Sie sind auf Seite 1von 186

MANT]AL

FOR

DE NTA L TE CHNICIA N S
rULCA] VI T E
t]\'

J. A. SALZMANN, D.D.S.
Chairnran, Conrmittee on Coursesfbr Dental Technicians and Head of
Dental Service,New York City Vocational Schools: Editor,
New York Journal of Dentistry : author of Principles
and Praclice of Public Healtl Denristrl

THE NEW ERA PUBLISHING CO. LTD.


rz & 14 N l 'l \\:TON S TR E E T, fIOLIIOR N , I-ON D ON , W C :
CONTENTS

Dnnrer. L.qeoneroR v MBcnersrcs PAGE

Pnnpecn v
I. INrnorucrloN xi
II. OrrcrN op DBNrer- MEcner.trcs xiii
III. Vocetroxar- DBvpLoPMENT xv
IV. Voceuoxer, ANer.vsrs xviii
V. Senprv IusrRucuoN FoR DrNlar TrcuurcraNs xxv

[JNrr No.
'Wex
I. TrcuNrc I

2 . Pr-asrnRTrcnNIc IO

.). Pnrpenerrou op Prasrrn lvpnnssroNsr.on Casrs


I r9
^ DnNrar- Cesr TncnNIc 40
5 . Pnppanerrox or DnNtuns BranrNc 64
6. Tnrer- DBNrunB BesB Tpcsutc 79
7. BrrBpr,erB Tncnutc 95
8 . ARucur.erING TEcHNIC IIO

9. Monpnor-ocv (Sruov or Fonu) or An'rrrrcrer, TrB'rn r 30


ro. Annaxcruc Anrrprcrer, TnnrH r+7
II. DsNrunB WexrNc TBcnNIc t75
r2. DBnrunr Fr.esrruc TrcHNIc r85
r3 . DBurunr Trunorr-rNc TecnNrc rg8
r4. Wax Er,rvrrNATroN 'L scH\rrc 205
r5 . VurceNrru DBNtunn PecrrNc TrcHNIc 2r+
r6 . VurceNrzerroN TEcHNrc 46
r.7.Vur-c.cNrrB DBNtunB Cr-BnNsrNc TscnNrc 25+
i 8. DBNrunr TnrvrurNo TBcHNlc 263
19. Dnxrunr Por,IsHIuo TncHNIc -tJ
20. DsNrunB Rnpern TncnNIc 285
AppnNprx I. ANer-nsts op DrNrel Lasoneronv 303
AppBNprx IL BesIs or hvsrnuctrow 305
Appplrprx III. Gr-ossanv 32r
INnBx 337

i,r rr!!N:,r l*ll{ :r.,';.fu*51*{r!;r**:l*{b$fl


D E N T A L LABORATORY M E C H A N I C S

INTRODUCTION

DEN-S~IL LAROR.ITORY MECHANICS is an art which deals with the


construction of prosthetic (artificial) appliances for the replacement
of teeth and gums lost through disease or accident. As an occupa-
tion it fills an important human need by corltributing to the health
and happiness of mankind. I t has often been pointed out that the
active demand for dental service includes only twenty to twenty-five
per cent of the public, whercas the actual need for such service exists
in between ninety to ninety-five per cent of the population. What-
ever the reason for this condition, certainly the tendency at present
is toward greater interest in Public Health, as shown by child health
programs, the Social Security Act of the Federal Government and
the public health programs of the various states and municipalities.
Social legislatior1 now being considered and adopted by the different
states also brings with it a greater interest in the physical welfare of
the population. These activities indicate that the potential need for
dental services will eventually be translated into an active demand.
Aided by the services of the dental technician, the dentist is enabled
to devote more of his time and attention to work which must actually
be performed in the mouth of the patient. I t can be seen, therefore,
that opportunities for employment of persons trained in dental
laboratory work are bound to be increased.
T h e field of the dentist and that of the technician, while closely
related, are none the less very well defined. While the dental
technician may be trained to assist the dentist in the construction of
prosttl~eticappliances, his approach is, of necessity, from a technical
htnndpoir~t. T h e dentist, on the other hand, because of his training
i r l the basic biological and physical sciences is alone equipped to
;lhhunlc responsibility to the patient. I n order for the technician
t o sh:lrc this responsibility directly he would have to be trained in
I I I ( . :LCOI-cn~cntiollcdscicnccs, including graduation from a dental
.<I
- xiii 1
IA xii M A N U A ~ , FOR DI?N'I'AI, T I ~ C INI I C I A N B

college and meeting state board requirements. Under those con-


01<101N 01: DIIN'I'AL MJCCHANICY
I

the patient attempts to use it in chewing food, it must also improve


ditions the technician would indeed cease to be just a technician but and add to the appearance of the patient. After these first two re-
would in fact become a dentist. quirements are satisfied, there is still a third which is of equal if not
The relationship of the dental technician to the dentist is not un- greater importance: an artificial dental appliance must not injure the
like that of the pharmacist to the physician, and more nearly that of natural tissues of the mouth with which it comes in contact. Thus,
the optician to the eye specialist or that of the maker of artificial limbs if a dental appliance functions well in chewing and looks well, but
to the orthopedic surgeon. Specifically, the dental technician does tends to loosen the remaining teeth or otherwise irritate or injure
not practice directly on the patient but fills the prescriptions furnished the gums, it is dangerous to the health of the-patient. T h e dental
him by the dentist-in this instance, the prescriptions consist of im-
technician, in his relationship to the dentist, is an aid in preserving
pressions or "counters" obtained by the dentist from the mouth of the life. T h e ultimate aim, therefore, in the construction of artificial
patient-plus written or oral instructions to be followed by the tech- appliances, is to have them meet anatomic, functional and esthetic re-
nician in constructing the required prosthetic appliances. Since no two quirements.
persons have mouths of exactly the same dimensions, it can be readily
seen that no two dental appliances can be exactly alike.
Mass production as followed by certain industries is unknown to
, this occupation. Some commercial dental laboratories follow the
principle of "division of labor." However, the processes involved,
ORIGIN OF DENTAL MECHANICS I
'1
I

even under these conditions, require a high degree of skill, accuracy EXAMPLES OF artificial dental appliances have been found in the
and supervision which can be mastered only after a comparatively ruins of ancient Phoenicia in Asia Minor. The Phoenicians replaced
long period of training. Dental laboratory mechanics is therefore lost human teeth by tying in their place with gold wire other teeth 1
an occupation which, while based on certain definite scientific prin- extracted from slaves. During the rise of the Roman Empire, arti- 1
ciples, calls for the application of individual treatment to each case. ficial substitutes for lost teeth were well known. With the coming
As long as people will continue to differ physically, "technological un- of the so-called Dark Ages of medieval times, the attempts to re-
employment" (replacement of workers by machines) is destined to place lost teeth by artificial substitutes declined, even as did medicine
remain unknown among dental laboratory workers. and other scientific pursuits. An interesting account is related of an 1
A successful dental laboratory technician or dental mechanic must Austrian jeweler who fashioned a gold cap (crown) and placed it 1
be able to fashion with his hands the exact appliance indicated by over one of the molar teeth of his son. T h e news quickly spread 1
the impression plus the written or oral instructions furnished him by that the boy wu born with a gold tooth. This event puzzled the
the dentist. H e must have a high degree of digital dexterity, and various learned men throughout Europe, who wrote many books and
his hands must otherwise be physically normal in every respect. The articles on the subject in their attempts to explain the phenomenon 1
dental laboratory technician must possess a keen esthetic sense and be of the boy with the gold tooth, until the crown finally wore out, 1
artistically inclined. The confining nature of the work makes it neces- showing the natural tooth under it.
sary for the technician to have good eyesight and to be free from During the seventeenth century, and at the beginning of the eight-
respiratory defects. Since the finished product must fit accurately in eenth century, dental mechanics was more advanced in France than
the mouth of the patient, accuracy in the performance of dental lab- in any other country. It was in this country that the making of porce-
oratory work is of utmost importance. The technician must be en- lain teeth originated. T h e development of dentistry in colonial times 1
dowed with innate ability to give infinite attention to details. in America can be traced chiefly to France. While the Revolutionary 1
T h e finished product of the dental laboratory technician must War was in progress, the French fleet under Rochambeau, stationed 1
meet functional and esthetic requirements as interpreted by the off the coast of New England, brought with it a number of dentists
dentist by whom the technician is employed. It is not only important who taught John Greenwood, an American from Boston, and one or
that the completed dental appliance should give satisfaction when two others in the Colonial Army. Greenwood finally became George 1 I
xiv MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS v()L'll'I'Io~.\l.~ ~ l ~ v l ~ ~ , ~ ) ~ ' h ~ ~ ?XV~ ' ~

Washington's dentist, and made several dentures for the Father of


Our Country. One of these sets of dentures is at present preserved
at the Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, School of Dentistry of
the Universitj of Maryland. This dental college, established in
r 840, was the first to be founded in the United States.
Dental mechanics, and, in fact, dentistry of any kind during colo-
nial times, was seldom practiced as a sole occupation, but was usually
followed as a side-line. Among those who practiced dental mechanics
were jewelers, silversmiths, blacksrniths and other artisans. Perhaps
the most noted menlber of this group was I'aul Revere.
During the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, dental tech-
nicians practiced dentistry in the United States, after obtaining their
training b) apprenticeship to older practitioners. Although the first
state law recluiring an examination before commencilig dental practice
was passed hj Alabama in 1840, it was really not until the close of
the nineteenth century that every state in the union required a dental
diploma and an examination bv a state board of dental examiners
before allowing persons to practice dentistry. Until comparatively
recent years there were still some localities in the United States I I. Cr.\ss I:OK I l k : > 1 ~ 1 ',~ ' I . . C I I N I C T A N S , CENTK\I.
C O ~ I ~ I I : RHIGH
CIAL
where technicians were allowed to practice dentistry. Scrroor.. NETT
YORK,N. Y.
I n E,uropean countries, while the separation between the dental
surgeon and dental technician has become very definitely de-
fined since the beginning of the twentieth century, and especially
since the World War, the field of operation of the dental technician
VOCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
-
was in the past, nevertheless, much wider than that of his colleague
in America. I n some European countries, there are even todaji two
dental groups engaged in the practice of dentistry. One group is No PROFESSION, trade or occupation can develop independently of
composed of regularly qualified and registered dentists who are uni- Kenera1 technical advancement. This is true also of dental me-
versity and medical and dental school graduates. These are in effect c.h;tnics. When other trades and industries ~ r o f i t e dby the sudden
physicians who specialize in the treatment of diseases affecting the sl'i11-t of general technical discoveries, such as the introduction of the
mouth and the teeth. T h e second group consists of especially quali- 11c.wprocesses, the invention of new machinery and new materials in
fied technicians who obtained their early training by apprenticeships K c . ~ ~ c ~dental - a l , mechanics also benefited. As a result of earlier ex-
to other technicians or dentists. Within the past fifteen years, how- ~,~-~.iliients in France by nuchateau, d e Chamant, Fonzi and others in
ever, the practice of dentistry by technicians in European countries tljc 1;ttter part of the eighteenth and early years of the nineteenth
has been greatly curbed. While European dental technicians have (.c.l~ti~~-ies, the manufacture of artificial teeth was begun in the United
h:\tcr; i n 1875. These teeth were used in combination with metal
formerly had a larger scope of operation in the field of dentistry,
which included actual work on patients, it cannot be said that they I,:ISC.\ : t 1 1 ~ 1recluired a high degree of mechailical skill and accuracy.
1 1 1 I 839 Charles Goodyear discovered the process of curing or
have as a group made many outstanding contributions to the art of
1.11I( :I 1 1 ; / i l l g c : t o ~ ~ t ~ h ooru cIndia-rubber. Thomas Hancock of Eng-
dental mechanics. F o r such advances we must turn our attention to
1 . 1 1 1 ( 1 i s s;~icIto h:tve 111;t~le the same discovery at about the same time.
America, and especiallv to the ITnited States. (Fig. 1.)
I 1 1 , \ \ ( . \ . ( . I . , ( ;oocl1c;tl- is crcclitcd with prior discovery. O n January
xvi MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS VOCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT xvii
30, 1844, Charles Goodyear was granted a patent for making soft or
flexible rubber that would resist the action of solvents of caoutchouc
and would not be affected by cold or heat, provided the temperature
was not raised above the vulcanizing point. The process of making
hard rubber was patented by Nelson Goodyear in 1851. A patent
was granted to Charles Goodyear, Jr., March 4, I 855, "For improve-
,,
ment in plates for artificial teeth." (Fig. 2.)
The foregoing account of the discovery of the vulcanizing process
and its application in dentistry does not contain any inkling of the
many trials and tribulations which the dental profession and dental
technicians experienced, following Goodyear's discovery. I n the first
place, many unqualified persons undertook to make artificial teeth set
in vulcanized rubber. Furthermore, Charles Goodyear and his son
patented the process and sold licenses allowing the holder to make
dental plates with vulcanized rubber bases. T h e dental profession
and dental technicians resented paying a tax to the Goodyear Com-
pany each time a dental plate was put through the vulcanizing proc-
ess. I t was not until some time during the eighteen-eighties that the
Goodyear process patent was voided by the United States Supreme
C o u r t e s y Bonrd o f Edtrcation, New Yor-k, N . Y .
Court. (Fig. 3.)
T h e difficulties which involved the use of vulcanized rubber in
dental operations also attended other processes and discoveries in the
field of dental mechanics, including casting of gold for dentures and
inlays. Not only did the discoverers patent the particular machines
which were invented, but they also obtained process patents, which
meant that a royalty had to be paid for following a particular technic.
Since the definite separation in the respective fields of operation of
dentists and dental technicians in the United States, the latter have
found it difficult to obtain proper technical training. Many schools
for dental mechanics were started. However, accredited educational
authorities have only lately seen fit to establish courses for the train-
ing of dental technicians.
In most instances even today (as was true in the last part of the
nineteenth century) young men and women entering the dental l a b
oratory industry receive their training through the "pick-up method,"
with the result that few technicians have a clear-cut picture of their
field of operation and of the reasons why certain phases and sequences
are necessary in the pursuit of their work. This condition has often
led to misunderstanding between the dentist and the dental laboratory Courtesy Board o f Education, N e w Y o r k , N . Y .
technician because the technician has been interested chiefly in only
one phase of his chosen work: "How well does it look?" while the
xviii MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS VOCATIONAL ANALYSIS
xix
dentist is of necessity primarily interested in "How well does it fit?"
The final test of a dental appliance is the accuracy with which it fits
in the mouth, although esthetic requirements are highly important.
The only method of coordinating these two viewpoints lies in the
formal training of dental technicians so that the dentist and his tech-
nician may "speak the same language."

V O C A T I O N A L ANALYSIS

I. Public Relation: Dental mechanics is the art of constructing


prosthetic appliances to replace teeth and gums lost through disease
or accident. T h e appliances produced by the dentist with the aid of
the technician add to human happiness by assisting people in chew-
ing their food and by improving their facial appearance. The dental
technician renders service to the public through the dentist by whom
he is employed
- - directly or indirectly.
2. Working Conditions: Dental laboratory work may be per-
formed by the technician in the laboratory of the private dentist or it
may be done in independently conducted laboratories which do work
for a number of dentists and are owned by one or more persons who
may be engaged in the work themselves or may employ other tech-
nicians. This trade is not influenced by seasonal factors to any great
degree. The hours, wages and salaries compare favorably with those
in other skilled trades. Hygienic conditions in the dental laboratory
depend on the physical facilities provided and on the worker him- 4. Physical Qualifications of Workers: Men and women em-
self. Suction apparatus is now used in combination with polishing ployed as dental technicians must be in good physical condition, free
and grinding machines and other safety and hygienic measures have from respiratory defects. They must have good eyesight. Their
been introduced. The nature of the work itself makes it necessary hands must be normal in every respect. Digital dexterity, esthetic
to give sense and artistic inclination are of paramount importance to the
- special attention to cleanliness. (Fig. 4.) dental technician. Dental technicians must possess special ability to
3. Opportunities for Advancement: A technician may perform
give exacting attention to details. (Fig. 5.)
all types of work or he may confine his activities to one phase of the
work only. Workers usually have learned this trade through the 5. Legal Restrictions of Workers: In the United States it is
slow "pick-up" method. Some technicians never learn more than a unlawful and punishable by fine and imprisonment for dental tech-
single phase of the work, although promotion for those showing nicians to perform work for dental patients even when such work
special aptitude is quite common. There is a steady demand for is not performed directly in the mouth of the patient. I t is a well
qualified and trained dental technicians of high caliber. recognized fact that the training of the technician is not intended to
VOCATIONAL ANALYSIS xxiii

metal arid vulcn~~itcfiles, scl.;ll)crs ;und chisels, contouring pliers, trades. T h e dental laboratory solicitor must be thoroughly ac-
grinding stones and polishing whccls. All tools must be kept thor- quainted with trade terms and practices.
oughly clean. c. Buying: storekeeper and supervisor of maintenance of tools,
materials, and equipment. A knowledge of trade terms and quality
8. Materials Commonly Used: 1'l:tstcr of Paris, waxes, invest-
ment material, compound, dental rubhcr and other denture base ma- of materials, tools and equipment is necessary.
d. Receiving and Shipping: inspection and checking of work re-
terials, gold, porcelain, silver alloy, 1io11-preciousmetals such as
chrome alloys, artificial teeth, polishing stones and abrasives such as ceived from dentists, mailing of finished work; management of
messenger service. A knowledge of the requirements of completed
pumice, chalk and polishing rougc. (Fig. 7.)
work and of impressions and instructions to be followed is important.
10. Laboratory Workshop: T h e following are the main divisions
of the laboratory workshop:
a. Plaster department in charge of a plaster technician. T h e plaster
worker prepares the impressions or counters supplied by the dentist.
H e makes dental casts from the impressions and mounts on articu-
lators the casts which have been related by the dentist with the aid

9. Laboratory Office: The following are the main divisions of


the dental laboratory office:
a. Bookkeeping: filing, billing, accounting, collections and payroll.
A knowledge of trade terms and practices is important to the dental
laboratory office worker.
b. Selling: soliciting by telephone or personal interviews; advertis- of biteplates. Investment of cases for casting and flasking for vulcani-
ing by direct mail or professional magazines, construction of samples zation is done by the plaster worker. Plaster work was formerly
and display arrangements at gatherings of dentists; demonstrations pcrfonned by junior mechanics; at present in the larger commercial
at dental gatherings or in the laboratory. This phase of the work Inboratories an expert dental plaster worker is frequently employed
shows the close relationship of the laboratory to other distributive to supcrvisc and to the more intricate phases of this work.
XX~V M A N U A L I:OR DENTAL TECHNICIANS XXV
SAFETY INSTRUCTION FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS

b. The wlcanite or dentzcre depart me^ is under the supervision dental metal worker must possess a high degree of skill and accuracy.
of a denture technician. Here the arranging of artificial teeth, d. T h e ceramics department is usually separated from the rest of
waxing, vulcanization, trimming, grinding and polishing of vulcanite the laboratory by partitions. Cleanliness is of utmost importance. I n
and other materials used as bases for dentures are accomplished. T h e this department are made porcelain crowns, bridges and inlays. T h e
denture technician may also fashion clasps and connecting bars out of staining of porcelain teeth to simulate the natural teeth of the pa-
gold or other precious and non-precious metals used in partial denture tient is also performed here. T h e porcelain worker must possess a
work, in combination with vulcanite or other denture bases. (Fig. 8.) highly developed training which requires a long period of appren-
c. I n the metal denture department, dentures are made of gold ticeship. (Fig. 9.)
and other precious and non-precious metals. In this department the T h e various departments mentioned may be further subdivided in
inlays and denture bases are cast or swaged, crowns and bridgework the larger commercial laboratories. Thus we may have technicians
are constructed. Wrought and cast clasps are also made here. A who do nothing but arrange artificial teeth, waxers, finishers of den-
tures, polishers of dentures, inlay workers, casting workers, crown
and bridge workers and so forth. I t has been estimated that it takes
from three to five years of constant practical work in a dental labora-
tory to produce a fully trained technician.

SAFETY INSTRUCTION FOR DENTAL


TECHNICIANS
I. Personal Hygiene : T h e observance of proper personal hygiene
is an important safety measure. Neglect of personal hygiene is harm-
ful to health and leads to fatigue which frequently causes accidents.
(a) Hair should be kept trimmed and combed to prevent disar-
ranged, long hair from becoming entangled in machinery,
or burned over an open flame.
(b) Hands should be kept clean and nails trimmed. Dental
technicians should avoid wearing finger rings or other jew-
elry on hands or wrists. Jewelry may act as a conductor of
electricity. Untidy hands and untrimmed nails may be the
cause of accidents, by making it difficult to handle small in-
struments properly. Chapped hands are more apt to be-
come infected. Infection may ultimately be transmitted to
the patient, for whom the work is intended, or may be re-
ceived from the careless handling of old dentures.
(c) Burns, cuts, bruises and other bodily injuries should be
attended to promptly.
2. Required Dress: A laboratory coat or smock should be worn.
FIG. 9. A METALDENTURETECHNICIAN
AT WORK ( a ) Coats should be of a length not exceeding 12 inches above
Note glass safety screen and suction apparatus for grinding metal. the floor.
xXV~ MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS SPECIFIC SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS XXVll

(b) Coats must be kept buttoned to avoid catching in moving 7. Vulcanizers :


parts of machinery or burning over open flame. (a) Failure to follow the instructions for use of vulcanizers pro-
vided by the manufacturer may lead to serious injury or
3. Illuminating Gas : even loss of life.
(a) All gas jets must be kept firmly closed when not in use. (b) Clean warm water should be used in the vulcanizer.
(b) When flame is accidentally extinguished, close the gas feed (c) Water should not reach higher than one to two inches from
(jet) at once. the bottom of the vulcanizer pot.
(c) Do not allow Bunsen burner flame or other open gas flame ( d ) Open blow-off valve before closing or opening vulcanizer.
to come within 10inches of wood or other inflammable ob- (e) Make sure gas regulator and time clock are properly ad-
jects. Adjust burner guard before lighting burner. justed before lighting gas burner under vulcanizer.
( d ) Never leave anything over the Bunsen burner flame or gas ( f ) Do not release blow-off valve of the vulcanizer before a
stove without proper precaution and supervision. minimum of 15 minutes has elapsed after the gas has been
(e) Never allow blow-pipe flame to rest against the bench as shut off. Keep your head away from the top of the vul-
flame may be extinguished accidentally or other equipment canizer when opening blow-off valve or cross-bar.
ignited. (g) Always use tongs in removing flasks from vulcanizers.
( f ) See that rubber tubings are properly adjusted before open- ( h ) Vulcanizers in use should not be left without supervision.
ing gas outlets.
8. Before closing laboratory :
4. Bench Lathes: (a) Shut off all gas jets.
(a) All lathes should be turned off when not in use. (b) Disconnect current to all electrically operated appliances.
(b) Chucks, wheels, brushes and other attachments should not (c) Make sure all compressed air outlets are sechrely closed.
be adjusted when lathe is in motion. (d) Replace all instruments.
(c) Be sure all chucks, lathes and brushes are securely attached (e) Clean all work benches, machinery and laboratory floor.
before starting lathe. (f) Make sure all acid containers are covered.
(d) Electric current to lathes should be disconnected before oil-
ing or repairing is attempted. SPECIFIC SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS.
(e) Grinding'wheels should be kept true.
I. Plaster spatula should not be used for cutting or any pur-
5. Grinding and Polishing Machines:
pose except spatulation and shaping of soft plaster.
(a) Electric current to all machines should be turned off when 2 . Plaster knife should be kept clean and free from rust. Use
the machine is not in use. the "thumb guard" in all operations involving use of plaster
(b) Cleaning, oiling or repairing should not be attempted while knife. Never use the plaster knife against the chest or in
electric current is on. an outward direction without a guard.
(c) Be sure all chucks, wheels, brushes and other attachments 3. Always use heated wax spatula with thumb or finger guard.
are secure before starting lathe. In order to avoid burning fingers, wax spatula should not be
grasped too close to the point to be heated. Do not allow
6. Machine Guards: heated point of spatula to come in contact with fingers.
(a) Use guards over moving parts of machines. 4. Keep face as far as possible from gas feeds (jets) when
(b) Guards over moving parts of machines should not be re- lighting burners.
moved for cleaning, oiling or other reasons, while machine 5. Runsen burner flame should not be directed against inflam-
is in operation. mable objects.
xxviii MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS

6. Wax knife or carving knife should be used with finger or


thumb guard.
7. Heated sticky or basewax should not be spilled on hands or
fingers to avoid burns. D o not overheat basewax to avoid
uncontrolled flow of wax.
8. Baseplate: Avoid touching heated baseplate without first U N I T NO. I
moistening fingers. Smooth all sharp edges of baseplate to
avoid cutting fingers and the patients' tissues when the WAX TECHNIC
dentist tries the denture in the mouth.
9. Plate-shears: Keep fingers from path of shears in cutting. I n learning dental mechanics, and this is true of any vocation, l' t is neces-
10.Carbon-tetrachloride, chloroform or other grease-solvents sary for one to become acquainted first with the most commonly used tools
used in finishing waxed cases should be used sparingly. and materials. I n dental laboratory work, wax is an all important material.
Avoid contact with fingers as much as possible and keep con- Almost everyone at one time or another has kneaded a piece of beeswax or
tainers tightly closed. paraffin and molded it into little toy animals or other shapes. T h e use of
I I. Keep fingers from path of denture flask clamp wrenches. wax for dental laboratory purposes is as old as the profession of dentistry
12. Keep fingers from path of vulcanite files. itself. Fornlerly beeswax was used exclusively. Today, paraffin and other
13. D o not touch or attempt to grasp revolving wheels, discs, wax compounds are commonly employed. Wax enters into the construc-
tion of practically every type of dental laboratory work. By following the
chucks or burs.
instruction provided in this unit, a knowledge may be obtained of the
14.Vulcanite chisels and scrapers must be used with thumb or handling, melting, sealing and general manipulation of basewax which is
finger guards only. used in making artificial dentures.
I 5 . Express mercury from freshly mixed amalgam with chamois
to avoid absorption through the skin of the hands. Process or Principle : No. I : Dental Waxing.
16. D o not handle acids or open crucibles containing heated a. Handling and c~btthgbasewax.
acids in other than designated places and according to direc- b. Melting and sealing basewax.
tions. D o not inhale fumes of heated acids. D o not throw c. Manipzllation of carding-wax.
objects into acid container, use tweezers provided for pur- d. Use of wax spat.ula.
pose to avoid splashing. e. Use of Bunsen bzcrner.
17. Always pour melted metal away from the fingers, hands
or clothing. Project or Jobs: ( T o be performed by the learner.)
TOB NO. I : a. Construct a 45 by 45 mm. basewax sealed box.
(Fig. 10.)
b. Construct a wax art-base tray to dimensions. (See
Fig. I I.)
NOTE: (Read the entire unit carefully before beginning work.
Consult the glossary for definitions of new words.)
Job Application: Wax is a commonly used material in dental lab-
oratory work. Wax becomes a liquid when heat is applied to it. By
passing a heated instrument over the edges of two or more pieces of
wax which are held close to each other, they can be sealed together
illto one piece. T h e joined pieces will remain united after the wax
cools. Waxes of various types are employed in dental laboratory
I
2 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS WAX TECHNIC 3

work for joining broken parts of plaster impressions; boxing impres-


sions; construction of baseplates; biteplates; bridgework; waxing for
casting; inlay work and many other purposes.
Vocational Information: Dental wax may be purchased in sheets,
strips, blocks or stick-form. T h e essential ingredients of all waxes

! 40mm.
I
i
------

7 2, mm.

Frc. 10. PLANOF WAXBOX Exact dimensions for 75 X 90 mm. tray, allowing one millimeter for each thickness
of wax.
Exact dimensions for 45 X 45 mm, wax box, allowing I millimeter for each thickness
of basewax.
Procedure : (Follow operations in the order presented here.)
CAUTIONS:
are beeswax, paraffin, cottonseed oil, rosin, turpentine and coloring a. T o avoid overheating the wax spatula, place a small piece of
matter. T h e principal types of wax ai-e pink and red basewax; ad- wax on the blade of the spatula and hold it over the Bunsen
hesive or "sticky" wax, inlay, carding (a black wax) and casting wax. burner fEame until the wax begins to melt, m'thdraw th.e
T h e basewax required in this unit can be purchased in sheets 3 by 5% spatula and use. (Fig. 14.)
inches, in half-pound boxes, known as "Pink Baseplate Paraffin and b. T o avoid distortion, do not press fingers or spatula too hard
Wax." on wax.
c. Use the $at pointed end of the wax spatula to obtain uniform.
Tools and Equipment : Bunsen burner, with gas tubing (Fig. I2 ) ,
sealing and sharp corners.
wax spatula, millimeter ruler and penknife (Fig. 13).
d. Steady the hands when sealing with heated spatula. (Fig. 15.)
Materials : Pink basewax, carding wax, absorbent cotton. c. Ilold the wax parts steadilv until the melted wax congeals
(cools or hardens).
4 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS WAX TECHNIC 5

A. Construction of 45 by 45 mm. basewax box and sealed cover 3. Using the flat tapering surface of the warm spatula (heated
(Figs. 10 and 16). over burner), smooth the edges of the box to form sharp
1. Using penknife and millimeter ruler, cut six pieces of lines. Finish edges with penknife.
basewax according to dimensions (Fig. 13).

I-Wax spatula. 2-Millimeter ruler. 3 and 4-Basewax marked for cutting.


5-Penknife. 6-Bunsen burner and tubing. 7-Black carding wax.

4. Cleanse the wax box with wet absorbent cotton wad while
holding under running, cold water.
Air is mixed with the illuminating gas before ignition. a-Pale blue or purple H. Construction of Wax Art-base Tray (Figs. I I and I 6).
flame: this is the oxidizing flame. b-Pale blue or greenish flame: the reducing
flame, the hottest part of flame. c-Air and gas mixture. Too much air will I. Mark basewax to dimensions indicated (Figs. I I and I 6).
extinguish flame. d-Air hole. e-Gas supply. 2. Cut wax using penknife and ruler.
Note: Difficulty in keeping the Bunsen burner lighted may be due to a cold burner, 3. Allow largest piece (bottom) to rest on the bench. Seal
too much or too little air or gas. sides at right angles to bottom. Allow for wax thickness by
placing narrower pieces on top of the bottom piece.
2. Using heated wax spatula along adjoining wax edges, seal 4. Using millimeter ruler, cut carding wax to enclose sides of
the pieces of wax to form a 45 by 45 mm. box with squared wax art-base tray, obtaining measurements for carding wax
edges. Allow for thickness of wax by lapping 45 by 45 mm. on outer dimensions of wax art-base tray.
pieces over 45 by 43 mm. pieces. 43 by 43 mm. pieces should 5 . Chill under gently running water, rub outer surfaces with
be inserted. wct ;il)sorl,cnt cotton wad to polish wax.
6 M A N U A L FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS WAX TECHNIC 7

Hold pieces of w a x lightly to avoid distortion. Learn to use the fingers and
thumbs for holding the work, for guiding instruments and for protecting the hands
I-Wax. 2-Outer cone (oxidation). 3-Middle cone (reduction). +-Inner cone from accidental injury by heated, pointed or revolving instruments.
(mixture of air and gas). 5-Bunsen burner. 6-Tubing. 7-Wax spatula.
Note: Hold base of spatula blade over apex of middle cone of flame. W a x will
flow toward apex of spatula blade. If apex of spatula is heated first w a x will run
toward base of spatula blade. By heating a piece of w a x on the spatula and with-
drawing the spatula when the w a x begins to melt, the time needed for heating
spatula for waxing purposes can be determined.

Supplementary Assignment: (Information to be obtained by


learner.)
I. Composition of different basewaxes.
2. Method of obtaining home-made basewaxes.
3. Conservation of basewax.
4. Effect of weather conditions on basewax. B-Wax box and cover (sealed). C-Art-base tray with
A-\\'ax art-base tray.
5. Care of Bunsen burner and wax spatula. sides reenforced with carding wax.
6. Uses of five different types of wax.
7. Definition of dental impressions; baseplates; biteplates;
bridgework; casting; inlay work.
8. Composition of carding wax; uses.
8 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS

Questions :
I. What are the principal ingredients of pink basewax; sticky
wax; inlay wax?
2 . I n which part of the Bunsen burner flame should the spatula
R E L A T E D INFORMATION: U N I T NO. I
be heated?
3. What is the method of heating wax spatula? W A X TECHNIC
4. What effect does rubbing with wet cotton have on the base-
wax? Properties of Wax: When only slightly heated or warmed (about
5 . What effect does overheating have on the spatula? 80" to I 10" F.) wax becomes pliable and can be adapted to irregular
6. What effect does overheating have on wax? surfaces, the shape of which the wax will retain when chilled. When
7. What care should be given to the tools, equipment and ma- wax is heated to a higher temperature (230" to 290" I?.) it assumes a
terials used? liquid form and can be poured. A.t a still higher temperature wax
Job Appraisal : begins to evaporate. Most waxes can be entirely eliminated by heat-
I. D o the finished box and wax art-base tray have sharp corners ing to high temperatures.
and sharp evenly-sealed edges, at right angles to each other, Ingredients of Pink Wax: (Parts by weight.)
except where otherwise indicated? White beeswax 50 parts
2. Is the carding wax evenly sealed to the sides of the wax art- Paraffin 2 5 parts
base tray? Dyestuff (vermilion) I to 4 parts
3. Are all outer surfaces of the wax free from finger prints and
other markings? Ingredients of Black Carding Wax:
4. Were remakes necessary? How many? Beeswax
5 . Did you waste any material?
Black dye (coal black)
6. Did you require longer than the 30 minutes (average) for REFERENCES: (Books for Additional Information.)
making the wax box? I . Hodgen, J. D.: Practical Dental Metallurgy. T h e C. V. Mosby Co.,
7. Did you require longer than one hour (average) for making St. Louis, Mo., 1932.
the wax art-base tray? 2. Skinner, E. W.: T h e Science of Dental Materials. W. B. Saunders Co.,
Philadelphia, Pa., 1936. ,
REFERENCES: (Books for Additional Information.) 3. Prinz, H.: Dental Formulary. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1936.
I. Hodgen, J. D.: Practical Dental Metallurgy. T h e C. V. Mosby Co.,
St. Louis, Mo., 1932.
2. Skinner, E. W.: T h e Science of Dental Materials. W. B. Saunders Co.,
Philadelphia, I 936.
3. Prinz, H.: Dental Formulary. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1936.
I IN11' N O . 2

PLASTER TECHNIC

l ' l , c,j~ I~J i i~, i j ~is ~I I ~~C ~~inI I?uilding ~ ~ ~ c r ~ t iin ~(..istin:;
m s , plastcr .it.i~ua~-\
;in,] for pl.lstcr b:~ndagcs.inJ other purposes too ~ L I I I I ~ ~ O to L I n
S i e n t i o ~here.
~
I'l.~stcr is :11so tlscii in rlcnr.il 1nbor;ltory opci-.~tions. Next to w a s , i t 110t
c q ~ ~ a l linlportant,
y is the usc of pl~stcl-in ~ l c n t : ~l:~horntor!.
l work. 1'1;lster
o f I'aris is siiid lo h.l\-e bccn lirst llsed in dcntistl-y i l l I j j 0 by Phillip Pfaif
\vho W.IS the dclltist O F 1"reciericL t l ~ c(;rent ol (;c.r~n;lily. 'l'hc heha\-ior of
liiixed pl;~ster ~ v l ~ e!;I-st
n uscct i l l the l,ll>orntor\ leucis tl-uth to t h e s.iying:
"Plnstcr is y o u r master 11nti1 Y ~ L rn~stel-
I pl:istc.~.." .\nil it is rc;~llyso. T h e
cnsc with wllicl~l>l;~stcr<.In be rnnnipul.itcii once the technic is 1e.1rned is
nnlnzing. E ' ~ ~ r t l ~ c r mwit11 ~ ~ r cn, knoulcdgc o l t h e \vorkilli: o l w;lx 2nd plns-
ter, t h c 1e;lrncr- Ilns I ~ i dthe. founci:ltion lor the building oi :I thorough
t r ; ~ i n i ~3s~ :Ig dcllt:ll t e c I l ~ l i c i : l ~ ~ .

