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Teaching reading comprehension by using

choral reading method to the tenth


grade students
Posted on Maret 20, 2012 by kemoclickers
TEACHING READING COMPREHENSION BY USING CHORAL READING (CR)
METHOD TO THE TENTH GRADE STUDENTS OF VOCATIONAL SCHOOL SETIA
DARMA OF PALEMBANG
1. Backgro!"
English language is international languages. Reading is one of the four language skills
that must be mastered by students in order to comprehend the message written by the
author successfully. Moreover, reading is important because it provides access to
information due to the fact that it can give valuable knowledge to the reader who wants
to get information. In this era whereas everything is running fast, where technology is
one of the most important thing that we can use as a media to get the information. One
way to get that is by reading.
Reading comprehension involves all of the elements of the reading process, described
in earlier sections of this review, acting together. According to ruidenier !hon
"#$$#%&&', (comprehension is the purpose of reading, in order to get information from a
te)t, remember it later, and uses it effectively, whether for work or for pleasure, reading
comprehension is essential*
+he ability to read is recogni,ed generally as one of the most important skills that a
person can have, reading is a tool of the ac-uisitive mind. it is the vehicle for obtaining
ideas that cannot be transmitted verbally "Amita /hardwa0 122&%1'. A reader, in reading
any materials, must understand the writer message. +he reader or the student in this
case, should understand what he3she is reading. +he students must be able to
understand the information conveyed by the writer. 4omprehension is the main purpose
of reading process. 5ithout comprehension, there is no reading since the purpose of
reading is to grasp the meaning of the te)t. +o grasp the meaning of the te)t, the
reader3the student combines his3her knowledge and his3her e)perience.
(Reading is important not only to the individual. it possesses also great social
significance. 6uch records usually are easily accessible, and they may be read at any
time by any person in accordance with his needs, "Amita /ahardwa0, 122&%#'*.
6tudents7 reading comprehension has very strong relationship with the gained
information. It means that more the students comprehend the te)t, the more the
students get information. In other words, without any comprehension the students will
fail in gaining the information available in the te)t.
According to 4lymer in "/eck, Robert 8, 1292%1:9' (Reading is an ability that is
constantly called into use in a society as comple) as ours. Reading ability is also a
necessary prere-uisite to competence in any occupation*. It means the importance of
reading is widely recogni,ed among educational workers. not a few teachers in the
elementary school view reading as the most important skill the school has to develop.
/ased on the discussion above, the writer7s reason is doing a study related the
students7 ability to comprehend the reading passage of ;ocational 6chool 6etia <arma
of =alembang. +he writer will then apply 4horal Reading method in order to help
students improve their reading comprehension skills. 8opefully, that this method will
make reading not only beneficial for them but en0oyable as well.
#. T$% Pro&'%( o) *$% S*"+
/ased on background above, the main problem in this study is the using 4horal
Reading "4R' method. As guide in doing in this study, the limitation and the formulation
of the problem are presented below.
#.1L,(,*a*,o! o) Pro&'%(
+he limitation of the problem of this study focuses on the teaching reading
comprehension by using 4horal Reading method to the tenth grade students of
vocational school 6etia <arma of =alembang.
#.# For('a*,o! o) Pro&'%(
/ased on the background above, the problem of this research can be formulated in
the following -uestions%
*Is it effective to teach reading comprehension by using 4horal Reading method to
the tenth grade students at ;ocational 6chool 6etia <arma of =alembang>*
1. T$% O&-%c*,.%/ o) *$% S*"+
In relation to the problem above, the ob0ective of this study to find out whether or not
it is effective to use 4horal Reading method in teaching reading comprehension to the
tenth grade students at ;ocational 6chool 6etia <arma of =alembang.
1. S,g!,),ca!c% o) S*"+
+he significance of this study are asfollows %
"1' +he result of writer7s research in this study will give a contribution to the teachers
and students of ;ocational 6chool 6etia <arma of =alembang in improving the students
reading comprehension in teaching and learning.
"#' +he writer7s hope in this study can contribute something useful for people who read
it as a source of information.
":' ?or the writer herself, this study will be an invaluable e)perience to increase her
knowledge about teaching reading method especially about 4horal Reading Method.
1. L,*%ra*r% R%.,%0
6ome concepts such as "1' the concept of teaching, "#' the concept of reading, ":'
the purpose of reading "@' the concept of comprehension, "9' the concept of teaching
reading comprehension, "A' the concept of 4horal Reading method, "&' the benefit of
4horal Reading , "B' Related previous study .
1.1 T$% Co!c%2* o) T%ac$,!g
+eaching is an important aspect of the educational system "Mohan Ram 12B9b%@B'. +he
concept in this research is the concept of teaching reading comprehension by using
4horal Reading Method in order to make the students are understand and comprehend
with the material given.
+eaching is an activity, which is designed for multiple ob0ectives, in terms of changes in
pupil7s behavior "Mahapatra, /.4, #$$@%vii'. =upils have multi dimensional personality
having different learning styles.
1.# T$% Co!c%2* o) R%a",!g
+he importance of reading is widely recogni,ed among educational workers. not a few
teachers in the elementary school view reading as the important skill the school has to
develop.
Coodman "122B%2' states the ideas that reading, far from being passive, is an active
process, with emphasis on both active and process. +hough reading is a process in
which information is dealt with and meaning constructed continuously, it can be usefully
represented as a series of cycles "Coodman 122B%19'
1.3 Pr2o/% o) R%a",!g
6ethi "#$1$%&#' states before actually beginning to read it is important to know the
purpose of reading, i.e. why reading is being done. 5hen the purpose of reading is
known, it greatly enhances the effectiveness of reading. Also, the knowledge of the
purpose can help one adopt a style of reading, best suited for that purpose. One of the
basic purposes of all reading is to provide the missing link to the reader between what
he knows and what he needs o know.


1.4 T$% Co!c%2* o) Co(2r%$%!/,o!
According to reading theory, comprehension is depend on several cognitive process,
including decoding, word recognition, and knowledge " Cibbons 12BB%A$'.
6haron "#$$@%2B' states comprehension is the active process of constructing meaning
from te)t. it involves accessing previous knowledge, understanding vocabulary and
concept, making inferences and linking key ideas. Reading comprehension includes the
following%
1. Applying one7s knowledge and e)periences to the te)t.
#. 6etting goals for reading, and ensuring that they are aligned with the te)t.
:. Dsing strategies and skills to construct meaning during and after reading.
@. Adapting strategies that match the reader7s te)t and goals.
9. Recogni,ing the author7s purpose
A. <istinguishing between facts and opinions, and
&. <rawing logical conclusions.
1.1 T$% co!c%2* o) T%ac$,!g R%a",!g Co(2r%$%!/,o!
?ew of the students we taught who had learning disabilities also read well and with
comprehension, "8arris and Craham, #$$&%1'
/ased on "=innell and 6charer, #$$:%BE2' 4hildren learn to understand te)ts in 0ust
about every conte)t in which they encounter themEhearing them read aloud, reading
them as independent work, e)ploring them at productive work centers, discussing them
as literature, and reading together in small groups. Readers begin to comprehend from
the moment they think about reading a te)t "building e)pectations and making those first
connections' to long after reading it "talking about it with others, using the information,
or connecting to subse-uent te)ts'.
1.5 Co!c%2* o) C$ora' R%a",!g M%*$o"
4horal Reading means reading out loud with your child, the same te)t at the same time
"5ood, #$$A%#1A'. Fou read together in unison, and your child gets to hear your voice,
guiding and supporting, all the while.
/ased on /arbara "122A%:#A', use a single selection with various 4horal Reading
Methods so students learn about the various ways of e)pressing meaning.
+here are four common types of 4horal Reading%
1. +he easiest to learn is refrain, in which the teacher reads most of the lines and
the students read the refrain.
#. GineEaE child reading, individual students read specific lines, while the entire
group reads the beginning and ending of the selection.
:. Antiphoral or <ialog, 4horal Reading is most appropriate for middleEor
intermediateElevel students. It enables reader to e)plore pitch and durations of
sound.
@. Dnison is the most difficult 4horal Reading approach because the entire group
speaks all of the lines.

