The base of
the transistor is left unconnected, and the choice is between having the transistor at the top of the load
resistor or at the bottom i.e. in either pull-up or pull-down mode. This again gives plenty of flexibility for
driving either logic gates or transistors.
If a higher bandwidth is
needed, this can be achieved by using only the collector and base connections, and using the transistor as a
photodiode. This lowers the optocouplers CTR and transfer gain considerably, but can increase the
bandwidth to 30MHz or so. An alternative approach is still to use the output device as a phototransistor,
but tie the base down to ground (or the emitter) via a resistor Rb, to assist in removal of stored charge as
shown in fig 7. This can extend the optocouplers bandwidth usefully (although not dramatically), without
lowering the CTR and transfer gain any more than is necessary. Typically you would start with a resistor
value of 1MW, and reduce it gradually down to about 47kW to see if the desired bandwidth can be reached.


Fig 4.7
http://lyricsdog.eu/s/optocoupler%20circuits


A variation on the standard optocoupler with a single output phototransistor is the type having a photo-
Darlington transistor pair in the output, such as the 6N138. As mentioned earlier this type of device gives a
much higher CTR and transfer gain, but with a significant penalty in terms of bandwidth. Connecting a base
tieback resistor can again allow a useful extension of bandwidth without sacrificing too much in terms of
transfer gain.

Reference: http://www.jaycar.com.au/images_uploaded/optocoup.pdf
http://teacher.en.rmutt.ac.th/ktw/04-710-409/OPTOCOUPLER%20APPLICATIONS.htm







CHAPTER 5
PIC Microcontroller

5.1 Introduction:
PIC is a family of Harvard architecture microcontrollers made by Microchip
Technology, derived from the PIC1650 originally developed by General Instrument's Microelectronics
Division. The name PIC initially referred to "Peripheral Interface Controller".
PICs are popular with both industrial developers and hobbyists alike due to their
low cost, wide availability, large user base, extensive collection of application notes, availability of low cost
or free development tools, and serial programming (and re-programming with flash memory) capability.

5.2 Core Architecture:
The PIC architecture is characterized by its multiple attributes:
Separate code and data spaces (Harvard architecture) for devices other than PIC32, which has a Von
Neumann architecture.
A small number of fixed length instructions
Most instructions are single cycle execution (2 clock cycles, or 4 clock cycles in 8bit models), with
one delay cycle on branches and skips
One accumulator (W0), the use of which (as source operand) is implied (i.e. is not encoded in the
opcode)
All RAM locations function as registers as both source and/or destination of math and other
functions.
A hardware stack for storing return addresses
A fairly small amount of addressable data space (typically 256 bytes), extended through banking
Data space mapped CPU, port, and peripheral registers
The program counter is also mapped into the data space and writable (this is used to implement
indirect jumps).
There is no distinction between memory space and register space because the RAM serves the job of both
memory and registers, and the RAM is usually just referred to as the register file or simply as the registers.

5.3 Data space (RAM):
PICs have a set of registers that function as general purpose RAM. Special purpose
control registers for on-chip hardware resources are also mapped into the data space. The addressability of
memory varies depending on device series, and all PIC devices have some banking mechanism to extend
addressing to additional memory. Later series of devices feature move instructions which can cover the
whole addressable space, independent of the selected bank. In earlier devices, any register move had to be
achieved via the accumulator.
To implement indirect addressing, a "file select register" (FSR) and "indirect register" (INDF) are used. A
register number is written to the FSR, after which reads from or writes to INDF will actually be to or from
the register pointed to by FSR. Later devices extended this concept with post- and pre-
increment/decrement for greater efficiency in accessing sequentially stored data. This also allows FSR to be
treated almost like a stack pointer (SP).
External data memory is not directly addressable except in some high pin count PIC18 devices.

5.4 Code space:
The code space is generally implemented as ROM, EPROM or flash ROM. In general,
external code memory is not directly addressable due to the lack of an external memory interface. The
exceptions are PIC17 and select high pin count PIC18 devices.