Process or Principle : No. 1 : l'laster Work.


a. Navdling, mixinx, shapill~and ~ r i n l w ~ ip?/ n~ s~/ ~ rof Paris.
b. Us(. o f plaster- spa/7rlaJ k n i f ~ hoad
, ant) .<mu.
c. Use o f .mndp~ppr,r /lamc-,isrloth ~77dchalk in polishi//: plastel-.
Project or Jobs: ( T o be performed b! the learner.)
JOB No. 2 : Co~lstruct upper and lower plaster art-bases to be
used as wax trays. (Figs. I 7, I 8 and 21 .)
NOTE: (Read the entire unit carefully before beginning work.
Consult the glossar), for definitions of new words.)
Job Application : SJ mmetrical bases on dental casts aid in relating
the upper to the lower cast. Plaster of Paris, also known as calcium
sulphate or gypsum, is a white powder which assumes a putty-like
consistencj~when mixed with water. T h e mix becomes a hard mass
after a short interval. Before thc plaster and water mix "sets" or
hardens, it can be molded or "poured" into desired forms and made
to serve various purposes in dental laborator? work, such 2s taking
impressions, pouring casts, mounting casts on articulatoi-s, flasking,
etc. "Set" or hard plaster is brenk:rble but inay be joiricd ;~ccur:~tclj,
as it breaks with sharp fracture edges. T h e plnster niiu 41oultl cot1
tain 100 grams of plaster to 60 cc. of watcl-. ,Itwo Ilt1i11 o~111tc
measure of l,lastcr to each orlc fluicl o t ~ t ~ cnci c . t \ ~ ~ o~f- c\ir:~tc.~.
I3 M A N U A L FOR DENTAL TECIINICIANS

Vocational Information: Artificial stone, one of the many modi- Materials: Dental plaster of I'aris; water; sandpapci- Nos. o and
fied forms of dental plaster of Paris, is riow commonly used for mak- I ; talc.
ing dental casts. Dental plaster may be mixed with a spatula or by
shaking the plaster bowl after covering it with a glass slab or tin Procedure : (Follow operations in the order presented here.)
cover, or by usirig a mechanical spatulator. All plaster tools must be
kept absolutely clean and the plaster itself should be kept in an air-
a. W h i l e the steps in lii7ixing plaster must be followed care full^^,
tight container as it absorbs moisture from the atmosphere. I t is and completed before t h e
they should be performed
well to follow the manufacturer's direction for the proportions of
plaster besins to "set" or harden.
water to plaster. T h e setting time, hardness and expansion of mixed
h. As t h e plaster hardens it generates heat. This is called " s ~ t -
plaster can be controlled by means of "hasteners" or "retarders."
ting.)) W a i t until t h e plaster cools before proreedi~z~/o
T h e method of manufacture; the amount of spatulation; the ratio of
trim it.
plaster to water; the temperature of water and plaster; and the pres-
c. Llloisten tht, glass slab to prlivent the plaster fvo~rz adheriiz:<
ence of impurities all influence the mix.
to it.
T o o l s a n d E q u i p m e n t : Plaster saw (round barbed blade) ; 2 glass d . c?lze,ays cut "full" dimensions to allow for 1-~(turtio71 w h , 11
slabs; plaster knife; rubber plaster bowl; chanlois cloth; marking using sandpapc,r.
pcncil ; measuring cup; try-square. (Fig. I 9.) c . f'laster mixing tools, spatula and b o d , should be thorouRh7)l
cleaned to prevent rusting of spatula and knife and faully
mixes.
f. Store plaster i n a dry place. Keep plaster container r l o s ~ d .
2 . If watr7r is accidentally spilled inlo dry plasler, rPmovr a77
-,tTptfllaferial at once.

I . Place the wax art-base tray on a moistened glass slab.


2 . Pour 3 fluid ounces of medium cold water into a clean plas-
ter bowl.
,{. LJsing the plaster spatula as a ladle, sift 6 fluid ounces of
powdered plaster into the bowl. Sift plaster along the sides
as well as in the middle of the bowl. Allow each addition of
Illaster to become submerged in the water before the next is
added. Continue adding .- plaster
. until all of the water is ah-
sorbed.
4. 'I'al' the plaster bowl gently on the bench so that air bubbles
;11-cIN-oughtto the surface and expelled. Wait until all b u b ~
l , l i l ~has ~ ceased.
q . I Iolcl the lil:~stcr bowl in one hand and, using the plaster
sl)ati~l:i,sl,:ttul;ite, or mix the plaster with a cutting motion
t l ~ ~ r it
i l ;tssu~~ics a CI-camyconsistency.
O. I ) , . ~ U I G t l~~ cp1;tstc.t- 111ixinto the wax art-base tray by squecz~
I-Plaster saw. 2-'fry-square. 3-Glass slab. +-Pl;~btrr S I I ; I I I I ~ : I . 5- -I'I.I,I(
I
I I,<. I~owlt o (01-m n spout :ind p i d i n g the plastcl- with
b~~ife.( i - K ~ ~ l ~ b e rbowl. 7-Chamois cloth. S - b l a ~ - k i ~ ~ j1x.11c.il.
i o h l t , ; t i~~~~~i :
cup. r e S a n d p a p c r No. o. r r - S a ~ ~ ( l p ; ~ p c ~No.
. I. 1 2 :1';111.. I li(, ~ ~ K I I I I(l:i,y.
~ : I . ,:.om)
14 MANUAL FOR DEN'I'RI. TECHNICIANS

7. After filling the wax art-base tray with plaster, level the sur-
face with a plaster spatula and cover evenly with a glass
slab. Wait until plaster "sets" before proceeding.
8. While waiting for plaster to set construct a second wax art-
base tray and fill with plaster. (Repeat procedures r to 7.)

I \ \ ' ; u art-h;tsr tl-;I!~. 0-\Vax a r t - b a r tl-a?. tilled with pla>ter. c-Plaster block
I,.III,I\,C fl.om
~ ;~rt-llast:tray. d-I-pprl- plaster art-base trimmed tu dimell-
. ~ O I I \ . e-Lo\\-rr plastel. art-haw trirnmed to dimerision\. t-upper piaster nrt-
I,;~sr\vith rrccs\rd top. g-\$'ax tlrpo\itt.ri i r ~ lo\\-cr plaster a r t - h a w

I ,\. CJsirig k~liic,cut a recess' 1 ilich fr-om the edges and 1/1 inch
deep in both plaster art-bases.
I 4. Using talc on chamois, polish bases. (1;ig. 19.)
I 5 . T h e art-bases call be filled with basewax and stick!. wax re-
spectivel! and used as wax containers. (Fig. 2 1 . )
S11l)plementary Assignment: (Information to be obtained by

hlethods of controlling setting time; warpage.


hlcchanical spatulation.
Closed bowl method of miuing plaster.
a-Plaster l i r i ~ i gguideti \\-ith p l a t e l . \p;itirl;i from spoutetl luliher plaster bowl into Origin arid development of plaster of Paris for dental use.
\\.ax art-base tray or1 glass slah. h-\\'ax :irt-llaae tray filled with plaster.
I'hh sical and chemical of plaster.
Corrll)os~tio~~ of plaster compounds.
9. About one hour after pouring each wax art-base tray, remove I Iutics of 1)l;lster technician in laborator!.
the carding and basewax from the set plaster blocks. Collll)ositiotl of ;~rtificialstones.
10. Outline upper and lower art bases ~ I the I respective l)lastc~- (,)~~c.stiolls:
blocks according to the dinicnsio~is, using I-ulel- :111d try I . L V l l ; ~ ti s ~ ) l : ~ s t01:
c ~I'aris
- and what are its properties and uses
square. ( Figs. I 7 and I 8.) i l l tI1c.cic11t:ll l:ll)oratory.~
I I . [Jsi~ig>anr a ~ i dl)lastc~-k11ifc cut :I\v;I!.cxc~css11I:l~tc1., lr;~\,i~i,c '. \\'11:1t is tlic COI-I-cct method of mixing plaster of Paris?
"full" dinlensions to :~llow for s;l~idp:~l)cririg. \ . \\'ll;~t;II-cttic ;~clv;~rlt;igcs ; I I I ~disadvantages encountered in
I 2. rsit~gNos. I :111cl o s : ~ ~ i c l l ) : ~s~iioot
~)c~~I1 -~, ~ I : I S I C ~ I II:IYS.
- I l l ( . 115c. 0 1 . lll;l~lcl-
i l l ttlc clc~1lt;lIl : ~ l ~ o l - ~ ~ t o r y ?
I6 MANUAL FOR D E N T A L T E C H N l C l A N S

4. What happens when plaster is not mixed correctly?


5. What is the effect of too much water in the rnix?
6. H o w may the setting of plaster be hastened; how may it be RELATED INFORMATION: U N I T NO. 2
retarded?
7. H o w do you deter~rlinewhen plaster has set? PLASTER TECHNIC
8. What is the proper method of storing plaster of Paris?
9. What do we mean by the following: water of crystallization; Plaster of P a r i s : This is a mineral compound which is sold for
gypsum; to spatulate; "setting" of plaster? dental laboratory use as a fine white powder. I t is obtained b)
I 0. Define : dental impression ; cast; articulator ; flasking. heatillg gypsum. 'l'he chemical equation when plaster is mixed nith
Job Appraisal : \vatel- is as follows:
I. H a s the plaster been evenly mixed? Is it free from soft
spots, air bubbles, streaks and other faults?
2CaS04?1H20 + (CaSO4)pH.O + 3H.O
(gypsum) (Plaster of Paris) (water)
2. Are all edges sharp, even and at right angles urlless other-
wise indicated on the plans?
(solid) + (heat) = (powder) + (steam)

3. Are all surfaces smooth and evenly polished? When plaster of Paris is mixed with water it re-crystallizes. I t
4. Is the finished work according to the dimensions indicated on undergoes a hardening or setting process and becomes a solid. Heat
the plans? is generated during the setting process. T h e setting process is di-
5. Were make-ovei-s necessary? Was economy of materials ob- t the fii~al set. T h e time when the plas-
vided into the iilitial s ~ and
served? ter may be molded into a desired shape is known as the initial setting
6. Was the time for completing each art-base tray longer than period and lasts from 2 to 15 minutes, depending on the plaster used.
I hours (average) ? Plaster used for the usual dental laboratory purposes sets in 8 to 15
minutes. 'The fiilal set which represents the length of time that
~ZEFERENCES: (Books for Additional Information.)
must elapse before the plaster is hard enough for use is about % to
I. Skinner, E. W.: T h e Sciencc of Dcntnl M.~terinls. W. B. S:~unilersCo.,
I hour. T h e greatest hardness of plaster is reached about 24 hours
Pllilndelphi~,I 936.
2. Nichols, 1. G.: Prosthe~icDcntistr!.. St. Louis, Mo.: C. V. Moshy Co.,
after mixing. T h e plaster mix should be of a creamy consistency
1930. : ~ n dshould drop off, not pour off, the inverted plaster spatula.
3. Frallm, F. LV.: 'l'hc Principlvs nnci 'I'cchllics of Full D e n ~ n r eConstruc- I. Setting time may be influenced by the following:
tion. Brooklyn: Dental Ttcnis O F Interest I'uhlishing Co., 1931. a. Mantifacturing process: Impurities may hasten or retard the
S P ~ . T h e finer the plaster the faster the setting time.
b. S p a t u l ~ t i o n : Within reasonable limits, the faster and the
longer the spatulation, the quicker the setting time. Pro-
longed spatulation weakens the plaster mix by interfering
with crystallization of the setting plaster.
c. Ratio of water and plaster: If the ratio of water is increased
the set is retarded. If the ratio of plaster is increased, the set
is hastened. Too little plaster gives a wet mix and powdery
casts when dry. Too much plaster gives a crumbly mix.
tl. T e m p ~ u a t u r e :T h e higher the temperature of the water and
plaster the fastel- the setting time. D r y plaster sets faster
than wet plaster. At the time of using, water and plaster
should be at room temperature.
17
e. Retarders a j ~ daccelerators: Substances which hasten setting
time are known as accelerators. These include the following:
table salt, potassium sulphate or alum. Substances which
prolong the time of setting are known as retarders and in- U N I T NO. 3
clude the following: lenlon juice, acetic acid in the form of
vinegar, borax and powdered marshmallow root. PREPARATION O F PLASTER IMPRESSIONS F O R
CASTS-I
11. Expansion of Mixed P l a s t e r :
a. Potassium sulphate and borax arc added to the plaster b ~ l 'I'lic lirsl conk.ict ol t h e dei~t.iI tcctinici;ll~ \q.itli the work w l ~ i c h h e
the manufacturer in order to control expansion. performs is when Ilc receives t h e dcllt.11 impression o h t , ~ i n c ~froin l the
b. Ry increasing the ratio of water to plaster in the mix, expan m o u t h b the dentist. A t this point the act~lalconstruction of ttic
sion is reduced. ~lcnturc,begins. 'l'hc impression must be cnrefully llandled. T h e dentist
c. Long spatulation increases expansion. has spent a great deal of time ;illd effort in obtaining it frolll the pntient.
d. Resistance to expansion can be offered 19 dental impressioti I f the impression is carelessly hnndlcd it may be ncccss:iry to take nnother
trays, flasks, and boxing of dental impressions before pour- 7 .

one. 1 h e patient lnay not like the idc.1 or tiillc m.1y not suflice for going
ing plaster casts. through the p r o c c d ~ l r c:I second tinlc. Yurthermorc, the dentist Inay find
:1 technician w h o is ~ l l o r ccnreful. linprcssions takcn in plaster usunlly come
111. S t r e n g t h o r H a r d n e s s of P l a s t e r : to the tcchnician in set-cr;ll pieces. ;\lthougl~ thc dentist should join the
a. Ratio of water to plaster: If the mixed plaster is allowed to pieces together ivith stick! w:~x,so tli:lt he mil)- hc :tlilc to tell at n glance i f
dry it will withstand more pressure than when wet. T o o the impression is ~:~tisfnctor\,, this R.oI-~\is LISU;~~~!. t l . ~ ~ ~one ~toi the tech-
much water results in soft plaster. I.ess water gives a harder ~ g instructions in this nit, t h e technician will
nician. So, b>- f o l l v \ ~ - i ~thc
mix. Icnrn IIOW to :~sscmblc tlic pnrts of hrokcn p1:lster imprcssions, in order that
b. Accelerators and retarders ma! weaken the mix. he m a y he able to iii.1kc :In ;IccLIr;ltc C ; I S ~ o n n-hich t h e npplinncc is to bc
c. Temperature: T h e higher the temperature of the mix, the constructed.
lower the strength will be.
d. Spatulation: If spatulation is sufficient the mix will be harder Process o r Principle : No. 3 : Assembling Impressions.
than when it is not sufficiently spatulated. If spatulation is a. U s e of sticky wax.
produced by "cutting not whipping" the plaster, the mix b. Handling of broken parts of dental impressions.
will be harder. c. A r r a n g i n ~broken parts in dental in~pressiontrays.
d. Assembli~~g dental iynpr-~ssions,wi//7out using impression trays.
SPATULATION O F PLASTER Project o r Jobs: ( T o be performed b) the learner.)
O p e n Bowl Spatulation: Rotate the bowl slowly in one hand JOB No. 3. Assemble four sets of full (edentulous: all teeth

while passing the plaster spatula through the plaster and water with have been lost) upper- and lower dental ilnpressions in impression
a cutting motion until a creamy consistency is reached (about one trays.
minute.) JOB No. 4. .Assemble four sets (four upper and four lower) of
full (edentulous) upper and lower impressions without using
Closed Bowl M e t h o d : Cover the plaster bowl col~taining the impression trays.
proper amounts of water and with a glass slab or a tin cover. Jorl No. 5 . Assemble six partial impressions in impression trays
H o l d the thumbs of both halids around the cover and the firigcrh oti (p:~rtiallyedentulous: not all teeth have been lost, some teeth still
the bottom of the bowl. Shake up :und down quickly for O I I C ~iiinutc. i l l the mouth)-three upper and three lower.
Mechanical Spatulation : 'l'hcrc :ire \,:isio~ts ~~icc.l~;~~~ic.:il ~ I I : L i11:1
( J O I I No. 6. Assemble six partial (partially edentulous) impres-
tors 0 1 1 the principle of tlic egg 1)c;itcr. '!'fit ~i~cc~li:tr~ic:il
S~I;L~LI~:L~OI-\ \ I O I I S i11 i11i1)ressionti-ays-three uppel- ; ~ n dthree lower.
g i v t ~:I thoroi~gliniis i n ;I sliort(~~-
ti111ct l i : ~11:111(l
~ ~ \lx~tt~l;~tiot~.
PREPARATION O F PLASTER IMPRESSIONS FOR CASTS-I 21
20 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS

A-Palate (roof of mouth). B-Alveolar ridge (gum).

A-Tongue space (space occupied or covered by the tongue). B-Alveolar ridge


(gum ridge from which teeth have been extracted).
FIG. 22. LOCATION
OF TEETH A N D GUMSIN RELATIONTO THE HUMAN hTote: Upper and lower casts of a mouth in which some of the teeth have been
extracted. T h e casts shown here are known as partial casts, indicating that they
FACE(CHEEK COVERING REMOVED) require partial dentures (plates).
a-Upper lip. b-Upper gum (alveolar process). c-Upper remaining teeth. d-
Lower remaining teeth. +Lower gum (alveolar process). f-Lower lip.
Note: Some of the teeth have been lost (partially edentulous). Upper and lower
partial dentures (plates) are needed to restore the lost teeth.

a-Upper gum (alveolar process). b-Upper lip. c-Lower gum (alveolar process).
d-lower lip.
Note: A full upper and a full lower denture (plate) are needed to restore the
lost teeth.

NOTE: (Read the entire Unit carefully before beginning work.


Consult the glossary for definition of new words.)
Job Application: A dental impression is a counter of the dental
arch (upper or lower) (Figs. 22, 23, 24, 25, 26a and b.) After
the impression is assembled and properly prepared a cast is poured.
If the impression is accurately assembled, the cast produced rep-
resents a true reproduction of the dental arch. T h e prosthetic
appliance is then constructed on the cast to supply the lost teeth and :I. FULL UPPERCAST. a-Alveolar ridge (gum ridge from which teeth have been
gums. Sticky wax consists of beeswax and rosin. cxtracted). b--Palate (roof of mouth). c-Rugae (gum elevations in front part
of palate. d-Base (art portion of the cast).
Vocational Information: Plaster of Paris produces an accurate im- b. FULL LOWER CAST. a-Alveolar ridge. b-Tongue space. c-Base.
pression of the dental tissues. As "set" plaster is not flexible, it is Note: Full upper and lower casts (edentulous casts). These casts are taken from
usually broken on being removed from the mouth. T h e dental : I I impression
~ ( a counter) of a mouth in which all the teeth have been lost. A full
upper and a full lower denture (plate) are needed.
technician must be able to assemble the broken parts of thc impres-
24 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS PREPARATION OF PLASTER IMPRESSIONS FOR CASTS-I 25

sions accurately, either in or out of the impression trays and to join


the parts to each other or to the impression trays with "sticky" wax.
Tools and Equipment: Camel's hair brush, wax spatula, Bunsen
burner, paper towel, tweezers, upper and lower impression trays
(Fig. 27).
Materials: Sticky wax, basewax, plaster dental impressions. (Figs.
28a and b, 29 and 30.)
NOTE: T h e impressions required for the Jobs described in this
Unit may be obtained from dentists who must also furnish the
learner with the necessary biteplates or wax "bites" to be used for
relating the casts which will later be made from the impressions
(Figs. IOO and 105). Plaster impressions made from metal dento-
forms (Fig. 28a and b) as well as the dentoforms themselves and a
dentoform "relator" (Figs. 29, 30, IOI and 102) or stone casts and
a cast "relator" diagram may be purchased (Figs. 28a and b, 103
and 104).
Procedure: (Follow operations in the order presented here.)
CAUTIONS:
a. Care should be exercised in handling impressions i n order
not to lose parts and to avoid further breakage. Avoid rub-
bing the fracture edges together to preserve their accuracy.
b. Be sure that the parts are thoroughly dry before beginning
to assemble impressions.
c. D o not pour wax over tissue surface of impressions.
d. Be sure to remove all adhering particles of plaster from im-
pression trays before beginning to assemble impressions i n
them.
e. Assemble parts consecutively, avoiding "undercuts."
f. Brush fractured edges of impression carefully, using camel'.r
,hair brush to remove adhering particles of plaster.
g. I n assembling zen'thout trays do not release pressure on parts
until the wax has congealed.
h. Freshen old md dried iwqression parts by immersing i n
water until bubbling ceases; allow to dry and proceed.
i. Keep freshly obtained impressions covered until assembled.
I. Operations for Assembling Impressions in Tray:
r . Arrange parts of broken impression on a paper towel in the
r i ~ s 258, 011 t r c l i ~prcsrirt; > . j S ( r , 2jSh oird 2iSc. ~ r p / w rc , I . s / ~ . ( . , l / ~ / , l ~I ,I I I I I ~ ~ 10
D ~ ~ + r t o f o ~ ~\'u.s. ~ ~ ~ I ~ . ~
I-clativeposition that they are to be placed in the impression
casts frurir lop to butto~ir ill )right colrrnirr of / ~ l r o l u u r a p l r . ) L ) c r r I o j r ~ r . r ~ iN. ~u s . 259, it11 rcerli
Pl'r.sclrt; sgpa, rgpb arzd 259c, lozuer casts. (To/> 10 bot10111,lcft ~ ~ 0 1 1 1 1 i r r i .()~ u f f r / ~ ~('o11,11111ia
.vy
tray (Fig. 28a and b).
Dcutofurwr Corporatioit, Ncw Yorl;, N . Y.
PREPARATION O F PLASTER IMPRESSIONS FOR CASTS-I 27
26 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS

2. Brush fractured edges of impression carefully with camel's


hair brush and insert into impression tray in proper order
(Fig. 31).
3. Fit all parts of broken impression into tray, using tweezers
(Fig. 31).
4. After all parts of the impression are on the tray, fit them
together closely (Figs. 32 and 33).
5. Apply sticky wax to join edges of impression to tray
(Fig. 34).

A-Impression tray. B-Plaster impression (assembled). &Sticky wax applied


to seal parts of the impression to each other and to the impression tray.
Note: Do not run sticky wax too high on the alveolo-buccal fold or on the tissue
FIG.31. FITTING
BROKEN I N T O TRAY
I'ARTSO F UIJPERI~IPRESSION surface of the impression. W a x the impression securely to the tray. See that the
Note: Avoid creating undercuts by assembling the parts consecutively. parts fit properly before beginning the application of sticky wax.

11. Operations for Assembling Impression Without Tray:


NOTE: In old or dry impressions or where pieces do not seem
to fit accurately, it is better to assemble without the tray. Some-
times the tray may have since been bent or the impression may
have contracted on drying.
I. Arrange the parts of the broken impression on a paper towel
in the relative position that they are to be fitted.
2. Brush fractured edges carefully with camel's hair brush.
3. Fit two largest adjoining pieces, apply sticky wax on the tray
surface of the impression (Fig. 35) and seal with heated wax
spatula. Do not release the pressure on the parts until the
wax has congealed (Figs. 36 and 37).
4. Hold the impression carefully and continue adding and join-
ing parts with wax until the impression is fully assembled
Note: Full upper and lower impressions assembled and closely fitted into (Figs. 38 and 39).
impression trays.
28 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS PREPARATION OF PLASTER IMPRESSIONS FOR CASTS-I 29

Note: Plaster impressions assembled without trays, showing sticky w a x applied on


"tray surface" of the impressions to hold parts together. T h e sticky w a x should
be applied at different levels along the various lines of fracture on the tray surfaces
of the impressions, as shown above, to aid in keeping the parts together.

A-Plaster impression. B-Wax spatula. C-Bunsen burner flame.


D-Bunsen burner.

Note: I t is sometimes necessary to join three pieces together a t the same time ( a s
shown above) to avoid undercuts. Rest the convex under-surface of the w a x
spatula against the tray surface of the impression, then tilt the spatula so that the
sticky w a x is deposited on the tray surface. T h i s method warms the spot where
the sticky w a x is to be deposited and helps the w a x to adhere to the impression.

Supplementary Assignment: (Information to be obtained by


learner.)
I. What other materials are used for taking dental impressions?
2. What are their disadvantages and advantages?
3. W h y should the dental technician not tamper with the im--
Note: Tissue surfaces of full upper and lower impressions assembled without using
pression ? trays. (Note faint fracture lines.) T h e sticky w a x has been kept off the tissue
4. What should the technician do if part of the impression is ~ u r f a c e sand off the rim (periphery) of the impression. If the surfaces of the
impression over which the plate is to be made are covered with sticky wax, the
missing? impression is marred and the plate (denture) will not fit properly.
5 . On assembling partial impressions what special PI-ecautions
should be taken?
3O MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS

Questions :
I . Why is it necessary to assemble impressions accurately?
2. Why should wet impressions not be assembled?
3. Why should wax not be used on tissue surfaces?
4. What are the relative merits of assembling in trays and with- R E L A T E D INFORMATION: U N I T NO. 3
out trays?
5. Why should parts of the impression be arranged in consecu- P R E P A R A T I O N O F I M P R E S S I O N S F O R CASTS-I
tive order before assembling?
6. Why should parts be held steady until the sticky wax con- Sticky W a x : Adhesive wax, commonly known as "sticky" wax,
geals? serves many purposes in the dental laboratory. I t is used in as-
7. Define: dental impressions; edentulous; partial impression; sembling plaster impressions and in waxing parts of bridgework
dental arch; dental cast; fracture-edge; tray surface. before investing for soldering and for temporarily attaching teeth.
Job Appraisal : Sticky wax usually consists of a compound containing rosin, bees-
I. Have all parts been assembled accurately? wax, coloring matter, gum damar and mastic. The greater the pro-
2. Are the tissue surfaces free from wax? portion of rosin the more brittle and more adhesive the wax. Too
3. Have the parts of the impression been closely approximated much beeswax makes the sticky wax too yielding and too plastic.
so that the fracture lines are almost invisible? Ingredients of Sticky W a x :
4. Have you observed economy of material? -
5 . Were make-overs necessary?
6. Can you assemble an impression in not longer than 15 min-
Wax I 02. 1
(1 1 Rosin 3 02. melt and mix

(2) Rosin I part by weight


utes (average) ? Beeswax 4 parts by weight
REFERENCES:
(Books for Additional Information.) Gum damar I part by weight
I. Frahm, I?. W.: T h e Principles and Technics of Full Denture Construc-
tion. Brooklyn: Dental Items of Interest Publishing Co., 1934.
Impression Trays: Impression trays hold the impression ma-
2. Turner, C. R. and Anthony, L. P.: American Textbook of Prosthetic
terial during the process of taking the impression by the dentist.
Dentistry. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, Inc., 1932. The trays are also used as retainers in assembling the broken parts
3. Kennedy, E.: Partial Denture Construction. Brooklyn: Dental Items of the impression. Trays are manufactured from aluminum, brass,
of Interest Publishing Co., 1928. nickel, or Britannia metal. Trays may be cleansed by covering with
petrolatum, soaking in hot water and wiping dry.
REFERENCES:
(Books for Additional Information.)
I. Prinz, H.: Dental Formulary. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger Co., 1936.
2. Skinner, E. W.: T h e Science of Dental Materials. Philadelphia: W. B.
Saunders Co., I 936.
PREPARATION O F DENTAL IMPRESSIONS FOR CASTS-I1 33

Materials: Pink wax, carding wax, sticky wax, shellac, Sandarac


and denatured alcohol (Fig. 40).
Procedure : (Follow operations in the order presented here.)
CAUTIONS:
a. Avoid covering the dentzlre beariltg area zen'th carding wax or
U N I T NO. 3 (Continued) any other wax.
b. Do not box too shallow (Fig 41).
P R E P A R A T I O N O F I M P R E S S I O N S F O R CASTS-I1

T o y shops sell outfits that enable children to cast lead o r tin toys,
such as tin soldiers, boats, animals and so forth. T h e melted metal is
poured into a form and is allowed to cool and harden. Similarly, t h e dental
impression is the form into which the casting is to be made. T h e impres-
sion is reenforced by a retaining wall, which confines the plaster and re-
duces the amount of trimming of the cast after it is poured.

Process o r Principle : No. 4. Boxing Dental Impressions.


a. Use of carding wax.
b. Technic of boxing impressions.
c. Application of shellac and Sandarac varnish; zlse of other
separating media.
Project or Jobs: ( T o be performed by the learner.)
JOB NO. 7: BOXassembled impressions.
JOB NO. 8: Apply shellac and Sandarac to boxed impressions.
NOTE: (Read the entire Unit carefully before beginning work.
Consult the glossary for definition of new words.)
Job Application: T h e assembled impression is boxed, in order to c-Shellac (use thin). a-Camel's hair brush (use one brush for shellac and
give the cast a well proportioned form and to reenforce the im- another for Sandarac). 3-Base-\~ax, showing wax cut for fitting into tongue
space of lower impressions. 4-Sticky wax (use sparingly). 5-Sandarac varnish
pression so that the parts will not come apart during the process of (use thin). 6-Carding wax strip cut from main body of carding wax. 7-Carding
pouring. Separating media are applied to prevent the impression wax for boxing impression.
from absorbing moisture from the plaster or artificial stone used in Note: Use carding wax at least j/s in. thick. Do not heat carding wax too much;
it melts quickly.
pouring casts, and to aid in separating the impression from the cast.
Vocational Information: Among the separating media used are c. D o not place carding wax too high from top of impression.
silicate of soda or silex, shellac and Sandarac. Solutions containing d. D o not allow pink wax in tongue space to cover the lingual
ether,.gum, alcohol, soap, collodion and coloring matter are also used edges of the lower impression.
in varlous commercial preparations employed to make the separation e. D o not apply separating media too thickly as the fine details
of the impression from the cast easier. Carding wax or a soft basewax of the impression &ll be lost and the denture &ll not fit.
may be used for boxing impressions. f. W a i t for the shellac to dry before applying Smdarac.
Tools and Equipment: Two camel's hair brushes, Bunsen burner, g. D o not use the same brush for applying shellac and Sa~darac
wax spatula, penknife. varnish.
32
34 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS PREPARATION O F DENTAL IMPRESSIONS FOR CASTS--I1 35

h. Dry impressions absorb separating media and make separa-


tion of t h e casts difficult. Dip dried-out impressions in water
for a fm lruinutes. Remove excess water from t h e impres-
sion before applying separating media.

I. Carding wax strip applied. A-Rim of impression (periphery). B-Carding


wax strip. 2. Carding wax wall applied. A-Carding wax wall.
N o t e : Have a carding wax wall (B1B2) parallel and deep enough around the
impression ( C ) to allow for a sufficiently thick cast. If the walls of the carding Note: Although the carding wax wall does not flare outward, all parts of the
wax are constricted, the edges of the cast will be too thin .and may break. If the impression can be seen by looking directly at it.
carding wax is boxed too flaring, too much time will be lost in trimming the cast.
If the carding wax strip ( A ) is too close to the edge of the impression (D), the
latter will be marred and the seal of the denture will be imperfect. If the impres-
sion is boxed too shallow, the cast will be too thin.

I. With the penknife cut a 3/leN strip along the full length of
the carding wax and seal it around the outer edges of the
impression about %" away from the crest of the rim of the
impression (Figs. 41, 42, 43 and 44). This is very im-
portant.
2. Shape the balance of the carding wax around the impression,
boxing it in, then seal the wax to the outer border of the
impression and along the adjoining edges of the carding
wax itself (Figs. 41, 42, 43 and 44).
3. In lower impressions apply a piece of basewax in the space
usually occupied by the tongue (the tongue-space) (Figs. r. Pink basewax in tongue space. A-Tongue space. B-Carding wax strip
43 and 45). i~ppliedbelow rim of impression. C-Rim of impression (periphery). z. Carding
wax wall applied.
4. Using the camel's hair brush with a dabbing or stippling
motion, cover the tissue surface of the impression with a thin N o t e : Carding wax wall should not be too close to rear part (condyles) of
impression to avoid thin edges.
coating of shellac and wait until thoroughly dry before pro-
ceeding (Fig. 47).
5. Using a clean camel's hair brush with a dabbing motion, apply
one coating of Sandarac on the tissue surface. Wait until thc
Sandarac is dry before proceeding.
36 MANUAL FOR DENTAL T E C H N I C I A N S PREPARATION O F DENTAL IMPRESSIONS-I1 37
Supplementary Assignment: (Information to be obtained by
learner.)
I . How may home-made separating media be prepared?
(See Frahm, Prinz.)
2. Which types of separating media are harmful to impressions
and dentures?
3. Which types of separating media are inflammable?
4. Why is basewax used in the tongue-space?