1. T$% B%!%),* o) C$ora' R%a",!g M%*$o"
+he benefit of choral reading based on "Mc 4ormack and =as-uarelli, #$1$%9&', when
children are choral reading a #$$Eword passage, every student gets the same amount
of practice. +he students are not listening or scrutini,ing each other. If a student makes
an error reading, no one really knows. 4horal reading is also an e)cellent method to
build prosody. As the students listen to each other, those students who have natural
e)pression and phrasing will model those characteristics for the other.
1.6 R%'a*%" 2r%.,o/ /*"+
Artanto "#$$A' with the titled (+eaching Reading 4omprehension by using =H@R
6tartegy to the 6econd Fear 6tudents of 6MA ;eteran =la0u =alembang*, have the
similarities with the writer topic (+eaching Reading 4omprehension by using 4horal
Reading "4R' Method to the +enth Crade 6tudents of ;ocational 6chool 6etia <arma of
=alembang*. +he similarities of them is discussing about teaching reading
comprehension, and the differences of them are "1' Artanto use =H@R 6trategy in
teaching reading comprehension, "#' Artanto do the research at the 6MA ;eteran =la0u
=alembang, ":' total of the students for research.
5. H+2o*$%/,/
Arikunto "#$$A%&1' hypothesis is an answer for the time being about the investigated
problem, it can till be proved through data collected. +he hypothesis of this study is in
the form of Iull and Alternative 8ypothesis. +he hypotheses are as follows%
Iull 8ypothesis "8o' % it is not effective to use 4horal Reading Method in teaching
reading comprehension to the tenth grade students of ;ocational 6chool 6etia <arma of
=alembang.
Alternative 8ypothesis "8a'% it is effective to use 4horal Reading Method in teaching
reading comprehension to the tenth grade students of ;ocational 6chool 6etia <arma of
=alembang.
7. T$% Cr,*%r,a )or T%/*,!g H+2o*$%/,/
+he 8ypothesis will be tested by critical value of tEdistribution table. In generally, for the
research in education use significant level in $,$9 or $,$1 "Arikunto, #$$A%&A'. If the
result of matched tEtest is the same or less, the null hypothesis will be accept. /ut, if the
result of the matched tEtest is e-ual to or e)ceeds the alternative hypothesis will be
accept and conse-uently the null hypothesis will be re0ected.
6. R%/%arc$ a!" Proc%"r%
In this part discuss "1' Method of Research, "#' Research ;ariables, ":' Operational
definition, "@' =opulation and 6ample, "9' +echni-ue for collecting the data, "A'
+echni-ue for analy,ing the data.


6.1 M%*$o" o) R%/%arc$
+he writer will use true e)perimental research design. (E)perimental Method provides
much control and, therefore, establishes a systematic and logical association between
manipulated factor and observed effects*. umar "#$$# %#@'. +he writer will uses one of
the true e)perimental designs called a random assignment of sub0ect. +he form is
follow%

5here%
R J Random
O1 J =retest of before e)perimental
O# J =osttest of after e)perimental
K J the treatment
6.# R%/%arc$ Var,a&'%/
+here are two kinds of variables, independent and dependent variables. ?raenkel and
5allen "122:%9$' 6tate an independent variables is presumed to have an effect on, to
influence somehow, another variable. +he variables that the independent variable is
presumed to affect is called the dependent "or outcome' variable.
Independent variable of this study is the method that will be used for teaching reading
comprehension that called 4horal Reading Method, and the dependent variable is the
student7s scores of the reading comprehension test which will be measured through
writing test.
6.3 O2%ra*,o!a' D%),!,*,o!
In this part, the title of this study is (+eaching Reading 4omprehension by Dsing 4horal
Reading Method to the +enth Crade 6tudents of ;ocational 6chool 6etia <arma of
=alembang*. +he 5riter defines the terms are as follows%
1. +eaching
+eaching means an activity, that d by the teacher. In this activity, the teacher help the
students to be more understand and know what they must do. +he teacher transferred
all of the knowledge they have to their students.
#. Reading 4omprehension
Reading 4omprehension is the way students to get the meaning from the te)t that they
read.
:. 4horal Reading Method
4horal Reading method is one of the five possible methods in teaching reading. It
provides many opportunities for repeated reading for a particularly and gives practice to
poetry and rhymes.


6.4 Po2'a*,o! a!" Sa(2'%
6.4.1 Po2'a*,o!
According to ?raenkel and 5allen "#$$:%&2', the larger group to which one hopes to
apply the result is called the population*. +he population of this study will be doing to the
tenth grade students of vocational school 6etia <arma of =alembang. +hey consist of A
4lasses. +he total numbers of the students are 1B$ "see +able 1'.
TABLE 1
T$% Po2'a*,o! o) R%/%arc$
Io. 4lass Iumber of 6tudents
1 KA.1 @#
# KA.#

@@
: K=!.1

@1
@ K=!.#

@1
9 K=!.:

@1
A K=!.@

:A
+otal #@9
(Source: SMK Setia Darma Palembang)
6.4.# Sa(2'%
According to ?raenkel and 5allen "#$$:%&2',* a 6ample in a research study refers to
any group on which information is obtained*. 6ample is a part of representative of
population investigated. +he writer will use random sample techni-ue .+he table #
shows the sample of this study.
TABLE #
T$% Ta&'% o) Sa(2'%
Io. 4lass Iumber of 6tudents
1 KA.1 @#
: K=!.1

@1
+otal B:
(Source: SMK Setia Darma Palembang)
6.1 T%c$!,8% )or Co''%c*,!g *$% Da*a
In order to obtain data needed, the data will be collected through test. According to
8ornby "12&@%B2:', (test is an e)amination or trial to find its -uality, value, composition,
etc*. +he writer will test the students with pretest and posttest. =reEtest in this study, in
order to get student7s level of reading comprehension. +he postEtest is giving by using
4horal Reading Method to find out the student7s achievement in reading
comprehension.
+he writer will give #$ test items to the students to find out main ideas "9 items', to
interpret specific information in the reading te)ts "9 items', multiple choice test 1$ test
items.
+he time allocated to do this test would be 2$ minutes.
6.1.1 Va',",*+
;alidity is the most important ideas to consider when preparing selecting and instrument
for use validity to appropriateness. ?reankel and 5allen "122$%#&' state the content
validity is a form that is based on the degree to which a test ade-uately and sufficiently
measurement skills or behaviour it set out to measure. +he writer will consult with
advisor and the teacher of English at vocational school 6etia <arma of alembang in
making the test materials. +able : shows the test specification%
TABLE 3
T%/* S2%c,),ca*,o!
Io Ob0ectives Materials Indicators
+otal of
items
Iumber
of items
+ypes of test
1
+o measure the
student7s ability in
reading comprehension
to find out the main
ideas, and find specific
information in reading
te)ts.
+he
reading
te)ts
+he students
are able to find
the main ideas.

