Sie sind auf Seite 1von 4

avTandil arabuli

wur- da yur- ZirTa istoriuli variantebisaTvis


qarTvelur enebSi

…i↔u monacvleoba qarTvelur enaTa sxvadasxva qvesistemebSi ueyveli faqtebiT


aris dadasturebuli (wvima/wuma, Gvino/Guno, sakvirveli/sakurveli, dvire/dure, dvi-
be/dube...). (iv.qavTaraZe, 1964, gv. 77-83). bunebrivia, mniSvnelovania warmodgenil fu-
ZeTa urTierTmonacvle segmentTa fonetikuri mimarTebis garkveva: u→…i (xmovnis da-
Sla kompleqsad), Tu …i→u (xmovnis labialuri asimilacia, umlauti)?
saanalizo fuZeTa masalobrivi Cveneba SesaZleblobas iZleva vivaraudoT, rom aq
calmxrivi movlena ar unda gvqondes _ cvlileba SeiZleba moxdes orive mimarTule-
biT. rac mTavaria, gamokveTilia monacvle fuZeTa leqsikalizaciis tendencia. amito-
mac SesaZleblad migvaCnia visaubroT istoriul leqsikur wKvilebSi [u] _ […i] seg-
mentTa alternaciul mimarTebaze, monacvleoba CavaKenoT im movlenis rigSi, rome-
lic istoriulad leqsikuri derivaciis erT-erTi ueyveli saSualebaa.
I
vvaraudobT, rom amgvar istoriul alternantebs warmogvidgenen wur- da w…ir-
Zirebi. Ziris es variantebi aSkarad monacvlea TviT erTi da imave leqsemis fargleb-
Si. Sdr.: mw¼re _ lafi, tlapo, talaxi: Gori imwuba sagorelsa m w ‚ r i s a s a (I
petre 2,22); JurGmulsa mas Sina ara iKo wKali, aramed m w ‚ r e (I ierem. 38,6); viTar-
ca SeiSrvis m w ‚ r € igi (fiziol. XXVIII, 12); ...vixile mun m w ‚ r € didZali, gamomdi-
nare adgilisa misgan (H-341, 633) (il.abul.); mw¼re _ mKrali lafi (saba).
ufro gvian dasturdeba wvire _ m-elementdakarguli varianti: `aq adideben da-
mpal kintos, TaTrul muxambazs, abanos w v i r e s , Sua bazris koriantelsa (g.leon.);
wviriani: `wviriani xeliT damzadebulis yama... (n.lorTq.) (qegl).
dial. (xevs. fS. TuS.) qegl-Sivea asaxuli _ `saqonlis Sardi~. a.SaniZis `mTis ki-
loTa leqsikonis~ mixedviT: mwure ƒor., ƒ., T. Zroxis fseli. mwvire gud., mT., moƒ.,
mwure ƒ. Sardi (saqonlisa da adamianisa) da Sardnarevi miwa (CaC. 30). Zroxis mwvi-
riT Tavs ibanen qalebi. mwvire daviyireo (a.SaniZe, 1984, leqs.).
m-wur-e/m-w¼r-e pirvelad saxelzmnaTa formebia, amitomac logikuria, rom maT
Zirad zmnuri semantikis monacemi vivaraudoT. es monacemia qarTvelur enebSi dadas-
turebuli wur- Ziri.
fenrix-sarJvelaZis naSromis mixedviT *wur- Ziri sam variantad aris rekonstrui-
rebuli:
1. qarT. wur- (wuravs): megr. wir-ºwˆr- (wiruaºwˆrua `wurva~): laz. wor-ºnwor-
ºwir-ºnwir- (worums `wuravs~): svan. wur-ºw…r- (liw…re `gawurva~, oxwure `gavwu-
re~)...
2. qarT. wur- (miwurva): megr. wur- (ilawuruaºelawurua `daxra; Caxra~; ‡uJi
ilawuri `KurebCamoKrili~)...
3. qarT. wur- (mo-wur-wur-eb-s [ofli]; wur-wur-i1): svan. w…r- (mew…re `Txeva-
di~)... ismis sakiTxi *wur- (qarT. wur-v-a: megr. wˆr-ºwir-...) ZirTan mimarTebis Sesa-
xeb (h.fenrixi, z.sarJvelaZe, 1990, gv. 452).
Sepirispirebul fuZeTa saerTo safuZveli marTlac naTelia. amave dros, mwu-
re/mw¼re saxelzmnur warmoebasTan mimarTebiT saKuradGeboa svan. me-w…r-e `Txeva-
di~, vinaidan amgvari warmoeba aSkarad saerTo-qarTveluri donisaa (a.arabuli,
1994)2
II
amgvarsave [u] _ […i] monacvleobas vvaraudobT y…ir-/yur- fuZeTa mimarTebaSi,
oGond am fuZeTa Soris semantikuri dacileba ufro Sors aris wasuli.
Tvali gavadevnoT TiToeuli Ziris gamovlenis istoriul suraTs zogi Sesabamisi
leqsikuri fuZis saxiT:
i l . a b u l . : aGmoy‚rva `gaTeneba~: vidremdis a G m o y ‚r d e s ciskari (G. msJ.
16,3); y¼roba _ xedva, yvreta: romeli aGiwudebin da i y ‚r o b n sarkum-