A-Impression. B-Basewax in tongue A-Impression. B-Cast (cross section).


space. C-Cast (cross section). C-Carding w a x retaining wall.
A-Impression. B-Carding w a x strip applied. C-Crest or rim of impression Note: T h e cast takes its shape from the impression. T h e details of the rim of the
(periphery). D-Carding w a x wall. E-Section cut out of carding wax wall to callst taking shape over the carding w a x rim around the impression can be seen i n
show relationship of impression, carding w a x strip and carding w a x wall all sealed 111e above photographs. T h e shape of the gum and palate also can be seen as
to each other.
well as the retaining purpose of the w a x in the tongue space. T h e thickness of
the cast is determined by the depth of the carding w a x wall. T h e above photo-
graphs show the effect of proper boxing on the shape of the casts.
Ouestions
. :
I. Why is it important to protect denture bearing areas in box-
ing impressions?
2 . What precautions should be taken in applying separating
media?
3. How should separating media be kept in the laboratory?
4. What care should be given camel's hair brushes?
5. Why is shellac used?
6. Why is Sandarac used?
7. Why and how should carding wax be applied?
8. Define: Artificial stone, denture bearing areas, tongue-space.
Job Appraisal :
I. Is the carding wax strip attached below the crest of the rim
of the impression?
2 . Is the impression boxed deep enough? N o t i , : T h e impression is held perpendicularly. T h e separating medium is applied
I l ~ ~ nlot the tleepest parts (the ridge of the gum i n full impressions and the impres-
3. Are the walls of the boxed impression parallel and not too s11111rc of llic tcctli in partial impressions). Do not allow the separating material to
close to the rear (the condyles) of the lower impression? collect in one place. Apply i t sparingly.
38 M A N U A L FOR DENTAL TEC,HNrCIANS

4. W e r e the shellac and Sandarac varnish applied evenly and


not too thickly?
5. Were make-overs necehhary.> R E L A T E D I N F O R M A T I O N : U N I T N O . 3 (Continued)
6. Can you box an impression in r5 minutes (average).?
P R E P A R A T I O N O F IMPRESSIONS F O R CASTS-I1
REFERENCES:(Books for Additional Information.)
I. F r a h n ~ ,F. W.: 'l'l~c Princi1)lcs and Technics of Full Denture Construc- Boxing: Basewax, reenforced by a laster core, may be used
tion. Brooklyn: DcntaI Itenls of Interest Publishing Co., 1934.
for boxing, instead of carding was. h rim of art clay or plasticene,
2. Prinz, H.: Dental Formulary. Philadelphia: Lcn & F'ehigcr, 1936.
3. Doxtater, L. W.: Full and Partial Denture Prosthesis. 131-ookl,111:Dental I-enforced by sheet lead, or a patented boxing apparatus may also
Items of Intcrcst Publishing Co., 1936. be used instead of carding wax.
Separating Media: T h e separating media should allow for the
casy separation of the impression from the cast which has beell
poured in it. Separating media must not have any harmful effect
on the impression such as dissolving the surface of the plaster im-
pression or otherwise marring the fine details of the impression. T h e
separating media should not be harmful to the health of the tech-
nician. I t is well to use separating media which stain the impression
to some depth. This will help the technician in separating the cast
since he will have a guide when removing the impression from the
cast.
Ingredients of Various Separating Media: (Parts by weight.)
I. Castile soap I oz.
Water r pt. Eleat until soap is dissolved.
"I Castor oil 7 parts
illcohol I part
Alcohol soluble dye
:?.Beeswax 10 parts by weight
Carboiltetrachloride (carbons) 00 parts b y weight
4. (;urn shellac I part by weight
Denatured alcohol 3 parts by weight
5. Guln Sandarac 2 parts by weight
Denatured alcohol 5 parts by weight
I( I,:I,.I;.R~,NCI<:S:
(Rooks for Additional Information.)
I. I'l-illx, 11.: Ilcntal Formulary. I'hilndclphia: Lea & Febiger, 1936.
2. 'l'urncr, C. R., and Anthony, L. P.: American Textbook of Prosthetic
i s I . l'i~ilnilclylri~~: Lea & Fcbiger, Inc., I 932.
;. I " I . . I ~ I I I I . I.'. \fr.: 'I'Irr l ' r i ~ r ~ i ~ ~
and
l c sTechnics of Full Dcnture Construc-
I ~ ~ I I I:IIIIII,I!
. 11: I ) L , I I ~1t~,11rs
. I ~ of l~l[crcstI'uhlishing Co., 1934
1 . ,<\\,, I I S O I I . 11. (;.: 0 1 1 [ l i l l c01- 1'.1111D ( ~ l l ~ ~PI-osthesis.
irc New York: Netv
)'<tll. \'lli\.. I'l<,',S, 11);:.

io
DENTAL CAST TECHNIC-I 4I

or "set," assumes a shape which is a counter or mold of the impression


into which it has been poured. A dental cast is in fact a counter
or replica obtained by allowing plaster or artificial stone poured into
U N I T NO. 4 a dental impression to set. The cast is obtained by carefully break-
ing away the impression from the set plaster or stone which had been
DENTAL CAST TECHNIC-I
poured into it. Artificial stone has now practically replaced plaster
T h e cast to be made from the impression or counter is not like a piece
as a material for making dental casts.
of sculpture in which the artist can "express" himself and shape it according Vocational Information: Accurate pouring of casts is important
to "the way he sees it." T h e cast must be an exact duplicate of the mouth because the prosthetic appliance is constructed on the cast. If the cast
from which the impression is taken. We can readily see that if the im-
is inaccurate the appliance constructed on it will not fit the mouth
pression or counter of the mouth is accurately assembled and prepared for
casting and the cast is properly made, we shall have a base or foundation for of the patient. Casting plaster sets slower than impression plaster.
the construction of a denture that will fit the mouth. O n the other hand, Artificial stone may contain "hydrocal" or Alpha gypsum; Portland
if the assembling of the impression is inaccurate or if the cast made from cement, alum, sand, citric acid, pigment, Rochelle salt, etc. Arti-
such an impression has faults such as air bubbles, soft spots, thin edges, etc., ficial stone is better able to withstand usage in the construction of
the cast will not be an exact duplicate of the patient's mouth and the den- the dental prosthetic appliance. This is the main reason why it has
ture made on such a cast will not fit. Dental mechanics involves basic prin- practically displaced laster as a cast material. Mechanical vibrators
ciples which are related to each other. If one principle is mastered properly consist of an off-center lathe chuck or wheel sometimes used in com-
it serves as a foundation for the one following it. bination with a platform for holding the impression. Vibration helps
to eliminate air bubbles from artificial stone casts.
Process or Principle: No. 5 : Pouring Dental Casts.
a. Pozcring dental casts i n plaster of Paris, after boxing and Tools and Equipment: Plaster bowl, plaster spatula, glass slab,
application of separating media. mechanical vibrator, dental lathe (Fig. 48).
b. Pouring dental casts in artificial stone, after boxhg and
application of separating media. Materials: Plaster of Paris, water, artificial stone, paper clips.
c. Use of mechanical vibrator. Procedure : (Follow operations in the order presented here.)
d. Reenforcing remaining teeth on partial casts. CAUTIONS :
Project or Jobs: ( T o be performed by the learner.) a. I n partial cases the tooth depressions in the impression shozlld
JOB NO. 9: Pour in plaster, four sets (eight impressions) of be filled with plaster or artificial stone first, making sure that
full upper and lower boxed impressions, assembled in trays. all air bubbles are exclzcded.
JOB NO. 10: Pour in artificial stone, four sets (eight impres- b. W o r k carefully and expeditiously to prevent plaster from set-
sions) of full upper and lower boxed impressions, assembled in tiag before the cast is fully poured.
trays. c. Less Water is required for nrtifiial stone, roo grams stone to
JOB NO. I I : Pour in plaster, six boxed partial impressions, as- 30 cc. water.
sembled without trays. d. Hold impressions securely on mechanical vibrator.
JOB NO. 12: Pour in artificial stone, six boxed partial impres- e. If the prepared impression is not soaked i~ water until all
sions, assembled in trays. bubbling ceases, t h e inzpression well absorb moistzcre from
NOTE: (Read the entire Unit carefully before beginning work. the cast poured into it. This may make the cast too soft and
Job Application: Plaster or artificial stone, when mixed with water otherm'se imperfect i n detail.
and poured into a dental impression, if allowed to stand until "hard" f. Separating media must be thoroaghly dry before the cast is
40 poured.
DENTAL CAST TECHNIC-I 43
42 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS

FIG. 49. METHODOF JARRING FIRSTAPPLICATION


OF PLASTER
INTO PLACE
I N THE INPRESSION
A-Plaster deposited a t rear of boxed impression. B-The boxed impression.

I-Dental Lathe. 2-Vibrating platform. 3-Lathe chuck with off-center fibre disks.
Note: Attach chuck with off-center fibre disks to lathe spindle-end. Adjust platform
between chuck release (A) and lathe bushing ( B ) . T h e vibrations are produced
by the off-center fibre disks striking against the bottom of the vibrating platform.

I. Pouring Plaster:
I. Immerse the prepared impression in cold water for 5 to 10
minutes.
2. Remove the impression from the water and drain all excess
water adhering to tissue surfaces.
3. If plaster is to be used, make a plaster mix.
4. Place a small quantity of plaster in the rear of the impression
which is held in the hand and jarred against the plaster
bench, quickly covering the tissue surface of the impression
(Figs. 49 and 50). I d
5. Holding the impression in one hand, add plaster, using plas- FIG.50. Mm.1-10~OF POURING
PARTIAL
IMPRESSIONS
(CROSS
SECTION
VIEW)
ter spatula. Tap the back of the hand holding the impression I-First application of plaster or stone (x) into rear of boxed impression. 2-First
of plnstcr or stonc ( x ) j:~rrcd into place and second application added.
r~ppIic:~~tion
3-Air I)ul)l~lc( A ) rcnr~ltof ilnlrropcr iutrotluction of plaster or stonc (x) into boxed
p11rli111itnl)rr!iui~>t~
(cross swtiol~).
44 M A N U A L ]'OR I)I<N'I'AI. 'I'ICCI-INICIANS DENTAL CAST TECHNIC-I 45
gently against the plaster bench so that each addition of 3. Vibrate the impression against the plaster bench while stone
plaster settles in the impression before the next is deposited. is being added until all air bubbles are brought to the surface
Continue adding plaster and tapping the impression until and eliminated.
plaster has filled the boxed impression. Wait until plaster 4. If a mechanical vibrator is used, hold the impression care-
has set thoroughly before procccding, fully while on vibrator platform. (Fig. 5 I.)
NOTE: If artificial stone is to be used, the proportion of water is 5 . Score the top of poured casts to facilitate attachment to plas-
2 5 per cent less than for plaster. ter when mounting on articulator. (Fig. 5 2 . )
11. Pouring Stone: NOTE: TOreenforce isolated teeth in partial impressions bend a
I. Follow the directions of the manufacturcr for mixing stone. piece of a wire clip to extend from the rim of the impression to
T h e usual proportions are water I part and 3 parts of stone about 2 mm. from the occlusal surface of the tooth-impression and
by weight. A small quantity of the mixed stone is placed at hold in place with sticky wax. (Fig. 5 3 . )
the rear of the impression. Using a jarring motion adapt Supplementary Assignment: (Information to be obtained by the
the artificial stone to the impression. learner.)
2 . Add small quantities of the mixed stone, allowing each addi-
I. Difference between impression plaster and cast plaster.
tion to settle or spread over the impression. Add stone until 2 . Types of artificial stone.
all of the boxed area is filled. 3. Warpage of casts; causes of warpage.
4. How does stone compare with plaster in respect to expansion
and hardness.
5. Various types of mechanical vibrators.
6. Pouring of compound and other composition impressions.
Questions :
I. What may happen to the cast if plaster is not mixed properly?
2 . How is the first covering of plaster applied?
3. W h y is the impression jarred when being poured?
4. What is the correct procedure for pouring dental impressions
in plaster; in artificial stone?
5 . What precautions should be taken in pouring partial im-
pressions?
6. What precautions should be followed in using mechanical
vibrators?
7. W h y are air bubbles in casts harmful?
8. Why are bases of casts scored?
9. W h y is artificial stone used for making casts? What happens
when artificial stone is not properly mixed?
FIG. 5 1 . IMPRESSION
POUREDI N STONEBEINGVIBRATED ON MECHANICAL 10.Define: mold, counter, prosthetic appliance, warpage?
VIBRATOR TO ELIMINATE
AIR BUBBLES AND TO OBTAINAN ACCURATE
CAST Job Appraisal :
(VIEWED FROM ABOVE)
I. Are there any bubbles or other imperfections on the tissue
A-Dental lathe. B-Vibrator table. C-Poured impression. surface of the cast?
Noie: The amount of pressure of the hands holding the boxed impression on thc
vibrating platform controls the amount of vibration. T h e boxed impression s l ~ o ~ ~ l t l 2. Have the bubbles been vibrated to the base of the poured
be held carefully to avoid crushing or distorting the impression. cast?
46 MANUAL FOR DHN'I'AL TECHNICIANS DENTAL CAST TECHNIC-1 47

3. Was economy of material observed?


A. Were the bases of the casts scored to facilitate mounting on
articulators?
5. Were make-overs necessary?
6. Can you. pour a cast in about 10 minutes (average)?
-

REFERENCES: (Books for Additional Information.)


I . Frahm, I?. W.: T h e Principles and Technics of Full Denture Construc-
tion. Brooklyn: Dental Items of Interest Publishing CO., 1934.
z. Skinner, E. W.: T h e Science of Dental Materials. Philadelphia: W. B.
Saunders Co., I 936.
- Doxtater.
2. - - L. W.: Full and Partial Denture Prosthesis. Brooklyn: Dental
I-Carding wax retaining wall in place 2-Carding wax retaining wall removed. Items of Interest Publishing CO., 1936.
Note: No. 2is roughened too much. I t should be smooth and grooved; otherwise the 4. P r i n r , H.: Dental Formulary. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1936.
cast may be broken when i t is removed from the articulator.

No&: W a x the pieces of wire, cut from paper clips, opposite the tooth depressions
(A, B, C) so that they are imbedded in the middle of the tooth impression and are
not too near the tooth surface on the cast.
DENTAL CAST TECHNIC-I 49

Ingredients of Modeling Compound:


( I ) Stearin, 25 parts by weight.
Gum Damar, 50 parts by weight.
Powdered Soapstone, 85 parts by weight.
R E L A T E D INFORMATION: U N I T NO. 4 Carmine to give color (Prinz).
(2) Kouri, I part by weight.
DENTAL CAST TECHNIC-I Stearin, 1.5 parts by weight.
French Chalk, 1.75 parts by weight.
Artificial Stone: A suitable material for dental casts must be suf- Coloring material (Prinz) .
ficiently strong and hard to withstand usage during the construction Elastic Impression Materials: These are used occasionally, espe-
of the denture. T h e material must withstand the pressure and tem- cially for partial impressions where undercuts are present. T h e ma-
perature change during vulcanization. I t must not set too quickly so terials contain rubber latex, cellulose, fiber, agar-agar, wax and water.
that enough time may be allowed for manipulation. When setting Since most of these materials shrink when exposed to air, because of
the material should not contract or expand. T h e mix should be of loss of water, they should be kept moist until poured. T h e Dentocoll
such consistency that it can be vibrated, poured or packed accurately impressions, as well as other elastic-material impressions, should
into all parts of the impression. The cast material should set after a never be packed with stone. T h e stone should be poured and vi-
reasonably long interval: Artificial stone is usually mixed with one brated into position, otherwise the impression will be distorted. I t is
part of water to three parts of stone by weight. The initial set is 7 well to follow the formula of the manufacturer when working with
to 15 minutes. T h e final set is 12 to 25 minutes. Crushing strength elastic impression materials.
in I hour is 2,400 pounds and in 24 hours it is 3,700 pounds per
square inch. Dentocoll: This is a commonly used impression compound and
should be poured as soon as possible after it is taken from the mouth
Ingredients of artificial stone vary and are usually kept as trade of the patient by the dentist. Dentocoll as well as other elastic com-
secrets by the manufacturers. Some a r t q a l stones consist of the pounds can easily be distorted when the attempt is made to box them.
following ingredients : Patented boxing apparatus may be purchased for this purpose. Soft
( I ) Calcium, I 9 parts by weight. modeling clay can also be used for boxing. Cover the poured im-
Pure Silica, 20 parts by weight. pression with a moist napkin during the setting period.
Aluminum Oxide, 42 parts by weight.
Soluble Plaster: Plaster to which starch has been added is some-
(2) Rochelle Salt, I to 5 per cent. times used as an impression material. One part of cornstarch to
Pigment, 0.5 per cent. three parts of plaster is the usual composition of soluble plaster.
Retarder, 0.1 per cent.
Alpha ,Gypsum, balance (Skinner).
Modeling Compound: This is a composition used for making im-
pressions and biteblocks. I t may be white, brown, red or black in
color. Modeling compound can be softened in hot water (12o0-
140° F.) and molded to any desired shape. On cooling, the com-
pound hardens (9s0-105' F.) and retains its shape. For this reason
it is possible to use it as an impression material. Impressions made
of modeling compound are poured the same as plaster impressions
excepting that separating media must not be used and artificial stone
should be vibrated, but never packed in them.
48
DENTAL CAST TECHNIC-I I 5'

the soluble elastic and other impression compounds are separated


fro111 the casts by i n ~ i n e r s i iin
~ ~hot ol- boiling water. This is all
advantage over plaster impressions, which must be carefully removed
from casts.
Tools and Equipment: l'laster knife, penknife.
U N I T NO. 4 (Continued,)
Materials : Alcohol, absorbent cotton.
D E N T A L CAST TECHNIC-I1 Procedure : (Follow operations in the order preseilted here.)
CAUTIONS:
W e spoke OF pourillg 01- castir~gmetnl toys into forms. After tllc pourcd a. 110 n o t alltJnipt t o separate cast f r o m impressiom befort, t h e
lllctal hecoilles solid the mold or nwtris is removcd and thc cast toy is left. cast material has fully set.
I n pouring dental casts, 2ftc.r tlic .~rtifici.~lstonc or plaster cast which had b, D o n u t allow poured impressions t o stand too l o n g befort,
hecil pourcd in10 the illip1.cssiotl IS ~ e or t hardenetl, tllc in~prcssionis rc-
separating.
11iol-ed from thc ~ 1 s t . Sincc p1.1stcr :ind .~rtificinlstone ;Ire not as hard as
c. L)u n u t cut i ~ z t ocast w h r n scorir~g tray surface of i ~ ~ ~ p r ~ , s s i o n
~netnland since the cast lnust he .ill ey.1c.t d ~ ~ p l i c : ~oft c tllc iilouth, wc can
rcndily see that cxtreille cnrc should he t ; ~ t c ~inl scpni-;lting the impressiol~
or w h e n separating.
from the cast. T h i s ~ l n i t prol-idcs mcthoils ~r-llicllm a t c tlic scparating
d. Kt.11~oveinipressian f~iatrrzirlravefully fvoni nroullcl I / / ( -tt,t,t/~
PI-occsscornpnrati\-ely casy. of t/lc c a s ~b(2fore attempting to rrrfiovr 1/7e iiiipri~ssioilplri t s
covt7ri?~gother tissues.
P r o c e s s o r Principle : No. 6: Separating Casts from In~prcssions. e. B e sure t o sc urr until L O ~ O Y of srparoting media becomes vis-
a. SeparalinR p l a s l ~ rcasts frorn iimprl,s.ri(~ns. ible t o assure t l ~ a t h e inapression has been suficiently weak-
b. S ~ p a r n t i n ~artificial
p stonr casfs from i/lipurrsioiis. ened before a~tcnaptkagt o brtvk away parts t o srparate t h e
cast.
P r o j e c t o r Jobs: ('I'o be performed 1)y the 1 ~ ~ 1 r n e r . ) f. I n breaki~zgazeay prirts of t h e impressions, apply pressure
JOB NO. 13: Separate four sets of full u ~ p e rand lower plaster
azeay frowz ~ e e t hor t h i n edges of t h e cast.
casts from impressions. g. T r y t o b a l a ~ ~ corr c o ~ t r o lforce upplird in breaking away i m -
JOB NO. 14: Separate four sets of f u l l upper a r ~ dIonct- artificial
pression parts.
sto~iccasts ft-on1 inlpressions. h. D o not expose too / I I Z ~ (of / L t h e blade of .the k n i f e used i n
J O B NO. I ;: Separate six p'lrtial plaster casts fiom irnl)t-cssiolis.
separating parts of intprt,ssion f r o m cast. T h i s will aid t o
JOB N O 16: Separate six partial artificial stone casts from iln-
avoid cutting into cast.
pressions. I. Remove carding wax and tongue-space wax used in boxing
NOTE: (Read the entire ( i n i t carefullj before beginning work. impressions. (Figs. 54, 55, j 6 and 57.)
Consult the glossar) for definitions of new words.) 2 . Score the impression until coloring material in separating
Job Application: After thc material (plastel- or artificial stone) media becomes visible. (Figs. 56 and 57.)
which has been pourcd illto the houed inipression h:ls hardened 01- 1. IJsi13g the point of the plaster knife, carefullj. remove the
.rt,t, the ir-npression is separated fl-on1 the cast. T h e cast is then read! segregated parts of the impression, beginning at the heel or
to be trimmed to proper proportions. cond! Ic until all of the cast is exposed. (Fig. 58.)
Vocational I n f o r m a t i o n : 111 addition to l~l;tstcr,other impressioti 4. 111 sep;~r:~ti~lg partial impressions first remove all parts of im-
materials arc used which possess certain l~~-ol)e~-ties 11ot foi111~1
i 1 1 1)1:~%
1>1-e\\iol1
around teeth, being especiallq careful to do so around
ter. Among the ni:~tc~-i:tls used 21-cdc~it:~l i1lll,1.cssio11
(.o111~,0~11(1, sol 1~)1,1tc(1tectli. (1:ig. 59.)
uble plaster, clastic co~nlloi~n(Is slid I~:II-d\\.;I\c.c;. 'I'l1c~sc. I I ~ : I ~ C , I . ~ : I I ~ C. I<c~rlove, L I ~y :lcihe~-i~~,g
scparatirlg media from the cast with
vat-!. i n thc dcgrcc of :~ccu~-:tc!~ of tlic, inll,~-c-..;it,l)C; 1~.,~1utc.tl.
R 1 o ~ ; ot f s~Ic~)hol ld cottoll. (1:igs. 60, G I and 6 ~ )
: ~ ~ :tl)\u~-I)e~~t
,I 1
-9 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS DENTAL CAST TECHNIC-11 53

A-Carding wax removed. A-Carding wax removed.


B-Wax r e m o v e d from C-Impression scored to make
tongue space. separating easier.
A-Knife blade. B-Cast with impression parts removed. C-Scored impression
parts not yet removed.
Note: Pressure of the knife should be away from the cast. T h e thumb of the left
hand can aid in guiding the piece to be separated and in checking the pressure of the
knife blade. T h e sharp edge of the blade should never be directed toward the cast,
to avoid cutting into the cast.

A-Carding wax retaining walls. B-Scored impressions. C-Casts from which


impression parts have been removed.
Note: Upper and lower poured casts with carding wax boxing partially removed and
impressions scored and partly removed from casts. T h e carding wax retaining walls
and strips (A) have been removed. T h e impressions (B) have been scored and are
partly removed from the casts (C). T h i s illustration is used to SIIOIY the various
components of the poured casts. It is better to remove all the boxing material ant1 Note: I t is best first to remove the impression material around the teeth of the cast.
then to score the impressions until the color of the separating medium becomcs visible. Clear the impression away especially from isolated teeth. Mark X opposite the tooth
T h e impression then can be removed easily frorn the cast. tlepressions on the tray surface of the impression to aid in locating the isolated teeth
I)cfnre the cast is poured. Always direct the force of the knife blade away from the
tcct11 on the cast. Score the cast well to weaken the impression plaster.
MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS DENTAL CAST TECHNIC-I I 55
Supplementary Assignment: (Information to be obtained by the
learner.)
I . Various tools used for separating impressions from casts.
2 . P r o ~ r i e t a r vmaterials (compounds and soluble plasters) used
for taking impressions.
3. Methods of separating dental compound from casts.
4. Methods of separating elastic impression materials from casts.
5. Composition of dental compound, elastic impression materials,
soluble plaster.
6. Separating soluble plaster.
Questions :
I . W h y should the cast material be fully set before attempting
to separate the impression from the cast?
2. What may happen if poured impressions are allowed to stand
too long before separating?
3. W h y should the denture bearing area not be mutilated in
separating impressions from casts?
4. W h y is it important not to break teeth from cast?
5. What may happen if the knife-blade is exposed too much in
separating casts?
6. What are the advantages and disadvantages of plaster as an
impression material (from the standpoint of the cast pro-
duced) ?
7. What are the advantages and disadvantages of compound,
elastic materials and soluble plaster as dental impression ma-
terials (from the standpoint of separating impressions) ?
8. What are the advantages and disadvantages of plaster as a
cast material?
9. What are the advantages and disadvantages of artificial stone
as a dental cast material?

A-Frenum (muscle attachment). B- A-Alveolo-buccal fold. B-Alveolar Job Appraisal :


Alveolo-buccal fold (between cheek and ridge. C-Tongue space. D-Excess I. Are the casts free from cuts or other damage in separating?
alveolar process). C-Alveolar ridge included by carding wax rim applied
(gum ridge). D-Palate (roof of around impression. This should be 2 . H a s all of the impression material been removed?
mouth). E-Excess included by carding trimmed away. 3 . Are air bubbles present?
wax rim applied around impression.
This should be trimmed away. 4.Are all details of the impression reproduced in the cast?
Note: Full upper and lower casts after the impressions have been removed, before 5. Have teeth been broken in partial casts?
trimming. T h e casts are already fairly well trimmed. 6. Can you separate a full cast in 10minutes (average)?
7. Can you separate a partial cast in 15 minutes (average) ?
56 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS

REFERENCES:
(Books for Additional Information.)
I . Skiilner, E. W.: ?'he Sciencc of Dcntal Mxtcrials. phi lad el phi^: W. B.
Saundcrs Co., 1936.
2. Ray, K. W.: Aletallurgy for Dental Students. Philadelphia: P. Blakis-
ton's Son & Co., IIIC., I 9 j I .
j. Frahni, F. W.: Principles 2nd 'l'cclinics of Full Denture Construction.
Brooklyn: D c ~ l t a lItellls of Interest Publjsliinp Co., 1934. RELATED INFORMATION: U N I T NO. 4 (Continued)
4. Kennedy, E.: Partial Denture Const~uction. Brooklyn: Dental Items of
Intercst Publislling Co., 1028. D E N T A L C A S T TECHNIC-11
j. Prinz, H.: Dental Formulary. 1'1liln~icl~hi.r:Lea ik Fcbigcr, 1936.
Separating Soluble Plaster: Immerse the impression with the
poured cast in boiling water. T h e starch causes the impression to
swell and disintegrate, allowing the impression to be easily removed
from the cast.
Separating Modeling Compound : Place the compound impres-
sion with the poured cast in hot water until the compound is suffi-
ciently soft to be readily removed from the cast. If the compound is
too hard the cast, especially teeth in partial casts, may be broken. If
the compound is allowed to remain in boiling water too long it may
adhere to the cast and become difficult to remove.
Separating Elastic Impression Material: Follow directions for
compound or the directions supplied by the manufacturer.
Separating Dentocoll: Dentocoll can be p e l e d off by using a
plaster knife. I n full impressions the dentocoll can be pulled off the
cast by tugging on the impression tray handle. Care should be exer-
cised in separating partial impressions.
D E N T A L CAST TECHNIC-111 59

Procedure : (Follow operations in the order presented here.)


CAUTIONS:
a. Do n o t t r i m casts too close t o alv~olo-buccalfold.
b. I l o n o t t r i m casts t o o thin o n palatal portion.
U N I T NO. 4 ( C o t ~ t i ~ u e d ) c. D o n o t rut t o n g u e space t o o thin.
d . 110 not ijiar tissue surfare of L / I P cast t o be covert7d b y t h e d ~ r a -
D E N T A L C A S T TECHNIC-111 l u r e base.
c. Rt, sure t h e base of t h e cast is parallel w i t h t h e alveolar ridgrs.
W h e n a metal toy is cast into n mold, it will be iound 011 sc~cirating f. I l o n o t use sandpaper o n i l e n t u r ~bearing area.
the mold that thci-c are rough edgcs on thc ~ ~ 1 toy. st W h e n n dcntal c.isl I . LJsing pencil, mark the casts along the lines to be trimmed
is scpnrntcd fl,om the i ~ n ~ r c s s i ointo
n which it hnd been poured n ccrt;lin away.
amount of csccss, especially that covering the carding war rim, is included 2 . LJsing plaster knife in palm grip 01- plaster saw, cut around
in the cast 2nd I I ~ L I S be
~ ~l.illinlcdn\vny. A triinnlcd, ncnt cast is easier to at right angles to the base along the part of the cast over the
h;~ndle2nd is an iiiiiuccnlcnr to m-ork neatly. A11 cientnl casts should be
carding wax styip. D o not cut too close to alveolo-buccal
trimmed.
fold. (17igs. 63 and 64.)
.{. For artificial stone casts a rough or rasp file or plaster saw
Process o r Principle: No. 7: Trimming Dental Casts.
may be used. (Figs. 64 and 65.)
a. Trimnaizg edentulous casts.
4. ];or partials the alveolo-buccal fold may be used as a guide to
b. T r i m i ~ i ~partial
g casts.
indicate the amount of gum and alveolar tissue lost hy the
P r o j e c t o r Jobs : ( T o be performed by the Ieariler.) extraction. (Figs. 66 and 67.)
J O B No. 17: T r i m four sets of full upper and lower plaster casts. 5. Finish with fine sandpaper. (Fig. 68.)
J O B No. 18: Trim four sets of full upper and lower artificial
stone casts. Supplementary Assignment: (Information to he obtained by tll:
J O B No. 19: Trim six partial plaster casts. learner.)
J O B No. 20: T r i m six partial artificial stone casts. 1 . Various tools used in dental laboratories to trim casts.
NOTE:(Read the entire Unit carefully before beginning work. 2 . Different methods of trimming casts.
Consult the glossary for definitions of new words.) 3. Different apparatus used for marking at-t-bases.
Job Application: T h e casts are trimmed in order to make them 4. Different types of trimming machines for plaster and stone
symmetrical, to facilitate handling, mounting on articulator and in casts.
flasking. 5. Methods of duplicating casts.
Vocational Information: If the casts are used for display pur- Questions :
poses, "art portions" are constructed. There are many methods of I . W h y are casts trimmed?
trimming casts. T h e most practical is to have the base parallel to a 2. What is the most practical method of trilnllling casts?
straight edge placed across the crest of the alveolar ridges. T h e sidcb 3. Which tools may be used for trimming casts?
of the base should be about one-eighth to one-sixteenth higher that1 3. W h y should stone casts be trimmed immediately after sepa-
the alveolo-buccal fold or the periphery. A good method to follow rating?
is to cut along the ridge left by the carding wax strip. 5 . W h y is sandpaper used?
Tools and Equipment: Plaster knife, ruler, l)crlc.il, ljl:tqtc~-h:t\r 6. What rare should be evercised in trimming casts?
and blade, rasp file. 7. Whxt may hal)pen if casts are trimmed too thin?
Material : Sn~ldlnpcl-. S. (live thc .tdvat~t:t~cs
of a wcll trirnl-ned cast.
,h
MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS DENTAL CAST TECHNIC-111 61

9. Define : gum ; alveolar tissue; extraction; alveolo-buccal fold ;


palm grip; base of cast; condyle; heel; palatal portion; al-
veolar ridges; periphery; crest of ridge; articulators; flask-
ing; denture bearing area.

FIG.63. METHODOF TRIMMING


DENTAL CASTSALONG THE LINEESTABLISHED
WAXSTRIP USEDIN BOXINGTHE IMPRESSION
BY THE CARDING

A-Line along inner margin of carding wax strip. B-Thumb guard and guide for
controlling knife blade. C-Knife blade in palm grip. D-Lower cast.
Note: If impressions are boxed properly there will be very little trimming of casts
necessary. Palm grip and thumb guard are used in trimming casts.

Job Appraisal :
I. Is the crest of the alveolar ridge parallel to the base of the
cast?
FIG.64. METHOD EXCESSOF UPPERCAST
OF SAWING
2 . Are the sides of the art-base at right angles to the base of
Note: Saw to "full" dimensions to allow for sandpapering without making it neccs- the cast?
sary to trim the cast beyond the beginning of the alveolo-buccal fold.
62 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS

R E L A T E D INFORMATION: U N I T NO. 4 (Continzced)

D E N T A L C A S T TECHNIC-111

Patented Trimmers : There are several patented trimmers now on


the market. They should be used with great care and by experienced
workers.
Duplicating-Casts : There are various duplicating compounds on
the market. Dentocoll may be used. I t is best to follow the direc-
tions supplied by the manufacturer when using duplicating material.
Ingredients of a Duplicating Compound (Prinz) :
Fresh slaked lime, 10parts by weight.
Sugar, 10parts by weight.
Glycerine, 1 2 parts by weight.
Dissolve the sugar in the glycerine by heating in water.
A. Lower Cast. I-Full view. 2-Rear view. 3-Side view. .+-Front view
(inverted). T o Preserve Casts: Boil the dried cast in a solution of borax I
B. Upper cast. 5-Full view. 6-Front view. 7-Rear view (inverted). 8-Side view. part and water 50 parts by weight.
3. Are the sides of the art-base smooth? Has the base of the
cast been scored?
4. Is the tissue surface, especially the denture bearing area, free
from damage?
5. Did you spoil any casts?
6. Can you trim a cast in not longer than 10 minutes (average) ?
REFERENCES:(Books for Additional Information.)
\
I. Nichols, I. G.: Prosthetic Dentistry. St. Louis: The C. V. Mosby Co.,
1930-
2. Kennedy, E.: Partial Denture Construction. Brooklyn: Dental Items
of Interest Publishing Co., 1928.
3. Doxtater, L. W.: Full and Partial Prosthesis. Brooklyn: Dental I t c n ~ s
of Interest Publishing Co., 1936.
PREPARATION O F DENTURE BEARING AREA+I a
exit of the main nerves and blood vessels through small bone
openings.
Vocational Information : Success or failure of a denture depends
on proper relief of bony areas by the addition of tinfoil over these
areas on the casts. There are many methods for outlining denture
bearing areas and relief of hard and soft areas. This procedure is
UNIT NO. 5
P R E P A R A T I O N O F D E N T U R E B E A R I N G AREAS-I

W i t h the completion of the casts, we have merely obtained the plot on


which our s t r u c t u r e t h e denture--is to be built. Before building it is
median line
of palate
necessary to have a plan which shows the extent of the area to be covered
by the building. Furthermore, the character of the ground on which the blood vessel
foundation is to be laid should be well known. Solid rock must be dif-
ferentiated from soft boggy ground so that the foundation may be modified
accordingly. T h e dentist is the surveyor and architect. However, the
builder, in this instance the dental technician, must understand the reading
of blue prints, and the meaning of the various terms used by the architect,
the dentist, so that the plans may be followed accurately. T h e dental
technician should know in a general way the location and the courses of
certain blood vessels, nerves and hard and soft areas.

Process o r Principles: No. 8: Outlining Denture Bearing and


Relief Areas on Casts.
a. Locate anatomic landmarks. (Figs. 69 and 70.)
b. Outline edentulous and partial denture bean'rag area-s. (Figs.
71, 72, 73 and 74.)
Project o r Jobs: ( T o be performed by the learner.) Note: In order to make accurate dentures it is necessary to have. some acquaintance
JOB NO. 21: Locate anatomic landmarks and outline denture with the names of the actual tissues of the mouth. Compare the landmarks indicated
beafing areas on eight sets of edentulous casts (sixteen\casts). in the above diagram with those in the mouth of a person. While no two mouths
or even two teeth are ever exactly alike, the general structural arrangement of the
JOB NO. 22: Locate anatomic landmarks and outline denture mouth is basically the same in all human beings.
bearing areas on twelve partial casts. (Figs. 75, 76, 77a and b.)
NOTE: (Read the entire Unit carefully before beginning work. known also as denture designing and should be done by the dentist
Consult the glossary for definitions of new words.) who sees the patient and has the knowledge of and opportunity for
examining the mouth. However, the technician should be familiar
Job Application: The dental arches consist of the palate and al- with the terms used and principles involved so that he may be able
veolar process in the upper jaw, and the alveolar process in the lower to understand the instructions of the dentist.
jaw. I n the construction of artificial dentures, a knowledge is neces-
Tools and Equipment: Marking pencil, notepaper.
sary of the areas to be covered by the dentures, the various names
and locations of the respective hard and soft areas and the points of Materials : Dental casts.
64
66 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS PREPARATION O F DENTURE BEARING AREAS-I 67

Supplementary Assignment: (Information to be obtained by the


learner.)
I. Kennedy's method of partial denture classification and design.
2. Cummer's classification of partial denture design.
3. Various methods of outlining dentures.

A-Lingual (towards the tongue) surface of molar. B-Buccal (towards the cheek)
surface of molar. C-Occlusal surface (facing or closing with teeth in opposing
jaw). D-Incisal (cutting) edge of anterior teeth.
Note: Compare the above diagram with the upper jaw of a person. Locate the A-Heel or tuberosity of upper jaw. B-Denture limit (in alveolo-buccal fold).
C-Muscle attachment (alveolo-buccal fold). D-Muscle attachment (frenum at
landmarks and note differences. cheek). E-Muscle attachment from upper lip to upper gum (labial frenum).
F-Opening in bone at gum pad on the median line of the gum ridge. G--0pen-
ing in bone at molar region.
Procedure : (Follow operations in the order presented here.)
CAUTIONS:
a. Do not scar casts in marking dentzlre bearing or relief areas. A-Condyle (elevation at rear of lower alveolar ridge). B-Crest of ridge (highest
part of alveolar process). C-Lower muscle attachment between lower lip and
b. Relieve all hard or unduly soft areas. . .
alveolar process (labial f renum) D-Muscle attachment (frenum) E--Denture
c. Avoid impinging on muscle attachments. area limit (in alveolo-buccal fold). F-Muscle attachment (alveolo-buccal fold).
G--Tongue space.
NOTE: T r y to locate the various anatomic structures marked in hrote: Bone openings exist for the passage of veins, arteries and nerves.
Figs. 69 and 70 by looking into the mouth of a person.
I. Using a pencil, outline the frenum on the casts. \ 4. "Horseshoe" dentures, indications and contra-indications.
2. Outline the muscle attachments on the casts. 5. Palatal bar dentures, indications and contra-indications.
3. Outline the denture bearing areas on the casts. 6. Lingual bar dentures, indications and contra-indications.
4. Outline the rugae on the upper casts. 7. ccVacuum"chambers.
5. Outline the median line.
6. Outline the condyles. Questions :
7. Outline the exits and courses of the main palatal and man I. What are rugae?
dibular nerves and blood vessels. 2. What is the median line?
8. Outline the division of the hard and soft palate. 3. What are the condyles?
9. Outline the dividing line of the alveolar ridges. .; What tlocs thc uppcr denture bearing area include?
68 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS PREPARATION O F DENTURE BEARING AREAS-I 69
5. What does the lower denture bearing area include?
6. Why is it important for dentures to avoid pressing on muscle
attachments?
7. Where is the soft palate located?
8. What are the alveolar ridges?

+.
? .

, '" ;.i t .

Note: Denture bearing areas on partial casts as outlined by the dentist. T h e denture
follows the lingual aspect of the remaining teeth. T h e designing of dentures should
be done by the dentist and not by the laboratory technician.

A-Blood-vessels. B-Denture bearing area limits. C-Relief on ridge. D-Bone


opening for blood-vessels.

A-Blood-vessels. B-Denture bearing area limits. C-Relief over rugae. D-Bone


opening under gum pad. &Relief over hard areas on palate. F-Median line.
Note: T h e denture is made so that it does not extend over the frenums or the soft
palate. If the denture covers too much area it will be displaced when the patient
is eating or speaking. If the denture does not extend over a sufficiently large area
it will not adhere properly to the tissues of the patient.

