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Pharmacy information systems (PIS) are complex computer systems that have been designed to meet the needs of a

pharmacy department. Through the use of such systems, pharmacists can supervise and have inputs on how medication is
used in a hospital.
Some of the activities which Pharmacy Information Systems have been employed in pharmacy departments include:
Clinical Screening: The Pharmacy Information System can assist in patient care by the monitoring of drug interactions,
drug allergies and other possible medication-related complications.
When a prescription order is entered, the system can check to see if there are any interactions between two or more drugs
taken by the patient simultaneously or with any typical food, any known allergies to the drug, and if the appropriate dosage
has been given based on the patients age, weight and other physiologic factors. Alerts and flags come up when the system
picks up any of these.
Prescription Management: The Pharmacy Information System can also be use to mange prescription for inpatients and/or
outpatients. When prescription orders are received, the orders are matched to available pharmaceutical products and then
dispensed accordingly depending on whether the patient is an inpatient or outpatient.
It is possible to track all prescriptions passed through the system from who prescribed the drug, when it was prescribed to
when it was dispensed.
It is also possible to print out prescription labels and instructions on how medication should be taken based on the
prescription.
Inventory Management: Pharmacies require a continuous inventory culture in order to ensure that drugs do not go out of
stock. This is made even more difficult when there are multiple dispensing points. When don manually it is very difficult to
maintain an accurate inventory.
Pharmacy Information Systems aid inventory management by maintaining an internal inventory of all pharmaceutical products,
providing alerts when the quantity of an item is below a set quantity and providing an electronic ordering system that
recommends the ordering of the affected item and with the appropriate quantity from approved suppliers.
Patient Drug Profiles: These are patient profiles managed by the Pharmacy Information System and contain details of their
current and past medications, known allergies and physiological parameters. These profiles are used for used for clinical
screening anytime a prescription is ordered for the patient.
Report Generation: Most Pharmacy Information Systems can generate reports which range from determining medication
usage patterns in the hospital to the cost of drugs purchased and /or dispensed.
Interactivity with other systems: It is important that Pharmacy Information Systems should be able to interact with other
available systems such as the clinical information systems to receive prescription orders and financial information system for
billing and charging.
A pharmacy information system must retrieve process and update the information it obtains for safe and effective use of
drugs. It is used to manage drug usage in the patient health care process and to communicate a large volume of information
to pharmacy and pharmaceutical firms.
Hospital pharmacy supervision is to ensure that medicines are accessed and used safely by patients and professionals both
within the environments of a hospital and beyond (1,2,3). Pharmacy involves information processing, which means retrieving
information from one file and using it to compare, update, or display information from another file (4). The pharmacist could
play an essential role in providing accurate data for managing patient care. Information systems are now necessary to help
pharmacists to perform their expanding list of daily tasks efficiently (5). The pharmacy information system collects, stores and
manages information related to drugs and supervises the use of drugs in line with patient care (6). The pharmacy information
system can rely on management information system
to track and dispense drugs to hospitals and health care organizations (7). Pharmacy information systems are also among the
most widely used clinical information systems today (8).
Pharmacy information systems have regularly been used in the delivery of pharmacy services since the early 1980s. Todays
systems perform many clinical decision support functions such as dose range checking, drug- drug interaction checking, food-
drug interaction checking and drug-laboratory results checking (9). Pharmacy information systems could reduce the risks
involved in drug dispensation and drug interpretation errors (10, 11, 12).
Electronic Essential Drug Price Monitoring System: This system enables hospitals, pharmacies, outlets and
establishments to upload data on current drug prices and inventories. This supports Republic Act 9502 Universally
Accessible Cheaper and Quality Medicines Act of 2008. The major output of this system is a Drug Price Report where the
lowest and highest prices per drug can be generated. [Architecture Hybrid of Offline & Online; Current Status: Operational]

Adverse Drug Online Reporting System: Drugs may have side-effects and in some cases can cause adverse reactions. It
can cause grievous damage to the users or even result to death. The Adverse Drug Online Reporting System enables the
hospitals and drug companies to report cases of adverse reaction(s) on the use of drugs. It can help the DOH and drug
companies to track and manage information on adverse drug reaction; manage drug risks and address safety concerns of
drugs. [Architecture Online; Current Status: Developed and for Implementation]

In order for your hospital or group practice to keep patients safe and well managed, your pharmacy information system--also
called a medication management system--must have several core functions, including in- and outpatient order entry,
dispensing, and inventory and purchasing management. But in this age of integration, these systems must also connect to
other systems within the enterprise, including an EMR, computerized physician order entry (CPOE), barcode technology, and
smart IV infusion pumps.

With these complexities in mind, here's a look at integrated products from 10 of the top pharmacy information system vendors,
based on HIMSS Software Market Share Result
ROBOTICS

of staff intervention

allow meticulous
inventory management of medications

medication
-coding technology is used in all aspects of medication
delivery and patient care

Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs)

programs as personal computers
electronic patient charts
s from previous visits



sent electronically to the patients pharmacy

Telepharmacy
ovides pharmaceutical care at a distance to patients in rural
and medically underserved areas

a registered pharmacy technician at a remote site via
teleconferencing
the prescription for dispensing, while
the pharmacist communicates face-to-face in real time with
both the technician and the patient

Future of Pharmacy Information
Systems
Information systems support pharmacists and technicians in
five areas:
ment of prescribed medicines
-term conditions




specialized icons
-keys for complex tasks (short cuts)




The pharmacy information system has a key role to play in delivering efficient pharmaceutical services. Its
respective information can reduce drug consumption and drug production faults and improve drug therapy
procedures. Data elements of drug therapy have important roles not only in reducing pharmaceutical errors and
controlling drug interactions, but also in achieving business and economical purposes. Thus pharmacy
information system designers are required to design these information databases more accurately by
performing user information needs assessment studies.