5.5 Word size:
All PICs handle (and address) data in 8-bit chunks. However, the unit of addressability of the
code space is not generally the same as the data space. For example, PICs in the baseline and mid-range
families have program memory addressable in the same word size as the instruction width, i.e. 12 or 14 bits
respectively. In contrast, in the PIC18 series, the program memory is addressed in 8-bit increments (bytes),
which differ from the instruction width of 16 bits.
In order to be clear, the program memory capacity is usually stated in number of (single word) instructions,
rather than in bytes.


5.6 Stacks:
PICs have a hardware call stack, which is used to save return addresses. The hardware stack is
not software accessible on earlier devices, but this changed with the 18 series devices.
Hardware support for a general purpose parameter stack was lacking in early series, but this greatly
improved in the 18 series, making the 18 series architecture friendlier to high level language compilers.

5.7 Instruction set:
A PIC's instructions vary from about 35 instructions for the low-end PICs to over 80
instructions for the high-end PICs. The instruction set includes instructions to perform a variety of
operations on registers directly, the accumulator and a literal constant or the accumulator and a register, as
well as for conditional execution, and program branching.
Some operations, such as bit setting
and testing, can be performed on any numbered register, but bi-operand arithmetic operations always
involve W (the accumulator), writing the result back to either W or the other operand register. To load a
constant, it is necessary to load it into W before it can be moved into another register. On the older cores,
all register moves needed to pass through W, but this changed on the "high end" cores.
PIC cores have skip instructions which are used for conditional execution and branching. The skip
instructions are 'skip if bit set' and 'skip if bit not set'. Because cores before PIC18 had only unconditional
branch instructions, conditional jumps are implemented by a conditional skip (with the opposite condition)
followed by an unconditional branch. Skips are also of utility for conditional execution of any immediate
single following instruction.
The 18 series implemented shadow registers which
save several important registers during an interrupt, providing hardware support for automatically saving
processor state when servicing interrupts.
In general, PIC instructions fall into 5 classes:
1. Operation on working register (WREG) with 8-bit immediate ("literal") operand. E.g. movlw (move
literal to WREG), andlw (AND literal with WREG). One instruction peculiar to the PIC is retlw, load
immediate into WREG and return, which is used with computed branches to produce lookup tables.
2. Operation with WREG and indexed register. The result can be written to either the Working register
(e.g. addwf reg, w). or the selected register (e.g. addwf reg, f).
3. Bit operations. These take a register number and a bit number, and perform one of 4 actions: set or
clear a bit, and test and skip on set/clear. The latter are used to perform conditional branches. The
usual ALU status flags are available in a numbered register so operations such as "branch on carry
clear" are possible.
4. Control transfers. Other than the skip instructions previously mentioned, there are only
two: goto and call.
5. A few miscellaneous zero-operand instructions, such as return from subroutine, and sleep to enter
low-power mode.


5.8 Performance:
The architectural decisions are directed at the maximization of speed-to-cost
ratio. The PIC architecture was among the first scalar CPU designs

and is still among the simplest and
cheapest. The Harvard architecturein which instructions and data come from separate sources
simplifies timing and microcircuit design greatly, and this benefits clock speed, price, and power
consumption.
The PIC instruction set is suited to implementation of fast lookup tables in the program
space. Such lookups take one instruction and two instruction cycles. Many functions can be modeled in this
way. Optimization is facilitated by the relatively large program space of the PIC (e.g. 4096 x 14-bit words on
the 16F690) and by the design of the instruction set, which allows for embedded constants. For example, a
branch instruction's target may be indexed by W, and execute a "RETLW" which does as it is named - return
with literal in W.
Execution time can be accurately estimated by multiplying the number
of instructions by two cycles; this simplifies design of real-time code. Similarly, interrupt latency is constant
at three instruction cycles. External interrupts have to be synchronized with the four clock instruction cycle;
otherwise there can be a one instruction cycle jitter. Internal interrupts are already synchronized. The
constant interrupt latency allows PICs to achieve interrupt driven low jitter timing sequences. An example
of this is a video sync pulse generator. This is no longer true in the newest PIC models, because they have a
synchronous interrupt latency of three or four cycles.

5.9 Advantages:
The PIC architectures have these advantages:
Small instruction set to learn
RISC architecture
Built in oscillator with selectable speeds
Easy entry level, in circuit programming plus in circuit debugging PICKit units available from
Microchip.com for less than $50
Inexpensive microcontrollers
Wide range of interfaces including I2C, SPI, USB, USART, A/D, programmable Comparators, PWM,
LIN, CAN, PSP, and Ethernet.