9. Where are the main exits of the nerves and blood vessels lo-
cated? Note: Partial casts (top view) outlined for dentures.
10.What are the dental arches?
I I. What is the alveolar process?
12. What do we mean by denture bearing areas; anatomic land-
marks; vacuum chambers; horseshoe dentures; palatal bar
dentures; lingual bar dentures?
7O MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS

Job Appraisal :
I. Can you outline the denture bearing areas on full and partial
casts?
2. Can you outline hard and soft areas?
3. Can you answer the questions correctly?
REFERENCES: (Books for Additional Information.) U N I T NO. 5 (Continued)
I. Doxtater, L. W: Full and Partial Denture Prosthesis. Brooklyn: Dental
Items of Interest Publishing Co., 1928. PREPARATION OF DENTURE BEARING AREAS-I1
2. Kennedy, E.: Partial Denture Construction. Brooklyn: Dental Items of
Interest Publishing Co., I 928. If a house is to be built on a hillside or on sloping, uneven ground, it
3. Nichols, I. G.: Prosthetic Dentistry. St. Louis: T h e C. V. Mosby Co., is frequently necessary to modify the ground in order to obtain a solid, Ievel
= 930. foundation. In building a denture it is necessary to relieve certain hard
4. Turner, C. R. and Anthony, L. P.: American Textbook of Prosthetic areas so that the gum overlying these areas will not be too compressed when
Dentistry. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1932. the denture is worn in the mouth of the patient. It is also important to
5. Swenson, M. G.: Outline of Full Denture Prosthesis, New York: New relieve pressure on blood vessels and nerves, especially where they come
York Univ. Press, 1932. through the bone openings. T h e dental technician must know how to
follow the instructions of the dentist in overcoming these difficulties and
to take advantage of the favorable features presented by the landmarks
found on the upper and lower denture bearing areas of the jaws.

Process or Principle : No. 9: Application of Relief Metal and


Tinfoil to Casts.
a. Application of relief metal t o edentulozls casts.
b. Application of tinfoil t o edentulous and partial casts.
Project or Jobs: (To be performed by the learner.)
JOB NO. 23: Apply relief metal to four sets (eight casts) of
edentulous casts.
JOB NO. 24: Apply tinfoil to four sets of edentulous plaster
casts (eight casts).
JOB. NO. 25: Apply tinfoil to six partial plaster casts.
NOTE: (Read the entire Unit carefully before beginning work.
Consult glossary for definitions of new words.)
Job Application: The relief metal establishes a form for the vul-
canized denture to follow in relieving the hard or soft areas previ-
ously outlined on the cast. The tinfoil aids in keeping basewax in-
tact when it is removed from the cast. Tinfoil produces a finer sur-
face on vulcanite.
Vocational Information: Britannia metal of 20, 22 or 2 4 gauge
thickness (Brown & Sharpe) and .003 tinfoil is cut and adapted to
relief areas. Tinfoil of .oar thickness is adapted over plaster models.
Thicker relief metal was once used for "vacuum chamber" metal.
71
72 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS PREPARATION O F DENTURE BEARING AREAS-11 73
At one time, relief metal was applied for the purpose of creating a
"vacuum chamber" between the tissues of the palate and the denture.
T h e "vacuum chamber'' was intended to assist in keeping the den-
ture against the tissues. T h e relief metal may be attached to the cast
with rubber cement or with short pins.
Tools and Equipment: Tinfoil, scissors or shears, rounded orange-
wood stick, two-row brush wheel, Bernard pliers.
Materials: Tinfoil of .OOI and .003 thickness, Britannia metal of
22 gauge, absorbent cotton, straight short pins. (Figs. 78 and 79.)
Procedure : (Follow operations in the order presented here.)
CAUTIONS:
a. Do not waste relief material.
b. Do not leave sharp edges on relief metal.
c. Avoid folding, tearing or creasing tilzfoil.
d. Do not mar cast or relief metal in application of reliefs and
tinfoil.
e. Do not use too much cement.
f. Imbed pins securely.
I . Cut tinfoil and relief metal with shears.
2. Using small scissors trim tinfoil and apply with rubber ce-
ment over relief areas.
3. Apply smallest piece of .003 tinfoil over median hard ridge
of palate using rounded end of orangewood stick. (Figs. 80,
81 and 82.)
4. Apply second larger piece of .003 tinfoil following outline.
(Fig. 80.)
5. Apply relief metal to cover hard median ridge 22 gauge.
(Fig. 80.)
6. Apply kidney-shaped piece of .003 tinfoil. (Figs. 81 and 82.)
7. Apply 22-gauge relief metal on lower cast where indicated.
(Figs. 80 and 82.)
8. Using Bernard pliers cut straight pin about inch from
point. (Figs. 79 and 83.) FIG. 79. TOOLS RELIEFMETALAND TINFOIL
USEDIN APPLYING
9. Holding with Bernard pliers push pin point through relief I-Absorbent cotton. 2-Scissors. 3-Two-row brush wheel. 4-Cement for attach-
metal and cast and burnish relief metal and pin. (Fig. 83.) ing relief metal. 5-Orangewood stick. 6-Bernard pliers for cutting pins.
1 0 . Using a soft bristle brush, adapt the center of the tinfoil
sheet to the palate of the upper cast. (Fig. 84.)
I I. Carefully burnish the tinfoil toward the alveolar ridges and
extend to the limits of the denture bearing areas. Use ab-
sorbent cotton and orangewood stick for burnishing tinfoil.
74 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS PREPARATION O F DENTURE BEARING AREAS--I1 75

12. Carefully remove the tinfoil from cast and, using scissors,
trim to limits of denture bearing area, replace on cast and
readapt with absorbent cotton and orangewood stick.

I-Initial piece of relief metal, No. 6 (.003 gauge), applied on upper cast. 2-Sec-
ond piece of relief metal, No. 7 (.003 gauge), applied. 3-Third piece of relief
metal, No. 8 (22 gauge), applied. 4 and 5-Relief over bone openings in molar
region (22 gauge). 6, 7 and 8-Outline of three layers of relief metal for median
ridge of upper cast. q and 10-Outline of relief metal for alveolar ridge of lower
cast.

13. I n adapting tinfoil over the lower cast, slit it halfway where
it covers the lingual (tongue) space on the cast. Adapt the
tinfoil over the ridge beginning at the anterior portion and
work backward to the condyles. Trim the tinfoil to den-
ture limits. (Fig. 84.)
14. I n partial cases carefully cut the tinfoil around the base of
plaster teeth and around the outline of the denture bearing
area. (Fig. 84.)
Supplementary Assignment: (Information to be obtained by the A-Relief metal over hard area in median line is held in place by pins. B-The
learner.) bone openings and courses of principal blood-vessels have been relieved by metal.
I. Patented reliefs.
2. Patented "suctions."
3. Soft vulcanized rubber reliefs.
76 M A N I J A I . I:OR DRN'I'AI. TECHNICIANS PREPARATION O F DENTURE BEARING AREAS-I1 77

3. Has any of the tinfoil or relief metal been wasted?


4. Does the relief metal have smooth edges?
5. Can you apply relief metal in I o minutes (average) ?
6. Can you apply tinfoil to an edentulous cast in 15 minutes
(average) ?
REFERENCES:
(Books for Additional Information.)
I. Nichols, I. G.: Prosthetic Dentistry. St. Louis: T h e C. V. Mosby CO.,
1930.
Brooklyn: Dental Items of
2. Kennedy, ,- E.: Partial Denture Construction.
Interest Publishing Co., 1928.
q. Doxtater, L. W.: Full and Partial Denture Prosthesis. Brooklyn: Dental
Items of Interest Publishing Co., 1936.
4. T u r n e r , C. R. and Anthony, L. P.: American Textbook of Prosthetic
Dentistry. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1932.

I-Upper partial ,cast with tinfoil partly adapted. 2-Lower partial cast with tin-
foil partly adapted. 3-Full upper cast, tinfoil partly adapted. 4-Full lower cast,
tinfoil partly adapted. 5-Tinfoil applied on full upper cast. &Tinfoil applied
on full lower cast.

4. Gauges of tinfoil used for various purposes.


5. Composition of Britannia metal.
6. Composition of other relief metals.
7. Tinfoil reliefs.
8. "Roofless plate" reliefs.
Questions :
I. What is Britannia metal?
2. Why are reliefs used?
3. Why should relief metal be smooth?
4. Why should tinfoil be smoothly adapted?
5. Describe two different methods of applying relief metal.
6. What are the proper gauges of tinfoil and relief metals and
where are they indicated?
7. What is the purpose of tinfoiling casts?
8. How is tinfoil adapted to the cast?
9. Define median ridge.
Job Appraisal :
I. Does the relief metal cover the hard and unduly soft areas?
2. ISthe tinfoil smooth and evcnly adapted?
U N I T NO. 6
RELATED INFORMATION: U N I T NO. 5 (Coutrit/z/ed)
T R I A L D E N T U R E B A S E TECHNIC-I
PREPARATION O F DENTURE BEARING
AREAS-I1 W c have already pointcd out that there arc no two peoplc whosc
moutlls are exactly alike. I t would therelore be useless for dentists and
Ingredients of Britannia Metal: Used for relief purposes. technicians to construct stocks of denturcs and expect to fit them to people's
Tin, 140 parts by weight. jaws as we fit shoes, nlthough it might be argncd that there nrc no two
Copper, 2 parts by weight. pcoplc whose fect arc exactly alike. T h c sl~oe\r.llich is uscd as a foot co\.el.-
ing 2nd ior w3llting purposes does not have to fit with the same degree of
Antimony, 5 parts by weight.
rxnctness as a d e n t ~ r cwhich has to be worn in the mouth, which lnust bc
Scraping Impressions: T h e technician should never scrape the used ior chewing iood and which must harmonize with the face of the
impression in order to relieve bony areas. All scraping of impres- person wearing it. T h c r e arc many other reasons known to dentists why
sions 01-casts should be done by the dentist when he finds it neces- the dcnture should lit the mouth with extreme accuracy and w h y it would
sary. bc impractical to manufacture them in advance. Since the denture must fit
thc mouth accur2tcly, it is first made 011 n t r i d base such as wax or other
B r o w n a n d S h a r p e G a u g e P l a t e : A metal plate with slits and
~n.iterial \vhich can bc casily molded and fitted to the mouth. T h i s ma-
holes of various graduated sizes used for measuring thicknesses of
tcrial mnst be strong cnough to hold its shape when the denture is tried in
metals. tllr lnouth so that the dcntist may scc if it fits accurately or whether any
cl~.ii~ges
are nccessary.

Process o r Principles: No. 10: Construction of Baseplates for


Trial Dentures and for Biteplates.
a. Const~uctionof baseplates witlz lnpped margins.
b. Constrzlctiort of baseplates with trimmed margins.
P r o j e c t o r Jobs: ( T o be performed by the learner.)
JOB NO. 26: Construct baseplates with lapped margins on four
sets of edentulous stone casts (eight casts).
J O B No. 27: Construct baseplates with trimmed margins on six
partial stone casts.
NOTE: (Read the entire Urtit carefully before beginning work.
Consult glossary for definitions of new words.)
Job Application: Trial baseplates are constructed over the denture
areas of the casts. Biteplates may be constructed or artificial
11c;~ring
tcrth mny he arranged for try-in on the baseplates.
Vocational Information: There are different kinds of baseplate
: L ~the
I I I . L ~ C . I - ~011 S market. T h e baseplate may be softened by heating
7')
8o MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS TRIAL DENTURE BASE TECHNIC-I 8I

over the Bunsen flame or in boiling water. Baseplate is preferable


to wax as a trial denture base material because it holds its shape
better and is not easily softened by the temperature of the mouth
while the denture is being fitted.
Tools and Equipment : Bunsen burner, plate shears, wax spatula,
penknife, rat-tail vulcanite file, half-round vulcanite file.
Materials: Baseplate material, boiling water, cold water, absorbent
cotton, wire paper clip, sandpaper.
Procedure : (Follow operations in the order presented here.)

a. D o not hold baseplate material too long over flame, to avoid


melting or burning.
b. D o not attempt to adapt trial baseplate material before soften-
ing it over the flame.
c. Dip fingers in water to avoid burning t h e m when pressing the
heated baseplate.
d. Avoid buckling or creasing baseplate.
e. W h e r e undercuts are present on the cast, adapt baseplate only
so far over the undercuts as to permit t h e removal of the base-
plate fro& the cast w'thout breaking or marring either the
baseplate or the cast.
f. Avoid having baseplate interfere with plaster teeth on cast by
cutting the material about 1/32 of rn inch away from t h e g u m
margin of plaster teeth.
g. Smooth all edges weth sandpaper or files to avoid cutting
fingers and tissues on sharp edges of the baseplate.
h. Reenforcing wire on the upper partial cast should be placed
midway around the center of the palate and the crest of the
ridge.
f
i. Adapting overheated reenforcing were w'll cut the baseplate.
Courtesy Dentists Supply Co., New York
j. W h e n the baseplate begins to show signs of wilting, remove
it from the flame. It is ready for use.
k. Boiling water may be used instead of the Bunsen burner a-The baseplate is passed over the flame until it begins to wilt. b-The baseplate
flame. is placed over upper cast and softened part adapted. T h e cast with the partly
adapted baseplate is then chilled in water. T h e partly adapted baseplate is now
1. D o not immerse in boiling water longer than a few seconds. removed from the cast. T h e adapted side is held while the balance of the baseplate
is passed through the flame and the adapting is completed. c-The adapted base-
I. Hold baseplate as shown (Fig. 85a) and pass the outer two- plate removed from the cast for trimming. T h e letters "C" indicate the line marked
thirds sideways in contact with the top of the flame for one by the outer edge of the cast which is established by the carding wax strip used in
boxing the original impression. T r i m the baseplate to this line. d-Shaped base-
second. Repeat this five times or until baseplate shows signs plate being passed through the side of the flame to soften edge for final adaptation.
of wilting. e-Method of lapping edges. f-Baseplate on cast with right side lapped.
MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS
TRIAL DENTURE BASE TECHNIC-I 83

2. Place the baseplate over the upper cast as shown (Fig. 85b) 12. I n partial casts after adapting the baseplate to the palate and
and adapt the palatal portion of the softened baseplate closely alveolar ridges, heat the compound in the region of the plas-
to the cast by pressing with fingers lightly for half a second ter teeth of the cast and cut away the material with a hot
in one place, then raising the fingers and moving them for- spatula or with shears (Fig. 86). Use files to smooth the
ward, repeating the pressure until all of the softened area is edges of the baseplate (Figs. 87 and 88).
adapted.
3. Heat the baseplate compound when necessary and continue
the adaptation over the alveolar border and the buccal and
labial surfaces. Chill the adapted section with cold water on
absorbent cotton.
4. Using the adapted side as a handle, heat the other sides and
adapt them over the cast beginning on the palate and work-
ing over the alveolar ridge and the buccal and labial surfaces
(Fig. 85c).
5. Re-heat any portion of the flange that may not be properly
adapted and adapt same (Fig. 85d).
6. Re-heat baseplate against side of the flame as shown
(Fig. 85d) wherever folds are present and eliminate them
by pressing against cast.
7. Pass the partly adapted baseplate through the Bunsen flame
and, using plate shears, trim away surplus baseplate extending I
beyond outer edge of the extension on the cast made by the
carding wax rim used in boxing the impression before the
cast was poured. This is illustrated by "C-CC" in Fig. 85c.
8. Heat the baseplate which rests on the extension of the cast
by passing through the flame and fold the buccal and labial A-Teeth on partial cast. B-Heated wax spatula.
portions at the limits of the denture area by pressure with Note: The baseplate is trimmed around the necks of the teeth with a hot spatula. It
may also be cut with a curved scissors or a small abrasive wheel.
fingers as shown (Figs. 85d and 85e). Fold also over the
condyles and posterior portion of palate as shown (Fig. 85f). 13. I n partial lowers adapt the lingual surface first. Soften the
9. T o repair broken baseplate, place the broken pieces on the material on the lingual surface around the plaster teeth and
cast with the edges together. With very hot spatula fuse cut away the portion interfering with the teeth. Continue
the edges together. Melt some of the surplus baseplate in the adaptation on the buccal and labial surface.
the flame as sealing wax is melted and drop it on the break. 14. Adapt edging wire on lingual surface of lowers and on palatal
Smooth the surface with a hot spatula. surface of partial uppers. Melt baseplate material over the
TO. Chill the adapted baseplate with cold water and absorbent wire and smooth with a hot spatula (Fig. 89a, b, c, d, and e.)
cotton before removing from cast.
11. I n lower casts adapt the trial baseplate material over the Supplementary Assignment: (Information to be obtained by the
highest portion of the alveolar ridge in the anterior region of learner.)
the cast and work backward to the condyles. Treat the lin- I. Method of using patented baseplate swager.
gual and bucco-labial margins of lower baseplatc thc samc as 2. Method of constructing baseplates to be used as trays in tak-
the upper. ing impressions.
84 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS
TRIAL DENTURE BASE TECHNIC-I 85

3. How gutta-percha is obtained.


4. Advantages and disadvantages of shellac baseplates over wax
baseplates.
5 . Advantages and disadvantages of trimmed margins over
lapped margins.
6. Methods of preventing baseplate from adhering to casts.

A-Baseplate. B-Rat-tail (round) file (6" cut No. 3).

a-Baseplate adapted to lower cast. "x" indicates shaped wire clip used to reenforce
the baseplate. b-Baseplate adapted to upper cast. c-Baseplate adapted to partial
cast. "x" indicates wire clip used as reenforcement. d and -Upper and lower
baseplates before adapting.
Note: T h e original gloss of the baseplates can be seen on those adapted to the casts.
If the baseplate is heated too much the gloss and strength of the baseplate are
destroyed.

Questions :
I. W h y are trial baseplates used?
2 . What happens if the baseplate compound is not sufficiently
heated before using?
3. What happens if the baseplate compound is held too long
over the Bunsen flame?
4. How may folds or creases in the baseplate be removed?
5. H o w are undercuts in the cast overcome in adapting base-
plate?
A-Half-round vulcanite file (double end 8" cut No. 3). B-Baseplate for pi~rtial 6. How are the margins of the trial baseplate treated?
cast. C-Bench block.
Note: Rest left hand, holding baseplate, on I~enchblock.
7. Whcn may the baseplate be considered ready for using?
80 M A N I I I ~ L1;OR D E N T A L 'l'BCHNICIANS

S. IVI1:lt precautions should be taken before reinovitlg the base-


1)latc from the cast?
9. What procedure should be followed in adapting full upper
trial baseplates?
10. What procedure should be followed in adapting full lower
trial baseplates? RELATED INFORMATION: U N I T NO. 6
I I . What procedure should be followed ill adapting partial upper
trial baseplates? T R I A L D E N T U R E B A S E TECHNIC-I
12. What procedure should be followed in adapting partial
lower trial baseplates? Baseplate Materials: T h e ingredients of baseplates are as follows:
13. H o w is the reenforcing wire applied? I . Gutta-percha I part
14. What is gutta-percha? Gum shellac I 8 parts
I 5 . Define biteplate, try-in. 2. Gum shellac and modeling compound

Job Appraisal : 3. Gutta-percha


I . Was the baseplate broken? Zinc oxide
2 . Was the baseplate burned 01- is it snlooth and glossy?
Vermilion
3. Is the baseplate free from creases? Tin Baseplates: Castings of tin compounds or swaged soft metals
4. Is the reenforcing wire covered? are sometimes used for constructing trial baseplates. If a soft metal
5 . Can you adapt a full upper or lower baseplate in 10 nlinutes sheet is used, it is burnished to the cast.
(average) ? Vulcanite Baseplates : Baseplates constructed of vulcanized dental
6. Can you adapt a partial baseplate in 15 minutes (average)? rubber are sometimes used.
REFERENCES: (Books for Additional Information.)
Shellac Baseplates: May be adapted by softening in hot (not
I . Prinz, H.: Dcntal Formulary. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1936.
boiling) water for onc or two minutes and pressing with a moist
2. Doxtnter, L. W.: Full and P ~ r t i a lDenture Prosthesis. Brooklyn: Dcntal
lterns of Interest Publishing Co., 1936. rubber sponge.
Gutta-percha: A rubber-like nlaterial extracted from certain trees
in the Malay Islands. I t is pinkish or grayish in color and may br
obtained in sheets for use as trial baseplates.
(Books for Additional Information.)
REFERENCES:
I. Prinz, H.: Dental Formulary. Philadelphix: Lea & Fehiger, 1930.
2. Doxtatcr, L. W.: FulI and Partial Dcnturc Prosthesis. Brooklyn: Dent.11
Itcnls of Interest Publishing Co., I 936.
7. Skinncr, E. W.: T h e Science of Ilental Materials. Philadelpl>ia:W. K.
S:~nndi~rsCo., Puhlishcrs, I 936.
go MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS TRIAL DENTURE BASE TECHNIC.--11 91

8. Place the cut copper sheet in position and, using fingers and
orangewood stick with rounded end, shape copper to con-
form with palate (Fig. 91-21.
9. Replace upper wax base. Warm palatal surface of wax base
over flame. Warm copper sheet and imbed in wax base.
10. Cover copper strengthener with a thin layer of melted wax
(Fig. 92).
11. Run brush flame of Bunsen burner ( a soft flame) over base
wax. Allow wax to congeal and chill under running cold
water. While holding under cold water polish with wet ab-
sorbent cotton.
12. Seal the wax base to the cast to facilitate the work to follow
and to prevent distortion.

FIG. 9oa. BASEWAX


PARTLYADAPTED
TO LOWER
CAST
A-Basewax cut out in tongue space to aid in adapting. B-Basewax sheet not
adapted.
Note: Part of wax in. tongue space has been cut away to make adapting easier.
FIG.gob. BASEWAX
PARTLYADAPTEDTO UPPERCAST
A-Basewax adapted on palate and over alveolar ridge. B-Basewax not adapted.
Note: T h e original gloss of the wax can still be seen. If the wax is heated too long
or pressed too hard, the gloss is lost and the basewax is too thin. Do not leave
fingerprints on the wax.

A-Cast. B-Basewax. C C o p p e r strengthener in upper cast and wire strengthener


in lower cast.

A-Csst. B-Basewax. C-Wire strengthener in lower cast, copper sheet in upper


cast.

13. I n partial cases trim the wax142 of an inch above the necks
of the plaster teeth (Figs. 93a and b).
14.I n partial cases adapt edging wire on the upper as well as
the lower casts (Figs. 93a and b).
I-Copper sheet cut for reenforcement. 2-Copper adapted to cast.
Note: Method of cutting the copper to make atlz~ptingeasier.
Supplementary Assignment: (Information to be obtained by the
learner.)
I. Different types of wax used for bases.
92 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS TRIAL DENTURE BASE TECHNIC-I1 93

4. Were make-overs necessary?


5. Can you make a wax trial denture base in 10 minutes
(average) ?
REFERENCES: (Books for Additional Information.)
I. Skinner, E. W.: T h e Science of Dental Materials. Philadelphia: W. B.
Saunders Co., 1936.
2. Prinz, H.: Dental Forn~ulary. Philadclphia: Lea & Febiger, 1936.
3. Frahm, F. W.: Full Denture Construction. Brooklyn: Dental Items of
Interest Publishing Co., I 936.
4. 'Turner, C. R. and Anthony, L. P.: American Textbook of Prosthetic
Dentistry. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger Co., 1932.
a. Partial Lower b. Partial Upper (horsesho: base)
FIG. 93. FULLVIEWOF PARTIAL
UPPERA N D LOWERBASEWAX
WITH WIRE
REENFORCEMENTS
ADAPTEDTO CASTS
A-Wire used to reenforce wax bases covered with melted wax.
Note: Basewax has been carefully cut around the bases of the plaster teeth.

2 . Different types of wax base reenforcements.


3. Methods of polishing wax base.
4. Method of refining used wax.
5. Marking wax sheets.
6. Advantages and disadvantages of wax bases.
7. Uses of wax as denture or biteplate bases.
Questions :
I. What is the purpose of wax in denture construction?
2. Why should wax be of uniform thickness?
3. Why should the wax base be properly sealed to the cast?
4. When and why is edging wire used?
5. How is edging wire applied?
6. What is the proper method of rendering wax pliable?
7. What care should be given to tools, materials and equipment
used in waxing dentures?
8. What do we mean by the following: base wax; denture lim-
its; denture area; lingual space; condyles?
Job Appraisal :
I. Is the wax evenly adapted?
2. IS the wax trial base smooth and free from pits or other
marks?
3. Are the copper and wire recnforcemcnts imbcddcd in the wax
properly?
RELATED INFORMATlON: U N I T NO. 6 ( C o n t i n u e d ) U N I T NO. 7

T R I A L D E N T U R E BASE TECHNIC-I1 BITEPLATE TECHNIC


Refining Used W a x : Melt scrap wax in a pot, remove from gas T l i e lower jaw (mandible), 1' s \\c nll know, is movdblc. I t has two
stove and add a tablespoon of sulphuric acid. Allow to cool, cut illo\able joints, onc on either side which fit into depressions near the base
away sediment. Remelt the wax. Fill a bottle with cold water and ol the ski111 in ilont of the car holes. Wlicn the teeth are in position the
dip in wax several times. H o l d bottle over the pot containing the jam inaj be opcncd but c'in dlwajs be r e t u ~ n e dto a rcat or centric position
wax until the wax adhering to the surface of the bottle congeals. which is limited and dctcrnlined by the position , ~ n docclnsal surfaces of the
Cut the congealed wax away with a sharp knife. T h e bottle used upper teeth. W h e n the teeth are lost this re1.1tionship is also lost. T h e
should be clean and smooth on the outside. Wax may be melted and biteplates help the dentist in reestablishing this jaw relationship ior the
individual who has lost his teeth. Since the technician is not prepared nor
strained through cheesecloth to remove impurities.
permitted to work directly on tlle patient, he can only approximate the rc-
Ingredients of Basewax: There are many ingredients used fo1- quired shape and size of the bite~lates. T h e dentist must give the final
making different basewaxes. Basewax may be made from the fol- shaping to the biteplates urhen he relates then1 to one another in the mouth
lowing: of the patient. W i t h tlic rel'ltionship o i the biteplates and the jaws e s t ~ b -
Beeswax, 40 parts by weight. lishcd, the dentist can return the biteplates to the technician who adjusts the
Gum turpentine, 10 parts by weight. casts on them and then mounts the casts with the biteplates on a nlechanical
Cottonseed oil, 3 parts by weight. holder or relator known as an articulator. T l l c casts are now in the rela-
Vermilion, 4 parts by weight. tionship obtained by the dentist, from tlle jaws in the patient's mouth, by
means of the biteplatcs. Where only some of the teeth have been lost, in
REFERENCES: (Books foi- Additional Information.) partial cases, the biteplates help to establish the relationship of the upper to
Prinz, H.: Dental F'or~nulary. Philadelphia: Lea 8i Febiger, 1936. the lower jaw so that the casts can be mounted in this relationship on the
Skinner, E. W . : T h e Science of Dental Materials. St. Louis: T h e C. V. articulator. After the casts are mounted on the articulator the biteplates
Mosby Co., 1936. act as guides in arranging the artificial teeth.

B I T E P L A T E S AND CAST R E L A T I O N S H I P

Process or Principle : No. I 2 : Construction of W a x Biteplates.


a. Construction of w a x biteplates o n edentulous casts.
b. Construction of biteplates o n partial casts.
c. Construction of modeling compound biteplates.
Project or Jobs: ( T o be performed by the learner.)
JOB NO. 30: Construct wax biteplates on two sets of edentulous
cxsts with bnscplate bases.
Jon No. 3 1 : Construct modeling compound biteplates on two
casts
sets or c c l c . ~ ~ t ~ ~ l o i ~with
s bnscplate hnscs.
05
9 f5
MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS BITEPLATES AND CAST RELATIONSHIP

JOB NO. 32: Construct wax biteplates on four sets of edentulous


casts with basewax bases.
JOB NO. 33 : Construct six partial biteplates on baseplate bases.
JOB NO. 34: Construct six ~ a r t i abiteplates
l on wax bases.
NOTE: (Read the entire Unit carefully before beginning work.
Consult the glossary for definitions of new words.)
NOTE: Biteplates and Cast Relating. I n the ~racticaldental
laboratory the biteplates are made by the technician to approxi-
mate size and returned to the dentist. T h e dentist in turn fits
or relates the biteplates to each other in the mouth of the patient.
T h e biteplates are than removed from the patient's mouth and
the casts are substituted for the patient's jaws. T h e biteplates
are sealed to the casts which are then mounted on an articulator.
I n this manner the casts are related to one another in the same
manner that the patient's jaws are related. (Fig. 94.) If the
casts used by the learner have been obtained from impressions
supplied by a dentist, the dentist should supply the relationship
of the casts. Otherwise, this relationship would have to be guessed.
If the casts have been made from the impressions of the dento-
forms illustrated in Figs. 29 and 30, the cast relator (Figs. 95
and 96) or the cast relator diagram (Figs. 97a and b) can be
used to obtain the relationship of the upper to the lower casts.
T h e method of using this relationship is described directly under
the illustrations (Figs. 95, 96, 97a and b). I

Job Application: T h e biteplate is used as a guide by the dentist FIG.94. CROSSSECTIONOF FACESHOWING
POSITION USEDFOR
OF BITEPLATES

in obtaining the proper relationship between the upper and lower RELATINGLOWERJAW TO UPPER JAW
dental arches of the jaws. T h e dental technician employs the bite- A-The condyle at the joint between the lower jaw and the skull. B-Line denot-
ing that the cheek has been removed to show the biteplates. C-Upper biteplate.
plates as a guide in mounting the casts on an articulator and in ar-
Note: "x" is the imaginary line extended from the plane of occlusion to the head of
ranging artificial teeth. the condyle of the lower jaw. T h e occlusal surfaces of the biteplates are trimmed
by the dentist so that they remain in contact with each other when the lower jaw is
Vocational Information: Biteplates, also known as "bite blocks" moved in various positions. T h e dentist is said to be establishing the plane of occlu-
or "bite rims," may be constructed from modeling compound or sion when he shapes the occlusal surfaces of the biteplates in this manner.
other compositions. Wax is commonly used because it can be trimmed D-The upper lip. T h e upper biteplate is usually made by the dentist to extend
about one or two millimeters below the edge of the upper lip. &The lower bite-
easily. However, wax has a tendency to lose its rigidity at mouth plate. This biteplate should be made so that a line bisecting the length of the al-
temperature. Modeling compound biteplates are more suitable since veolar ridge at the highest point (the crest of the ridge) will also bisect the biteplate.
F-The lower lip. G--The mandible (the lower jawbone).
they hold their shape better, but are somewhat more difficult t c Note: At best, the mechanic can only approximate the shape of the biteplates, which
manipulate. must receive their final shaping at the hands of the dentist who works in the mouth
of the patient. By adding to or subtracting from the buccal and labial surfaces of
Tools a n d Equipment: Wax spatula, enk knife, template, Bunsen the biteplates, the dentist can influence the appearance of the patient's face, making
the face and lips appear fuller or thinner as desired. This is best accomplished
burner, glass slab, ruler, pencil, cast relator and cast relator diagram. with biteplates made of basewax.
Materials: Basewax, modeling compound, cotton, alcohol.
98 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS BITEPLATES A N D CAST RELATIONSHIP 99

I i

Courtesy Columbia Dentoform Corp., N e w York

A-Upper platform. B-Wax squash bite. C-Lower platform.


Note: After the lower dentoform is adjusted on the lower platform and the upper
I '€1 dentoform is adjusted to the upper platform of the dentoform relator, a sheet of
Courtesy Columbia Dentoform Corp., New York basewax or beeswax is made into a roll and adapted over the alveolar ridge of the
lower dentoform. T h e upper dentoform is now approximated to the z T limit and
FIG.95. DENTOFORM
RELATOR the wax roll is adapted over the alveolar ridge. T h e wax roll is now chilled.
A-Upper platform (movable). B-Lower platform (stationary). C-Clamp with T h e cast relator platforms are then opened and the wax squash bite removed. T h e
set-screw for holding dentoform in position. D-Backstop: Dentoform is placed stone or plaster casts to be related are now adapted to the squash bite and sealed
flush with backstop. E--Lower dentoform. F-Median line of dentoform over with hot spatula. T h e related casts are mounted on the articulator as explained in
median line of relator (lower). G--Median line of upper platform and backstop. Unit No. 8: Articulating Technic. T h e biteplates can now be made as explained
in Unit No. 7.
Note: Metal dentoforms (Figs. 29 and 30) or their duplicate stone casts are so con-
structed that they can be related to one another by locking them in the above Dento-
form Relator. T h e median line of the lower dentoform is placed over the median Procedure : (Follow operations in the order presented here.)
line on the lower platform of the relator flush against the backstop and clamped into ,
position by means of the clamps. T h e movable upper platform of the relator is For th; sake of convenience, if other casts than those indi-
then brought down as f a r as it will go. This leaves a distance of 2%'' between
the upper platform and the lower platform of the relator. T h e casts related in this cated are used, the biteplates should be about 8 to 10millimeters
manner are in the proper relationship to one another. A wax squash bite or a in height from the anterior crest of the alveolar ridge and about one
plasticene squash bite of the alveolar ridges in their proper relationship to one
another can be obtained in this way. or two millimeters less in the region of the &st molar. The
occlusal surface of the lower biteplate should bisect the alveolar
ridge but should not be more than about 8 millimeters in width.
CAUTIONS :
a. W a r m the basewax before folding to avoid cracking.
b. In sealing the wax roll do not cut through wax base.
BITEPLATES AND CAST RELATIONSHIP 101
100 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS

c. Keep biteplates at a uniform h.eight.


d. I n partial cases, see that biteplate does not interfere with the
remaining teeth on the cast.
e. Occlusal surfaces of upper and lower biteplates for the same
mouth shoz~ldapproximate each other evenly.
f. Bite~latesshould be built to a height of between inch to
inch above the lowest poilzt on the crest of the alveolar
ridge.
.r.D o not overheat modeling compound.

a-Lower cast with lines drawn to bisect the ridge. x and x' indicate the canine
region. b-The wax roll placed on the trial base of the lower cast. c-Completed
upper biteplate. d-Completed lower biteplate. T h e line x and x' in "a" has been
transferred to the occlusal surface of the lower biteplate which it bisects, showing
that the biteplate is properly constructed. e-The biteplates with the bases of the
casts z and z' parallel to each other.

Duplicate casts made from dentoforms shown in Figs. 29 and 30, or the dentoforms
themselves, can also be related by means of a diagram drawn on cardboard, con-
sisting of two parallel lines 2%'' apart, bisected at right angles by a straight line.
T h e wax roll is adapted over one of the casts which is placed on end over one of
the parallel lines. T h e opposing cast is now approximated to the 2%" distance.
T h e median lines of both casts must be exactly over the line which bisects the
two parallel lines at right angles.

FIG.97b. CASTS
RELATED
ON DIAGRAM

A-Upper cast. B-Plasticene (basewax or beeswax can be used). C-Lower cast.


Note: After the squash bite is obtained in this manner the same procedure is followed
as when the metal cast relator is used.

I. Remove the baseplate and draw a line on the crest of each


side of the alveolar ridge from the center of the condyle to
the canine region. Draw a line from canine to canine, across
the front part of the alveolar ridge (Fig. 98a). FIG.99. METHOD WAXROLLFOR MAKING
OF APPLYING A BITEPLATE

2. Soften a sheet of basewax, by passing it over the Bunscn I. Lower cast with wax roll applied on the trial baseplate. A-Wax roll. B-Trial
I,;~sepli~te. C-Cast. 2. Sheet of basewax showing method of making wax roll.
bul-ncr flame, fold it along its lesser length into a tight roll
(I'ig. 99).
I02 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS BITEPLATES AND CAST R E L A T I O N S H I P I03 I
3. Bend the wax roll to the approximate shape of the alveolar
ridge of the lower cast (Fig. 99).
4. Replace the trial base on the cast and place the roll of wax
on it (Figs. 98b and 99).
5. With heated wax spatula, seal the wax roll to the base
(Fig. 100).
6. Using flat template or glass slab press the roll to the de-
sired height (Figs. lor and 102).