+he students
are able to find
specific
information in
reading te)ts

+he student are
able to choose
the correct
answer of the
-uestion
9





9



1$
1E9





AE1$



11E#$
Multiple
choice and
essay
-uestions

6.1.# R%',a&,',*+
According to Gongman "122#%:1@', (reliability is a measure of the degree to which a test
gives consistent result*. Reliability refers to the consistency of the scores obtained, how
consistent they are for each individual from one administration of an instrument to
another and from one set of items to another. +he reliability of the test material will be
evaluated through the internal consistency method with the techni-ue single test double
trial.
uderERichardson approaches. =erhaps the most fre-uently employed method for
determining internal consistency is the uderERichardson approach. Iote, however, that
formula R #1 can be used only if it can be assumed that the items are of e-ual
difficulty, "?raenkel and 5allen 122:%1@2'. +he following formula is%

5here%
R #1 J uderERichardson reliability
J Iumber of items in the test
M J Mean of the set of test scores
6< J 6tandard <eviation
T$% For('a o) SD ,/9

5here%
K J Iumber of correct answer
J 6tudent7s mean scores
n J Iumber of students
6.5 T%c$!,8% )or A!a'+:,!g *$% Da*a
+o analy,e the data, the writer would analy,e the data through statistical analysis.
According to +homas "#$11%19@' the formula of tEtest as follows%

5here%
t J tEobtained
K1 J Mean of the students7 score in 4ontrol 4lass
Mean of the students7 score in E)perimental 4lass
61
#
J +he variance of group 4ontrol case
6#
#
J +he variance of group E)perimental 4lass
I1 J +he number of the sub0ect in 4ontrol 4lass
I# J +he number of the sub0ect in E)perimental 4lass