5.10 Limitations:
The PIC architectures have these limitations:
One accumulator
Register-bank switching is required to access the entire RAM of many devices
Operations and registers are not orthogonal; some instructions can address RAM
and/or immediate constants, while others can only use the accumulator

The following limitations have been addressed in the PIC18 series, but still apply to earlier cores:
Stack:
1. The hardware call stack is not addressable, so preemptive task switching cannot be implemented
2. Software-implemented stacks are not efficient, so it is difficult to generate reentrant code and
support local variables
With paged program memory, there are two page sizes to worry about: one for CALL and GOTO and
another for computed GOTO (typically used for table lookups). For example, on PIC16, CALL and GOTO have
11 bits of addressing, so the page size is 2048 instruction words. For computed GOTOs, where you add to
PCL, the page size is 256 instruction words. In both cases, the upper address bits are provided by the
PCLATH register. This register must be changed every time control transfers between pages. PCLATH must
also be preserved by any interrupt handler.











Chapter 6
Transformer:

6.1 Introduction
A transformer usually has two windings i.e. primary winding and secondary winding. It
works on principle of mutual induction. According to this principle if the current through the primary
winding is carried, then due to this change, a changing magnetic flux is induced in the transformer core
which results a change in magnetic field through the secondary of the transformer and a voltage is induced
in the secondary.
If we connect a load at the secondary winding of the transformer then an electric current
will flow through the secondary and energy will be transferred from primary to the secondary of the
transformer and from secondary to the load. In case of an ideal transformer ratio between the primary and
secondary of the transformer is given as:

So by selecting appropriate turns ratio a transformer can be used to step up or step down the voltage. If we
want to step up the voltage number of turns of the secondary are kept higher than the number of turns of
the primary and f we want to step down the voltage number of turns of secondary are kept lower than the
number of turns of primary.
If we consider the size of the transformer then a size of the transformer varies
from a small size transformer which can even fit into a microphone to large size transformer which weighs
hundreds of tons. Due to the introduction of new technologies the use of transformer has been eliminated
from some places but transformer still finds effective application in almost all the electrical systems.


6.2 Basic Principle:
The transformer is based on two principles which are listed blow
Electromagnetism
Electromagnetic induction
According to electromagnetism, varying electric current can produce a magnetic field and according to
electromagnetic induction a varying magnetic field can induce a voltage across the coil. If the current
through the primary winding is carried, then due to this change, a changing magnetic flux is induced in the
transformer core which results a change in magnetic field through the secondary of the transformer and a
voltage is induced in the secondary.

6.2.3 Induction law:
Faradays law helps us calculate the voltage that is induced in the secondary of the
transformer. According to this law secondary voltage is equal to

Where V
s
represents the voltage induced across the secondary of the transformer, N
s
represents the
number of turns of the secondary and represents the magnetic flux through the coil. According to this
relation we can see that the secondary voltage of the transformer depends upon the number of turns of the
secondary and magnetic flux that is induced across the coil. Greater the number of turns greater will the
secondary voltage. Similarly greater the magnetic flux induced across the coil greater will be the secondary
voltage. Since in case of an ideal transformer the same magnetic flux passes through both the primary and
secondary coils, voltage across the primary will b equal to

Taking the ratio of the two equations for V
s
and V
p
gives the basic equation

for stepping up or stepping
down the voltage

N
p
/N
s
is known as the turns ratio.

6.3 Applications:
Transformers find vast applications in electrical systems. One of its major
applications is in the transmission of electrical energy over long distances. Voltage is usually stepped up
using a step up transformer before electrical energy is being transferred over long distances. Transmission
lines have resistance and dissipate electrical energy as the square of current that flows through them so
energy is being dissipated as power is transferred through the wires so by transforming electrical power to
a high-voltage which results in lower current, transformers enable economical transmission of power over
long distances.
Transformer are also used in electronic products that we daily use. Transformer there steps
down the supply voltage i.e. 220v to the desired voltage at which that equipment operates. It also helps in
electrically isolating the end user from contact with the supply voltage.
Characterization of soft magnetic
cores is usually achieved with the principle of open-circuit transformers, for example in the internationally
standardized Epstein frame method.