FIG. 101. FITTINGOF WAX ROLLOVER ALVEOLAR


RIDGE
Note: A glass slab can be used to aid in adapting the roll to the alveolar ridge. T h e
glass slab gives a clear view of the cast and enables the technician to see that the 1
wax roll is placed so it bisects the length of the alveolar ridge of the lower cast. 1
I

Frc. loo. METHOD


OF SEALING
WAXROLLTO TRIALBASEWAX
OR BASEPLATE
IN MAKING
A BITEPLATE

A-Wax roll. B-Spatula. C-Cast.

7. Using wax knife, trim the excess of the wax roll over the
condyle at a 45 degree angle about to 5 inch from edge
of wax base over the condyles (Fig. 104). I.A-A solid template. B-Side view showing curve.
8. Using the wax spatula, add melted wax to fill in recesses
between wax roll and wax base on buccal, labial and lingual
2.
5
A- emplate. B-Side view showing curve.
Note: T h e curved tem lates are intended to help in establishing the plane of occlu-
sion of the teeth. Manufacturers of artificial teeth usually devise templates that
make arranging of their own product easier.
surfaces (Figs. 98c and 99).
9. Using wax spatula with glass slab or a template, square the
occlusal surface with the sidcs of the wax roll, completing
thc bitcplate (Fig. 98d).
I04 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS
BITEPLATES AND CAST RELATIONSHIP 10-5
10. Polish the biteplates with wet absorbent cotton, holding
under running cold water.
I I. In partial cases, cut the wax roll to fit on the alveolar ridge
where teeth are missing and seal to wax base plate. Have
the biteplate extended 1/16 inch above the teeth of the cast
but do not cover the teeth (Figs. 103 and 104).
12. If modeling compound is used, place the compound in a
clean cloth. Immerse the compound in heated water until
soft. (Follow directions given by manufacturer for melting
compound.) Make a compound roll and shape while soft.
Allow compound to harden, trim with penknife. A bite-
plate former may be used (Figs. 105, 106 and 107).
13. After the lower biteplate is completed check to see if it is
directly over the alveolar ridge. Lines drawn over the
crest of the ridge should bisect the lower biteplate (Fig. 98d).
14. Make upper biteplate to conform to lower (Figs. 98e, 108 FIG.1 0 3 FIG. 104
and 109). Flc. 103. UPPERPARTIAL
BITEPLATEox "HORSESHOE" SHAPEDBASE

Supplementary Assignment: (Information to be obtained by the FIG. 104. LOWERPARTIAL


BITEPLATE
learner.) "x" shows the method of shaping the posterior end of the biteplate.
I. Different templates used.
2. Different matirials employed for making biteplates.
3. Aids in shaping biteplates.
4. Advantages and disadvantages of different aids and methods
for making biteplates employed in dental laboratories.
Questions :
I. What is the proper method of shaping biteplates?
2. What is the method of trimming biteplates in partial cases?
3. How and why are the biteplates trimmed around the con-
dyles?
4. How should the biteplates be shaped occlusally?
5 . What care should be taken in sealing the wax roll to the
trial base?
6. What purposes do the biteplates serve?
7. What care should the tools, materials and equipment used
in constructing biteplates receive?
FIG. 105. BITERIM O R BITEPLATE
FORMER
8. How are the recesses between the wax roll and the wax base
eliminated? Used for making shaping of biteplate easier.
9. Advantages and disadvantages of modclirig conlpound.
I 06 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS BITEPLATES AND CAST RELATIONSH lP 107

3. Frahm, F. W.: The Principles and Technics of Full Denture Con-


Job Appraisal : struction. Brooklyn: Dental Items of Interest Publishing CO., 1936.
I. Are the biteplates parallel? 4. Turner, C. R. and Anthony, L. P.: American Textbook of Prosthetic
2 . Are the biteplates smooth and even? Dentistry. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, I 93 2.
3. Are the approximating surfaces level? 5 . . Swenson, M. G.: Outline of Full Denture Prosthesis. New York: New
4. Is the lower biteplate over the ridge? York Univ. Press, 1932.
5. Can you make biteplates for an edentulous cast in 30 minutes
(average) ?
References : (Books for Additional Information.)
I. Prinz, H.: 1)cntnl Formulary. Pliilndclphin: Lca & Fcbigcr, 1936.
2. Doxt:~tcr,I,. W.: Full and Pnrti:~lDcnturc Prosthenis. Rrooklyn: Dcn1;11
I tcms of Intcrcst I'utlishing Co., I 936.
'2,

7
-$ 9
6
S
R
T
3
f:
or.
5
m
K,
C1

?
7
-.
2
2.
-
4

T
ARTICULATING TECHNIC-I III

Vocational Information: There are many different types of articu-


lators; "anatomical" or adaptable as well as plain line. Articulators
should not be too complicated or too heavy as the arranging of the
teeth may be interfered with. T h e adjustments of the articulator
U N I T NO. 8 should be carefully made, to avoid losing the jaw relationship estab-
lished by the dentist.
A R T I C U L A T I N G TECHNIC-I
Tools and Equipment: Straight line articulators, movable arm
T h e upper and lower casts, with the biteplates constructed by the tech- articulator, plaster bowl, plaster spatula, plaster knife, glass slab,
nician, are returned to the dentist who relates the biteplates to each other I camel's hair brush, large hinges (Figs. I I I , I I 2, 1 I 3 and I 14).
in the patient's mouth in accordance with the relationship of the lower 1
jaw to the upper jaw of the patient. T h e dentist makes notches or other 1
I
identifying marks on the biteblocks so that when the established relation-
ship of the biteplates is disturbed, it can be reestablished easily.
T h e mechanic seals the related biteplates to the casts on which they
belong and mounts or fixes them with plaster on an instrument known as
an articulator. T h e articulators used in this unit allow for an opening and
closing motion or a limited lateral side motion of the casts and biteplates.

Process o r Principles: No. 13. Mounting casts on plain line and


movable arm articulators.
a. Mounting of edentulous casts.
b. Mounting of partial casts.
Project o r Jobs: (To be performed by the learner.) Materials: Plaster, water, shellac, sticky wax, fine sandpaper.
JOB NO. 35: Mount two sets of edentulous casts on plain line Procedure : (Follow operations in the order presented here.)
articulators. CAUTIONS :
JOB NO. 36; Mount four sets of edentulous casts on movable a. Make sure that biteplates are sealed to the casts and lo each
arm articulator. other before beginning work.
JOB NO. 37: Mount six partial casts on straight line articulators. b. Lubricate the glass slab before using.
NOTE: (Read the entire Unit carefully before beginning work. c. Immerse casts in water for three minutes before mozcncing.
Consult the glossary for definitions of new terms.) d. Be sure the bases of the casts are scored.
Job Application: T h e casts with the biteplates in place are mounted e. Casts should be low enough to allow them to go be~weetzthe
on an appliance known as an articulator in order to maintain them parallel arms of the articulator. (Fig. I I I .)
in proper relationship during the process of arranging the teeth. A f. Make sure the set-screw and the thumb screw of the articu-
plain or straight line articulator is one that allows only for the open- lator are tight and do not ope@ them again until after the
ing and closing of the casts but not for lateral movement. This is casts are mounted and the biteplates are removed, to avoid
an arbitrary type of articulator mounting without actually attempt- losing the cast relationship. (Fig.IIZ.)
ing to approximate conditions existing in the mouth of the individual g. Do not mar casts in removing biteplates from the articulator.
patient. A movable arnl articulator allows for lateral movcment o f I. Seal the biteplates to the casts after they have been marked
the upper extension arm. and related to each other and to the jaws of the patient by
II0
ARTICULATING TECHNIC-I 113
I I2 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS
the dentist. Place the sealed casts and biteplates into a pan
of water until bubbling ceases. (Fig. I 10).
2 . Make a plaster mix. Deposit a portion of the plaster mix
on the glass slab to a thickness of about % inch and large
enough to enclose the lower extension of the articulator.
3. Set the lower extension arm of the articulator into the mass
of plaster and set the lower cast on the lower extension arm
of the articulator. Have the occlusal surface of the bite-
plates parallel with the extension arms.

A-Lower half of plain line articulator. B-Set-screw which opens or closes the
extension arms of the articulator to allow for accommodation of the cast a s shown
above. C-Thumb-screw for tightening upper extension arm of articulator. D-
Biteplates waxed to casts. E--One of the wire staples used to hold the biteplates
together. ( T h e staples are placed by the dentist in practical cases.)

A-Upper extension arm. B-Screw for releasing upper half in separating the two
halves of the articulator. C N u t for locking the set-screw after the desired amount
of separation between the upper and lower extensions of the articulator is obtained.
D-Lower extension a r m of articulator,

4. Hold the articulator casts stationary and shape the plaster


around the base of the lower cast and the lower extension
arm of the articulator. Wait until the plaster has set before
proceeding. (Fig. I I 5.)
5. Make a plaster mix and deposit a portion of it, sufficient to
cover the base, on the upper cast to a thickness of 5 inch.
6. Press the upper extension arm of the articulator into the
plaster and add more plaster to cover the upper extension
arm, and trim with plaster spatula. (Fig. I IS.)
7. After the plaster has set remove the mounted casts from
FIG. 1 13. M O V A I ~ LA ER M AR.I.ICULI\.I.OR ' the glass sfab. Using plaster knife trim all excess laster
A-J.~)\rcl. c.xtc11sio11nrm. 1%-MUV:IIBI~ joil~t. ('-Srt-?icl.c-w for o l , c ' ~ ~ori ~cloSilll:
~~ around the articulator. (Fig. I I 6.)
l l r l i c ~ ~ : ~Cl oXr ~ I I ~ I :I I r ~ ) - - I ~ I B I , cc.xtc.llyioll
I. ; I ~ ~ I ~ .
I I4 M A N U A L FOR DENTAL T E C H N I C I A N S
ARTICULATING TECHNIC-I 115

8. Adjust the set screw to reach the upper extension and lock
with thumb-nut. (Fig. I I 6.)
9. Sandpaper and varnish the plaster holding the casts on the
articulator with shellac.

Left: Front view. A-Upper and lower lip lines (position when lips are opened as
in smiling) marked by the dentist to aid in selecting teeth. B-Median line marked
by the dentist to coincide with the median line of the patient's face.
Right: Side view of the casts mounted on a plain line articulator. A-Set-screw
resting against the under surface of the upper extension arm of the articulator.

A-Plaster attachment of lower articulator extension arm to cast. B-Upper articu-


lator extension arm imbedded in plaster on upper cast. C-Plaster spatula used in
shaping the plaster around upper articulator extension arm and upper cast.

10. Break the seal between the biteplates and casts with heated
spatula and carefully separate biteplates.
I I. In partial cases it may be necessary to immerse the articu-
lated casts in hot water when separating the biteplates to
prevent breakage of plaster teeth which are sealed to each
other and to the biteplates with sticky wax. (Fig. 118.)
Supplementary Assignment: (Information to be obtained by the
learner.)
I. Types of line articulators.
2. Types of adaptable articulators.
3. Advantages and disadvantages of plain line, movable arm
and "anatomical" articulators. A-Lower cast. B-Upper cast.
4. Various procedures followed in mounting casts.
5. Guards against disturbing jaw relationship indicated by
biteplates.
116 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS

Job Appraisal :
r. Are the extension arms of the articulator parallel?
2. Are the biteplates parallel to the extension arms of the
articulator ?

R E L A T E D I N F O R M A T I O N : U N I T NO. 8

ARTICULATING TECHNIC-I
Hinges used as articulators: I n order to mount all of the casts
at the same time it would be necessary to have a number of articu-
lators. One movable arm and one plain line articulator or one of
either type can be used. Hinges can be employed for mounting the
casts while learning the process of mounting casts on articulators.

N o t e : T h e relating of the upper to the lower partial cast is done by the dentist i n
practical cases.

NOTE: (This can be determined by placing a ruler over the


occlusal surface of the upper biteplate after mounting is com-
pleted.)
3. Are the casts mounted securely?
4. Is the plaster smooth and shellacked properly?
5. Can you mount a case (upper and lower casts with biteplates
in position) in 15 minutes (average)?
REFERENCES: (Books for Additional Information.)
I . Nichols, I. G.: Prosthetic Dentistry. St. Louis: C. V. Mosby Co., I 930.
2. Turner, C. R. and Anthony, L. P.: American Textbook of Prosthetic
Dentistry. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1 9 3 2 .
3. Doxtater, L. W.: Full and Partial Denture Prosthesis. Brooklyn: Dcn-
tal Items of Interest Poblishing Co., 1938.
4. Fmhm, F. W.: T h c Principles and Technics of T'L111 1)cnturc Con-
~trnction. Ilrooklyn: I>cntal I t c ~ n sof lntercst I'ublishing Co., 1c)31..
ARTICULATING TECHNIC-11 119

to simulate the jaw movements ordinarily produced in chewing food


by the individual patient. All measurements for adjusting should
be provided by the dentist. The technician should know how to
insert the casts and transfer the face bow relationship and measure-
ments obtained by the dentist from the patient's jaws. (Fig. I 19.)
UNIT NO. 8 (Continued)

A R T I C U L A T I N G TECHNIC-I1
I The adjustable articulator makes it possible to maintain contact of
the upper and lower teeth during various limited movements of the
lower jaw as in chewing.
Adaptable or adjustable articulators, also known as anatomical articulators,
have been devised so that the instrument may be able to imitate the move-
ments of the jaws of the patient by moving the extension arms of t h e ar-
ticulator. T h e adaptable articulators provide for the transference of certain
measurements which are obtained .by the dentist from the patient's own
jaws. I n the plain line or movable arm articulators there are no provisions
for adjustment to conform to the sidewise and other jaw movements. T h e
main reason for using an adjustable articulator is to provide a guide for
the arrangement of the teeth in such a manner that the teeth may remain
in contact when the lower jaw is moved about within certain limits as in
chewing food. I n short, by means of an adaptable articulator we can
achieve what is termed a balanced articulation or intermeshing of the teeth
of the upper and lower dentures. Balanced articulation of dentures makes
them more stable in the mouth (this helps in chewing), it eliminates undue
changes in the gums and other tissues on which the dentures rest and adds
to the comfort of the patient.

Process o r Principle : No. 14. Mounting on anatomical (adjust-


able) articulators. Note: By adjusting the face bow over the condyles (in front of the ear holes) at
a. Face bow transfers. the junction point between the lower jaw and the upper jaw and fixing the biteplates
b. Mounting edentulous casts. to the face bow, the dentist obtains the relationship of the jaws to the condyles (the
junction point of the jaws). This relationship is transferred to the articulator by
Project o r Jobs: (To be performed by the learner.) the technician and aids in obtaining a balanced occlusal relationship of the teeth
which are later arranged on the denture bases.
JOB No. 38: Mount two sets of edentulous casts on Gysi or
Hanau Articulator.
NOTE: (Read the entire Unit carefully before beginning work. Tools and Equipment: Adaptable articulator (Gysi or Hanau),
Consult the glossary for definitions of new words.) plaster bowl, plaster spatula, plaster knife, face bow. (Fig. 120.)
Job Application: Anatomical or adjustable articulators are appli- Materials : Plaster, water, vaseline.
ances that may be regulated to produce lateral and other movements Procedure: (Follow operations in the order presented here.)
similar to those of the human mandible. This instrument makes CAUTIONS:
it possible to arrange the teeth so that they remain in contact during a. Be szcre the articulator is in centric occlzwion before beginning
these movements, resulting in more stable dentures. to mmnt casts.
Vocational Information: The theory underlying the usc of ad- b. Release the condyle bars evenly to meet the face bow adaptor
justable or anatomical articulators is that the articulator can bc made tugs.
118
I20 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS I21
ARTICULATING TECHNIC-I1

c. Make sure that occlusal planes of the biteplates are parallel


4. Place an elastic band or a cord about the setscrew on the straight
with lugs No. I r and point of pin No. 7 (Gysi Articulator.)
incisor guide point and in the notches on the outer sides of the
d. T o prevent plaster sticking to articulatm and to facilitate
removing the casts, vaseline should be applied where indi- vertical part of the frame (Fig. 122s). This will establish the
cated. correct occlusal plane.
5. Place a mass of soft wax on the lower extension arm and force
I . W h e n Using t h e Gysi Simplex Articulator (Fig. 120) pro- the lower cast down over it until the occlunl place of the biteplate
ceed a s follows: is level with the elastic band or cord and the median line of the
A. T o Mount Casts Without the Use of the Face Bow: biteplate touches the tip of the incisor guide. Adjust the casts so
I. Place the straight incisor guide pin (Figs. 120 and 122) in the

Courtesy Dentists' Sufifily Co., New Yosk

FIG. I zo. G Y ~SIMPLEX


I ARTICULATOR
Note: This articulator reproduces average movements of the mandible. It is an im-
proved movable arm articulator and is adaptable to various jaw movements within
certain limits.

sleeve on the upper extension arm, keeping the top of the pin level that the median line mark on the upper cast will be below the median
with the top of the sleeve. line of the upper extension arm. Attach the upper cast to the upper
2. Place the incisal guide (Fig. 122C) on the pin, with setscrew, extension arm, then invert the articulator and attach the lower cast
in the depression of the pin and the point directed backward to the to the lower extension arm. (Fig. 12I.)
median line. NOTE: T h e Snow Student's Articulator (Fig. 124) n ~ d yalso
3. Extend the median line mark on the front of the upper cast be used for this purpose. Directions for using are similar to the
vertically upward to the top of the cast; make a similar mark ver- foregoing.
tically upward on the rear of the cast, starting from the median B. T o Mount Casts with the Face Bow. (Figs. 1 2 2 and 123.)
suture on the palatc. Draw a straight linc across the top of the cast, I . Place the curved incisor guide pin (Fig. 1221) in the sleeve on
connecting these lines. This is the median line of the cast. the upper extension arm of the Gysi Simplex Articulator, the top of
ARTICULATING TECHNIC-11 123
I22 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS

the pin should be level with the top of the sleeve. T h e end of tl
pin should touch the incisal incline on the lower extension arm.
2. Adjust and lock each condyle bar of the face-bow so that 01

T h e casts a r e related by means of the face bow and sealed to each other in the
position indicated by the jaw relationship of the patient. B-Incisor guide pin set
in anterior supporting block. &Anterior supporting block to support the front of
the face bow when mounting casts. F-Slip-joint stem connecting the horseshoe
plate, between the biteplates, with the face bow. E-Horseshoe plate connected to
the slip-joint (F) holding the biteplates in proper relationship to the face bow.
I-Curved incisor guide pin. U-Incisor guide pin incline. M-Bite lock trays,
locking the biteplates together. A-Notch on vertical support of articulator. D-
Snow face bow. R-Lock nut for condyle bar. P-Slip-joint of condyle b a r to fit
over face bow adapters. N-Face bow adapter of the articulator.
FIG. I 2 2 . GYSISIMPLEX
ARTICULATOR
Parts and Accessories
A Gysi Simplex Articulator ( A ) composed of I articulating frame, in two parts, I
upper and I lower extension arm, I straight incisor guide pin ( B ) . A n incisor
guide ( C ) for mounting casts on the articulator when the face bow is not used.
A snow face bow ( D ) for mounting casts on the articulator in correct relation to
the articulating joint (the condyles). Condyle bar ( P ) with slip joint for adjusting
over the face bow adapters ( N ) of the articulator. ( R ) is the lock nut for the
condyle bar. A horseshoe plate (E) and slip joint stem (F). T h e horseshoe plate
is used with the incisor path marker to obtain correct bite relationship. T h e slip
joint stem connects the horseshoe plate with the face bow. A mouth piece for the
face bow ( H ) used only when squash bites a r e taken on partials. A curved incisor
guide pin ( I ) used only when mounting casts with the face bow. A n incisor path
marker (K) used with the horseshoe plate for determining correct bites. A n in-
terior supporting block (L) to support the front of the face bow when mounting
casts. T w o bite lock trays (M) for locking biteplates together. T h e two face bow
adapters of the articulator ( N ) . A n incisor guide incline ( U ) .
FIG.I 24. SNOW'SSTUDENTARTICULATOR
and one-half divisions on the condyle bar arc exposed external to the Note: T h i s is a good articulator to use prior to undertaking the arrangement of
teeth on the regular adaptable articulators.
locknut slccve on the face bow.
3. Set thc casts between the uppcr and lower extension arms of
thc articulator and spring the condyle bars over the face bow adapters
of thc at-ticuliltor (17ig. 123).
I 26 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS ARTICULATING TECHNIC-I1 127

3. Principles underlying different adaptable articulators.


4. Advantages of adjustable articulators in partial cases.
5. Principles of "face bow transfer."
Questions :
I . W h y is the articulator adjusted to centric occlusion before
mounting casts?
2 . Why should the condyle bars on the face bow be released
evenly when adjusting them to the articulator?
3. Why should the occlusal plane of the biteplates be parallel
with the lugs No. I I and the point of pin No. 72 (Fig. 125.)

Note: T h e upper cast has been attached to the upper extension arm. The face bow
has been removed and the Qrticu~atorhas been turned upside down. The lower cast
is now attached to the lower extension arm of the articulator.

pin No. 10. Invert the articulator and apply plaster as in the upper.
Wait until the plaster has set before turning the instrument on its
base. (Fig. 127.)
8. T h e articulator is now set according to the specifications which
the dentist obtained from the patient. T h e sagittal condyle controls
are set by releasing lock No. 2 and setting sagittal condyle path indi-
cator No. 2 2 at the figure on the degree plate No. 3 as specified by Coi<rtesy Doztists' Stcppl? Co., A'ew York
the dentist. Lock nut No. 2 is then locked. This is done on the
right and left sides. T h e arrangement of the teeth is the next step.
(Fig. 128.)
4. Where and why is vaseline applied?
Supplementary Assignment: (Information to be obtained by the 5. How is the articulator adjusted to obtain centric relations?
learner.) 6. How is the upper cast mounted?
7. How is the lower cast mounted?
I. Other types of adjustable articulators on the market. (Figs. 8. What is meant by the following: centric occlusion; occlusal
129 and 130.) plane of biteplates; incisal guide pin; sagittal condyle path;
o. Advantages and disadvantages of: v;~riousstyles of: ndjust- protrusion; retrusion; rotation center of lateral movement;
ahle articulators. what is the face bow?
Vocational Information: 'l'liere are tualiy types, shades and nlolds
o t artificial teeth un the market to supply the three primary facial
types; i.e., square, tapering and ovoid. Artificial teeth are made of
'1 combination of minerals, chiefly kaolin, which is a white opaque

china claj ; feldsl)ar, a hard, white, translucent crystalline material;


U N I T NO. 9
\ilica 01-sand and a flus such as calcium. T h e foregoing combination
produces pure white porcelain. I n order to have teeth of different
MORPHOLOGY (STUDY OF FORM) OF ARTIFICIAL
bhades coloring or tinting materials are added.
TEETH
Tools and E q u i p m e n t : Pencil, paper.
W e have mounted the casts on articulators and are now ready to begin
Materials : Full set of upper and lower artificial teeth; carding wax.
the arranging of the artificial teeth. Until now you have probably given
little thought to the shapes of the various teeth. We said in the intro- Procedure : (Follow operations in the order presented here.)
ductory remarks to this manual that there are no two natural teeth alike C I: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
in the human mouth. Artificial teeth are made lrom porcelain. T h e y are
Note: I n recognizing teeth you must tell whether it is an upper
made in many hues and molds. I t can readily be seen, however, that it
would be impractical to attenlpt to make artificial teeth to order for every
or lower, right or left, and the name of the tooth.
case. I t is generally conceded that there are three basic forms of natural I. Remove upper set of artificial teeth from carding wax.
teeth: square, tapering and ovoid. Artificial teeth are now manufactured 2. Keplace upper six anterior teeth on carding wax in proper
in various modifications of these three basic forms. T h e technician should
sequence.
acquaint himself with the terms used by dentists to denote the different
3. Arrange upper bicuspid teeth on carding wax in proper
teeth and parts of teeth so that he may be able to understand the in-
structions of the dentist for whom he works.
sequence.
4. Arrange upper molar teeth in proper sequence.
Process o r Principles: No. 15. T h e recognition and nomencla- 5. Remove the lower set of artificial teeth from the carding wax.
ture of artificial teeth and tooth surfaces. Morphology of artificial 6. Replace the lower six anterior teeth in their proper sequence.
teeth. 7. Replace the lower bicuspid teeth in their proper sequelice.
a. Nomenclatzci.e. 8. Replace the lower molar teeth in their proper sequence.
b. Topography. 9. Remove all the teeth from the carding wax and replace them
c. Identificatiorz of irzdividzcal teeth. in their proper sequence.
10. Outline the various tooth surfaces on paper.
Project o r Jobs: ( T o be performed by the learner.) I I . Outline the anatomic landmarks of the individual teeth.
Jo13 No. 39: Arrange a set of upper and lower teeth in proper 12. Label all surfaces, landr~~arks and angles.
bcquence.
Joi3 No. 40: 1)raw a set of artificial teeth on paper and outline Supplementary Assignment: (Information to be obtained by the
:~nntoniiclandmarks. learner.)
J o ~ rNo. 41: Recognition of individual :~rtificialteeth. I . Types of artificial teeth available.
NOTF: (Rcad the cntirc IJiiil cnrcCullj, bcfol-c 1)eginning work. 3. modified forms of artificial teeth.
Cori\ult tlie glossal-y for dcfinitio~i\of new word\.) 3. Shades of artificial teeth.
Jol) Application: A tliol-o11gli I;ric~wlctl~,rc of the sli:~l)c.s,r~urnhcr, 4. "Staining" of artificial teeth.
t o ~ ~ o , ~ ~:LII<I~ : ~l)liysi~~:~l
~ ) l i y l)cc~~li:~~.itics of tlic C.I.OWIIS o f I I : L ~ L I I . : I ~/ I I I I I ~ : ~ I ~ 5. History and development of artificial teeth in dentistry.
t ( ~ .11t :III(I o f : I I . [ ~ I ~ ( ~ tI I 11 is I I < T ( . S S ; IvI l~(.fo~.,,
~ ( . : I I - I I f~1I1 I~ !. 1,l.c
; ,1)<,1- 6. Cornpal-ison of advantages and disadvnntages of different
ill l ~ l l l , ! ~ ~ ~ l l 0
l 1 liil, 1 ; 1 l
~ ~ i ll l t l(Y.tll.
type\ of 21-tificialteeth.
I
132 M A N U A L I.(II< I ) I : N ' I ; \ I . 'I'I':L'LIN I C I L ~ N S

I
I
Questions :
I . I\Jh:lt :~r-c.the. t1:ul)c.s :[I [d t i ~ l ~ i > l ~01'u t . thc I ~ L I I ~ ~ : teeth?
III
,:. \\'h;~t:[I-c tlic n:ltncs : L I I ~ I~I L I I ~ ~ ~ > C ,uf
I - ;it.titici;il teeth.;
3. \\'hat are the ~ ~ ; u l ~:111ci c s Ioc.:~tior~s ol' thc \.aric)us crown 1IE:l ,AIT'b:Il I N I~'OKMA?'lON: T.JN I'T NO. 9
surfaces?
4. H o w rllny the tooth crow11 surf:lces bc divided? I
M O R P H O L O G Y O F THE TEETH A N D
5. Describe the physical appearance of the crowns of the in-
DENTAL ARCHES
dividual teeth.
6. What questions must be answcred in rccogr~izingindividual
Morphology: T h e study of the respective shapes and characteris-
teeth.;
tic larldmarks of the teeth and dental arches, as usually found it1
7. Give divisioils of an artificial tooth.
humans.
8. W h a t are the main typal forms of artificial teeth?
Definition a n d N u m b e r of H u m a n T e e t h : H u m a n teeth are the
0. W h a t d o we mean by the following: Cusp; tubercle; ridge; hard ivory-like bodies found in the mouth. They project through
fossa; sulcus; groove; interproximate space; diatoric; mcsial ;
distal; buccal; l i ~ l ~ u a pajatal;
l; incisal; occlusal; gingival;
axial; transverse ridge; cervical; point-angle; line-angle;
1 the mucous membrane or gums and are implanted or held in bone
sockets or alveoli. They are arranged in two semi-circular ridges
known as alveolar ridjies. T h e baby teeth are 20 in number. T h e
crest; crown; collar of tooth; ridge-lap; shut; bite?
complete set of teeth In the adult is 32 in number. There are 16
Job Appraisal : teeth in each jaw. (Fig. 131.) I n the normal mouth with all teeth
I. Can you recognize each tooth, tell which tooth it is, which present we find the following:
jaw, and the side of the jaw to which the tooth belongs? 4 central i~icisors(two in each jaw)
2. DO you know the names and angles of the various tooth 4 lateral incisors (two in each jaw)
surfaces? q cuspids or canine teeth (two in each jaw)
Ii I ~ I ; ~ ; . R E N C E S(Books
: for Additional Information.) 8 bicuspid or prenlolar teeth (four in each jaw)
1 . R J ~ I<. , IV.: Metallurgy for Dental Students. P l ~ i l a d e l ~ l l i aY.: B1:tkis- I 12 molar tceth (six in each jaw)
ton's Son & Co., IIIC., 193 1. I n artificial teeth the third molars are omitted, giving 28 teeth
z. Nichols, I. G.: Prostlletic Dentistry. St. I,ouis: C. V. Mosby Co., 103o. in an artificial set. (1:ig. I 32.)
3. 1'1-inz, H.: I)e11t.11 Fornll~lar).. 1'11 ilnclelpliia: T,ca S( Febigcr, I 936,
. j . 'l'urncr, C. R. : ~ n dAlltllony, T,. I'.: Alncl.ic,ln Tcxthook o l 1'1.ostllc1ic
T h e Color of H u m a n T e e t h . Color is a visual sensation. Hum:ui
teeth naturally vary in color according to form and structure. T h c
I I
5 . C l ~ ~ ~ r ~[ ~f . l I<.:
. I'hil.~~lclpJli:~:
~ i lJ l~,L I I ~ I O
Lca & Fcbigcl-, 193 2 .
: I ~~ ~ o r ~ o ~ o g:ili~l r , ~Hi>tolog?.
~~It~~ ~'ltil~~~~cl~~l~i~~.
1 color may be influenced by food, drugs, disease or environment.
l,<.J& l:vl>isrl-, 5. T h e C r o w n s of H u m a n T e e t h . T h e crown of a tooth is that por-
0. I ) i , t i n ~ ~ ~3'1.: i ~ l .l ) ~ ~ 1 1 1 , 1,1\ I I , I L O I I KI ~v .\ f York: & I , ~ c i ~ t iC'O., l l ~ ~I (~] ,~{ ; . tion which projects from the gum and is covered with en;lmel. T h e
7. S<-ll!r..~lI~.. ,I. It.: I'r.icti(..il I)cllr.ll .\~l.iiOll~\ .11tt1 ' I ' O I I I ~ I C'.II!i ~ l f i , I:IOOI:-
el-own has four surfaces ill incisor teeth or five surf:lces in bicuspids
I! 1 1 : l ) < , 1 1 1 . 1 1 I L V I I I S o r ~ I I I C I C S II ' L I I ~ I ~ ~ ICo.,
I ~ I ~I~~~~ j.
.[11c1 ii~olarteeth.

1'1 IY S I C A L C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S O F T O O T H C R O W N S
Ul)l)er C e n t r a l Incisors: (Fig. 132, Tooth No. I.) Two in num-
11c.t-, :i right nlid n left, separated by the median line of the face.
I ' l r c , , . ;[re ncclgc~sll:il~cci
tceth, co~lvcxlabially, concave lingually atid
I ill. 'I'hc nlcsi:~l sidc is 1o11~c.1- 311d s t ~ . ; l i ~ h tth:111
~r
' .\.\
I34 M A N U A L FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS O F TOOTH CROWNS I35
the distal side. T h e labial surface is more or less rectangular. The
lingual surface is more or less triangular. The mesial and distal
surfaces are triangular (Fig. 133).
I Upper Lateral Incisors: (Fig. 132, Tooth No. 2.) Two in
number, a right and a left, each set distal to the central incisors.
Right of patient Left of patient
or articulator Upper or articulator

Labial and buccal view,


surfaces facing lip and
cheek.

Lower
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
FIG. 132. A FULL SET O F ARTIFICIAL
TEETH-xAND x1 INDICATE
THE MEDIANLINE
I-Central incisor. 2-Lateral incisor. 3-Cuspid (canine). 4-First bicuspid
(first premolar). 5-Second bicuspid (second premolar). 6-First molar. 7-
Second molar.

Lingual (tongue) view.


They are shorter and about one-third narrower than the upper cen-
tral incisors, which they resemble. The distal surface is more rounded
than in the upper central incisors.
Upper Cuspids: (canines) (Fig. 132, Tooth No. 3.) Two in
number, a right and a left set distal to each of the lateral incisors.
They are shaped like an inverted miter. The cuspid is the largest
of the anterior teeth, although its surface area is smaller than that
FIG.131. NORMAL
ARRANGEMENT TEETH
OF THE HUMAN IN THE JAWS of the upper central. The incisal edge has two slants, a mesial and
A. Upper jaw: I-Upper central incisor. 2-Upper lateral incisor. 3-Upper cus- a distal. T h e mesial slant is smaller than the distal slant. T h e
pid (canine). +-Upper first bicuspid (first premalar). s-Upper second bicuspid cuspid has a lingual ridge running from the incisal edge towards
(second premolar). 6-Upper first molar. 7-Upper second molar. 8-Upper the gingival border ending in a cingulum (a small cusp or elevation)
third molar.
B. Lower jaw: I-Lower central incisor. 2-Lower lateral incisor. 3-Lower cus- or in a groove.
pid (canine). +-Lower first bicuspid (first premolar). 5-Lower second biscuspid
(second premolar). 6-Lower first molar. 7-Lower second molar. 8-Lower third Upper First Bicuspids: (Fig. 132, Tooth No. 4.) Two in
molar. number, a right and a left, each located distal to the cuspids. The
buccal (cheek) and lingual (tongue) surfaces resemble the buccal
surface of the upper cuspid. The vertical (axial) surfaces converge
gingivally (toward the gum). Occlusally (surface toward the op-
posing tooth or teeth, the chewing surface), they have a central
1 3 ~ MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS O F TOOTH CROWNS I37
groove running mesiodistally. They have a buccal and a lingual
cusp (elevation) on the occlusal surface.
Upper Second Bicuspid: (Fig. 132, Tooth No. 5.) Two in
number, a right and a left, are located distally to the fibt bicuspids
which they resemble, but their crowns are more symmetrical
(Fig. 134).

I. Labial surface (surface toward lip). A-This division is known as the gingival
(toward gum) or cervical (toward neck). B-Middle third between gingival and
incisal (toward cutting edge) thirds. C-Incisal (cutting edge) third.
Note: Mesial denotes surface toward, or facing, median line of face. Distal denotes
surface facing away from median line of the face.
2 . Lingual v i e w (surface facing tongue). A-Distal third (includes the surface
facing in opposite direction from median line of face). B-Middle third, between
distal and mesial thirds. C-Mesial third (including surface facing median line of
face). D-Pin (which helps hold tooth on denture). 3. Cervical v i e w (surface
toward gum of alveolar ridge). A-The shut (part of tooth which holds the pins).
B-The ridge lap (part of tooth toward alveolar ridge). 4. Mesial v i e w (surface
toward median line of face). A-The ridge lap (surface toward alveolar ridge).
l3-The shut (surface containing metal pins). C-The bite (surface which glides I. Buccal (cheek) view. A-Gingival third. B-Middle third. C-Occlusal third
(toward the opposing teeth). X-Collar (covered by denture base material).
over or faces toward lower incisor teeth). D-The collar (this surface is covered
2. Mesial view. A-Lingual third. B-Middle third. C-Buccal third. 3. Gingi-
by the dental rubber and aids in attaching the tooth to the base of the denture).
5. lncisal v i e w (view of cutting edge of tooth). A-Mesial
third. C-Distal third.
third. B-Middle

Note: Certain combinations of the terms can be used to denote various angles or
. val view. (This surface faces toward the alveolar ridge.) A-Diatoric opening
for attachment to denture base. 4. Labial view. A-Distal
third. C-Mesial third. 5. Occlusal view. A-Mesial
third. B-Middle
third. B-Middle third.
C-Distal third. A=-The bucco-lingual ridge characteristic of the upper bicuspids.
divisions of the teeth. For example: I. Mesio-labial (surface or angle toward 1 3 T h e marginal ridge; the ridge of the curvature which divides the horizontal
median line and lip). 2. Mtsio-inrisal (surface or angle towartl median line and from the vertical aspects of the tooth.
c:l~tti~lg edge). 3. Mesio-gingival (surface or angle toward median line and gum).
4. Mesio-lingrtul (surface or n ~ ~ g lfacing
e median line and tongue). 5. Mesio-
occlrtstrf (surface or anglr facing median line and occlusal). 6. Disto-labirr1 (sr~rfare Upper First Molars: (Fig. 132, Tooth No. 6.) Two in number,
or angle facing away from 1neciia11line n l ~ dtowarcl lip). 7. Dirlo-itrcisnl (s~~rf;~c.c. a right and a left, they are located distally to the second bicuspids.
or angle facing away frorn median line and toward gllm). R. Disto-gi?i!/iwul (sur-
fucc or nngle facing away frorn metlian line a~ltltoward RIIIII). 9. Dis~o-litry/rrnl Occlusally they show a rhomboid outline (Fig. 135).
( s ~ ~ r f n cor C ) 1)isto-
c nnglc facing away from media11 linc aird toward ~ ~ I I ~ I I 10, .
occlssrtl (serlacr or nl~glcfacing nwny from mcdin~lline nnd rownrd occl~~nnl).
1 3 ~ MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS O F TOOTH CROWNS I39

toward the gum line. The mesio-incisal angles are sharper than the
disto-incisal angles. The mesial surfaces are convex and the distal
surfaces are straight or slightly concave. (Fig. 136.)