1
am Ziris reduplikaciis Sesaxeb ix.: f.erTeliSvili, 1980, gv. 187.
2
svanurSi Cans Ziris wvir- variantic (a.liparteliani, 1994), ix.: wvir, muwvir leqsemebi.
liT misiT (O zir. 14,24).
z . s a r J v . : say‚robeli _ Sesaxedavi: sarkumelni ganxumul samwilad s a y ‚r o -
b e l a d (ezekiel. 41, 16).
y‚ri _ sxivi: arara lxineba sces, arca y ‚r i naTlisa, gina Sesava-
li haerisa (wam.mow.ermogine da evGrafosi, 167, 23-25 a).
` v e f x i s t K a o s a n i ~ : TeTrTa kbilTa gamohkrTebis TeTri elva viTa y v i r i
(136,4); SenTa SuqTa Semomadgam, bnelsa gulsa zeda m y v i r s a (416,3); ba-
geTaT g a s y v i r s brol-lali (723,2); Sua Zowsa da aKiKsa s y v i r s marga-
liti tKubebi (1146,4).
s a b a : y¼ri _ Sexedva; y¼roba (41,16, ezek.) _ yvreta; y¼rs _ gamosyvrets; ga-
my¼rvali _ qva brolis msgavsi; my¼robeli _ gamomyvreteli.
d . C u b . : yviroba _ gamyvirvaleba an yvreta, mzera, cqera; C!%ƒ!=÷…%“2ü, ƒ!å2ü;
yvirva _ C!%ƒ!=÷…%“2ü; yviri _ saSual gamyvirvale, myvirobi,
C!%ƒ!=÷…/L...
yviri TuSurSi `koyis amoTxrili gverdia (a.SaniZe, 1984, leqs.), moxeurSi imave
mniSvnelobiT _ yuri, mTiul. yura.
yuri Zvel qarTulSi dasturdeba mniSvnelobebiT `qvevri, yuryeli, aGyurvilo-
ba, samkauli~: yuri ganƒuretili ars sx‚sa saxli da JurGumuli iwro ucxo (igav-
Ta 23,17); aGiGe y u r i da fari... (fs. 34,2); y u r o eSmakisao (flkt. 146,6); Koveli-
ve kalos y u r i [arian] SeSad (O II mf. 24,22);... raTa iKos isris y u r Kovel-
TaT¼s (sin.mr. 244,8) (il.abul.)3.
arsebiTad imave mniSvnelobiT dasturdeba sitKva sabasa da CubinaSvilebTan _
`qvevri~, `abJari, sayurveli~ _ magram semantikur gadakveTaTa TvalsazrisiT sagu-
lisxmoa zogi ganmarteba; s a b a s mixedviT: iaraGi _ ese ars yuryel(n)i ƒelovanTa
saƒmarni rkinaTa Tu ZelTagan, meomarTa aGsakazmavi, gina cxenTa anu xuroTa, myedel-
Ta da galatozTa(ni). ese msoflioTa eniTa ars, xolo samGdeloTa eniTa y u r i ,
y u r y e l i da romelTame o r G a n o ewodeba. orGano (150,4 fsalm.) sakravia saber-
vliani z. sakravia sabervliTa, {qarTulad nestvmravali} Aa. orGano _ yuryeli(a)
iaraGi. spilenZ-yuri _ didi naGara.
sagulisxmoa d.CubinaSvilis ganmartebac: yuri sakuTrad ewodebis Gvinis Casas-
xmelsa, romel arian: qvevri, qoco, xalani, dergi, lagvini, lagvinari da Txierica, mi-
sTvis rom tikyora Sedgmul ars sitKvaTagan tiki da yuri4.
rogorc miuTiTeben, yuryeri(Zv.)/yuryeli reduplicirebuli yur- Ziria, oGond
reduplikaciisas u-e monacvleoba iSviaTia, arsebiTad erTi analogi dasturdeba _
Zv. urTierTi. piriqiT (e-u) ufro xSiria: erTurTi, ferfuri, beqbuqi, welwuli,
legluga...
is, rac semantikurad yvir-/ yur- fuZeebs unda akavSirebdes, aris x v r e t i l o -
b a , s i G r u e ... is mniSvneloba, romelic qegl-Si dasdebia safuZvlad yuryeli si-
tKvis ganmartebas: 1. saerTo saxeli G r u nivTebisa, romelSic sasmel-saymels aTav-
seben. swored aq aris saZiebeli amosavali semantikis safuZveli: yviri (`amoTxrili~,
`xvretili~ _ `gamyvirvale~ _ `sinaTle _ sxivi~) _ yuri (`amoTxrili, Gru yurye-
li~) → kec-yuri (`yur-yel-i~) _ spilenZ-yuri (`sakravi~) _ Jay…-yuri
(`sayurveli~)5.
semantikur varauds ganamtkicebs qarTvelur enaTa monacemebi, Tumca aq refleq-
sebi erTgvarovani da erTi donisa ara Cans.
Jer kidev n.marma daakavSira qarT. yuri da megr. ykuJiºykudi `yuryeli; gemi, xo-
maldi~ (n.mari, 1909, gv. 3).
am fuZis garda aGdgenilia agreTve meore *yur- arqetipi: sa-yur-is-i, gamosayu-
riseba: svan. li-ykur-e `dayra~ (h.fenrixi, 1987). es ori arqetipi asaxulia fenrix-
sarJvelaZis dasaxelebul naSromSi. gamoricxuli ar aris, aqac saerTo amosavali ve-
ZeboT.
v.Sengeliam yvir- daakavSira zan. wkvir- fuZesTan, romelic warmodgenilia zmna-
Si owkvirinans `kuStad, moGuSulad (gamo)iKureba~. SesatKvisoba y:wk (v-s win) (v.Se-
ngelia, 1995).