REFERENCES
Arikunto,=rof. <r. 6uharsimi. #$$A. Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan
Praktik, edisi vi. !akarta% Rieneka 4ipta.
/arbara, <. 6toodt. 122A. C$,'"r%!;/ Literature Discovery for a lifetime.
ustralia% McMillian Education Australia ?+F, Gtd.
/eck, Robert 8. 129A. !"e !"ree #$s Plus. D6A% Dniversity of Minnesota.
/hardwa0, Amitha. 122&. %m&roving #eading Skills. Iew <elhi% 6arupL6on.
?raenkel, !ack. R and Iorman E. 5allen. 122:. 'o( to Design and )valuate
#esearc" in )ducation. Iew Fork% Mc Craw 8ills.
Cibbons. !ohn. 8. 12BB. Po(er *+% +e( !ools for teac"ing and Learning.
5ashington <4% D6, Covernment =rinting Office.
Coodman, . 6. 122B. %nteractive &&roac"es to Second Language
#eading. 4ambirdge Dniversity =ress.
8arris, . R and Craham 6teve. #$$&. !eac"ing #eading ,om&re"ension to
Students (it" Learning Difficulties. Iew Fork% +he Cuilford =ress.
8ornby, A. 6. 12BB. *-ford dvance Learner$s Dictionary of ,urrent
)nglis". O)ford% O)ford Dniversity =ress.
rudenier, !hon. Ed.<. #$$#. #esearc"./ased &rinci&les for dult /asic
)ducation %nstruction. =ortsmouth% RM4 Research. 4o.
umar, Arvind. #$$#. #esearc" Met"odology in Social Science. Iew <ekhi%
6arup L 6ons.
Gongman. 122#. Longman Dictionary of language !eac"ing and &&lied
Linguistics. Gongman Croup D,Gtd.
Mahapatra, /.4. #$$@. Models of !eac"ing in education. Iew <elhi% 6arup L
6ons.
Mc Andrews, 6tephanie G. #$$B. Diagnostics Literacy assessments and
%nstructional Strategies a Literacy S&ecialist$s #esource. International
Reading Association, Inc.
Mc 4ormack, Rachel G and =as-uerelli 6usan Gee. #$1$. !eac"ing #eading
Strategies and #esources for 0rades K.1. Iew Fork% +he Cuilford
=ress.
Michaels Geonard and Ricks 4hristopher. 12&2. !"e States of t"e Language.
Gondon% Dniversity of 4alifornia =ress, Gtd.
Mohan Ram. 12B9b. 2niversali3ation of 'ig"er )ducation. Iew <elhi% 6arup
L 6ons.
=innell, Cay 6u and 6chraer, =atricia G. #$$:. !eac"ing for ,om&re"ension
in #eading 0rades K.4. Iew Fork% 6cholastic.
6ethi, An0anee and Adhikari, /ahavana. #$1$. /usiness ,ommunication.
Iew <elhi% +ata Mc Craw 8ill Education =rivate, Gtd.
;aughan, 6. #$$@. Researc"./ased Met"ods of #eading %nstruction 0rades
K.5 2S% Association for 6upervision and 4urriculum <evelopment
"A64<'.
5ood, +racy, M.Ed. #$$A. *vercoming Dysle-ia for Dummies. Indianapolis%
5illey =ublishing, Inc.
Contoh Skripsi Bahasa Inggris
CHAPTER I
INRODUCTION
A. Background of Th Stud!
Education is changing of behavior, habit, attitude and skill (ability). This
changing process happens after someone interact with environment. (Nasution in
Hadneh, !!" # $) . %e know that the aim of education in indonesia is the making
students to develop basic character good citi&eans. 'ur society needs as well as
provide students prere(uisite for future studies to increase the (uality of education
that sould be achieved by the society.
)any way can be used to improve students* English achievement. 'ne of them
is reading many English books. +eading is one of the skills that much be thought, by
reading, we can get information, knowledge, and pleasure. Now days. There are so
many books written is English and the students are thought English in all level of
school up university.
The priority of the students ability in reading recount te,t in school because it
can over there others skills. The habit of people, who often read books written in
English, will make them easy to master the other skills. -s achin (in hadneh,
!!"#$) stated that reading skill involves the tree other skills# listening, speaking
and writing.
.n a learning process the recount to work, the reading materials is the main
goal but fact school that the mayority of the students are not competent in this skill.
The student can increase knowledge in reading recount te,t through read like #
recount, narrative, and descriptive.
Therefore, the students* ability is necessary to be delovep especially in
improving reading recount te,t of the students, because reading recount te,t can
help students e,pand to skill and comprehension student in reading recount te,t, in
order to student able to understand aim from content recount.
/o, based on the statement above, to 0nd out the students* ability in reading
recount te,t of the second year students at /)1 Negeri $ 1raya 2arat 3aya in
-cademic 4ear !$!5!$$.
B. Stat"nt of Th Pro#$"s
2ased on the background of the study. The statement of the problem is what
e,tent is the students* ability in reading recount te,t at the second year students of
/)1 Negeri $ 1raya 2arat 3aya in -cademic 4ear !$!5!$$6
C. Purpos of Th Stud!
1roblem statement above, the writer tries to get a target in this writing should
be achieved thet to measure the students* ability in reading recount te,t at the
second year students of /)1 Negeri $ 1raya 2arat 3aya in -cademic 4ear
!$!5!$$.
D. Signi%canc of Th Stud!
The signi0cances of the study are#
$. The theoreticat signi0cances
The students are e,pected to understand reading recount te,t so, the result of
the study will give information about how to cope with the di7culties understand
and students motivation in reading recount te,ts particularly second year students
of /)1 Negeri $ 1raya 2arat 3aya in -cademic 4ear !$!5!$$
. The practical signi0cances
The writer wants to 0nd the students* di7culties in understanding reading
recount test so, the result of the study will encourage them improve to skill in
reading recount te,t.
E. Assu"ption of Th Stud!
The research conducted is based on the assumption #
$. The students are encountered a sum of reading (uestions, naturally based on the
te,t.
. The instrument used to collect the data is true in measuring the students* ability of
reading recount te,t used at /)1N $ 1raya 2arat 3aya in -cademic 4ear !$!5!$$.
&. H!pothsis of Th Stud!
Hypothesis is a powerful tool on scienti0c in(uiry, because it is a tentative
answer. .t enables us to 0nd real answer by doing research and relating it to the
theory.
The hypothesis set forth the current study is worth considering. However,
they still need to be proved under the results of 0nding later. There are two kinds of
hypothesis# null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis.
2ased on the theoretical of view, the hypothesis of this research can be
formulated as follws #
$. The -lternative Hypothesis (Ha)
The second year students of /)1N $ 1raya 2arat 3aya in -cademic 4ear !$!5!$$
are able in reading recount te,t.
. 8or statiscal analysis (Ho). The second year students of /)1 Negeri $ 1raya 2arat
3aya in -cademic 4ear !$!5!$$ are not able in reading recount te,t.
'. D%nition of Th (! Tr"s
To avoid misunderstanding in this study, it is necessary to e,plain some
terminologies related to this thesis#
$. +eading
8inochiaro and bonomo (in hadneh. !!"# 9) /tate that# +eading is :bringing
meaning to and getting meaning from pointed or written material;. 2urn at all (in
Hadneh, !!"# 9) de0ned reading as the interpretation of the meaning of printed
symbol. .n this e,tend reading te,t is denote to the te,t which are e,pected the
students* understand.
. +ecount te,t
(/eaton, in /iti +ahmawati, !!<# ") /tate that# +ecount is a reconstruction of
something happenes in the past. .t is the unfolding se(uence of events overtime
and the purpose is to tell what happened. +ecounts begin with by telling the reader
who was involved what happened where this event took place and when it
happened. .n this research recount te,t means to the te,t (written works which
consists of several paragraphs ) which are e,pected the students to understand
about recount te,t.
CHAPTER II
RE)IE* O& RE+ATED +ITERATURE
A. Rading
,. *hat is Rading
+eading is active process in which reader shift between source of information
(what they know and what the te,t says), elaborate meaning and strategies check
their interpretation (revising when appropriate), and use the social conte,t to focus
their response (Tarigan, $=>=# ?). Ne,t reading is creativity, meaning that the
creativity reader brings to the material skill of comparison and synthesis the ability
to use new relationship and arrive at devinitely conclusion (2urns et al, $=<=# @).
/ince communicative courses focuses on message rather then the from, the
reading skill is rede0ned to focus on the purpose of reading. (Hodgson in
Nuryanti,!!=# ?) stated the reading is process and also utili&et by reader to get
message word media5 language write. 8rom linguistic facet, reading is recoding and
decoding process.
(-nderson in 4udhistira,!!=# ") stated that the target of reading is to look for
and to get information embarrasses feels and reading meanings, some target of
reading are#
a. +eading for details or facts
b. +eading for main ideas
c. +eading for se(uence or organi&ation
d. +eading for inference
e. +eading to classify
f. +eading to evaluate
g. +eading to compare or contrast.
-. Acti.itis of Rading
- pro0cient reader must coordinate a number of skills. He must read rapidly as
well as with a through understanding of the subAect matters. 8ollowings are step of
reading, namely# (wiyacharta in af&alurrakhman, !!<# @) skimming is the skill to
read (uickly and selectively in order to obtain a general idea of the material. There
are them methods of skimming#
a. 1review
2y the preview the students can 0nd out the book or articles that written by
the authors in a certain 0eld whether the authors have their own format of writing.
b. 'verview
'verview is a reading activity to 0nd out sections that they are ability.
c. /urvey
Trough a survey the students will get general idea of that material containsB
skimming is the skills tahat help the students read (uickly and selectively in order
to obtain a general idea of the materials.
$) 1re reading activity
2y conduction pre reading activity, we can help students to relate their
knowledge to the te,t they are going to read. there are two kinds of important.
Cnowledge involved in reading, knowledge of the language and knowledge of the
te,t .
) %hile reading activity