FIG. 1 3 5 . UPPERLEFT FIRSTMOLAR


1. Buccal view. A-Gingival or cervical third. B-Middle third. C-Occlusal
third. 2. Lingual view. A-Distal third. B-Middle third. C-Mesial third. Labial view. A-Incisal third. B-Middle third. C-Gingival or cervical third.
I.
3. Ridge lap view (surface toward alveolar ridge). A-Diatoric opening. 2.. Lingual view. A-Distal third. B-Middle third. C-Mesial third. 3. lncisal
4.. Mesial view. A-Lingual third. B-Middle third. C-Buccal third. 5. Occlusaf v t m . A-Mesial third. B-Middle third. C-Distal third. 4. Mesial view. A-
view. A-Mesial third. B-Middle third. C-Distal third. Outside letters: A- Bite. B-Shut. C-Ridge lap. D-Collar (this portion is covered by denture base
I
Mesio-buccal cusp. B-Linguo-distal groove. C-Transverse ridge. D-Disto- material). 5. Gingival or cervical view. A-Shut. B-Ridge lap.
lingual cusp.
Note: Details of tooth surfaces: Cusp-A pointed eminence on occlusal surface of
tooth. Tubercle-A small nodular eminence on crown surface of anterior tooth. Lower Cuspids : (Fig. 132, Tooth No. 3.) Two in number, a right
Ridge-An elongated eminence on occlusal surface of tooth. Fossa-A round or and a left, located distal to the lower laterals. Resemble upper
wedge-shaped depression on occlusal surface of tooth. Sulcus-An elongated fossa. cuspids but are narrower and their vertical surfaces incline more
Groove-A sharp linear depression on occlusal surface of tooth. a
distally.
Upper Second Molars: (Fig. 132, Tooth No. 7.) Two in number, Lower First Bicuspids: (Fig. 132, Tooth No. 4.) Two in number,
a right and a left, located distally to the first molars. They are a right and a left, each located distal to the lower cuspids. The
slightly smaller than the first molars. I
lingual cusps are much smaller and lower than the buccal cusps. The
First and Second Lower Incisors: (Fig. 132, Teeth Nos. I and 2.) occlusal surface appears circular. The buccal surface is more convex
Two centrals and two laterals or four altogether, one of each tooth than in the upper bicuspids.
located on each side of the median line. The centrals are separated by Lower Second Bicuspid: (Fig. 132, Tooth No. 5.) Two in
the median line and the laterals are distal to the centrals. The number, a right and a left, each located distal to the first bicuspids.
lower incisors are wedge shaped, the laterals are somewhat larger They resemble the first upper bicuspids. The buccal surface is more
than the centrals. The mesial and distal margins converge vertically , convex than the upper. (Fig. 137.)
I40 M A N U A L FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS OCCLUSION O F INDIVIDUAL TEETH I N NORMAL RELATION I41

1. Buccal view. A-Occlusal third. B-Middle third. C-Gingival third. 2. Lin-


gual view. A-Distal third. B-Middle third. C-Mesial third. 3. Occlusal view.
I . Buccal view. A-Occlusal third. B-Middle third. C-Gingival or cervical A-Mesial third. B-Middle third. C-Distal third. 4. Mesial view. A-Buccal
third. z. Lingual view. A-Distal third. B-Middle third. C-Mesial third. third. B-Middle third. C-Lingual third. 5 . Ridge lap view. A-Diatoric
3. Occlusal view. A-Mesial third. B-Middle third. C-Distal third. Ax-Oc- opening.
clusal pit and mesio-distal fissure, characteristic of a lower second bicuspid. B'-The
marginal ridge. 4. Mesial view. A-Buccal third. BYMiddle third. C-Lingual
third. 5. V i e w of ridge-lap (surface toward alveolar 'idge). A-Diatoric hole for OCCLUSION O F INDIVIDUAL TEETH IN
attaching denture bare r n 4 1 1 . NORMAL RELATION (Fig. 131)
First Lower Molar: (Fig. 132, Too . 6.) Two in number, Tooth OccZzlding teeth i~ opposite jaw
a right and a left, each located distal second lower bicuspid. I. Upper central incisor. Lower central incisor ( I ) and mesial
They usually have three buccal cusps ingual cusps. A long third of lower lateral (2).
groove (central fossa) divides the oc ce into a buccal and 2. Upper lateral incisor Distal two-thirds of lower lateral in-
lingual portion. T h e lingual surface than the buccal sur- cisor (2) and mesial third of lower
face, mesio-distally (Fig. I 3 8). cuspid (3).
Lower Second Molar: (Fig. 132, Tooth No. 7.) Two in number, 3. Upper cuspid (canine) Distal two-thirds of lower cuspid (3)
a right ;lnd L: left, each located distally to the first molar. T h e oc-
clusal surface resembles a parallelogram. I t is smaller than the first
. and mesial half of lower first bicuspid
(4).
molar. I t has a central groove running mesio-distally which divides 4. Upper first bicuspid Occludes between the lower first bicus-
thc occlusal surf;lcc into buccal and lingual cusps. pid (4) and second bicuspid (5).
142 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS COMPOSITION O F HIGH FUSING PORCELAIN BODY I43

5. Upper second bicuspid Occludes between the second lower bi- Philadelphia in 1820. I n 1825, he worked for Chas. W. Peale and
cuspid (5) and first lower molar (6). S. W. Stockton, who began the manufacture of teeth.
6. Upper first molar Occlusion begins with the buccal groove
of the first lower molar (6) and extends COMPOSITION O F H I G H FUSING PORCELAIN BODY
to the space between the lower first (6)
and second (7) molars. 4% parts of Kaolin for plasticity
7. Upper second molar Occlusion begins in the buccal groove of 15 parts of flint or silica for framework
the second lower molar (7) and ex- 85% parts of feldspar for fusing
tends distally. Colors :
I. Lower central incisor Mesial two-thirds of upper central in- Gold-red-yellow
cisor ( I ) . Platinum-gray
2. Lower lateral incisor Distal third of upper central incisor ( I ) Titanium oxide-yellow
and mesial two-thirds of upper lateral Cobalt-blue
incisor ( 2 ) . Iron oxide-gray
3. Lower cuspid Distal third of upper lateral incisor (2) Fluxing agents :
and mesial half of upper cuspid (3). Calcium carbonate
4. Lower first bicuspid Occludes between the upper cuspid (3) Sodium carbonate
and the upper first bicuspid (4). Potassium carbonate
5 . Lower second bicuspid Occludes between the upper first bicus-
pid (4) and upper second bicuspid (5).
6. Lower first molar Occlusion begins between the second
upper bicuspid (5) and extends to the
distal cusp of the first upper molar (6).
7. Lower second molar Occlusion begins between the upper first
molar (6) and upper second molar (7)
and extends to the central fossa of the
second upper molar (7).
NOTE: T h e numbers following or preceding the teeth refer to
the numbers on the teeth in Fig. 131.

O R I G I N O F A R T I F I C I A L TEETH FIG. 139. CROSS


SECTION
OF AN ARTIFICIAL TOOTH WITH METALPINS

I. Transverse section (horizontal). A-Lingual surface. B-Mesial surface. C-


Artificial T e e t h are made from porcelain. Duchateau of Paris, Labial surface. D-Distal surface. &Metal pins. z. Longitudinal section (ver-
France (an apothecary), first conceived, in 1774, the idea of using tical). A-Bite. B-Shut, including the metal pins. C-Ridge-lap. D-Collar.
porcelain for dentures and teeth. Another Frenchman, D e Chemant,
P i n s of Artificial Teeth: (Fig. 139). T h e pins are made of nickel,
in 1790, obtained a patent in France. H e moved to England and
Formed n partnership with Claudius Ash for manufacturing porce- gold, platinum or combinations of the foregoing metals.
Inin teeth. Fonzi, I 808, Frcllch dentist, made individual tecth with Shade Guides: Shade guides for matching teeth are supplied by the
platinum pins. A. A; Pl;~ntou,a PI-cnchmnn, practiced dctitist~yin manufacturers of artificial teeth. (Figs. 140, 14s and 142.)
I4-4 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS
I
AIDS IN SELECTING COLOR SHADES I N TEETH I45
I

FIG. 140. TWENTIETH


CENTURY
SHADEGUIDE
Twenty-five teeth exhibiting the 25 shades in which the tooth products of T h e Den-
tists' Supply Company are made. Each shade tooth may be drawn out of the guide * Shades for Principal Complexion Types
for selecting and matching purposes. T h e teeth may be turned in any desired
direction. Flaxen Blonde . . . . 36, 39,
- e, 42, 42, 44, 46, 51
Gray Blonde . . . . 32, 40, 4f, 42, 43, 44, 46
Twentieth Century Shades in Order of Depth, Lightest First
I. Lightest shade in use. No coloring. Basis of other shades. 2. Trace of purple.
Auburn Blonde . . . . - 3 2 for lighter types.
36,
3. Trace of blue, and a mere trace of yellow. Lightest blue. 12. Grayish blue. For others 38, 391 41, 53 53
Follows No. 3 in the real blues. No. 3 and this are the only blues and they are not Medium Fair Type . . . 39, 4_f., 42, 43, 447 46
decided in character. 4. Trace of yellow. Lightest yellow. 5. Trifle of gray and Medium Brown . . . . s,
g, 4% 45, & 5% 53
trace of yellow. T i p same as No. 4. Neck darker. 7. Light yellow. Darker than
No. 5, with color decidedly stronger in neck. 8. Light yellow. T i p darker than
Light Brunette . . - . 42, 43, 44, 461 48, 49, 53, 55
No. 5 or No. 7. Neck lighter than No. 7 and makes tooth look a straw color. More Medium Brunette . - . e, 42, 9, g,2,55, 57
uniform than No. 7. Yellow is the only color present. 16. Yellow. Follows No. 8. Dark Brunette . . . . 41, 42, 43, 45, 46, 43, 5% 53
-
20. Brownish yellow. Follows No. 16. 21. Dark brown yellow. Follows No. 20, (The underlined numbers are those found most useful.)
which it is like, only darker. 23. Darkest brown yellow. Follows No. 21. 25. Dark
yellowish brown. Follows No. 23. 6. Same a s No. 4 with a little gray in the tip.
Neck not so bright a yellow as No. 5. Lightest gray. 10. Gray. Lighter than No. 9 AIDS IN SELECTING COLOR SHADES IN T E E T H
and slightly darker than No. 6. 11. Uniform gray throughout. Neck grayish yellow,
slightly darker than 10, which it follows. 9 . A little yellow, a little gray, a little
pink. Light brown yellow neck. T i p pink gray, follows No. 11. 13. Grayish blue. The selection of artificial teeth is done by the dentist who takes
Follows No. 9. 14. Yellowish gray. Gray yellow neck. Follows No. 13. 15. Pink-
ish gray. Decidedly darker and shows more pink than No. 9 . The other grays are into consideration the color of the eyes, hair and skin of the patient
blue grays. This follows No. 14. 18. Dark yellowish gray. Follows No. 15. 22. or of the patient's natural teeth, the shape and size of the head,
Dark gray. Follows No. 18. 24. Dark grayish brown. Follows No. 22. 17. Green-
ish yellow. Green tip and yellow neck. 19. Dark greenish yellow. Follows No. 17. the teeth, the mouth, distance between the corners of the lips and
Lightest Shades Placed First
the amount of gum tissue exposed when the patient is speaking
Light shades, 1-2. Yellows,
4-5-7-8-16-~0-~1-23-25.Greenish yellows, 17-19. Grays, or smiling. Coloration is the result of various influences, such as
6-IWI1-9-13-14-15-18-22-24.Blues, 3-12. race, climate, diet, habit and condition of health. I t determines what
146 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS

U N I T NO. 10

ARRANGING ARTIFICIAL TEETH

Bluish White . . . . . . . I- 2 Artificial teeth are constructed so that they may be arranged easily on
BluishYellow. . . . . . 4-5 the denture base, over the alveolar ridges. T h e arrangement must be such
Blues . . . . . . . . 10- 6-12-3
Bluish Green . . . . . . . 17-18-43 as to maintain the stability of the bases of the dentures when eating or
Yellow Green . . . . . . . 19-24 speaking and, at the same time, the teeth should be in accord with the
Pinks . . . . . .
Light Yellow . . . . .
. .
. .
9-15
7- 8
esthetic requirements of the individual patient. T h e saying "It is an art to
Yellow to Red Yellow . . . . . 16-20-21-25 conceal art" is important in this respect. T h e dentures should not be too
Grayish to Brown Grayish Yellow. . . 11-14-22 conspicuous or too false-looking. In this unit the beginner is provided with
methods for the ideal arrangement of artificial teeth. I t is well to learn the
we call the cccomplexion" of the individual. T h e terms "blonde" and ideal before undertaking to arrange artificial teeth so that they meet the
"brunette" are entirely too general to be satisfactory, but because requirements of the individual patient.
they have the weight of custom behind them they are usually used.
I n the classification of patients for the purpose of tooth-shade selection Process o r Principle : No. I6 Arranging (setting-up) Artificial
it is necessary to select one element of the complexion as dominant. Teeth.
A tooth shade can then be selected to harmonize with this. T h e other a. Arranging full zlpper and lower dentares on a plain line ar-
elements are important but only contributory.
ticulator or Gysi Syrnplex Articalator.
I n matching artificial teeth where one or more are to be added to
b. Arranging teeth of six upper and lower partial dentzlres. ,
artificial teeth adjacent to them, it is important first to determine
the modifying tint in the enamel. For instance, the basic color in Project or Jobs : (To be performed by the learner.)
tooth enamel is gray. I t may be modified by blue, yellow, red or JOB NO. 42: Make an additional set of upper and lower bite-
brown. When the modifying tint is tentatively determined, the plates on baseplate trial-bases. Arrange upper teeth on upper eden-
shade guide is held to the incisal edge of the tooth on the denture tulous cast against lower biteplate by cutting the upper biteplate
and turned to the group of shades containing the corresponding tint and inserting the teeth.
in the enamel. JOB NO. 43: Place two new biteplates in position on the articu-
I n the new trubyte shade guide, shades 36 to 38, inclusive, have lated casts and arrange lower teeth on lower edentulous cast against
blue-gray enamel; shades 39 to 50, inclusive, have yellow-gray zlpper biteplate by cutting the lower biteplate, set on a baseplate
enamel; shades 51 to 57, inclusive, have red-gray enamel, and shades trial base, and insert teeth.
58 and 59 are designated as cctobacco." No attempt should be made JOBNO 44: Using the second set of upper and lower casts with
to match the tooth as a whole until the enamel at the incisal edge biteplates set on baseplate trial bases, arrange upper teeth agknst
has been matched. T h e shade-guide teeth may be turned on their lower biteplate by cutting the upper biteplate. Set lower teeth
handles to permit holding them in any relation to the teeth to be against upper teeth by cutting the lower biteplate.
matched. JOB NO. 45: Using the casts with biteplates set on wax bases,
make a new upper wax trial base and arrange the upper teeth
againsr the lower biteplate.
'47
I 48 M A N U A L F01< UliNTAI. l ' l i C l I NICIANS

J013 No. 46: Make a new lower trial wax base and set lower d. Universal N u f orrn Teeth: 1Jppel-s mould 84; loivers mould
tcet h a~di.w.ctfLpper bitrplnte. 81; posteriors mould 50.
. l o 1 3 No. 4;: 4rr;uigc upper tccth, 11i;tkirrg I I ~ Ww,tu trial 1)asc c. U~iiv~rsril I : . S. 1'. ' i r r > c ~ / / l :I I I ~ ~ ~iioulti
~ I - s 17; Io\\u.s nio~llci
( ~ ; ~ i i i I~ol sx/ ~ ibi/c,pl(zt~..
. ~lrfiulgclo\vcr teeth agaiu~tupp~ji-t c ~ / l l , 3 1 ; I'ustei-iors mould 03.
u\irlg a new trial wax base. f. Ideal 'I'ilcr-J'OYPYL Y'l'c~eth:l"1111 lTpper and 1,ower Anteriors
J O B No. 48: Arrange six partial dentures. Make two of the mould 48; Posteriors, True-Kusp mould 62 or Anatomical
partial cases "horseshoe" tvpe. Posteriors mould M4.
NOTE:(Read the entire' Unit carefully before beginning work. g. iVyersons True-BIt~ldi??ltrriors: mould 48.
Consult the glossary for definitions of new words.) h. Ideal New-Bite: Upper Anteriors mould 7'12. 1,ower
J o b Application: Artificial teeth must be so arranged 011 the den- Anteriors mould 38; Posteriors 39.
ture base as to afford a pleasing facial appearance and a maximum of Dentoform No. 255 (Fig. 29, No. 2).
stability under functional stress: during speech or chewing. T h e a. T i z ~ b y t eTeeth: Mould ;N with mould 3 o L I'osteriors.
:u-tificial dentures must allow for the proper chewing of food and not b. New Trubyte: blould 263 with mould 301. Posteriors,
interfere with speech. T h e denturcs must not have ally harmrul mould 291, 20" I'osteriors.
effect on the oral tissues or organs. c. Solila: Anterior Mould 90; Posteriors mould 99; lowel-\
Vocational I n f o r m a t i o n : T h e ideal and basic principles of tooth mould 39.
xrrangement are presented here. T h e arrangement of teeth should d. U ~ ~ i v e r s aNlbfor?)z
l Tepth: Anteriors mould 86; Posteriors
I)c i l l keeping with the esthetic and functional requirements of the mould 54.
i t~clividualpatient. Teeth set too evenly present an artificial appear e. Universal U . S. P. Trr7th: Mould I 8-133 upper and rnould
I . Tceth are often ground, stained, rotated or otherwise modified 14-26 lower; mould 90 I'osterior.
I roni the ideal to lend individual it^ to the denture. f. Ideal True-F'orm ' I ' e ~ t h :LTppcr hilteriors mould 64; lower
Anteriors mould 7 j ; True-Kusp Posteriors mould 53 or
T o o l s a n d E q u i p m e n t : W a x spatula, Bunsen burner, straight
True-Form Posteriors mould Mg.
c ~ l ~ tooth
c, grinding carborundum wheel, lathe chuck and dental
g. Alyerson's 'I'rue-Blend ,4nteriors: 'CJpper mould 64; lower
I;ttlic, articulating paper.
mould 73.
Materials: ,%rtificial teeth; basewax; baseplates; 30-gauge copper h. Ideal New-Bite: Upper Anteric~rs rnould S o luwcr
I'oI- I-ceiiforcing upper dentures set on wax bases; reenforceme~it Anteriors mould 34; Posteriors mould 37.
~vir-cfor lowcr deiiturcs and partials.
1)entoform No. 256 (Fig. 29, No. 3).
N I YII, . Srlrction of Artificial T p ~ t / z : a. Il'rzrbytlq Tppth: Mould 4 M with mould 28L Posteriors.
/\I-~if;cial teeth must be selected to fit each case. If casts made b. N e w Il'rubyte: lllould 243 with mould 30111 Posteriors:
01 the ~lentoforrnsshown in Figs. 29 and 30 arc used it is ;tdvisablc mould 291, 20" Posteriors.
to uw the followi~lgtooth selections: c. Solila: Anterior nlould 19: Posteriol-s mould 99; lowers
mould 67.
~ 1 .lIfiivc7rsaL Nuforru Tr7eth: Lrpper anteriors mould 83; lower
:~iitc~-iors rnould 50; Posteriol-s mould 50.
c. il~lis~~i~.\cil I T . S. I]. T r e / / l : Mould No. 284.3 upper; mould
0.7 lowel-.
1. /,/(.(I/ ' / ' I - / / ( ' 1*'ot.?11 'l'c~i'//i:1 Jpper and lower Anteriors mould
. ~ 8 ' ;I ~ I - ~ I CI i t 1 ~ 1 )I'osteriors 11ioi11~i 6 2 or r13~-ue-170rtn
1'0steri01-s
1 l 1 0 I l 1 ~ l MA.
1 5 0 M A N 1 1.41. I'OR DENTAI. TECHNICIANS
I jl
ARRANGING ARTlI'lCIAL TEETH

l'rue-Bbei~rlAlzteriovs: ~nould48.
g. h/ly~~i-su,Js b. N e w Tritbyte: Upper anteriors mould 146; upper ~osteriors
11. IIZcnl New-Bile; IJpper Anteriors mould TI2 ; I O U I C ~ mould 34M.
Anteriors mould 38; Posteriors mould 39. c, Solila: Upper anteriors mould 48 or 69.
1)entoform No. 257 (Fig. 29, No. 4) : Upper posteriors:
:t. Il'rubyre Teeth: Mould r Y with mould 321, Posteriors. Right secorld bicuspid mould 48.
11, N m Trubyte: Mould 315 with ~nould32L Posteriors and Right first molar mould 48.
mould ~ I 20" L Posteriors. Left second bicuspid mould 69.
c. Solila: Anterior mould 49; Posteriors mould 50; lowers Left sccond il~olarinould 48.
mould I I . d. U,~ivrrsuLN Z I ~ O T~ PI ICZI / IUpper
: antcriors mould 73 ; upper
d. Universal N u f o r m Teeth: Anteriors mould 72; Posteriors lcft second bicuspid mould j I ; uppcr right second bicuspid
mould 54. and first molar mould 54; upper left first molar mould 54.
e. Universal U . S. P. Teeth: Mould 18 Anteriors; mould go e. Urtiz~ersal I / . S. I ) . Il'eerh: T_Tpper anteriors mould 204;
Posteriors. upper left bicuspid mould 5 - 3 9 ; uppw right second bicuspid
f. Ideal Trzde-Form Teeth: Upper iinteriors mould I 8; lower and first molar mould go; upper left first nlolar mould 90.
Anteriors mould 28; True-Kusp Posteriors mould 76 or f. Ideal True-Foiw~l'ecth: A~ltcriors(short bite) mould 70;
True-Form Posteriors mould Mq. True-Kusp Postcriors mvuld 62.
g. Myerson's ?'rut.-Blend Anteviors: IJpper nlould 18; lower g. Myerson's True-HIe~zil,I~~teriors: mould 70.
mould 28, h. Ideal New-Bite Teeth: Aatcriors (short bite) mould 011;
h. Ideal New-Bite Teeth: Upper Anteriors n~ouldTI?j J O W ~ C ~ Postcriors mould 38.
Anteriors lnould 38; I'osteriors mould 39.
Dentoform No. 258C (Fig. 30, No. 4).
I I Partials: a. T p u b y ~ eTeeth: IJppcr Posteriors nlould 345.
Dentoform No. 258A (Fig. 30, No. 2). b. N e w Trztdytr:: Upper I'osteriors mould 34s.
a. Trubyte Teeth: Upper posterivrs mould 34M. c. Solila: Upper Posteriors.
b. N e w Trzcbylz: Upper posteriors nlould 34M. Right first bicuspid mould 84.
c. Solila: Upper posteriors. Right first and second n~olarmould 84.
Kight first bicuspid ~nould48 or 69. Left first bicuspid mould 84.
Kight first molar 11lould 69. Left first and second molars nlould 84.
],eft first bicuspid mould 6:). d. Universal Nufornz Teeth: IJpper right bicuspid mould 54;
I x f t first molar rnould 69. upper right first and second molars mould 57; upper left
d. lInivlv-scrl N~bfofikz7'c:eth: I.Jpper left first bicuspid and sec-- second bicuspid ~nould57; upper left first and secorld molars
oncl 1no1:u- nlould 5;; upper right first bicuspid and first mould 5 I .
n1ol:lr mould 5 I . c. Universal T I . S. P. Teeth: Upper right bicuspid mould 90;
c.. lIiti~<.rsill C:. S . 1'. 'l'~et/r:T Jppcr lcft first bicuspid and scc upper right first and second molars mould go; upper left
ontl rnolztl- n~ouldc10; upper right first bicuspid 2nd seconc~ second bicuspid inould 90; upper left first and second molars
mol:tr mould q - 3 0 . mould 4.
I-. /~/i,a/7'~z(i,Por/-lzTertll: I'trstr.~.ior.s~ ~ ~ o Mq u l d01- T~-~rc-Kusl, I . lrli .(/I 'I1rz/.cl / ' o , . / ~'I1c.(-t/,
, : l'ostel-iol-s mould 3.2 or True-Kusp
I'ostcriors mould 76. l l l ~ l ~ 1~, : l. ~ i

g. N1'7~Hi/(,:l'ostcriors nioul~l;I(). 0 1..c I<;/,, '/',,( I /


c. 1 ~ 1 ~ ~\', : I ' o ~ t ( ~ ~ ~~i on r<s~ u:{c).
ltl
l)c.r1tofo1-1i1 No. 258H ();is. 30, No. i ) . I ) ( . I I ( I , I . I , I 111 {OC' ( I;:. ;{o, N o . .+).
:I. 'I'I./I/JI!/(, '/'(*(,//): I I / ) J ) C . I - ; I I I I ~ I . ~ I I I I. I\I O I I I , I . / I I ; i l ~ ) , ) ~ , l
l j ~ ~ \ ~ < , ~ . i , , ~ ~ , . I . 'ITit1/,\~/,~ 'I5,', I / , : 1 . I ~ \ v ( . I .I ' o , ~ c . I - ~ o I - ~ 1110111(1 34s.
I I I ~ ) L I I ( I :{4hl. 11. N ; '1'1tt/1\'/,, ' / ' , , , , I / ,I:, O \ V C , I . lpo,tr~.io~.s
,'.I I I ~ O U I ~34s.
I
152 MANUAL FOR D E N T A L TECHNICIANS ARRANGING A R T I F I C I A L TEETH I53

c. SOl;l(f: 1,ower Posteriors lcft fii-st bicuspid mould 54; lowel- lcft first 1ilol:u- rnoultl
Right first bicuspid inould 5; 5 I ; lowel- a ~ ~ t e r i o r(:s ccl~tt-:i!s:~ncilcft l:lter~il\) n~oultl7 0 .
Right first and second molars mould roo; e. Unic;,rsal Li. S. P. 'flri./li:1 .ourel-right first mo1;ir n ~ o u l d4 ;
1,ctt first bicuspid mould I 2; lower right first and seco~ld1)icuspids ~ n o u l d90; lourel- left
I,eft first molar mould roo. first bicuspid nlould go; lower left first molar mould 4;
d. U7civcrsal Nziform Jl'ezth: Lower right second bicuspid lower anteriors ( 2 centrals and left laterals) mould 2 I I.
mould 51 ; lower right first and second molar mould 51 ; f. Ideal T r u e - F o r m T e e t h : Anteriors mould 7 3 ; Posteriors
lower right first bicuspid mould g r ; lower left first molar mould M 4 or True-Kusp Posteriors mould 76.
mould 5 I . g. Myersoqz's 7'iue-Blend Teeth: n ~ o u l d7.3.
e. U ~ ~ i v e r s aUl . S. 1'. Il'eeth: Lower right second bicuspid h. Ideal New-Bite T e e t h : L\nteriors mould 35; Posteriors
mould 4, lower right first and second molar mould 4; lvwcr mould 39.
right first bicuspid mould 4; lower left first molar mould 4.
i. 7dcal Trut, F ' o r ~ iTi>eth:
~ I'osteriors mould 32 or True-Kusl) Procedure : (Follow operations in order preseritcd here.)
I'osteriors mould 62. CLzu.r.ro~s:
g. Ideal N m - B i t e 7'eelli: I-'osteriors mould 39. a. iwake sure t h e trial base is serurely sealed to t h e casts b ~ f o r e
arrangir~gteeth.
1)entofonn 259B (Fig. 30, No. 3). b. I t is necessary to not& t h e Lower bit,, r i m slightly in t l i ~
a. Trubyte 7 ' e ~ t h :Lower posteriors mould 34M. region of ~ I I Pcuspid t o allow t h e incisal ?(lye t o c x t s ~ l d
b. h'ew Jl'rubytr 7 ' e ~ t h :L,ower Posteriors mould 34M. slightly below the plane of occlusion.
c. Solila: 1,ower l'ostcriors, right second bicuspid mould 5; c. T h e inciral edges of t h e zrpper anterior tcrtlz shouliZ br, set
right first molar nloulci 100; left first and second bicuspid against he outer border of tlze l o i i t ~ rbiteplate and slloulll
nlould 5; left fir5t molar moulci 100. follow t l ~ ccurvature of t h r lower biteplat?.
d . Univrrsn! hrltfur~ii 7'cetlz: 1,ower right second bicuspids d. T h e occlusal surfaces of t h e upper posterior teeth should bi-
mould 51; lower right first molar mould 51; lower left sect t h e line o n t h e lower bitepiare wliich folloau t h e lifizc
second bicuspid and first molar nlould 54. drawn on tlze lowLzr ~ a s tf r o ~ n t h r wrst of condyle to tilt'
e. Ufiiversal I;. S. P. Teeth: Idowel- right second bicuspids cuspid area.
mould 4; lower right first molar mould 4 ; lower left second e. D o not sel tile necks of t h e Irppdr anlerior teetli too far under
bicuspid and first molar mould yo. t h e upper alveolar ridge. Set t h r uppei teeth against t l z ~
f. Ideal T r v r FUYWLIl',~r/ll:rnould 70. r i d ~ i-atlier r tiran 072, or under it.
g. Idrsal A'ca-Riii, Il'rzth: mould 38. f. 7'hr~upper i~rcisorsi n a nor?iiril set oj natural t r i ~ l hare u ~ u a / / ~
Ikntofol-m 25cjA (Fig. 30, No. 2 ) . >
about -. 2 ti1il1irrrr~c.r.ianterior to t h e lower incisors. (7'12i.i
:I. 7 ' r u h y l ~'l'(:c~lh:Lower anteriors mould 4H; lower postcrio~-s is tlie oil/ rjei.)
nlould 34s. g . ' / ' / i f , z>rrrpi~r;< of d ~ . t ~ / u r eass wrll as t h e possibility of t c e ~ h
1). Ni,.i~ 7'1.~/.byir:Lower Anteriors mould 45 or if butted . r i / c t v ; l r ~ oul of aliynmcnt during vulcanizing d u r to tiit'

: ~ g : ~ i rthe ~ s t gun1 use mould 35; lower posteriors rnoultl 34s. rliri~rka,qc,of vulcanite (dental rubber) will be mach reduced
( ~ .So/dr~:Idourc~- - i o ~ - 5s ; ~ , C ) W ~ I -1'0steri01-s t-ight
d ~ ~ ~ t c ~ll~ol~lcj I ] ri .\/ulrc' of about 5/4 of a rwillin~eteris left between tlle

I;t-st Kic.uspitl moultl 65; Sccor~d Ki(.trxl)id 111o111(1 < ; l<ioht iippr,r r l~spidand /lie upper first bicuspid on earh side and
st1.011t1 IIIOI;LI- IIIOLII(I 100; r.rft /;!.st t3ic11s~)icl I I I O L I I ( I < ; I?t t ~ t rilro l / r ' ~ i ~ ' r t/ie ~ > ~ upper second bicuspids a r ~ d first rr~olars.

1 l l O l : l l ~ lllo~ll~l 100. Slii/i/rrr rp[i( I ' F rI~ouldbe lefi b e l w e ~ nt h e lower first molars
(1. i 'i/i,~~,t..cti/ N:.//~!.iii' / ' , , I , / / /I :, O \ V V I . 1 - i ~ l 1 1 \ ; I 4 1 1 1 1 0 1 : 1 1 ~ I I I O I I I C I (iilrl /hc*/owe;- .r, rot~tlbiruspiils anrl, if possibl~,brtzrlfvw tl~c,
T I ; lo\\,(,t-l . i K l l t fil-\t : 1 1 1 < 1 \ < , ( 0 1 1 , l li,.ll\pi(l< l l t o , l l ~ l < , I , I O \ V C . I . / o ? ~ v , ]it ) \ / /)/I//.rpjrLs rit/(/ i / i ( ~
~u.\ph/s.
I54 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS ARRANGING ARTIFICIAL T E E T H I55

h. T h e compensating curve to which the occlusal surfaces of the lower biteplate when viewed from the front. T h e teeth
lower molars and the second bicuspids are set should be gov- should incline downward and forward when viewed from the
erned by the curvature of the posterior portion of the lower side. T h e incisal edges should be in contact with, and follow,
ridge. If the occlusal surfaces of the lower molars are set the contour of the outer edge of the occlusal surface of the
parallel to the uptwned posterior section of the ridge, the lower biteplate. T h e distal angle of the centrals should in-
force applied to the ridge through the teeth i n the act of cline slightly inward and begin the curvature of the dental
chewing will be at right angles to the surface of the ridge alzd arch. Attach the centrals with wax on heated wax spatula.
will hold the lower delzture rigidly in place. (Fig. 143.1
i. A lower ridge that has a great curve m.11 call for a corre-
spondingly great curvature in the arrangement of the molars
and bicuspids.
j. I n many cases a compensating curvature great enough to sta-
bilize the lower denture may have a tendency to create a
forward, dislodging pressure on the upper denture, if the
upper has no curvature of the alveolar ridge. For such cases
the compensating curve must be modified so that it will take
an inclination which is halfway between the fiat character of
the upper alveolar ridge and the steep slope of the lower
alveolar ridge.
k. T h e lower cuspids should glide against the upper cuspids
when the extension arms of the articulator are moved side-
wise. T h e lower cuspids should not touch the upper laterals
when the extension arms of the articulator are moved sidewise.
1. W h e n the dentures are in centric occlusion ( t h e articulator FIG. 143. UPPERRITEPLA.I.E CUT 0 ~ 1 1.0
. ALLOWF O R PLACING
O F LEFT
extension arms are at rest), the lower incisors should not be UPPERCEN.I-RA+( INCISOR
in contact with the opposing upper incisors.
m. T h e danger of breaking the incisors in using the denture B-Labial view. Note: T h e incisal edge is parallel with the edge of the upper bite-
plate. C-Distal view. Note: Inward inclination of tooth.
zen'll be eliminated if the foregoing instructions are observed
in arranging the teeth. Errors that may become evident in
the filzished dentures are corrected by the dentist who grinds 2. Cut out the biteplate and set the upper laterals distal to the
the teeth w'th a stone when the dentures are examined and centrals. T h e incisal edges of the laterals should be three-
fitted in the mouth of the patient. fourths of a millimeter above the level of the incisal edges of
the centrals. T h e long axis should incline distally when
I. Arranging Upper T e e t h : viewed from the front and downward and forward incisally
NOTE: Arrange upper teeth in edentulous cases as follows: (The when viewed from the side. (Fig. 144.) T h e necks of the
same method should be followed for all uppers.) upper laterals should be less prominent (they should be set
r . Seal the biteplates to the casts, using sticky wax on hot spatula. inward) and closer to the alveolar ridge than those of the
Cut out sufKcient wax on the upper biteplate and attach the upper centrals. The incisal edges of the laterals should
upper central incisor teeth against the alveolar ridge of the continue the curvature of the dental arch along the outer
upper baseplate, to.the right and left of the median line. The
,- cdgc of the occlusal surface of the lower biteplate. Attach
incisal edge, should be parallel with the outer edge of the the laterals with wax on heated wax spatula.
1 5 ~ MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS ARRANGING ARTIFICIAL TEETH I57

3. Cut out the biteplate and set the upper cuspids distal to the
upper laterals. T h e incisal tips should extend just slightly
below the outer edge of the lower biteplate. T h e labio-axial
ridge of the cuspid is the dividing line between the labial and
buccal aspects (anterior and lateral views) of the denture.