3
saintereso warwera aGmoCnda nekresis gaTxrebze (≈III s), qvevris pirze: m~ b ese yuri davrge (l.yilaSvili,
1991).
4
Sdr. misive: tiki, tikyora (somx.) tiki da yuri, Txieri.
5
TuS. yuri `yori~ da xevs. `ƒirClav giyurven ƒevsurni~ _ albaT yor- fuZis pirvandel formasa da semanti-
kas warmoaCens _ `yvirva, yvreta (idumal)~.
Tavis mxriv, fenrix-sarJvelaZis naSromSi aGdgenilia saerTo-qarTveluri *wkur-:
qarT. wkurva, wkuravs (Tvalebs);
megr. wkurua `xuyva (Tvalebisa)~;
svan. wkur `yuyrutana; naxvreti ficrebs Sua~.
vinaidan qarTuli wkur- aSkarad gviandeli da dasavluri arealis kuTvnileba
Cans (qegl-is mixedviT sailustracio masala arsebiTad dasavluri arealidan gamo-
sul mwerlebs ekuTvnis), vvaraudobT, rom wkur- zmnuri fuZe zanuridan gavrcele-
bula, sadac, qarTulis analogiurad, fuZe ori refleqsis saxiT damkvidrebula:
wkur-/ wkvir-6.
rac Seexeba qarT. yur-i: zan. ykuy-i/ykud-i SesatKvisobas, aq Semdgom fonetikur
cvlilebebTan unda gvqondes saqme, kerZod, zanurSi cvlilebebi ase unda warmarTu-
liKo: bolokiduri r → J (i-s gavleniT), Tavkiduri wk → yk J-sTan asimilaciiT,
xolo J → d (disimilaciuri dezafrikatizaciiT).
y¼r-/ yur- Zirebs, Tavis mxriv, ukavSireben yvret- drekad fuZes (f.erTeliSvi-
li, 1980, gv. 191-192; v.Sengelia, 1995), romelic mravalricxovan naKars iZleva: yru-
ti, yvriti, yvrite... meore mxriv, yvreT-: yvreTa, sayvreTa, sayvreTeli... agreTve,
yur/ yruvi, romelic iseTsave mimarTebas unda warmoaCendes yur-Tan, rogorc Kur-
_ Kru da misT. am masalaze SeCereba Sors wagviKvanda.