Chapter 7


Useful Components


7.1 Heat Sink:
A heat sink is basically an element or a object whose function is to allow the transfer of heat from
solid to a fluid medium. Examples include the radiator in the car and the ones used in air conditioning
systems and refrigeration. They also assist in cooling down of optoelectronic and electronic devices, such as
LEDs and high power lasers.
A heat sink is contrived in such a way so that the surface area which is in contact with the cooling fluid
enlarges. Thermal performance of heat sink depends upon a number of factors some of which are listed
below.
Material
Fin efficiency
Spreading resistance
Fin arrangements
Surface color
If we consider the engineering applications of heat sink then one of its major application is in the thermal
management of electronics, often graphics processors or computer central processing unit (CPU).


7.1.1 Basic Heat Sink Operating Principle:
A heat sink is an assembly or a component that allows the transfer of heat
energy from a higher temperature to a lower temperature fluid medium. The fluid medium is usually air,
water, refrigerants or oil. If its water, then the heat sink is frequently called a cold plate.
Fourier's law of heat conduction helps us understand the principle of a hat sink. Joseph Fourier a French
mathematician has critical part in the analytical treatment of heat conduction. Fourier's law of heat
conduction shows that whenever there is temperature difference between two bodies, heat will be
transferred from the body of higher temperature to the lower body temperature. The rate at which heat is
transferred by conduction, q
k
, is proportional to the product of cross-sectional area through which heat is
transferred and the temperature gradient.



Fig 7.1
Consider a heat sink in a duct, where air flows through the duct, as shown in Figure 7.1. It is presumed
that the base of heat is at higher temperature than the air. Applying law of conservation of energy, we
obtain the following equations

(2)
where
The above equations show that
As the flow of air through the heat sink decreases, average temperature of air increases,
this increases the temperature of heat sink base. This in turn would cause the thermal
resistance of the heat sink to rise. The overall result is a higher heat sink base
temperature.
Base temperature of heat sink is strongly related to the inlet temperature of air. For
instance, if there is recirculation of air in an object, the inlet air temperature is not the
ambient air temperature and is therefore higher, which also results in a higher base
temperature of heat sink.
So, in case of no air or fluid flow around the heat sink, the heat sink would work poorly as
the energy dissipated to the air cannot be transferred to the ambient air.

Other examples of situations in which a heat sink has impaired efficiency:
Though Pin fins have a large surface area, but as they are very close, air cannot flow
through them easily.
Adjusting a heat sink in such a way so that the fins are not in the direction of flow.
For a natural convection heat sink, adjusting the fins horizontally. In case of no
centrifugal forces and artificial gravity, we can achieve convective cooling as the air that
is warmer than the ambient temperature always flows upward;

7.1.2 Design factors which influence the thermal performance of heat sink:

7.1.2.1 Material:
Aluminium is the most common hat sink material. Aluminium alloys are preferred in the
manufacture of heat sinks rather than pure aluminium. Aluminium alloy has one of the higher thermal
conductivity values at 229 W/mK. but as it is relatively soft t is not used in machining. Aluminium alloys
6061 and 6063 are most commonly used, with thermal conductivity values of 166 and 201 W/mK,
respectively.
Copper can also be used in the manufacture of heat sinks as its conductivity is higher than
aluminium but it has disadvantages too which are listed below
Copper is three times heavier than aluminium.
Copper is expensive than aluminium
Copper cannot be extruded while aluminium can be extruded.


7.1.2.2 Fin efficiency:
Fin efficiency is one the major factor which influences the thermal performance of heat sink. We can
consider a fin as a flat plate with heat flowing in one end and as it travels to the other end, it is being
dissipated into the surrounding fluid. As heat flows through the fin, due to the heat lost due to convention
and thermal resistance of heat sink, the heat transfer to the fluid would reduce. This factor is called the fin
efficiency. It can be defined as the heat transferred by the fin, divided by the heat transfer was the fin to be
isothermal. Following equations are applicable for straight fins.
[8]

[8]

