You are on page 1of 10

Level 3 Chemistry

91392 (3.6): Demonstrate understanding of equilirium


!rin"i!les in aqueous systems
Credits: Five
Check that you have completed ALL parts of the box at the top of this page.
Check that you have been supplied with the resource sheet for Chemistry 9!9" #!.$%.
&ou should answer ALL parts of ALL 'uestions in this booklet.
(f you need more room for any answer) use the space provided at the back of this booklet.
Check that this booklet has pages "* in the correct order and that none of these pages is blank.
#$% &%'( )*+D (),' -$$.L/( ($ #$%0 (/*C)/0 *( ()/ /+D $1 ()/ *LL$((/D (,&/.
$2/0*LL L/2/L $1 3/01$0&*+C/
+ ,ew -ealand .ualifications Authority) "/"
All rights reserved. ,o part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without the prior permission of the ,ew -ealand .ualifications Authority.
'*&3L/ 3*3/0
3
,ame: Class:
0chool:
( give my permission for my answers to be placed on the 12( and ,-.A websites as examples
of student work) knowing that my name will not be used with the answer.
0igned:
Assessor3s
use only
&ou are advised to spend $/ minutes answering the 'uestions in this booklet.
4%/'(,$+ $+/
(a) 4ethanoic acid) 5C665) is a weak acid. A dilute a'ueous solution of this acid has a
p5 of ".78.
pK
a
#5C665% 9 !.7:
(i) ;rite an e'uation for the reaction of methanoic acid with water.
(ii) List all the species in the a'ueous solution of methanoic acid in order of
decreasing concentration.
<ive reasons for you answer.
(iii) Calculate the concentration of the methanoic acid solution with a p5 of ".78.
Chemistry 9!9" #!.$%
"
Assessor3s
use only
(b) =ustify the variation in the properties #p5 and conductivity% for the four dilute a'ueous
solutions described in the table below.
!) Condu"tivity
5Cl ./ high
,5
:
Cl >. high
,5
!
. low
,a65 !./ high
Chemistry 9!9" #!.$%
!
Assessor3s
use only
4%/'(,$+ (5$
(a) (ron#((% sulfide) Fe0) is dissolved in water to make a saturated solution.
(i) ;rite the e'uation for the e'uilibrium present in a saturated solution of Fe0.
(ii) ;rite the expression for K
s
#Fe0%.
(iii) Calculate the solubility of Fe0 in a saturated solution) in mol L
*
.
K
s
#Fe0% 9 :.9/ /
*8
(b) 0ome sulfides have very low solubility products. ;hen hydrogen sulfide gas is bubbled
through solutions of these ions) these ions separate from a mixture of ions.
(i)
(n a saturated solution of hydrogen sulfide ?5
!
6
@
A
"
?0
"*
A 9 ./ /
*"!
Calculate the sulfide ion concentration when the p5 of the solution is :."/.
Chemistry 9!9" #!.$%
:
Assessor3s
use only
(ii)
Calculate the solubility of Fe0 in this solution) in mol L
*
.
(c) A solution contains a mixture of the two metal ions Cu
"@
and -n
"@
) both of the same
concentration. 1he solution is saturated with hydrogen sulfide and adding hydrochloric acid
lowers the p5 of the solution.
K
s
#Cu0% 9 $.!/ /
*!$
K
s
#-n0% 9 .$ /
*":
Account for the fact that at a p5 close to 7 all the metal sulfides will precipitate whereas only
the most insoluble sulfides precipitate out at a lower p5.
(n your answer) you should use e'uilibrium principles and both Cu
"@
and -n
"@
as examples.
(+o "al"ulations are required.)
Chemistry 9!9" #!.$%
>
Assessor3s
use only
4%/'(,$+ ()0//
"/.// mL of /."> mol L
*
ethanoic acid is titrated with /."> mol L
*
sodium hydroxide solution.
1he e'uation for this reaction is:
C5
!
C665#aq% @ ,a65#aq% C5
!
C66,a#aq% @ 5
"
6 #l%
1he titration curve for the reaction is given below and the buffer region is marked on the graph.
(a) #i% Bxplain why the solution in the
titration flask can act as a
buffer in this marked region. Cse an e'uation in your answer.
(ii) Dut an 6 on the graph to show at which point the buffering action is the most efficient.
<ive reasons for your answer.
Chemistry 9!9" #!.$%
1his page has been deliberately left blank
$
Assessor3s
use only
(b) (i) 0how that the p5 at the e'uivalence point for this titration is 8.78.
pK
a
#C5
!
C665 % 9 :.7$
(ii) Bxplain why methyl orange is not a suitable indicator for this titration and why
phenolphthalein is a suitable indicator for this titration.
,ndi"ator !K
a
4ethyl orange !.7/
Dhenolphthalein 9.$/
Chemistry 9!9" #!.$%
7
Assessor3s
use only
(iii) Dhenolphthalein is an acidEbase indicator. (t is a weak acid and its formula can be
represented as 5(n. Dhenolphthalein is colourless in acidic solutions and purple in
basic solutions.
pK
a
#5(n% 9 9.$/
Fiscuss the effect of adding ethanoic acid and sodium hydroxide in turn to a solution
containing phenolphthalein. (n your answer) you should refer to:
e'uilibrium principles
the species responsible for the colours seen
the p5 range within which this indicator is effective.
Chemistry 9!9" #!.$%
8
Assessor3s
use only
/7tra s!a"e if required.
Clearly numer the question (if required).
.uestion
number
Chemistry 9!9" #!.$%
9
Assessor3s
use only
/7tra s!a"e if required.
Clearly numer the question (if required).
.uestion
number
Chemistry 9!9" #!.$%
/