To lead students to resd more eDectively, it is advisable for the teacher to
facilitate students with (uestions before the read.
9) 1ost activity (follow up activity)
Eareful planned follow up activities can add fun enAoyment to a reading lesson.
/. (inds Of Rading 0atria$s
(Fack E +ichacd in Nurhayanti, !!=# >) classi0ed reading materials into two
kinds namely#
a. -rti0cial materials
The material (uoted from any te,t book. .t is the material, which is mandible
prepared for the purpose of instructional activities. This material same time makes
students bored, because the message is implied not more student*s ability.
b. -uthentic materials
-uthentic material, especially reading material any kind of literary work,
which is used as the material the teaching reading. This material mainly not
prepared for instructional activities for other purpose of reading.
English teacher nowadays assume that of material is worth full since#
$) -ims when using a reading te,t
The teacher should decide 0rst what their aims are#
a) To teach basis reading comprehensions skill
b) To teach real life reading skill
c) To devlop critical reading skill
d) To reinforce certain grammatical feature
) )ethod of teaching reading
)ethot will be depend on the aim and focus on two aspects#
a) 1resenting a te,t
($) -rouse the student*s ability
() 3raw their attention to their own previous knowledge and e,perience, which will
help them to attack the te,t.
(9) Give reason for reading
(?) 1re teach any important words or concepts.
b) 3eveloping the reading lesson
The teach can do some of the thing develop reading skill#
($) 1review
The student can be 0nding out the book or article written by specialist in a
certain 0eld.
() /kimming
/kimming is the skill the help the students read (uickly selectively in order to
obtain a general idea of the material.
(9) /canning
'n the hand, scanning help the student read (uickly for the speci0c
information such as one scan pages of the newpaper to 0nd particular articles to
read.
B. T1t
Generally there are three models of language which shows now a te,t is
inHuenced by the conte,ts (Hammond et al in 1uspitasari, !!=# $>)
,. Cont1t of Cu$tur
- language is used by the people that have same cultural background.
Eonte,t of culture caused the development of many kind of te,t or genre. 2ritish
are familiar with the kind of te,t such as, narrative te,t, conversation. Thus, the
native speakers also need to study how to tell events (recount) both orally and
written.
- te,t can be short and simple, but it must be structural and easy the reader
to understand it. 8or e,ample, in transactional conversation the students learn how
the language and also learn the rhetoric*s ways that are usually used by the native
speaker.
-. Cont1t of Situation
a. 8ield means anything happened in the te,t, the topic of the te,t (subAect matter)
who involved, what happened, where it happened, how to happened, and so on.
b. Tenor is the interpersonal relation between the character (who are involved) in the
te,t.
c. )ode is the channel of communication between oral and written language.
/. T1t
Te,t is something written or read. Te,t is not word unity but te,t is a semantic
unit (Holliday in 1uspitasari, !!=# $<). These semantic units are reali&ed in the
from of word, clause and sentence. %hen we read or write means we create a te,t.
- dialogue or conversations that emphasi&e meaning called te,t. (Holliday in
1uspitasari, !!=# $<) also stated when we communicated or event Aust as a listener
or reader we have created a te,t indirectly.
C. Th Tr" of Rcunt T1t.
There are some kinds of te,t (genre) in English teaching, for e,ample,
e,pository, discussion, and e,planation. +ecounts, narrative, and anecdote. The
based competency which dealt with the mastering of this type of te,t is the
students should be able run communication both orally or written.
- recount is a te,t that has social function to retell events for the purpose of
informing or entertaiming. %hen you tell about happenings in the past it means that
you make a recount te,t. +ecount te,ts refer that tells a story that has happened in
the past. .t can be from of personal letters, diary, history, biography or
autobiography and the similar (depdiknas,!!?# @)
3erewianka in depdiknas (!!?# 9?) listed out three maAor types of recount
te,t#
,. Prsona$ Rcount
1ersonal recount describe an event where the writer or the author is doing the
action by himself. .t includes in the story, funny events which is written on the diary.
The characteristic of personal recount is that the use the 0rst person pronoun,
personal respone to the events can be included ( usually at the and of the recount).
-. &actua$ Rcount
8actual recount describes the facts of events, such research report, the
maga&ine, and so forth.
/. I"aginati. Rcount
.maginative reIcount describes the unfactual story or 0ction, for e,ample, the
te,t for teaching language. The imaginative recount usually written in the 0rst
person, and need not to include personal reaction.
CHAPTER III
RESEARCH 0ETHODO+O'2
A. Rsarch 0thod
This research tries to measure the students* ability in reading recount te,t.
The method of the study is a descriptive method. 3escriptive method means a
research method wich is used to study the status of a community, an obAect, or a
set of condition, a system of thinking or an event on present (na&ir in hadiAah, !!<#
9). 3ata obtained were analy&ed by applying basic statistical computation.
B. Popu$ation and Sa"p$ of Th Stud!
$. 1opulation
1opulation is the number of the people having at least the same characteristic
(hades in fai&in, !!?# $). -nother de0nition that is similar to that given by 3onald
-ry (in fai&in, !!?# $) said that population is a number of people de0ned events
or obAects. 8rom the two de0nitions above, a simple de0nition of population is a set
(or collection) of all elements prossessing one more attribute of ability.
The number of population of study is all of the second year students of /)1N $
1raya 2arat 3aya in academic year !$!5!$$. That consists iof $ class. .n each
class consists of @ students, so the total population in this research is $!!
atudents.
. /ample
-ccording to arikunto, sated that if population are less than one hundred that
is better to take all of population to be subAects of the research. .f the number of
population is more than one hundred it suggested taking $!I$" J or !I" J
(arikunto, $==$# $!>). The consist of ? class namely class K... $ is " students, class
K... ? is " students. The totoal of all students from ? classes is $!$ students. /o,
the writer takes @ students ($>J) of total number. This number of population is
representative enough for the subAect of the research. This sample class is K... 9.
C. 0thod of Data Co$$ction
This study 0nds out the data at the second year students of /)1N $ 1raya
2arat 3aya in academic year !$!5!$$. The data are obtained from the research
instrument used follow#
+eading test.
The data of research are collected by used reading test. The te&t is given to
students understand about that, the purpose of giving te&t is to know the students*
di7culties in understanding reading recount te,t. -nd the ne,t, the writer gives test
reading one by one in front of class. Lntil that the writer will used (uestion in test
reading, kind of reading test is multiple choices that consist of ! (uestions, take
from reading test and have to test @ students.
The look for the correct answer to know the students understand in reading skills
which is used as reading te,t.
D. Data Ana$!sis Procdur
The analysis of the data is done based on the data collected in from of score
through the steps#
$. Eollect the result of students* test.
. -nalysis the students* mistake uses grammar and reading recount te,t.
9. Ealculate the students* mean score in reading recount te,t by using formula#
%here #
X
M )ean /core of The /tudents
M The Total /core of The /tudents.
N M The Total of /tudents (Gay, $=<$).
?. Table identifying the students* ability
Table .. identifying the students* ability
No E-TEG'+4 /E'+E +-NGE/
$. ENEEOOENT5KE+4 <!I$!!
.
9.
?.
".
G''3
Good
8airly good
1oor
failed
@@I>=
@"I"@
?=I""
9!I9=
CHAPTER I)
RESEARCH &INDIN' AND DISCUSSION
A. Data Dscription
This chapter deals with the data description and discussion based on the data
: The /tudents; ability inreading recount te,t# - /urvey -t The /econd 4ear
/tudents -t /)1 Negeri $ 1raya 2arat 3aya in -cademic 4ear !$!5!$$;.
-fter collection the data, the writer gave four criterions for the students*
ability in reading recount te,t# good level, fairly good level, poor level, -nd failed
level.
2ased on the students* score on the students* ability in reading recount te,t,
the writer classi0ed them as follows# $! students were classi0ed in good level, >
students were classi0ed in fairly good level, 9 students were classi0ed in poor level,
and @ students were classi0ed in fail level.
Table ... The students* score on test reading recount te,t
No Na" Studnts Corrct
Ans3r
Studnt
Scor
C$assi%catio
n
$ ahmad 3alail < ?! 8ail
-lan /astra 3iningrat $ @! 8airly good
9 -mi -rdiutami > 9" 8ail
? 2(. -mi cahyanika $? >! Good
" 2(. 8aarmi isniarti $" >" Good
@ 3ewi )arta Ningsih $ @! 8airly good
> Erna %ati $? >! Good
< 8ahrurro&i $$ "" 1oor
= Hawariatun )unawara > 9" 8ail
$! Heti -ulia $" >" Good
$$ O . )ahendra /aputra $? >! Good
$ )ustainah $$ "" 1oor
$9 ). Chotibul L.2 $" >" Good
$? ). +idwan > 9" 8ail
$" )arsini $ @! 8airly good
$@ Nurul Hidayati $" >" Good
$> 1aliyena /arbini > 9" 8ail
$< +. ). +ifki Comala -Ai $" >" Good
$= +i&a Curnia Har0&i $9 @" 8airly good
! /amsul +i&al > 9" 8ail
$ /ar0n EDendi $ @! 8airly good
Taslina /eptianintyas $9 @" 8ailrly good
9 /iti /alamah $? >! Good
? Teguh /amudra $? >! Good
" 4ulia -tira H.) $$ "" 8oor
@ Nia Titian 3ini $ @! 8airly good
Total /core
)ean /core
$?="
">."
8rom the table above, it was shown that the students* score and
classi0cation. To obtained of the students* mean score the writer applied the
formula as follows#
%here #