Where:
k is the thermal conductivity of the fin material.
h
f
is the convection coefficient of the fin.
t
f
is the fin thickness (m).
L
f
is the fin height (m).
Fin efficiency can be increased by two ways which are listed below
By decreasing the fin aspect ratio which can achieved by either
Decreasing the fin length or
Increasing the fin thickness
By enhancing the thermal conductivity of the fins.
7.1.2.3 Spreading resistance:
Spreading resistance is another important factor which influences the thermal
performance of heat sink. It occurs, if in a substance with finite thermal conductivity, thermal energy is
transferred from a small area to a larger area. So heat does not distribute uniformly through the base of the
heat sink. The phenomenon of spreading resistance can be shown if we observe that a large temperature
gradient between the edges of the heat sink and the heat source exists when heat travels from the heat
source location. Meaning there are fins at a lower temperature than if the heat source were uniform across
the heat sink base. Due to this non-uniformity heat sink's effective thermal resistance enhances
We can decrease the spreading resistance of the heat sink base by the following listed ways:
By increasing the base thickness
By choosing a material which has more thermal conductivity
By using a vapor chamber in the base of heat sink.

7.1.2.4 Fin Arrangements:
There are different types of fin arrangements available in the market. Some of them are
listed below

A pin fin heat sink
A straight fin heat sink
cross cut heat sink
flared fin heat sink
In a pin fin heat sink, pins extend from the base. The pins can be of any shape i.e. square, cylindrical, and
elliptical. It is very commonly available in the market.
In the straight fin arrangement the pins extend through the entire length of the heat sink.
If we compare the Pin fin heat sink with the straight fin then pin fin is better than straight fins when used in
their intended application where the fluid flows axially along the pins rather than only tangentially across
the pins.
In flared fin heat sinks, fins are not parallel to each other. This arrangement causes more air to go through
the heat sink fin channel by decreasing flow resistance; otherwise, more air would bypass the fins. Tilting
them offers longer fins by keeping the overall dimensions the same. Forghan, et al. and Lasance and Eggink


made no of observations and test and reached a conclusion that flared heat sink performed better than the
other heat sinks tested.
The performance of a heat sink depends upon its surface area. Greater the surface
area, better the performance. However, this is not always true. The concept of a pin fin heat sink is to try to
pack as much surface area into a given volume as possible.


7.1.2.5 Surface Color:
The transfer of heat from the heat sink is interceded by the following two effects
convection via the coolant
thermal radiation.
Transfer of heat by radiation depends upon two factors
Heat sink temperature
Temperature of the surroundings.
When both of these temperatures are of the order of 0 C to 100 C, the effect of radiation compared to
convection is negligible, and it is often neglected.
Radiative cooling can be a major factor when convection is low. Surface properties play an important role
here. Matte-black surfaces will radiate much more efficiently than shiny bare metal. This is because a
matte-black due to high emissivity radiates and absorbs radiant heat highly whereas a shiny metal surface
due to low emissivity radiates and absorbs only a small amount of radiant heat.
In environments where there is no convective heat transfer such as a vacuum or in outer space, radiation is
the only factor controlling the flow of heat between the environment and the heat sink.


7.2 Buzzer:
A buzzer is a electromechanical, mechanical, or Piezoelectricor device. It is used for audio
signaling. Typical uses of buzzers and beepers include alarms, timers and confirmation of user input such as
a mouse click or keystroke.
The buzzer in our project will operate under following
conditions:

Full Battery.
Low Battery.
Overload.
Main Off.
Main On.



7.3 Fuses:
A fuse is basically over current protection device. It is a metal wire or strip which melts when excessive
current due to short circuit, overload or device failure flow interrupting the circuit in which it is connected.
With the help of a fuse further damage by overheating or fire is usually prevented. Current ratings of
important equipment are usually specified and fuses are selected according to those ratings. They allow the
flow of normal current. They also allow excessive current to flow but only for short periods.


7.3.2 Operation:
Fuse consists of a metal wire or strip which melts when excessive current due to short
circuit, overload or device failure flow interrupting the circuit in which it is connected. The fuse is always
connected in series with the equipment which it is protecting so the same amount of current flows through
the fuse and it can detect over current. Under normal conditions, fuse does not operate but if the current
exceeds its normal value above a specified period then it operates removing the equipment for the system
thus protecting it.
When the current exceeds it normal value, an electric arc is established between the un-
melted ends of the fuse. The arc continues to grow in length until the voltage required to sustain the arc is
higher than the available voltage, terminating current flow. In case of alternating current circuits, the speed
of fuse interruption is greatly enhanced due to the natural reversal of current during each cycle.