B-Labial view. Note: T h e tooth is raised upward from the edge of the biteplate,
while the long axis of the tooth inclines somewhat distally, the rnesio-incisal angle is
nevertheless longer than the disto-incisal angle. C-Distal view of the upper lateral
incisor. Note: T h e inward inclination at the neck of the tooth is greater in the
lateral than in the central.

T h e mesial half of the labial surface of the cuspid should be


set to face the lips while the disto-labial half faces buccally.
T h e long axis of the cuspid should incline slightly distally
from the incisal tip. T h e incisal edge should follow the cur-
vature of the outer edge of the lower biteplate. Attach the

FIG. 145. METHODOF SETTINGCUSPID


B-Labial view. Note: T h e cuspid is inclined slightly distally from the incisal on
cuspid with melted wax on heated wax spatula. T h e necks of
its long axis. C-Distal view. Note: T h e cuspid has less inward inclination at the the cuspids should be more prominent than those of the lat-
neck than the lateral. D-Incisal view. Note: T h e teeth are set so that they carry erals. (Figs. 145, 146 and 147.)
out the occlusal atch. T h e incisal tip of the canine is slightly lower than the central.
4. Set the upper bicuspid teeth to follow the general outline
(shown in Fig. 148). Cut out sufficient wax on the bite-
platc to allow the insertion of each of the teeth to follow.
158 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS ARRANGING ARTIFICIAL TEJTI"I' I59

6. T h e upper second bicuspid is set similarly to the upper first


bicuspid excepting that both the lingual and buccal cusps touch
the occlusal surface of the lower biteplate. (Figs. 148 and
150.)
7. Using a straight edge, test the position of the buccal surfaces
of the bicuspids in relation to the cuspids. T h e straight edge
should touch the buccal ridges of the cuspid and the first and

First Second First Second


Bicuspid Bicuspid BIolar Molar

I n arranging Trubyte Posteriors, look for the small raised dots on the mesial side of
the diatoric surface. One dot on a bicuspid designates the first bicuspid; two dots,
the second bicuspid. One dot on a molar designates the first molar; two dots, the
second molar. As these dots are always on the mesial side of the tooth they also
show at a glance whether the tooth is right or left.

Courtesy Dentists' Sut.ply Co., dVcw York

After Clafip
A-First bicuspid, buccal and distal views. B-Second bicuspid, buccal and distal
views. C-Buccal relationship of the cuspids and bicuspids. Note: T h e white lines
show the relationship of the bucco-lingual aspect of the teeth to the straight edge.
T h e white lines are parallel and bisect the alveolar ridge.
Nofe: T h e compensating curve can be made to follow the template. Where the tem-
plate is not used, follow the instructions provided in Unit No. 10.
second bicuspids. Rotate the bicuspids on their long axis so
5. T h e upper first bicuspid should be set so that the buccal cusp
that lines through their linguo-buccal dimensions follow the
touches the occlusal surface of the lower biteplate while the
line c in Fig. 150, with relation to the straight edge.
lingual cusp does not quite touch it. T h e tooth viewed lat-
8. Attach the upper first molars so that the long axis when
erally should bisect the line on the lower biteplate that fol-
viewed from the buccal aspect appears as shown in Figs. 148
lows the crest of the l o w ~;~lvcolnr
~- ridge. (Figs. 148, 14') and 151. T h e disto-buccal cusp of the first molar should be
and 150.)
raised slightly off the lower biteplate.
I 62 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS ARRANGING ARTIFICIAL TEETH 163

13. T h e lower second molar is set distally to the first molar in a 16. Apply a triangular piece of pink wax to the crest of the an-
manner similar to that employed in setting the first lower terior portion of the lower ridge from canine to canine. Set
molar. T h e second lower molar should occlude with the the lower anterior teeth in the following order: the lower cen- .
distal cusp of the first molar and most of the occlusal surface trals on both sides of the median line corresponding to the
of the upper second molar. median line formed by the upper centrals; place the lower
14. With wax and heated spatula attach the lower second bicus-
pid to the lower baseplate. T h e lower second bicuspid should

Note: T h e long axes of the incisors and laterals are parallel but the cuspids incline
distally at the gingival margin.

FIG. 1 5 3 . RELATIONSHIP BICUSPIDSA N D CUSPIDS


OF UPPERA N D LOWER

A-Detail of articulation of upper cuspid and first bicuspid and lower first bicuspid.
B-The lower bicuspids and cuspid have been set in position.

Note: T h e lower anterior teeth are set inward at the occlusal edge and are out of
I1ontnct with the lingual surfaces of the upper anterior teeth. T h i s is known as the
Note: T h e relationship to the alveolar ridge and inclination of each tooth varies al- swcr-jet. T h e lower anteriors should be slightly higher than the incisal edge of the
though the incisal edges are all on the same line. \lppcr anteriors. This is known as the over-bite and is equal to the depth of the
cusps of the molar teeth. See Fig. 150.
occlude with the distal incisal incline of the upper first bi-
cuspid and the mesial incisal incline of the upper second lateral incisors distally to the lower laterals. Set the necks
bicuspid. (Fig. I 53.) of the lower incisor teeth directly over the lower ridge. Set
15. Set the lower first bicuspid mesial to, and in the same manner, the necks of the lower cuspids anterior to the ridge. (Figs.
as the lower second bicuspid. T h e lower first bicuspid should 154, 155 and 1-56.)
occlude with the distal incisal incline of the upper cuspid I 7. T h e upper and lower teeth at the bicuspids and molars should
and the mesial occlusal incline of the upper first bicuspid. be in full contact when the articulator is closed in centric
(Fig. 154.1 occlusion.
164 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS ARRANGING ARTIFICIAL TEETH

18. A sheet of softened basewax when closed between the upper


and lower dentures should show bitemarks. (Figs. r 57, I 58
and 159.)

I-Cross section showing cuspal relationship. H-Shows the distance of the cuspal
height. G-Occlusal view of bicuspids and molars in Trubyte Teeth.

A-Plaster attaching lower cast to articulator extension arm. B-Lower cast. C-


Lower basewax. D-Upper basewax. E--Upper cast. F-Plaster attaching upper
cast to extension arm of articulator.

in partial dentures are often set directly to the cast without any
labial wax on the denture base. I t rn-dy be necessary to grind the
ridge-lap portion or mesial and distal surfaces of certain teeth in
order to fit them closer to the gum or the natural teeth. When
grinding porcelain teeth proceed as follows:
Note: T h e white markings show the occlusal contacts between the upper and lower
teeth as seen in a piece of modeling compound which had been softened and pressed I. Mount carborundum wheel on lathe chuck.
between an upper and lower set-up o f Trtthyte Teeth. 2. Cut a small strip of articulating paper. (Paper coated with
coloring which comes off on an object when pressed against
111. Arranging Teeth on Partial Dentures: it.) Place the articulating paper on the gum over the place
NOTE: T h e clasps used to retain partial dentures are not in- where the tooth is to be fitted (Fig. 160).
cluded in this Unit since making clasps involves advanced pro- 3. Press the tooth against the paper and rub the tooth slightly
cedures not described here. Arrange the necessary teeth in a against the paper. This will indicate on the tooth, by means
manner similar to that followed in arranging full dentures. Teeth of the coloring rubbed off the articulating paper, where the
I 68 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS ARRANGING ARTIFICIAL TEETH 169

tooth is to be ground in order to fit it closer to the gum


(Fig. 160).
4. Holding the tooth between the index finger and thumb of the
right hand and using the fingers of the left hand to steady
the right hand, bring the marked portion of the tooth to be
ground against the revolving carborundum wheel (Fig. I 61) .
5. Expose the part of the tooth to be ground so that the fingers
holding the tooth do not come into contact with the revolving
wheel.
6. Repeat marking the tooth on the articulating paper and
grinding until the tooth fits closely against the gum. Do
not keep the tooth too long against the revolving carborun-
dum wheel. Doing so overheats the tooth and may cause it
to crack.
NOTE:There are many types of modified teeth on the market.
(Figs. 162, 163, 164, 165, and 166.

Courtesy Universal Dental Co., Philadelphia, Pa.

FIG. 164. DR. FRENCH'S


MODIFIED TEETH
POSTERIOR

Questions :
I. Why are specific principles followed in arranging teeth?
2. What principle is followed in setting up upper anterior teeth?
3. What principle is followed in setting up upper posterior
teeth?
4. Why is it advantageous to set up the lower first molars first
in setting up lower teeth?
5. Why should the teeth be firmly attached to the base?
6. How far is the basewax extended?
7. What principles are followed in setting up the following
teeth as regards their relationship to each other?
a. The upper central, lateral and cuspid?
I70 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS ARRANGING ARTIFICIAL TEETH 171

, ,
*-.-

Courtesy Idcnl T o o t h Mfg.Co., Cambridge, Mass.


CUSPPOSTERIORS
FIG.166. TRUE
Note: Modified posterior teeth. Manufactured for purposes of increasing stability
of dentures during mastication.

b. The upper cuspid, first bicuspid and second bicuspid?


c. The upper first and second molars?
d. What principle governs the relationship of the upper bi-
cuspids to the upper molars?
8. Why is a plain line articulator inefficient as an instrument for
setting up artificial teeth?
Job Appraisal :
I. Are the uppers set according to the lower biteplate?
2 . Are the lowers set according to the upper biteplate?
3. Do the teeth interdigitate (occlude) properly?
4. Can you arrange the upper and lower teeth in 60 minutes
FIG.165. UJ-'PER \\'ITH DR. FRENCH'S
DENTURES
AND ~A~~~~
(average) ?
MODIFIED
POSTERIORS
Note: T h e inclined planes have been eliminated in order to prevent throwing Supplementary Assignment: (Information to be obtained by the
the
teeth "or~tof gear" when the dentures settle. At the same time, a sharp edge ant1 learner.)
food escapes were added to increase masticating efficiency.
I. Makes of teeth available on market.
2 . Modified posteriors, types.
3. Pinless teeth.
4. Anatomical arrangement of teeth.
5. Staining processes.
172 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS

6. Modifications of tooth arrangement.


7. Grinding and polishing of teeth.
8. Advantages, disadvantages, indications and contra-indications
of different types of teeth.
RELATED INFORMATION: U N I T NO. 10
REFERENCES: (Books for Additional Information.)
I . Trubyte Compend (Fifth edition). Dentists Supply Co., New York, ARRANGING ARTIFICIAL TEETH
XT V

2. Principles of Selection and Articulation. Dentists Supply Co., New


York, N. Y. CHART OF NORMAL INDIVIDUAL TOOTH POSITIONS
3. Nichols, I. G.: Prosthetic Dentistry. St. Louis: C. V. Mosby Co., 193I .
4. Frahm, F. W.: T h e Principles and Technics of Full Denture Construc- Labio-lingual
Labio-lingual MesiO-distal Rotational and me$?-distal
tion. Brooklyn: Dental Items of Interest Publishing Co., 1934. w
"u,E
($ni,
5. Turner, C. R. and Anthony, L. P.: American Textbook of Prosthetic position) PoS1'On
Dentistry. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, I 93 2.
Labial face is Perpendicular Parallel with On the
6. Swenson, M. G.: Outline of Full Denture Prosthesis, New York: New parallel to pro- cuwe of arch plane
York University Press, I 93 2. file line of face
CENTRAL
which is USU-
ally perpendic-
ular
I 2 3 4

To the lingual To the distal Distal half to- Above the


a t the neck a t the neck tated to the plane
UPPER lingual o r
LATERAL mesial to the According to the
labial t y p e of t h e
5 6 7 8 a r c h ; in t h e
square, the cen-
From perpendic- Very slightly Distal half of Tip on plane trals are very
ular to out at to the distal l a b i a1 f a c e and not be- little forward of
the neck, ac- at the neck pointing in di- low it the cuspids; in
UPPER
cording to the rection of pos- the tapering,
gender of the terior arch they are con-
face siderably for-
9 10 II 12 ward of the
cuspids; and
To the lingual Perpendicular Parallel to the On the plane In the ovoid
LOWER at the neck curve of the arch, the cen-
CENTRAL arch trals are more
13 14 IS 16 forward than in
the s uare arch
Perpendicular Slightly to the Distal to the On the plane and less than
LOWER distal lingual slight- in the tapering.
~ATERAL ly I7
18 I9 20 21

Out at the neck To the distal Distal half of Tip on the


a t the neck labia! face plane and
I.OWER polntlng i n ?ot above
CUSPID directipn of ~ t .
posterlors
22 23 24 25

C o ~ ~ r l a sofy Dr. Merrill G. Swenson, Professor of Prosthetic Dentistry, New York University, College of Den-
~lntry.
173
I74 MANUAL FOR DEN'rAL TECIINICIANS

Curve of Spee: This is an imaginary curve which begins at the in-


cisal tip of the lower front teeth (incisors) and passes through the top
of the cusps (occlusal elevations) of the posterior teeth.
Compensating Plane: T h e compensating plane is a mechailical
I t is that arrangement of the teeth whereby the contact is U N I T NO. 11
maintained between the upper and lower artificial dentures when the
teeth are moved, as in chewing. T h e plane must be in harmony with DENTURE WAXING TECHNIC
the excursions of the condyle.
Efficiency of Artificial Dentures: Sound human teeth in healthy After the technician arranges the tectli 01; the trial base, he proceeds
gums can exert a biting power of about roo pounds and a crushing to triin, ~ilould:tnd carve the wax so th;tt he has n matrix or pattern of the
strength of about 200 pounds. T h e human teeth are held indi- base of tlle finished denturc. T'lle wax p;lttcrn, u~llich togctl~crwith the
vidually in the bony sockets of the jaws. Artificial teeth mounted on teeth is known as the waxed case or trial denture, is tried in tllc patient's
~ n o u t hby tile dentist. Since tlie pattern or t r i d denture is madc o l w a x i t
artificial dentures are easily displaced. They can exert only about
can bc changed easily, wllcn necessary to change the arrangement o l the
I 5 to I 8 pounds pressure under favorable conditions.
teeth or tlie wnxing to any degree. T h e dentist obscrves at this time tllc
Modified Teeth: Bicuspids and molars have been designed espe- effect of the denture on the appeamnce of the patient. If the patient's face
cially to increase stability of dentures. During the past few years, looks too full, the dentist riiay reduce the thickness of tllc wax on tllc bucc,tI
bicuspids and molars have been modified as the result of various and labial surfaces of the denture. Contrnrily, i f tllc denture docs not fill
theories so that they bear little resemblance to human teeth. (Figs. out the p~cticnt's face the dentist 1113) add \vax to the buccal and 1:lbinl sur-
162, 163, 164, 165 and 166.) f & ~ . 'I'hcrc are many re.lsons wily the waxing of tllc denture bnsc rnust be
accur;ltely perforincd. 7'hcse reasons will bc discussed in the following
pilges.

Process or Principle : No. I 7: Waxing Vulcanite Ilentures.


a. IVaxinx ftdl uppcrs and Lo;r.el-s.
b. ?4'axinX partial rases.
Project or Jobs: ( T o be performed by the lear~ler.)
J O B NO. 49: Wax an edentulous upper and lower ( a wax den-
ture base without artificial teeth).
Jon No. 50: \Tax two full upper and lower dentures on base-
plate bases.
J O B No. 51: Wax two full upper and lower dentures on base-
wax bases.
Jon No. 52: U7ax six partial dentures.
NOTE: (Read the entire Unit carefully before beginning work.
Col~sultthe glossary for definitions of new words.)
Job Application: After the teeth are arranged wax is applied over
thc dcntul-e base, making a matrix which is later replaced by vul-
( ; i l ~ i t r .01- sonic other pcrmanent denture base material. When the
w:ising is completed, the dcriture is rcady for- trial in the patient's
I I I O L I I 11 I)y thc dcrltist.

' I ,
1 7 ~ MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS DENTURE WAXING TECHNIC I77
Vocational Information : Waxing u
should be done carefullv and
neatly as the permanent denture base duplicates the wax matrix.
Faults in waxing' are, therefore, repeated in the permanent denture.
Waxing on the buccal and labial surfaces should be modified by the
dentist to suit the facial appearance of the patient. Pits in the wax
should be eliminated and all teeth should be waxed securely.
Tools and Equipment: Bunsen burner, wax spatula, roach carver
or pen knife.
Materials: Basewax; blue casting wax (26-gauge); absorbent
cotton.
Procedure: (Follow operations in the order presented here.)
CAUTIONS:
a. D o not press too hard on wax as the arranged teeth may be
displaced.
b. To prevent burninx and distortion do not flame wax too lonx. -
c. ~ ~ wax p evenly
? ~i n d not too thickly on palate. .
d. Teeth should not be covered with wax too far over the buccal
Note: D o not make the elevations too pronounced. T h e elevation over the cuspid
and labial surfaces. should be most prominent, that over the lateral incisor least prominent. T h e eleva-
e. W a x should not be too thin over t h e pins of the anterior tions should be smooth and should not extend too far toward the rim of the denture.
In the lower denture the elevations below the anterior teeth should be practically
teeth. eliminated.
f. D o not allow pits to remain in the wax.
g. T r i m borders bf wax dentures to prevent cuttilzg or scra~ch-
ing the patient's mouth durilzg t r y i n .
h. W i p e waxed denture with alcohol for hygienic reasons, before
returning to dentist.
I. Make wax bases on an upper and lower set of casts which
have had reliefs and tinfoil applied. (Follow procedure in .
Unit No. 6 (11) ; Process or Principle No. I I ; Job. No. 28)
There will be no teeth arranged on this set of casts.
NOTE: These casts will be used later for technic purposes in
the instruction UnitJ to follow.
2 . I n the full cases, after the teeth have been arranged, add
melted wax to reenforce teeth, extending ridge-like elevations
half way toward the rim of the denture on the buccal and
labial surfaces, opposite each of the teeth. (Fig. 167.)
3. Adapt a piece of wax, folded to double thickness, over the
buccal and labial surfaces, allowing the ridge-like elevations
to remain on the buccal aspect, especially at the cuspids, less
'
at laterals, gradually less about the molars and least at the Note: Fold a sheet of basewax to double thickness. Allow the wax to extend over
the cervical thirds of the teeth and past the rim of the denture.
lower incisors. (Fig. I 68.)
178 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS DENTURE WAXING TECHNIC I79

4. Holding the penknife with a pen-grasp, festoon all teeth at


the junction of tHe buccal, labial and lingual surfaces at the
"collar" of the artificial teeth, and in the approximating
spaces between the teeth. All festoons should be at right
angles to the long axes of the teeth. (Figs. 169, 170 and

Note: Another method of carving buccal and labial surfaces of waxed denture is to
wax denture completely and then use a Roach carver to form buccal and lingual
elevations. T h e method shown in Figs. 167 and 168 is easier for the beginner.
A-Plaster holding lower cast to articulator. B-Lower cast. C-Denture base.
D-Upper denture base. &Upper cast. F-Plaster holding upper cast to
Note: Festooning should follow the cervical line a t the beginning of the "collar." articulator. G--Wax before carving.
T h e wax at the interproximate surfaces between the teeth should not be d u g out too
deeply. In this illustration the wax has been trimmed around the rim of the den-
ture to follow the denture limit. T h e rim should be smooth to avoid injuring the 171.) Do not festoon too deeply in the interproximate
patient's mouth when the dentist tries the dentures in the mouth. spaces between the teeth.
5. Smooth the wax around the teeth and on the palatal surfaces.
(Fig. 172.)
6. Soften a piece of 26-gauge blue casting wax between the
palms of the hands and adapt over the palatal surface.
(Fig. 173.)
7. Trim the blue casting wax on the palatal surface, seal with
heated spatula and festoon around the teeth with a pen-
knife. (Figs. 173, 174, .175 and 176.)
8. Eliminate all pits and other imperfections in the wax, using
Note: T h e w a x should be festooned a t right angles to the long axes of the teeth. 111
wax spatula, or pick up the Bunsen burner and pass the flame
the anterior teeth having pins, the wax should cover the pins well. quickly over the area to be smoothed.
I 80 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS DENTURE WAXING T E C H N I C 181

9. Using cotton wad, polish the waxed denture after chilling


and while holding under running cold water (Figs. T 76,
177)-
10.I n waxing partials follow the gingival contours around the
remaining teeth on the cast as in making partial denture bases
(Unit No. 6, 11) and in making partial biteplates (Unit
No. 7) (Fig. 178).

FIG.1 7 3 . FESTOONING
O N T H E PALATE
AROUND THE TEETH

3. Different types of wax obtainable for waxing.


4. Rugae; application of artificial rugae.
5. Other methods of festooning wax.
6. Other methods of polishing wax.
Questions :
Note: The wax has been festooned around the lingual surfaces of the teeth. I. What happens if too much pressure is applied on wax?
2. Why should all pits and irregularities in wax be eliminated?
I I. Keep wax away from the labial and buccal surfaces of teeth 3. Why is wax added on the palatal surfaces of the baseplate
set (butted) against the gum in partial cases. Allow only dentures?
a small amount, if any, wax to show in the interproximate 4. Why should wax completely cover pins on teeth?
spaces of teeth set against the gum. 5. Why is it necessary to have a uniform thickness on palate?
Supplementary Assignment: (Information to be obtained by the 6. Why should waxing not be too thick on lower dentures?
learner.) 7. Why should waxing not be too thick on upper dentures?
I. Various waxes used. Job Appraisal :
2 . Different methods of carving wax on labial and buccal sur- I. Have all pits and other imperfections been eliminated?
faces. 2 . Has the wax been properly festooned around the teeth?
I 82 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS DENTURE WAXING TECHNIC 183

A-Carved rugae.
FIG. 175. LOWERDENTURE
(LINGUALSURFACECARVED)
A-Carving to extend lower tooth forms.
Note: T h e outline around the teeth of the cast is sharp and the buccal extensions of
Note: Carving on lingual and palatal surface to extend the outlines of the teeth is the denture are well finished. Where the teeth are butted against the cast, they do
of advantage, especially where the natural alveolar ridges of the patient have re- not show any wax a t their interproximate spaces on the labial surface.
ceded, because it allows more room for the tongue.
3. Are the pins on the teeth covered and not visible on the
palatal surface?
4. Are the teeth sealed tightly to the wax?
5. Is the wax carved and polished?
6. Can you wax a case in 25 minutes (average)?
REFERENCES:
(Books for Additional Information.)
I. Nichols, I. G.: Prosthetic Dentistry. St. Louis: C. V. Mosby Company,
193'.
2. Frahm, F. W.: Principles and Technics of Full Denture Construction.
Brooklyn: Dental Items of Interest Publishing Company, 1934.
3. T u r n e r , C. R. and Anthony, L. P.: American Textbook of Prosthetic
Dentistry. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1932.
4. Swenson, M. G.: Outline of Full Denture Prosthesis. N e w York: N e w
York University Press, 1932.

Side View Front View

Note: T h e wax is free of pits, it is polished, and the carving is not too pran?uncecl
or too high toward the rim of the denture. T h e carving at the lower anterlorr 18
not prominent. T h e wax has not been d u g out too much between the teeth. While
the teeth are well exposed the wax nevertheless covers the collars of the teeth.
I 86 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS DENTURE FLASKING TECHNIC 187
Vocational Information: Flasks consist as a rule of three parts:
( I ) a lower (base) or shallow part which has a floor or base, ( 2 )
an upper (counter) or deeper part which fits over the lower and
(3) a cover. (Fig. 179.) Flasks may be closed firmly by the use of
bolts and nuts or by using flask clamps. Flasks are made of iron,
brass or bronze. Bronze flasks are most desirable because they are

FIG.180. DENTURE FLASK


Note: This type of denture flask is used in conjunction with a flask clamp.

not affected by sulphur, can be easily cleaned and are not distorted
i n use.
I. Clamp flask. a-Cover. b-Upper part (counter). c-Lower part (base).
2. Bolt flask. a-Cover. b-Upper part (counter). *Lower part (base). 3. Bolts Tools and Equipment: Vulcanite denture investment flask; flask
and nuts for bolt flask. press; flask clamp; plaster bowl; plaster spatula and plaster knife.
(Figs. 180, I 81.)
188 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS DENTURE FLASKING TECHNIC 189

Materials : Plaster, water, shellac, Sandarac and liquid soap.


Procedure : (Follow operations in the order presented here.)
CAUTIONS :
a. Examine the waxed case (waxed denture and cast) carefully
before immersing it i n water t o make sure that t h e denture
is properly sealed to the cast.
b. Examine the teeth to make sure that they are securely waxed.
c. B e careful not to loosen t h e teeth when using wax solvent to
remove excess wax.
d. T o prevent breaking the cast during vulcanizing, do not trim
too thin.
e. Be sure that the cast clears the sides of the flask to prevent
breakage of the cast. A-Lower part (base) of flask. B-Cast, clearing sides of lower part of flask.
C-Lower denture sealed to cast.
f. Minimize undercuts by setting t h e long axes of t h e teeth at
right angles to the base of the flask. FIG.183. UPPERWAXEDDENTUREI N LOWERHALF (BASE)OF FLASK
g. M a k e sure that the teeth are not in direct contact with the A-Lower half of flask. B-Upper denture sealed to cast.
sides of the flask or too close to the cover of the flask. Note: T h e importance of making sure that the teeth are clean and firmly attached
to the wax and that the denture base is sealed all around the cast-bucally, lin-
h. Keep t h e teeth free from separating media or lubricants. D o gually, palatally in upper and linqually in lower-cannot be overemphasized.
not cover the top r i m of the flask itself or the upper part of
t h e flask will not fit properly.
i. T o avoid loosening the teeth or displacing t h e base, do not
jar the flask too hard when pouring plaster into the
"counter."
j. D o not cut plaster teeth lower than the wax base or too close
to the gingival margin in flasking partial cases.
k. Be sure that plaster in counter is poured well into the spaces
between the teeth.
I. Carefully seal all around the rim of the waxed denture so
that it is fast to the cast; with the plaster knife remove the
cast with the sealed waxed denture from the articulator ex-
tension arm.
2. Using the plaster knife, trim the cast so that it clears the
sides of the lower half of the flask. Set the cast in the lower
part of the flask. (Figs. 182 and 183.)
3. Place the upper or counter part of the flask in position over
the lower, place the flask cover in position. Make sure that
the teeth do not touch the sides or the cover of the flask. A-Lower part (base) of flask. B-Upper part (counter) of flask. &The sealed
wnxed denture. This is immersed in water so that the plaster used in flasking will
(Fig. 184.) not lose its strength through having water absorbed by the dry cast.
4. Remove the cast from the flask and immerse the cast in cold Note: 111hiis ill\~str;~tion we call see that the teeth do not touch the sides of the flask
water until nll bubhling ceases. IIIIII 11i:tt we II:IVC:~lnpleroom hctween the edge of the teeth and the top of the flask.
IgO MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS DENTURE FLASKING TECHNIC I9I
5. Make a plaster mix and fill the lower half of the flask to
about two-thirds of its capacity.
6. Set the cast into the plaster in the lower half of the flask,
so that the occlusal plane of the teeth is parallel with the
bottom or base of the flask. (This can usually be accom-
plished by setting the heels or condyles of the cast somewhat
lower than the anterior portion (Figs. 185, 186 and 187).

A-Denture waxed and sealed to cast. B-Plaster has been smoothed and removed
from waxed surface a s well as from top rim of sides of flask. C-Lower half of flask.

A-Denture waxed and sealed to cast. B-Plaster into which cast has been invested.
C-Lower portion of flask.
Note: T h e long axes of the teeth are parallel with the vertical elevation (sides) of
the flasks. T h e plaster is smooth and there are no undercuts between the plaster and
the waxed denture. If directions are not followed properly all the preceding work
will be in vain.

Note: T h e case is centered in lower half of flask. T h e plaster comes up to side of


cast, below waxed denture base.

7. Mould the plaster, removing all excess, between the rim of


the denture and the rim of the lower half of the flask. Wait
until plaster sets. (Figs. I 88 and I 89;)
8. Apply shellac and sandarac or liquid soap to the plaster be-
tween the periphery of the waxed denture and the rim of the
flask. (Figs. r go and 191.)

NOTE: Wait until separating medium is dry before proceeding.


T h e preferred method is to apply tinfoil over the casts as explained
in the following Unit (No. 13). T h e counter or upper part of the A-Lower half (base) of flask. B-Plaster into which cast has been set. C-Waxed
denture sealed to cast.
flask should be poured after the tinfoil is applied. Tinfoil is ex-
Note: I n these illustrations we note that the dentures are centered in the lower half
tended to cover this portion of the plaster between the cast and the of the flask. T h e plane of the teeth is parallel with the floor of the flask. T h e
flask and also the wax and part of the teeth. (See Unit No. 13.) plaster does not cover the rim of the flask or the wax the dentures.
192 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS DENTURE FLASKING TECHNIC I93
9. When the separating medium is dry or after tinfoil is applied, Supplementary Assignment: (Information to be obtained by the
as shown in Unit 13, and the denture is sealed to the cast, set learner.)
the upper or counter part of the flask in position over the I. Various types of flasks, advantages and disadvantages of each.
lower. Make a plaster mix and fill the upper or counter 2. Separating media, types commonly used in commercial lab-
portion of the flask, pour the plaster along the side of the oratories; advantages and disadvantages of each.
flask to prevent the inclusion of air bubbles.
10. Jar the flask to make sure air bubbles are excluded.
I I. Place the cover in position and wipe all excess plaster from

FIG. 190. UPPEIZDEN.TURE I N BOLTTYPE


FLASKBD FLASK
A-Lower half of flask. B-Plaster into which cast was set for flasking. &Waxed
denture sealed to cast. A-Lower half of flask. Note: All plaster has been removed from the outside of
Note: A careful examination reveals that the flask is clean, the plaster is smooth and the flask and from the rim so that the upper part of the flask will fit accurately.
well adapted to the cast but does not cover the waxed denture. T h e long axes of B-The plaster used for flasking has been smoothed and molded around the cast and
the teeth are parallel with the vertical elevation (sides) of the flask. There are no covered with liquid soap. C-The cast. Note: T h e cast is centered in the lower
undercuts between the waxed denture and the plaster. W e can also see the details half of the flask. I t does not touch the sides of the flask and there is a layer of
in the waxing. T w o different shades of wax were used in this case; one, a light plaster between it and the base of the flask. D-The relief metal over the hard
color for the buccal and lingual surfaces, and the second, a dark color for the area and over the rugae. E-The baseplate of the denture base covered by a sheet
palatal surface and over the condyles. of 26-gauge blue casting wax. Note: T h e baseplate has been cut in half to show
the details of the relief over the hard bony areas on the cast. T h e denture base is
sealed to the cast so that there are no undercuts between the cast and the denture
the outside and rim of the flask. (Figs. 192 and 193.) base. F-The basewax into which the teeth have been set. Note: T h e wax has
been festooned properly around the palatal surfaces of the teeth. T h e pins of the
12. If bolt type flask is used place bolts in position and tighten anterior teeth have been covered. G-The teeth. Note: T h e teeth are clean. All
nuts. wax has been removed from them. If the teeth have wax on them they will become
loose when the wax is eliminated or during the process of packing dental rubber.
13. I n partial cases, cut the remaining (plaster or stone) teeth T h e long axes of the teeth are parallel with the side of the flask. T h e plane of the
on the cast to within 1/16 inch of the wax base. (Figs. 194 teeth at the incisal edges and occlusal surfaces is parallel with the floor of the flask.
and 195.)
14. I n flasking the wax denture bases follow the general instruc- 3. Methods of removing excess wax from teeth.
tions for flasking full dentures. Use separating media or 4. Methods of avoidinn extreme undercuts in flasking cases.
preferably liquid soap and pour the counter or upper part of 5. Various methods of cutting off plaster teeth in cases.
the flask. (Fig. 185.)
,
= 94 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS DENTURE FLASKING TECHNIC I95

Note: T h e plaster teeth should be cut at a slant outward to the edge of the cast or
crescent shaped in a mesio-distal direction. Never cut the teeth flush with the wax.
Always allow the plaster teeth to extend higher than the wax.

A-Plaster used for flasking case. B-Upper cast. =Waxed denture (denture
matrix). D-Diatoric tooth. %Upper half of flask. F-Cover of flask. G-
Lower half of flask.

A-Plaster used for flasking case. B-Lower cast. C-Waxed denture (denture
matrix). D-Diatoric tooth. E-Upper half of flask. F-Cover of flask. G-
Lower half of flask.

Questions:
I. Why are dentures flasked?
2. What precautions should be observed when flasking in the
A-Flask. B-Plaster used in flasking. C-"Horseshoe" shaped denture. D-The
lower or base portion of the flask? plaster teeth have been cut to about two millimeters higher than the wax of the
3. What precautions should be observed in pouring the counter trial denture base. Note: T h e cast is centered in the lower half of the flask and
portion of the flask parallel with the base of the flask. T h e waxed denture is sealed securely to the
cast around the edge of the denture.
4. Why must the waxed dentures be sealed to the casts?
5. Why is it necessary to remove excess wax from tooth sur-
f aces?
6. Why should the teeth be waxed securely?
7. How may undercuts be avoided?
8. I Y h ! arc sepal-atiiig medin used atid wh!. should scl>nratiug
tncdi;~I)c kel)t ;IM.;L! (I-0111t lic tcct li l'
0 . l h u . C:III the teeth 1)e i ~ i j ~ ~ ;I
~ -i cl l ddil-ec,t co11tac.t with the
sides or top of the flask?
lo. il'hy should plaster teeth in partials Ile cut higher than the lIEI.,ATF,Il I N F O R M A T I O N : U N I T NO. I2

wax?
I r . W h y is licluid soap or tin foiling better than separating ~ n e d i a DENTURE FLASKING TECHNIC
in flaskingi
Flasks: Flasks with L>olts and nuts have been largely replaced b!
Job Appraisal : clamp flasks. R r o l i ~ eflasks are most desirable because the) do not
I. W a s the cast trini~ncd to fit wcll i l l the lower part of the
I-ust in the vulcanizer and they can easil) be kept clean. Brass flasks
flask.? <u-enot rigid enough and become distorted d u e to the clamp pressure.
2 . Are the tceth out of colitact with the uppel- part alid with the
cover of the flask? Separating Media: Tinfoil should be used over the plaster between
3 Lloes the p l ; ~ s t e used
~ - in flaskilig clear the edge of the waxed the edge of t h e flask :und thc waxed denture. W h e r e tinfoil is not
denture? used, separating media must be applied to facilitate the opening of
4. il'erc ~lndct-cutsa~roidedto facilitate separatilig the flask.; the flask for thc clinii~iationof the wax. I t is better to use liquid
5. Can 1 0 ~ 1flask :1 case iri 1 0minutes (averagc ) ;. soap as a separating medium, rather than shellac and Sandarac which
'11-eruined when the flask is heated.
I<EFERV:NCI~:S: (Rooks for Additional 11iform;ition.)
I . Nicliolsl 1. G.: l'rc~stlictic I)entistr!. St. Louis: C. \'. Mush!. Co., I O ; I . Tooth Cleansing Preparations : Carboll tetrachloride (carbons) ,
2 . 1'1-.~lim,I.'. W.: t'l.inciples ;rnd rl't.clinics of Full I ) c l i t ~ ~ ~
Constl-uc-tioll.
-c ~ l c o h o l ,chloroforn~01-other wax s o l ~ ~ c nmay
t s be used to clean wax
1:roolli n : I ) c ~ i ~ nI tL.ms
l of Intel-cst I'ublisliing Co., I 034. 11-omthe tooth surfaces. I t is better to cleanse the teeth with a sharp
3. ' l ' l ~ r n c r , C. R. :lnd .-Inllir~ny, I,. P.: :Imericnn l ~ ' c \ - t h o c ~ofk 1'1.os~hctit: ~ristrunient, as all tooth cleansing preparations tend to loosen thc
I)c~:tistr!.. [,en & I'cbigcr,
1'liil.rd~~lpl~i;i: ~(lzz. teeth from the wax. Tooth cleansing agents should be used sparingly.
DENTURE TINFOILING TECHNIC I99
Materials: No. 60 or 40 tinfoil, absorbent cotton, duco glue.
Procedure : (Follow operations in the order presented here.)
CAUTIONS :
UNIT NO. 13 a. Tinfoil must be seczlrely burnished against the teeth to pre-
vent seepage of plaster under the foil when pouring the
DENTURE TINFOILING TECHNIC counter during the flusking operation.
b. Avoid folding or creasing the tinfoil to prevent its being
W e have invested the case in the lower half of the flask and are about incorporated too deeply in the vulcanite. .
to pour the upper half. Before doing so, we shall apply tinfoil over the c. Do not displace the teeth when burnishing tinfoil.
denture and the plaster around the cast. T h e tinfoil will serve as a shield
d. Do not distort the wax matrix by pressing or burnishing the
between the plaster and the wax and will also aid us in separating the two
halves of .the flask, so that the wax may be eliminated and dental rubber
tinfoil too hard.
inserted in its place. If we foil the case properly, the vulcanized denture e. Be sure to cover all of the plaster in the @sk with tinfoil to
will be smooth and will require less work in trimming and polishing. Fur- facilitate the opening of the $?ask.
thermore, the surface of the vulcanized dental rubber will be much denser. f. Avoid puncturing or tearing the tinfoil.
If any minute pits are present in the waxing, the tinfoil will cover them. I. Cut two pieces of tinfoil, each to fit over approximately one-
T h e value of tinfoiling will become more apparent to us when we examine half of the palatal surface of the upper denture from the
the vulcanized dentures and compare them with the vulcanized bases with- front to the back. Then cut three pieces of tinfoil to fit
out teeth which have been flasked without tinfoiling. I n this Unit,we shall around the buccal and labial surfaces. Tinfoil should be cut
give our attention to the method of applying tinfoil.
to extend from the beginning of the incisal or occlusal third
of the teeth to the plaster in the flask. Additional tinfoil
Process o r Principle: No. 19. Application of Tinfoil to Flasked should be cut to cover the plaster in the flask to the inner
Dentures.
edge of the rim of the flask. (Fig. 196.)
a. Cutting of tinfoil for covering wax matrix.
b. Method of applying tinfoil.
Project o r Jobs: (To be performed by the learner.)
JOB NO. 57: Foil four sets of full upper and lower flasked
dentures.
JOB NO. 58: Foil six partial dentures after flasking.
NOTE: (Read the entire Unit carefully before beginning work.
Consult the glossary for definitions of new words.)
Job Application: The application of tinfoil gives a hard smooth
surface to the vulcanite. Tinfoil produces a cleaner denture which
requires a minimum of trimming and polishing. Tinfoil is indis-
pensable when base materials other than vulcanite are used.
Vocational Information: Tinfoil in various gauges, No. 60 or 40,
should be used for vulcanite. For denture base materials other than
vulcanite, No. 20 foil should be used.
11-For labial surface. b-For buccal surface. c and d-For palatal surface.
Tools and Equipment: Soft brushwheel, scissors, pointed orangc- e-For buccal surfacc. Note: Adapt the parts c and d so that the sharp points of the
wood stick. . two triangles are toward the incisor teeth and the bases of the triangles are toward
the rear of the palate.
198
200 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS
DENTURE TINFOILING TECHNIC 20 I

2. Cut tinfoil for lower cases as indicated for the upper, except 7. After covering the cast and the plaster between the cast and
the part to fit the lingual surfaces and the tongue space. the rim of the flask with tinfoil, glue the overlapping edges
These should be cut square for the lingual surfaces and the with duco glue.
piece for the tongue space should be rounded in front. 8. I n lower dentures cover the lingual space with tinfoil, other-
(Fig. 197.1 wise follow same procedure as for upper.. (Fig. 198, No. I.)

a- -For lingual surface. b-For buccal surface. -For labial surface. d-For buc-
cal surface. e-For lingual surface. f-For lingual surface at the incisors. Note:
Cover the lingual space with an additional piece of tinfoil, extending it to the inner
edge of the flask.