X
M )ean /core of The /tudents
M The Total /core of The /tudents.
N M The Total of /tudents
Ealculation #
The calculation showed that the mean score of the second year students of
/)1N $ 1raya 2arat 3aya in -cademic 4ear !$!5!$$ was ">.". based on the
previous classi0cation, the score above was classi0ed as fairly good. The si,
standard intervals values of students* score as follows#
$. <!I$!! is classi0ed as e,cellent
. @@I>= is classi0ed as good
9. @"I"@ is classi0ed as fairly good
?. ?=I"" is classi0ed as poor
". 9!I9= is classi0ed as fail
The test consists of ! items. The writer decided to use one hundred as the
highest value. Therefore, the score of each correct answer are si,, based on si,
intervals from the collection data# $! students were classi0ed good (@@I>=), >
students were fairly good ( @"I"@), 9 students were poor (?=I"")and @ students
were fail (9!I9=).
B. Discussion
This heading present about the students* ability in reading recount te,t. The
writer got data from reading te,t. .t can be elaborated as follow.
Rading tst
+eferring to the statements of problem in the second year students of /)1N
$ 1raya 2arat 3aya in academic year !$!5!$$ 0nd di7culties in learning reading
recount te,t. The data were obtained from reading test. The @ students were
tested. They answered the reading recount te,t.
8rom the result of the data obtained, the writer found the second year
students of /)1N $ 1raya 2arat 3aya in academic year !$!5!$$ have ability in
reading recount te,t. .t can be seen from the table $! students got good score, >
students got fairly good score, 9 students got poor score, @ students got fail score,
and the total mean score is ">.". the highest score is $!! and the lowest score is
"!. 8rom percentage, the writer can conclude that the students of /)1N $ 1raya
2arat 3aya in academic year !$!5!$$ are still ">." is classi0ed as fairly good in
understanding and determine the main idea in a paragraph.
2ased on the study, the writer seen that the students are not able in two
points above because of some reasons. The 0st, they do not have special books
prepared in the school, so the students cannot study from diDerent book to develop
their recount te,t in two points above. The second reason is because the students
often absent in the class, so the students are lack of the material in deceloping their
reading skill mainly in two points above. The third reason is the students are not
able to understand the te,t and its (uestion. /o they did not answer the (uestion
well. .t happen because
$. The students did not understand how to 0nd out the main idea, so they did not
answer the (uestion well.
. The students have lack understanding of the paragraph
9. The students did not know meaning of some sentences of the te,t.
2ased on the data above, the answer of statement of problem in chapter . is
the students get lack score on reading recount te,t. Thus, the teacher must always
feel need to stimulate their students motivation to learn the material which they
were given by the teacher and try hard to practice, to achieve the obAective that
their teacher given for them.
CHAPTER )
CONC+USION AND SU''ESTION
A. Conc$usion
.n this part. The writer concluder the result of the study, it can be inferred
that the students* ability in reading recount te,t at the second year students* of
/)1N $ 1raya 2arat 3aya in academic year !$!5!$$.
.t is obtained the writer got the value of the students* ability in reading
recount te,t of K...9 the mean score was ">." is classi0ed fairly good. This
conclusion is based on the studentsB result of reading te,t one class in this case the
descriptive one class get lack score of the students. .t meant the students* ability in
reading recount te,t who lack is ">." the classi0ed fairly good.
8rom the result on the table, writer classi0ed them as follow# $! students
were classi0ed in good (@@I>=), > students were classi0ed in fairly goog (@"I"@), 9
students were classi0ed in poor (?=I""), and @ students were classi0ed in fail (9!I
9=).
The null hypothesis (Ho) which stated; the students do not able in
readingrecount te,t; is de0nitely accepted and the alternative hypothesis (Ha) :the
students able in reading recounts te,t; is clearly reAected.
-s stated in previous chapter . that the null hypotheses (Ho) of the writing
areB
$. The second year students of /)1N $ 1raya 2arat 3aya in academic year
!$!5!$$ are not able in reading recount te,t.
. The second year students of /)1N $ 1raya 2arat 3aya in academic year
!$!5!$$ got ">." is classi0ed fairly good score in understand reading recount
te,t.
B. Suggstion
'bservation the 0nding above, the writer provides some suggestion are
follow#
$. The teacher should always reali&e :reading; is a skill is (uick comle, and
di7culties students to learn.
. 2ecause of the :reading ; is a skill and skill must need a lot of e,ercise, so that the
teacher should always try to choose good reading materials and give the students a
lot of e,ercise.
9. The teacher is hoped to motivate the students understanding of the reading
recount te,t given, he5she can ask the students to the reading it in from of te,t.
?. .n reading leraning process, it is suggested to the teacher to be aviding word by
word learning reading skill.
Contoh Skripsi Bahasa Inggris
Short Story Analysis in EFL/ESL
ELT, Reflective Teaching, Short Stories, Teaching Tis 0 comments
Short Stor! Ana$!sis in E&+4ES+5
A great source of learning and teaching
/hort stories can be a great source of learning and a great tool for
teaching as well. .n EOT, stories can serve diDerent purposes.
+oughly speaking E8O5E/O students can bene0t from them by
ac(uiring new vocabulary items while appreciating literature.
They can also be used to introduce the basics for literary analysis,
especially if they need to take narrative or drama as part of the
curricula. /hort stories, as outlined before, can be of great
learning5teaching use if approached properly.
Ceeping in mind that my students are -$P or low - (based on
the EE8), . try to have them enAoy the e,perience rather than feel
animosity against reading short stories. .n addition, using the
segmented story approach used by Goodman (!!9) in his
Literature for English series combined with )anney*s (!$) wellI
suited workshop approach to reading short stories, . have devised
a 0veIstep basic literary analysis for my beginning reading skills
students at the university.
Task ,6 P+OT UNDERSTANDIN'# The stories we get to use in
class are segmented to ensure student understanding of the plot.
-s prepared by Goodman in his books, for each segment of the
story a set of (uestions is prepared. This (uestionnaire aims at
facilitating students plot understanding and literary appreciation
of the genre. .n addition, this segmentation of the plot can help
the teacher focus students on key vocabulary items that need to
be understood to guarantee the story*s comprehension. This
process works better if the instructor assigns the (uestionnaire for
homework to ma,imi&e T-/C .
Task -6 STOR2 RECONSTRUCTION# .n class, as suggested by
)anney, a literary workshop starts to ensure that students* voices
are heard when dealing with the (uestions. /tudents are either
paired or asked to work in small groups to go over the
(uestionnaire. 2esides, they are asked to write a :brief; summary
of what the story is about, which guarantees that everyone in
class understands it. 'nce students are done with the discussion
of the (uestions and the summary is written, Ias a whole class
activityI, two (uestions are posed to be discussed#
%hat*s being told by the author6
How realistic is the story6
Task /6 E)ENTS RECO++ECTION# 2efore students are asked to
create their own story*s 8eytag*s pyramid, it is advisable to model
a diagram for them. %hen they feel con0dent with its use and
potential, students are also asked to produce their own pyramids
by means of Traci Gardner*s
2urton Goodman*s book series is entitled Literature for English
published by )cGrawIHill
-rticle published in Voices )aga&ine by .-TE8O
%ebtool published by NETE at
http#55www.readwritethink.org50les5resources5interactives5plotI
diagram5
0le#5553#5methoidJ!thesis5shortIstoryIanalysisIinIeHesl.html
May 17, 2009
SHORT STOR2 APPRECIATION5 A $ook at Studnts7 Co"ptnc
.NT+'3LET.'N
)any e,perts have talked about language learning or language teachingB they all
have talked about the theory, the principles, the approaches, the strategies, and the
obAective of language learning.
+obert Oado ($=@?) argued that one can only learn a language if deals decisively
with its cultural content. -nd one of the aims of teaching a foreign language
according to %ilga +ivers is : to bring students a greater understanding of people
across national barriers by giving them a sympathetic insight into the ways of life
and the ways of thinking of the people who speak the language they are learning,
and to increase the students* personal culture through the study of the great
literature and philosophy; (in 8rederick, $=<<# =).
2oth Oado and +ivers, therefore, seem to agree in one point, that learning a
language should not be separated from the learning the pattern and values of
culture of which it is a part.
%iddowson ($=>") claimed that there are two levels of linguistic knowledgeB the
level of usage and the level of use. Lsage involves a knowledge of linguistic rules,
whereas use entails knowing how to use this rule for eDective communication. /ince
literature uses language as its medium, it seems reasonable to contribute a
language use.
Oiterature, according to /andra )cCay (in 8rederick, $=<<), will increase all
language skills because it presents language that illustrates a particular dialect
which is embedded within a social conte,t. -s such, literature deals for developing
an awareness of language use. 8urthermore, it can foster an overall increase in
reading pro0ciency. .f students enAoy reading literature, it may increase their
motivation to interact with the te,t. +eading a foreign culture through literature