The fuse element is made of zinc, copper, silver, aluminum, or alloys to provide stable and predictable
characteristics. Ideally the fuse can carry rated current for unlimited period of time and melt quickly on a
small excess. The characteristics of the element should not be changed due to minor harmless surges of
current.
The fuse elements may be designed in such a way so as to enhance its heating effect. In case of
large fuses, current is usually divided between multiple strips of metal. Fuse elements may be backed by
steel or nichrome wires, so that no strain is placed on the element. The fuse element may be surrounded by
air, or by materials intended to speed the quenching of the arc. Silica sand or non-conducting liquids may
be used. .

7.3.3 Characteristic parameters:

7.3.3.1 Rated current IN:
Rated current is the maximum current that can be carried continuously by the fuse without interrupting the
circuit.

7.3.3.2 Speed:
The speed at which a fuse operates depends upon the magnitude of current and the material of
the fuse element. Operating time is inversely proportional to current i.e. greater the current, early the fuse
will blow. Fuses can be classified into following categories depending upon characteristics of operating time
compared to current
fast-blow
slow-blow
time-delay
A standard fuse usually takes 1 second to operate for twice the rated current. A fast-blow fuse takes 0.1
seconds to operate for twice the rated current and a slow-blow fuse may require twice its rated current for
tens of seconds to blow.
Selection of fuse depends upon the characteristics of load. In case of semiconductor
devices w require a fast operating fuse since these devices heat rapidly when excessive current flows.
Sensitive equipments are protected by fast blowing fuses because in case of sensitive equipment we cant
take risks. We want immediate action in case a fault occurs near our sensitive equipment so fast blowing
fuses are installed there. Normal fast-blow fuses are the most general purpose fuses. The time delay fuses
are those fuses which operate after a specified period of time after the occurrence of fault. These types of
fuses find application in motors which takes a large amount of current, much above the rated current
during starting for several seconds.

7.3.3.3 The I
2
t value:
It is the measure of energy required to blow the fuse element. It is also known as
the known as the let-through energy. Unique I
2
t parameters are provided by charts in manufacturer data
sheets for each fuse family. The energy is mainly dependent on current and time for fuses.

7.3.3.4 Breaking capacity:
Maximum current that can be safely interrupted by the fuse is termed as the
breaking capacity. Breaking capacity is usually higher than the prospective. There are different fuses that
have high interrupting capability such as
Miniature fuses
These fuses have high interrupting capability. They can interrupt ten times their rated current.
HRC (High Rapture Capacity)
These fuses are have very high rupturing capability and are usually flled
with sand or a similar material.

7.3.3.5 Rated voltage:
It is common practice to set the voltage rating of the fuse greater than or equal to what
would become the open circuit voltage. If this is not done then an arc may result and plasma will be
formed. Plasma may continue to conduct current until plasma reverts to an insulating gas so it rated
voltage should always be kept larger than the maximum voltage source it would have to disconnect. This
requirement applies to every type of fuse.
It is not advisable to use Medium-voltage fuses on low voltage circuits because they cannot properly clear
the circuit when operating at very low voltages.

7.3.3.6 Voltage drop:
Manufacture usually provides the voltage drop across the fuse. Due to dissipation of
energy at high currents resistance may change when a fuse becomes hot. In low-voltage applications this
resulting voltage drop must be taken care of particularly when using a fuse.

7.3.3.7 Temperature derating:
Ambient temperature will change a fuse's operational parameters. A fuse rated
for 1 A at 25 C may conduct up to 10% or 20% more current at 40 C and may open at 80% of its rated
value at 100 C. Operating values will vary with each fuse family and are provided in manufacturer data
sheets.



References:
http://www.Wikipedia.com
http://engr.nmsu.edu/~etti/spring97/electronics/cmos/FIG1.GIF
http://static.electro-tech-online.com/imgcache/3304-idea.JPG
http://www.jaycar.com.au/images_uploaded/optocoup.pdf
http://teacher.en.rmutt.ac.th/ktw/04-710-409/OPTOCOUPLER%20APPLICATIONS.html