damowmebuli literatura
i v . q a v T a r a Z e , qarTuli enis istoriisaTvis, Tb. 1964.
a . S a n i Z e , Txzulebani Tormet tomad, t. I, Tb. 1984.
h . f e n r i x i , z . s a r J v e l a Z e , qarTvelur enaTa etimologiuri leqsikoni, Tb.
1990.
f . e r T e l i S v i l i , saxelur fuZeTa fonematuri struqturisa da istoriis sa-
kiTxebi qarTulSi, Tb. 1980.
a . l i p a r t e l i a n i , svanur-qarTuli leqsikoni (Coluruli kilo), Tb. 1994.
l . y i l a S v i l i , masalebi nekresis gaTxrebidan. _ ls. 28.VI.1991.
m.“.l=!!, j "%C!%“3 % Kë,›=Løåì “!%ä“2"å =!ì …“*%ã% “ ,"å!“*,ì. _ gbn, XIX, "/C. I,
q-oK, 1909.
H. Fähnrich, Kartvelischer Wortschatz, IV: Georgica, 10, Iena-Tbilissi, 1987.
v . S e n g e l i a , qarTveluri etimologiebi, VI. y¼r.VII. GiJna. _ enaTmecnierebis
institutis 54-e samecn. sesia, 20-24. XI. 1995.
a . a r a b u l i , erTi svanuri derivaciuli modelis adgilisaTvis qarTvelur ena-
Ta sitKvawarmoebis istoriaSi. _ prof. m.qaldanis xsovnisadmi miZGvnili samecniero
sesia, arn.Ciqobavas sax. enaTmecnierebis instituti, 28-30. VI. 1994 w

6
Sdr. agreTve: wkurini, wi-mowkurinafa (ToliSi) "/!"=2ü, "/*%ë%2ü ãë=ƒ= (i.KifS.), agreTve svan. wkur `yuyru-
tana~ da wkvirai `wvrilTvaleba~.
A.Arabuli

Towards the Historical Variants of the Roots Âur- and Åur- in the Kartvelian Languages

Summary

The analysis of the historical data proves that, in many cases, phonetic variants of the stem-roots
form the basis for semantic differentiation, for the occurrence of new lexical units. It is noteworthy that
such variants happen to have the corresponding reflexes of the Kartvelian languages.
The following pair of stems appear as such historical alternants:

a) Åur- ║ Åwir-, with Kartvelian correspondances:

ÂÖur- ║ Âkwir-;

b) Âur- ║ Âwir-, with corresponding stems:

Âur- ║ Âwir-.

The work represents the possibilities of the further phonetic, morphemic and semantic changes.