may also increase students* understanding of that culture and is likely to spurs their
own imaginative writing.
8or most students, literature can provide a key to motivating them to read in
EnglishB and for all, literature is an ideal vehicle for illustrating language use and for
introducing cultural assumptions.
However, it should noted that success in using literature in language learning,
depends greatly upon the selection of the te,t which will not be too di7cult for
students, either on linguistic or conceptual level. Oiterature, therefore, should be
taught when the students are advanced in their control of the language, and their
understanding of the culture and literature.
-ccording to Oado, 0nding a way to prepare students to understand and e,perience
a particular piece of literature is likely to be the teachers* responsibility. 'ne way of
doing this is to treat vocabulary before hand, so that when the piece of literature is
read, it can be read, understood, and appreciated ($=@?# $?).
8or the English language teachers and lecturers, although the students do not yet
Huently e,press their English, either in speaking or writing, they are still able to
comprehend when they discuss a piece of literary work, since they come from a
society which has its own literature. They have read and studied poems, plays,
novel, or short stories in their own language. Hence, they are familiar with the
elements and forms of literature written in their native language.
-t the English 3epartment of the /tate Lniversity of )akassar, in particular at the
English Oiterature /tudy 1rogram, the current condition of the teaching of literature
is promising enough since the program oDers several courses on literatureB namely#
.ntroduction to Oiterature, 1rose $ and 1rose , 1oetry $ and 1oetry , 3rama $ and
3rama , Eomparative Oiterature, Ereative %riting, and -ustralian Oiterature.
However, compared to linguistic aspect, the portion of literature is deliberately low.
This is proved by the fact that only $! ($@,@>J) courses deal with literature.
This study was conducted to have a description on the students* ability in short
story appreciation by means of obAective approach, and to get to know whether
their ability varies in appreciating diDerent kind of short stories. 2y obAective
approach the emphasis of the appreciation is on the literary work itself as an
autonomous structure. This means that the literary work is Aust analy&ed from the
elements that build it up. The reason why this study was conducted is a prior
con0rmation for lecturers of English in order that they are able to treat the students
properly based on the students* needs. .t can also become a proof of a promising
condition of the teaching of literature at the English 3epartment.
1E+T.NENT O.TE+-TL+E
The Elassi0cation of /hort /tories
/hort story can be classi0ed according to its emphasi&ed element. The emphasi&ed
element determined the action of the story (/umardAo, $=<?# >!). Hence, short story
can be classi0ed into 0veB namely#
Q Eharacteristic short storyB that is the short story describing certain aspect of
human characteristics, such as stingy, honest, ashamed, and so on,
Q 1lot short storyB emphasi&ing the happening of a very e,citing event,
Q Thematic short storyB emphasi&ing the theme,
Q /etting short storyB tends to describe the background location where the story
takes place, and
Q /ituational short storyB that is the short story seemingly having no story at all, but
it is interesting because of the situations described by the author.
/hort /tory -ppreciation
Oe,ically, the term :appreciation; means the recognition of feelings or sensitiveness
of inner mental, the recognition of aesthetic values grown up by the author, or the
sense of satisfaction and Audgment of aesthetic values developed by the author
(Gove, $=@=# $!").
-ppreciating literary works, including short stories, is not Aust a brief activityB that is
to say that the reader does not only understand the story he reads but he ought to
do this continuously. -n appreciator must be able to understand and evaluate all
aspects that build up the story (TanuwiAaya, $=<@#$<).
-ccording to %ardani, the process of literary appreciation can be divided into four
levelsB namely#
Q Oevel of likenessB where the students begin to have an interest in reading literary
works.
Q Oevel of enAoymentB where the students begin to have an enAoyment when they
read literary works due to the growth of their understanding
Q Oevel of reactingB where the students begin to oDer their opinion or comment on a
certain literary works they enAoy
Q Oevel of producingB where the students begin to create literary works. ($=<$# $).
To be able to appreciate literary works, an appreciator, besides having to
understand the language used in the works he appreciates, he must also involve his
imagination, interpret the meanings of the work, and avoid any preAudice to the
literary works that he reads.
.n communicating to literary works, an appreciator must be open minded. That is to
say, an appreciator should not inHict his preAudice toward the author through his
work, and toward historical background of the works he appreciates. Oiterary works,
whether comes from the East or the %est, does not matter for a good appreciator.
Then, for further communication, the literary work should be regarded as a subAect.
Every reader has diDerent ability in appreciating literary works. This depends much
on their educational or knowledge background. .f an appreciator has only little
background knowledge on literature, conse(uently he has low ability to appreciate
literature. %hereas, an appreciator with su7cient background knowledge on
literature will have fair ability, and in such a manner, if he has good background
knowledge, he will have high ability to appreciate it (2adrun, $=<=#$9").
-pproaches to -ppreciation
.n appreciating short story, we cannot deny that we will have diDerent view and
interpretation on a certain story. 'ne factor controlling this matter is that we might
employ diDerent approaches in appreciating it.
).H. -brams ($="9) argued that there are four approaches that can be employed in
appreciating literary works. They are e,pressive, pragmatic, mimetic, and obAective
approach.
E,pressive approach focuses on the role of the author as the creator of the literary
works. .t is basically derived form principle that literary work is the author*s
e,pression. .t is resulted from a creative process of the author based on his
perception, his thought, and his feelings. The main case in this approach is the
author*s psychological process.
1ragmatic approach focuses on the role of the reader as man of response and
enAoyment. .t sees the advantages or the functions of literary works. - success
literary work is one which oDers some advantages to the reader. .t should be
advantageous and enAoyable, for the two characteristics are the power of interest of
literary work.
)imetic approach emphasi&es on the connection between literature and reality. .n
other word, we can say that this approach sees the relevance of the literary work to
the real life that we e,perience.,
'bAective approach emphasi&es on the literary work itself as an autonomous
structure. This means that the literary work is Aust analy&ed from the elements that
build it up. .n other word, this approach emphasi&es the literary work as a system.
Hence, to comprehend the literary work means that we have to appreciate it totally.
+E/E-+EH )ETH'3
This study employs descriptive method. .t aims at giving description on the
students* ability to appreciate short stories and to identify whether their ability
varies in appreciating diDerent kind of short stories.
The research subAects are the English maAor students of /tate Lniversity of
)akassar of the fourth semester. The number of the population was $>. They were
from two study programs, namely English Education ($$), and English Oiterature
(@! students). The sample was the fourth semester students of Elass 2 of English
Oiterature /tudy 1rogram of /tate Lniversity of )akassar which consisted of 9!
students. They were selected purposively.
This study employed a competency test which is based on )oody*s test of
appreciation which consists of four levels of categoryB namely informative,
conceptual, perspective, and appreciative category. The order of these categories
shows the level of di7culty. Hence, appreciative category is the most di7cult of all
categories (in %ardani, $=<$# <). The test was constructed by using two short
stories of diDerent kind, namely plot short story entitled :The 2oar Hunt; by Fo&e
Kasconcelos and characteristic short story entitled :Oike a 2ad 3ream; by Heinrich
2oll. Each short story has 0ve (uestions on each level of category and marked $! at
ma,imum for each number.
The data obtained from the test was scored manually, tabulated, and then analy&ed
into percentage and mean analysis. The scores of the students for each level of
category were classi0ed into 0ve levels. /core !I$! was classi0ed :very low;, $$I!
(low), $I9! (fair), 9$I?! (high), and ?$I"! (very high).
Thus, the classi0cation of the students* total scores obtained through the test was
divided into 0ve# /core !I?! was classi0ed :very low;, score ?$I<! was classi0ed
:low*, score <$I$! was classi0ed :fair*, score $$I$@! was classi0ed :high;, and
score $@$I!! was classi0ed :very high.;
8.N3.NG/ -N3 3./EL//.'N
8indings
This section deals with the presentation of the data gathered from the research
instrument.
-. The /tudents* /core on 1lot /hort /tory
Q The students* informative competence
Three students ($!J) got very high score, ! (@@,@>J) got high score, and seven
(9,99J) got average score. Eonse(uently, none of them got low or very low score.
The total score of the students on the informative test is $$!. This shows that the
mean score is 9>,99 which falls into : high; classi0cation.
Q The students* conceptual competence
$9 students (?9,99J) got high score, and $> ("@,@>J) got fair score. The total score
of the students on the conceptual test was <"!. The mean score is <,99 which falls
into :fair; classi0cation.
Q The students* perspective competence
Two students (@,@>J) got high score, $9 (?9,99J) got average score, and $" ("!J)
got low score. The total score of the students on the perspective test was >9". The
mean score is ?," which falls into :fair; classi0cation.
Q The students* appreciative competence
$? students (?@,@>J) got very low score, $ (?!J) got low, and four ($9,99J) got
fair score. The total score of the students on the appreciative test was ?>=. The
mean score is $",=@ which falls into :low; classi0cation.
2. The /tudents* /core on Eharacteristic /hort /tory
Q The students* informative competence
Two students (@,@>J) got very high score, ? (<!J) got high, and four ($9,99J) got
fair score. Eonse(uently, none of them got low or very low score. The total score of
the students on the informative test is $$!!. This shows that the mean score is
9@,@> which falls into :high; classi0cation.
Q The students* conceptual competence
$9 students (?9,99J) got high score and $> ("@,@>J) got fair score. The total score
of the students on the conceptual test was <!@. The mean score is @,<@ which falls
into :fair; classi0cation.
Q The students* perspective competence
Three students ($!J) got high score, $ (?!J) got fair score, and $" ("!J) got low
score. The total score of the students on the perspective test was @<=. The mean
score is ,=@ which falls into :fair; classi0cation.
Q The students* appreciative competence
$" students ("!J) got very low score, $! (99,99J) got low, and 0ve ($@,@>J) got
fair score The total score of the students on the appreciative test was ?>!. The
mean score is $", @> which falls into :low; classi0cation.
3iscussion
The discussion of the result of data analysis is divided into two parts in accordance
with the classi0cation of the two short stories students appreciated.
-. The -bility of the /tudents to -ppreciate 1lot /hort /tory
The 0ndings show that the highest mean score is 9>,99 which belongs to the
informative test, followed consecutively by conceptual test (<,99), perspective test
(?,"), and appreciative test ($",=@). .t means that the students* informative ability
is better than the other three. Their conceptual ability is better than their
perspective ability. Their perspective ability is better than their appreciative ability.
This is relevant to the level of the di7culty of each test category, where the
appreciative ability is the most di7cult of all. The total score of the students for all
categories is 9$<?, and the mean score is $!@,$9 which falls into :fair;
classi0cation. .t means that the students have fair ability in appreciating plot short
stories.
2. The -bility of the /tudents to -ppreciate Eharacteristic /hort /tory
The 0ndings show that the highest mean score is 9@,@> which belongs to the
informative test, followed consecutively by conceptual test (@,<@), perspective test
(,=@), and appreciative test ($",@>). .t means that the students* informative
ability is better than the other three. Their conceptual ability is better than their
perspective ability. Their perspective ability is better than their appreciative ability.
The total score of the students for all categories is 9!@", and the mean score is
$!,$> which falls into :fair; classi0cation. .t means that the students have fair
ability in appreciating characteristic short stories.
E'NEOL/.'N -N3 /LGGE/T.'N
Eonclusion
2ased on the result of the two kinds of short stories above, it can be concluded that
the English maAor students of /tate Lniversity of )akassar have fair ability in
appreciating short stories. The result also shows that there is no signi0cant
diDerence in their ability to appreciate the two kinds of short stories.
However, their ability varies on the four levels of competence. Their informative
ability is the highest of all, followed consecutively by conceptual, perspective, and
appreciative competence. This is not surprising since appreciative competence is
the most di7cult, followed consecutively by perspective and conceptual
competence. The easiest one goes to the informative competence.
/uggestion
To be idealistic, it is e,pected that the students get very high result in their test.
Their ability in each level of the test should get balanced, in order to achieve perfect
appreciation. /tudents should be directed to read more short stories where the
appreciation is likely to achieve its perfection.
/ince this study merely gives a description on the students* ability to appreciate
short stories by means of obAective approach without taking into account other
variables that might aDect their ability, the writer recommends that it should be
further study conducted, preferably by other approaches, in order that we can get a
more comprehensible result.
2.2O.'G+-1H4
-brams, ).H. ($="9). The )irror and the Oamp# +omantic Theory and the Eritical
Tradition. Oondon# ',ford Lniversity 1ress.
2adrun, -hmad. ($=<=). Teori 1uisi. Fakarta# 1O1TC.
8rederick, F.TiraAoh ($=<<). English 1oetry# -n .ntroduction to .ndonesian /tudents.
Fakarta# 1O1TC
Gove, 2obcock. ($=@=). %ebster New .nternational 3ictionary. New 4ork# GR'
)eriam Eompany.
Hall, Fames 2. ($=@"). The +ealm of 8iction# @" /hort /tories New 4ork# )cGraw Hill,
Cenney, %illiam. ($=@@). How to -naly&e 8iction. New 4ork# )onarch 1ress.
/umardAo, Fakob. ($=<?). )emahami Cesusastraan. 2andung# -lumni.
TanuwiAaya, /olchan et al. ($=<@). 1enelitian Cemampuan -presiasi )urid Celas ...
/)1 di Fawa Timur. Fakarta# 3epdikbud.
%ardani, ..G.-.C. ($=<$). 1engaAaran /astra. Fakarta# 3epdikbud
%iddowson, H.G. ($=>"). /tylistic and the Teaching of Oiterature. New 4ork.
Oongman Group Oimited.
1osted by .skandar /ulaiman, 2achelor of -rt in English Education (.C.1), )aster of
Educational /tudies (Eurtin), 3octor Eandidate (Lnhas), 1h3 student (Eurtin) at $#!@
-)
0le#5553#5methoidJ!thesis5shortIstoryIappreciationIlookIat.html
Miss Gimie
Monday, 11 April 2011
RE&+ECTION ON THE STA'ES O& +ITERAR2 APPRECIATION
Given that the individual is an integral
asset in defning literature and critiques have equated it to an
experience, it therefore means that there are some stages that
we to have to go through ourselves. !he realit" of how children
develop literary appreciation indicates that their experiences
with literature move through recogni#a$le stages that $uild on
earlier interactions% &'"ci( )***+. !hese stages are interrelated.
,t is imperative that we realise that this stages are gone
through% $ut are $uilt upon as. -or example .arlsen &)*/0+ is of
the opinion that if students do not go through the stage of losing
oneself in the text%1 level 01 nothing else in Literature would
ma(e much sense.
2rior (nowledge of these stages would have made me $etter
equipped to pac(age the su$3ect for the students and would have
improved m" pedagog" in the classroom.
-irstl", (nowledge of the stages of literary appreciation would
have given me a $etter understanding of the texts students
should have $een exposed to. 'eaders derive their greatest
sense of literature when the" are ta(en $ac( to the realities of
human situations, pro$lems, feelings and relationships &,ghile
&45))++ which give a perfect defnition of the characteristics of
stage four. 6dditionall", at this stage students $egin to
discriminate. !he" $egin to en3o" some experiences more than
others and fnd some distasteful or deepl" a$sor$ing%. !hus,
whatever text students were exposed to, should have served
these purposes. 6n understanding of the stages of literary
appreciation would have also in7uenced the strategies and
techniques that were emplo"ed in the classroom. ,ghile &45))+
contends that literature can $est $e thought of as a process of
communication $etween the writer or the artist and his pu$lic%.
8tudents could have $een engaged in more meaningful guided
discussions a$out the writer9s craft and to relate their
experiences to that of the characters &-lood et al )**0+. 8tudents
should have $een a$le to ma(e the connections so as to ena$le
them to identif" with the characters and the issues discussed in
the text &a characteristic of :oung 6dult Literature+.
;ther strategies suggested $" -lood et al )**0 that would
defnitel" <create a communication channel9 $etween the student
and the distant author are reading out loud, writing responses to
the stor", revisiting the stor" and extending to other stories which
includes students reading alone, students reading with partners
and readers wor(shop. 6lthough some of these techniques were
utilised, the" were not stressed upon and were done superfciall".
=ad the" $een done with the intention of guiding m" students
through the stages of literary appreciation, the" would have
$een more meaningful and help students to appreciate the
su$3ect for what it is.
!he literature experience has to $e a satisf"ing one flled with
pleasure and proft% for students, one which focuses less on the
academics and more on the student. 6ll students should aim at
reaching the highest stage of literary appreciation so that the"
can $e classifed as an avid literature student &Nilsen and
>onelson 455)+. !herefore as teachers we have to meet them
half wa" and comforta$l" ta(e them through the stages.
8lood, F. R Oapp, 3. ($==?) >eveloping literary appreciation and literac" s(ill? 6
$lueprint for success, (?<) $, >@I>=
Cnickerbocker, F. l. R +ycik, F. (!!) Growing into literature? 6dolescents@ literary
interpretation and appreciation, (?@) 9, $=@I!<
http#55www.pucpr.edu5facultad5ssantiago5english9@59@I/tagesJ!ofJ!Oiterary
J!-ppreciationJ!9.pdf
http#55business.highbeam.com5?9"9><5articleI$G$I=?$99<5growingIintoI
literatureIadolescentI $itrar! Iinterpretation
http#55www.Astor.org5pss5?!!$>$>
http#55www.pucpr.edu5facultad5ssantiago5english9@59@I/tagesJ!ofJ!Oiterary
J!-ppreciationJ!9.pdf
Nilsen,-.R3onelson,C.(!!=).Oiteraturefortoday*syoungadult.
(<thed.).2oston#1earsonEducation.nc.pp.$!I$@
1osted by )s Gimie at #9
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