3. With absorbent cotton wad, burnish the tinfoil on the wax


of the palatal syface of the upper denture and overlap it in
the center of the palate not less than f/4 inch. Extend the
palatal tinfoil to a point about % inch below the incisal and
occlusal surfaces of the teeth. (Fig.. I 98.)
U , I

4. Cut "V" shaped grooves in the tinfoil covering the teeth on


the palatal, labial, lingual and buccal surfaces to facilitate the .
I-Tinfoil applied to lower denture. 2-Tinfoil applied to upper denture. 3-Buc-
close adaptation of the tinfoil in the interproximate spaces cal view of upper denture. A-Tinfoil on buccal surface. R-Tinfoil on plaster
extending to inner edge of flask. C-Plaster, tinfoil not yet applied. Note: T h e tin-
between the teeth. Use a round-edged, tapered orangewood foil is free of folds or creases.
stick for this purpose. (Fig. 198, No. 3.)
5. Remove one side of the palatal tinfoil. Apply glue to the 9. I n partial cases follow the same technique but do not cover
overlapping margin and replace on the waxed case. the remaining teeth on the cast itself.
6. Adapt tinfoil around buccal and labial surfaces of the waxed 10. After the tinfoil is adapted place the upper part of the flask
case, extending the tinfoil from approximately inch below in position, fill with plaster as indicated in the procedure in
the incisal and occlusal surfaces of the teeth to the edge OF the previous U&t, No. 12 (Fig. I 99).
the flask, covering the plaster. Use a separate piece of tin- Supplementary Assignment: (Information to be obtained by the
foil on the plaster used in flasking. Cut "V" shaped grooves Jcarner.)
over the teeth to facilitate adaptation in the interproximatc I. Uses of different thicknesses of tinfoil.
spaces. Seal the overlapping edges of the tinfoil with duco 2 . Various methods of adapting tinfoil.
glue. (Fig. 198, Nos. I, 2, and 3.) 3. Mechanical tinfoil adapters.
202 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS
DENTURE TINFOILING TECHNIC 203

3. Is all of the plaster and wax covered by the tinfoil?


4. Were the teeth and wax left undisturbed?
5. Can you foil a case in 15 minutes (average)?
REFERENCES:(Books for Additional Information.)
I. Nichols, I. G.: Prosthetic Dentistry. St. Louis: C. V. Mosby Co., 1931.
2. Frahm, F. W.: Principles and Technics of Full Denture Construction.
Brooklyn: Dental Items of Interest Publishing Co., 1934.
3. Turner, C. R. and Anthony, L. P.: American Textbook of Prosthetic
Dentistry. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1932.

A--Lower half of 'flask. B-Plaster. C-Waxed denture. D-Plaster poured in


upper part of flask. E-Cover of flask.

4. Various substitutes for tinfoil.


5. Silex method; glazene, cellophane; method of using; advan-
tages and disadvantages.
Questions :
I. What is the purpose in using tinfoil?
2. Why should tinfoil be securely sealed?
3. How is the tinfoil prepared for an upper denture; for a
lower denture; for a partial denture?
4. How is the tinfoil prepared around the teeth?
5. Why is it important not to puncture or tear the tinfoil?
6. What may occur if foil is burnished too long?
7. What may result from creases in the tinfoil?
Job Appraisal :
I. Is the tinfoil smooth?
2. Are the edges of the tinfoil glued securely?
U N I T NO. 14
IZF,LATEI> I N F O R M A T I O N : U N I T NO. I3

W A X ELIMINATION TECHNIC
DENTURE TINFOILING TECHNIC
W i t h the assembling of the impression which was obtained by the
Silex: Liquid silex may be used in place of tinfoil. T h e silex should dcntist from the mouth of the patient, we beg;~nbuilding the denture
be applied with a brush. Be careful not to get the silex on the \vhicll progressed through the undel-lying processes of boxing, pouring casts,
porcelain teeth. trimming casts, relieving of hard arms, biteplate building, articulating
and arranging of teeth for trial. T h c denture, after being waxed, was
Cellophane: Cellophane or ,glazene may be used in place of tinfoil. returned to thc dentist for trial in thc 1110~1thof the patient. W h e n the
D e n t u r e Bases O t h e r T h a n Vulcanite: All of the plaster and dentist and the patient were satisiicd with the fit and appearance of thc
the cast must be completely covered with tinfoil. denture, thc dentist returned it to the technician who began the
proccsscs of conlpletion by investing the denture in a vulcanizing flask. I n
this Unit we shall describe the method of eliminating the wax and baseplate
trial denture base so that the matrix (the space left) may he packcd with A
per~nanentdenture base such as \rulcanite.

Process o r Principle: No. 20. Elimination of Trial Denture Base.


a. W a x elimination.
b. Opening of flasks.
c. Preparation of flasks for packing dental rubber.
Project o r Jobs: ( T o be performed by the learner.)
JOB No. 59: Elimi~latewax from denture base without teeth.
JOB NO. 60: Eliminate wax from four sets of full upper and
lower dentures.
JOB No. 61: Eliminate wax from six partial dentures.
NOTE: (Read the entire Unit carefully before beginning work.
Consult the glossary for definitions of new words.)
Job Application: T h e wax matrix of the flasked denture must be
clit~iinntedso that dental rubber or some other denture base material
III:~!, I)c inserted or packed in the spnce formerly occupied by the wax
. I I I ~ IIx~scplatetrial denture.
Vocational Information : I t is thc spnce Icft :~ftcrthe wax is clim-
III;I(C<~ tI1:1t is I-C:LII!. thc 11l;ltrix of the denture and not the wax itself.
\$';I\- ~ I ~ I I I ~ I I : I ~i l~l ( ~I I I C l:~bo~-;tt~~-!' is imn1edi;ttely followed hy the
I ~ , I ( ~ 1~ ~I- 0I ( (~ . 4 4 ,I I ( . ~ o I - c t l ~ cfl:~sk112s h a ~ ltimc to cool.
.'iI,c,
206 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS
W A X ELIMINATION TECHNIC 207

Tools and Equipment: Gas stove, two large iron pots, ladle, col- i. Do not allow overhanging particles of plaster to remain in
lander, plaster knife, pliers, canvas gloves, flask press. (Fig. 200.) flaJk. '
Materials : Boiling water, washing soda. I. Pour two quarts of water in each of the two iron pots. Place
a level tablespoonful of washing soda in each pot. Bring
Procedure : (Follow operations in the order presented here.) water in both pots to a boil on gas stove (Fig. 203).
CAUTIONS: 2. Place the flask, in the press or clamp, into the boiling water
a. T h e length of boiling time depends on the type of wax wed. in the first pot for three minutes (Figs. 201 and 203).
Some waxes require longer heating. Too little boiling may
cause a fractured cast on opening. T o prevent tooth dis-
placement, do not tighten flask-press after immersing h boil-
ing water.

b. Be sure the @sk-press or clamp is tightly closed. Courtesy S. S. White Dental M f g . Co., Philadelphiu, Pa.
c. Do not overheat wax as it loosens teeth and the wax is hard FIG.201. CLAMP
PRESSFOR HOLDING FLASKDURING WAXE L ~ M ~ N A T ~ O N
to eliminate. (Figs. 205 and 206.) PROCESS OR D U R I N G . VULCANIZING
d. Separate the fiask carefully, do not w e too much force, other- I and 2-Discs to take up slack. Note: A "dummy" is placed above the flask when
wise the cast may be fr~ctured. boiling out so that the clamp can be tightened.
e. Water and all utensils used must be kept clean to prevent
impurities from entering the plaster in the flask. 3. Remove flask from boiling water, and place on bench. In-
f. Do not displace teeth while removing wax. stead of using actively boiling water, hot water may be used
g. Be sure all wax is elim'nated from flask, otherm'se it zenzenll and the flask allowed to remain for five to ten minutes.
interfere with proper packing and vulcartization. 4. Using stub end of plaster knife, open flask carefully, raising
h. Be sure all loosened teeth are replaced in their original posi- the rear of the flask (heel or condyle portion) first (Fig.
tions. 202).
208 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS WAX ELIMINATION TECHNIC 209
5. Using pliers or tweezers raise the melted wax matrix out of 10.Set the two halves of the flask in a warm place and allow
the flask (Fig. 207). to dry.
6. Place each half of flask on sieve or collander and hold over
the first pot in which the flask was immersed. Pour clean
boiling water from the second pot over each of the parts of
the flask to remove all remaining wax. (Using the clean
water in one of the iron pots while holding the flask in the

FIG.203. Two POTSUSEDIN POURING


SCALDING
WATEROVER OPENED
WAXAROUND TEETH
FLASKTO ELIMINATE
A-Stub of knife. B-Lower half of flask. C-Upper half of flask. D-Cover of
flask. Note: The flask is hot. Gloves should be worn or a towel used when handling
hot flasks. A-Stove. B-Pot. C-Flask in wire strainer. D-Ladle containing clean scalding
hot water from the second pot.
collander over the other pot, eliminates pouring water con-
taining melted wax back on the flask from which we are try- Supplementary Assignment: (Information to be obtained by the
ing to eliminate the wax matrix.) (Figs. 203, 208 and 209.) learner.)
7. Using plaster knife and pliers, remove all small overhanging I. What are escape gates; how are they made?
particles of plaster from flask, especially at the denture space. 2. What apparatus is used for wax elimination?
8. Replace loosened teeth in proper places (Figs. 208 and 209). 3. Methods of preventing tooth displacement.
9. Cleanse the plaster off the counter and the cast with scalding 4. Methods of opening flasks containing casts with undercuts or
water. thin alveolar ridges.
WAX ELIMINATION TECHNIC 211
210 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS

FIG. 204. CROSSSECTION OF COUNTER(UPPERPART) OF FLASKSHOWING


TRIAL DENTURE BASE WHICH IS ELIMINATEDDURING WAX ELIMINATION
PROCESS, FROM CAST
SEPARATED
A-Trial denture base. B-Flask. C-Tooth (all of the teeth must remain in place I. Lower half of flask containing cast. A-Flask. B-Plaster. C-Cast. Note:
in the counter). D-Plaster of the counter. T h e waxed denture sealed to the cast which was originally invested i n the lower
half of the flask has now been transferred to the upper or counter part of the flask.
z. Upper part of flask with waxed denture base being removed. A-Upper part of
flask. B-Tinfoil which was applied on the palatal surface of the waxed denture.
C-Teeth separated from waxed trial base. Note: While some melted wax is
present around the teeth, most of the wax is in one piece. D-The softened wax
base or baseplate being removed in one piece.

Questions :
I . Why is wax eliminated?
2. W h y is the flask heated prior to removing wax?
3. W h y should we not allow the teeth to become misplaced?
4. W h y should the water be free of impurities?
5. W h y is the flask first opened at the heels?
6. Why must the flask press be closed tightly before it is placed
in the boiling water?
7. W h y is it important to remove all of the wax from the flasks?
8. Why are the small, thin particles of over-hanging plaster
Fig. 205-lower cast showing wax melted and flowing all over the case. removed?
Fig. 206-The teeth are floating in melted wax; 'the plaster is covered with it.
Job Appraisal :
Note: Poorly vulcanized dentures will result if wax is not totally eliminated fro111
flask. If wax is allowed to melt too much, it seeps into plaster and is hard to I. Has all wax been eliminated?
eliminate.
2. Have all loose particles been removed?
3. Are the teeth in their original positions?
4. Can you boil out wax in 2 0 minutes (average)?
I
212 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS 1

RELATED INFORMATION: UNIT NO. 14


WAX ELIMINATION TECHNIC

Heating Flasks: Dry Method. The flask is placed in a hot oven


and heated evenly for five to ten minutes. This does away with
soaking the plaster in the flask in the water. After the flask is heated,
it is opened and the loosened soft wax is removed. Scalding water
is poured over the cast to eliminate the wax remnants, or a wax
cleansing preparation may be used.
Washing Soda: May be added to the water for washing out the
wax remnants. Use a tablespoon or more of soda to a gallon of
water. Eliminate last traces of wax by gently pouring scalding water
over the teeth.

FIG. 208 FIG. 209


FIG.208. OPENEDUPPERFLASKED CASEWITH WAXELIMINATED '

a-Counter, or upper part of flask, containing the teeth. b-Lower part of flask
which holds the cast.
FIG. 209. OPENED
LOWERFLASKED
CASEWITH WAXELIMINATED
a-Upper part of flask containing the teeth. b-Lower part of flask holding the cast.
Note: The wax has been thoroughly eliminated and the teeth are in their original
places.

REFERENCES:
(Books for Additional Information.)
I. Nichols, I. G.: Prosthetic Dentistry. St. Louis: C. V. Mosby Co., I 93 I .
2. Frahm, F. W.: Principles and Technics of Full Denture Construction.
Brooklyn: Dental Items of Interest Publishing CO., 1934.
3. Turner, C. R. and Anthony, L. P.: American Textbook of Prosthetic
Dentistry. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1932.
VULCANITE DENTURE PACKING TECHNIC 215

tools may be made from tapered old dental instruments. There are
many different kinds of denture base materials other than rubber.
Tools and Equipment: Vulcanite shears, packing tools, tile slab,
packing table, flask wrench, plaster knife, linen cloth (from dental
rubber), flask bolts and nuts, flask press or clamp (Figs. 2 10,2 I I
U N I T N O 15 and 212.)
VULCANITE D E N T U R E PACKING TECHNIC

If we stop for a moment and consider the purpose of the various pro-
cedures that we have learned up to this point, we realize that they have led
to the preparation of a wax mould, as it were, for making a permanent den-
ture base to hold the artificial teeth in a definite relationship to each other
and to the jaws. T h e flasking operation enables us to retain the dental
cast and the teeth in a definite relationship when the wax trial base is
eliminated, leaving a matrix for the permanent denture base. I n this Unit
we shall take up the method by which we pack the dental rubber into the
space in the flask formerly occupied by the wax (the matrix). When
dental rubber is properly packed and the flask is closed as it was originally
before the wax was eliminated, we are ready for the vulcanizing or rubber
"curing" process. T h e success of the finished denture depends on how
well each step in its construction is performed. T h e proper packing of
rubber is of utmost importance to the successful completion of the denture.

Process o r Principle : No. 2 I. Packing Vulcanite Dentures. I


a. Preparation of dental rubber for packing full and partial
dentures.
b. Packing vulcanite dmtures.
c. Testing vulcanite cases.
d. Use of $ask-press.
Project o r Jobs : ( T o be performed by the learner.)
JOB NO. 62: Pack two full denture bases without teeth.
JOB NO. 63: Pack four sets full upper and lower dentures. a-Shears for cutting vulcanite. &Packing point. d r e n c h for bolt and nut
flasks. d-Dental flask press.
JOB NO. 64: Pack six partial dentures.
NOTE: (Read the entire Unit carefully before beginning work. Materials: Dental rubbers, brown base, pink gum rubber, cello-
Consult the glossary for definitions of new words.) phane.
Job Application : I n making vulcanite dentures, dental rubber must Procedure: (Follow operations in the order presented here.)
be placed in the space formerly occupied by the wax matrix. CAUTIONS :
Vocational Information: There are different types of apparatus a. Keep rubber clean at all tames.
used for softening rubber by gentle heat, after it is cut, prior to pack- b. W a s h your hands and keep t h e m clean whenever you h a ~ d l e
ing it in the space formerly occupied by the wax matrix. Packing ru6bm.
214
216 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS VULCANITE DENTURE PACKING TECHNIC 217

f. Keep steam table clean. If marble table is used it should be


smooth. If canvas is wed, replace canvas as soon as it begins
to show signs of wear or dirt.
g. T h e water in the pot or tray under the packing table should
be well under the boiling point (less than 200" Fahrenheit.
T h e boiling point of water is 2 12" Fahrenheit). T h e rubber
needs little heating if the flask is previously heated.
h. Keep pink rubber away from the pins of the teeth.
i. Avoid an excess amount of brown rubber'around the anterior
teeth.
j. Pack according to the directions given in the "Procedure."
k. Be sure each piece is thoroughly united to the previous piece
before adding more rubber.
1. I n folding or adding rzlbber do not allow air bubbles to be-
come incorporated zvith the rubber. Fold pieces of rubber
evenly.
A-Gas stove. B-Pot containing hot water. C-Linen cloth or tile slab on wire
m. Always place a piece of the wet linen, in which the rubber
screen. Note: Do not overheat rubber before using. Hot water is better than boiling sheets are packed by the manufacturer, over the packed rubber
water for heating rubber. in the flask before closing the $ask for testing to jind out if
, suficient rubber has been packed.
I n. T h e flask press should not be tightened so that it strains the
cast, when closing for trial.
o. Tighten the clamp after the flask containing the packed case
has been boiled for six to eight minutes.
p. Pour hot water over the linen to facilitate removing it from
the rubber h the flask, after pressing.
q. Be sure the flask is as completely closed as it was originally,
before the boiling out process, before you place the flask in
the vulcanizer.
I. Preparation of Dental Rubber.
( A ) Method of Cutting Pink ( G u m ) Rubber for Full Upper Den-
Lure.
NOTE: T h e directions given here are for average cases. T h e
A-Canvas on wire screen (marble slab may be used). B-Wire screen. C-Pan size and number of the pieces can be increased or decreased accord-
containing hot water. D-Gas stove.
ing to the size of the case. Place the cut pieces of rubber on the
c. Remove the "hollana?' or linen covering from the rubber packing table. (Figs. 21 I and 212.) Keep the flask warm while
sheet before cutting the rubber. cutting the rubber.
d. Replace all unused rubber between the original linen slcects I. Cut four 5" wide pieces or two I" wide pieces of pink rub-

and place in the origiml box. ber parallel with the width of the sheet of pink rubber to
e. W a r m the rubber on the steam table before beginwing to p a d . within %" of the entire width of the sheet. Round one end.
(Fig. 213a.)
218 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS VULCANITE DENTURE PACKING TECHNIC 219
2. Cut the remaining %" X 2" piece into 13 triangular pieces.
(Fig. 213b.)
PATTERN OF PINK (GUM) RUBBER ( B ) Method of Cutting Brown (Base) Rubber for Full Upper
Dentures.
FOR FULL UPPER DENTURF I. Cut three j/4" pieces of brown rubber parallel with the width
of the sheet to within 5'' of the entire width of the sheet.
(Fig. 214.)
2. Cut the remaining piece g'' X H" into 8 small pieces of
equal size. (Fig. 214b.)
3. Cut a piece of brown rubber to fit over the width of the
palate to the crest of the alveolar ridge. The length of this
piece should be the full width of the sheet of brown
rubber. (Fig. 214c.)
4. Cut four S" X 1%:' pieces of brown rubber. Round one
edge. (Fig. 214d.)
5. Cut a %'' wide piece of rubber parallel with the width of the
sheet. . (Fig. 214e.)
GUM (PINR) RUBBFR CUT AND ( C ) Method of Cuttifig -Pink (Gum) Rubber for Full Low&
Dentwe.
I. Cut four g" pieces of pink rubber parallel with the width
of the pink sheet to within %'' of the entire width. (Fig.
2I~ a . )
2. Cut the %" X I st' piece remaining into 13 triangular
pieces. (Fig. 2 I 5b.)
( D ) Method of Czlttilzg Brown (Base) Rubber for Fzcll Lower
Denture.
I. Cut one piece of brown rubber 5 ''wide parallel with the
width of the brown sheet. Cut this piece in half and trim.
(Fig. 216a.)
2. Cut three %" pieces of brown rubber parallel with the width
of the sheet to within g'' of the width. (Fig. 216c.)
3. Cut the remaining piece %" X gr'into 8 square pieces of
A-For labial and buccal surface, covering the triangular pieces which are applied
equal size. (Fig. 216b.)
first, and the edges of the teeth. B-For tooth embrasures (interproximate spaces). 4. Cut a I" wide piece parallel with the length of the sheet.
Note: Place the triangular pieces well down between the teeth. Keep the gum (Fig. 216d.)
rubber against the labial and buccal surface away from the pins and diatoric open-
ings. Grim rubber will not hold teeth securely, brown rubber should cover the pins 5. Cut a 5'' wide piece parallel with the length of the sheet.
and the diatoric openings of the teeth. (Fig. 216e.)
6. Cut a piece of brown rubber (Fig. 216f) for lining the pink
rubber before closing the flask.
220 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS VULCANITE DENTURE PACKING TECH N lC 22 I

PR€PARATION OF DENTAL RUBBFR


fULL UPPER DENTURE PATTERN OF PINK(GUM) RUBBER
PATTERN OF BROWN (BASE) RUBBER fOR FULL LOWLR DENTURE

B
4
BAS€(€ROWN)RUBBER CUT

inF
AND READY FOR PACKING
GUM (PINK) RUBBER CUT AND
R[ ADY IOR PACKING

0
m I ---------- - - Id
00000000
B I(

FIG.214. BROWNRUBBER FOR FULL UPPERDENTURES


A-Under pins and on palate against the bicuspids and molars. B-In diatoric
openings. G O v e r the palate, covering the pins and diatoric openings. D-Over A-For labial and buccal surfaces covering the triangular pieces, which are applied
the condyles and against the buccal surface at the second molars. &To be stretched
for lining the pink rubber. F-Excess rubber to be used over the palate and wher- first, and the edges of the teeth. B-For tooth embrasures (interproximate spaces).
ever needed. Note: Do not force the brown rubber into the embrasures or too high Note: Place the triangular pieces well down between the teeth. Keep the gum rub-
especially in the anterior region. T h e pins and diatoric openings should, however, ber against the labial and buccal surface, away from the pins and diatoric openings.
be covered by the brown rubber because i t is stronger than pink rubber. Smaller Gum rubber will not hold the teeth securely.
cases and partials require less rubber.
VULCANITE DENTURE PACKING TECHNIC 223
222 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS

h
11. Packing Dental Rubber for Full Dentures.
NOTE: Place the flask in a towel to retain the heat in the flask
PREPARATION 01 DENTAL RUBBER during the packing process. Hands should be clean when handling
rubber.
FULL LOWER DtNTURE ( A ) Fall Upper Defitzlres.
- I. Using the packing tools, carefully insert the triangular pieces
PATTKRN OF BROWN (BA>€IRUBBLR of pink rubber between the embrasures (interproximate
spaces) of the teeth (Fig. 213b) as far down as you can with-
.,. FOR FULL LOWER DtNTURE out disturbing the teeth. (Fig. 217c.)

BAS€(BROWN)RUBBFR CUT
AND READY FOR PACKING

A-Brown rubber in diatoric holes. B-Brown rubber packed under pins of an-
terior teeth. C-Triangular pieces of pink rubber on labial and buccal surfaces.
Note: T h e triangular pieces of pink rubber should be packed tightly between the
teeth. Care should be taken not to displace the teeth while packing.

2. Fold one of the g" pieces of brown rubber (Fig. 21qa)


along its greater length, cut off a piece long enough to fit
from first bicuspid to first bicuspid and, using the packing
points, insert the piece of brown rubber under the pins of the
anterior teeth. (Fig. 217b.)
3. Pack the eight square pieces of brown rubber, using the
packing tools (Fig. 214b), into the diatoric openings of the
A-Over the condyles and against the buccal surface of the secontl molars. B-In
bicuspids and molars. (Fig. 2 I 7a.)
djatorjc openings. C-Under the pins and on the lingual surface ngnilist the bicus- 4. Take two of the 5"pieces of pink rubber (Fig. 213a) press
pids a n d molars. D-Over the pins and dintoric opcnlngs nrlcl ng;~inattlle lingual. them together carefully, one over the other without stretch-
&Additional brown rubber where required. I"-To be stretchccl for li~iillgover
pink r111)bcr. Note: Do not forcc the brown rl~hberinto the cml>rna~~rcs or too lliglr
capecially in the anterior r e ~ i o n . T h e pins nntl tlintoric opeoinga sbo\~ltl,Ilowcvcr,
I,c coverccl I,y tllc 1,rown ruhl>cr h r c ~ l r ~ aite is RtronRrr tllnn t l ~ ap i l ~ krul>l)cr. fimnllcr
rlisc-a n~lcl~ , r ~ r f ircc(l~irc
r ~ l ~ 11.s~rllld)cr.
i MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS VULCANITE DENTURE PACKING TECHNIC
? 224 225

ing, and place them along the labial and buccal surface over 8. Place the rounded end piece of brown rubber (Fig. 2 1 4 ~ )
the triangular pieces and the edge of the teeth from the over the palate allowing it to extend over the pins of the
median line to a line mesial of the second molar. (Fig. 2 I 8.) anterior teeth and over the brown rubber in the diatoric
5. Take the remaining two %" pieces of pink rubber (Fig. openings to the rear of the denture. Fold over the palate
213a) place one over the other and place them on the re- the part of the brown rubber that extends beyond the den-
maining half of the buccal and labial surface (Fig. 218) ture limit. (Fig. 219.)
9. Cover the remaining part of the palate with brown rubber
that is left. (Fig. 214f) and (Figs. 219 and 220).

Note: T h e pink rubber is kept above the pins of the anterior teeth. T h e pins will Packed upper denture before testing.
be covered with brown rubber in the next step. This applies to upper as well as
lower denture. 10. Now test the case. (See Procedure I11 which follows.)
(Fig. 222.)
over the triangular pieces and the edges of the teeth, from I I. Stretch the 5'' of brown rubber (Fig. zrqe) until fairly thin
the median line to mesial of the second molar. and cover the pink rubber, being careful not to place the
NOTE: T h e pieces of pink rubber should extend from about brown rubber higher towards the rim of the denture than
I mm. above the pins and the diatoric openings to I mm. above the pink rubber, to prevent "bleeding." Place a wet piece
the rim of the denture. (Figs. 218 and 219.) of cellophane over the packed rubber. Close the case im-
6. Fold the two %" pieces of brown rubber (Fig. 214d) along mediately after applying the sheet of cellophane. (Figs. 223,
their lesser diameter and place them close against the pink 224 and 225.)
rubber along the buccal surface at the second molars and NOTE: Be sure cellophane has been adapted over the packed
over the condyles. (Figs. 2 I 8 and 219.) rubber before closing the flask. (Fig. 225.)
7. Fold the remaining g8'pieces of brown rubber (Fig. 214a) ( R ) Fa11 Lower Dentures.
and using the packing tools place the rubber on the palate NOTE:Place the flask in a towel to retain its heat during the
against the bicuspids and molars. (Fig. 21 8.) packing process.. Hands should be clean when handling rubber.
VULCANITE DENTURE PACKING TECHNIC
226 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS 227

I. Using the packing tools, carefully insert the triangular pieces 5. Take the remaining two %" pieces of pink rubber (Fig.
of pink rubber (Fig. 215b) between the embrasures of the s r ~ a )place
, one over the other carefully and place them over
teeth (Fig. 217c) as far down as you can put them without the remaining labial and buccal surface from the median line
disturbing the teeth. to the mesial of the second molar. (Fig. 218.)
2. Fold one of the f/4" pieces of brown rubber (Fig. 216c) NOTE: The pieces of pink rubber should extend from about
I mm. above the pins and the diatoric openings to I mm. above
along its greater length, cut off a piece long enough to fit
from first bicuspid to first bicuspid and, using the packing the rim of the denture. (Figs. 21 8 and 219.)
points, insert the piece of brown rubber under the pins of 6. Fold the two S'' pieces of brown rubber (Fig. 216a) along
the anterior teeth. (Figs. 217b and 218.) their lesser diameter and place them close against the pink

A-Brown rubber over condyle. B-Pink rubber over labial surface of alveolar
ridge. (Note: Before closing for vulcanization, the 'pink rubber will be lined with
a stretched piece of brown rubber.) C-Triangular pieces of pink rubber. D-
Brown rubber against lingual surfaces of teeth. E-Brown rubber over condyle.
A-Triangular piece of pink rubber. B-Brown rubber in diatoric hole. (Note: T h e F-Troughs ("escape gates") have been cut over the tongue space for the escape
overlying rubber has been removed to show A and B.) C-Pink rubber around of excess rubber.
labial surface extending to the mesial of the second molar. D-Brown rubber over
condyle. E-Brown rubber over palate. F-Tinfoil lining palate is showing. T h e
rubber has been removed over this half of palate. rubber along the buccal surface at the second molars and
over the condyles. (Figs. 21 8 and 221.)
3. Pack the eight square pieces of brown rubber (Fig. 216b), 7. Fold the remaining g" pieces of brown rubber, (Fig. 216c),
using the packing tools, into the diatoric openings of the bi- using the packing points, place the rubber along the lingual
cuspids and molars. (Fig. 217a.) surface against the bicuspids and molars.
4. Take two of the 5 '' pieces of pink rubber (Fig. 215a), press 8. Fold the I" piece of brown rubber (Fig. 216d) along its
them together carefully, one over the other without stretch- greater length and place it over the pins, the diatoric open-
ing, and place them along the labial and buccal surface, over ings and along the lingual surface of the denture space.
the triangular pieces and the edges of the teeth, from the (Fig. 221.) I t may be found easier to cut this piece of brown
median line to the mesial of the second molar. (Fig. 218.) rubber at the median line and pack in two parts. (Fig. 221.)
VULCANITE DENTURE PACKING TECHNIC
228 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS 329
2. Apply two thicknesses of brown rubber over the palate to the
9. If you feel certain that more brown rubber is required, cut
from the long sf' piece (Fig. 216e) and add. crest o l the alveolar process.
( E ) Brown Rubber Lining:
10. Now test the case (see Procedure I11 which follows).
NOTE:All pink rubber should be covered on the surface toward
I I. Stretch the 5"piece of brown rubber (Fig. 2 1 6f) until fairly
thin and cover the pink rubber, being careful not to place the the cast (the tissue surface) with a layer of brown rubber. This
should be done after the final testing of the case.
brown rubber higher towards the rim of the denture than the
pink rubber, to prevent "bleeding." Apply a piece of wet
cellophane. Close the case immediately after applying the
cellophane. (Fig. 222.)

A-Brown rubber. B-Pink rubber to A-Brown rubber covering the whole


be covered by piece of thinned-out brown tissue surface of the denture.
rubber.
Note: Sufficient rubber has been packed. There is little excess rubber showing.
When rubber is packed in this manner escape gates are unnecessary. Escape gates
may draw rubber away from the denture where it is most needed.

A-The rubber shows through the weave, indicating that sufficient rubber has been
I.Thin out by stretching a piece of brown rubber with your
packed. B-The dental rubber is not visible through the weave of the linen, indi- fingers.
cating that more rubber should be added. 2. Place the stretched piece of brown rubber over the pink
rubber, being careful not to extend the brown rubber farther
NOTE: Be sure cellophane has been adapted over the packed than the pink rubber at the rim (periphery or denture limit).
rubber before final closing of the flask. Adapt the brown rubber carefully. (Figs. 220, 223 and 224.)
( C ) Partial Dentures:
111. Testing packed cases:
I . I n partial cases pack pink (gum) rubber on labial and buccal
I. Wash a piece of linen, in which the sheets of rubber are
surfaces only where indicated, as previously occupied by the
packed, under hot water to remove the starch.
wax in the denture space.
2. Adapt the piece of washed linen over the packed rubber and
2. Use a small piece of pink rubber in the interproximate spaces
place the lower half of the flask containing the cast over the
where the teeth are butted (set directly against the cast).
upper half of the flask containing the packed rubber.
(D)1% Fall Cases Without Teeth: (Fig. 222.)
I . Apply pink rubber, two thicknesses along the labial and buccal
3. Close the flask carefully without straining the flask or exert-
surfaces from the rim of the denture to the crest of thc
ing too much pressure on the rubber.
alveolar process.
VULCANITE DENTURE PACKING TECHNIC 231
230 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS

4. Place the closed flask in a flask-pressor clamp without tighten- 13. When sufficient rubber has been packed, line the pink rubber
ing the press or clamp too much. with a thinned-out piece of brown rubber. Dip a piece of
5. Place the closed flask, in the press or clamp, into boiling cellophane in a pint of hot water containing one tablespoon
water and allow to remain for six to eight minutes. of glycerine. This will allow the cellophane to be adapted
6. Remove the flask from the water and tighten the flask-press smoothly without wrinkling. Escape gates for excess rubber
or clamp until closed all the way. may be cut in the plaster or a j/4" trough may be cut around
7. Remove the flask from the press or clamp and open the flask. the packed rubber about j/4" from the rim of the denture.
8. Notice places where the rubber has failed to show through the (Figs. 220 and 221 .)
weave of the linen cloth, indicating where more rubber should 14. Cover the packed case with the wet cellophane and close the
be packed. flask tightly, as it was originally before the wax was boiled
out. (Fig. 225.)
NOTE: If a bolt and nut flask is used, be sure the nuts are tight
when the flask is finally closed for vulcanization. Otherwise, the
clamp should be tightened. Never attempt to close a flask by
means of the flask bolts only. Place the flask in a suitable press
and immerse in hot water until the rubber flows freely. Close
the press slowly, at the same time drawing up the bolts. When
the flask is closed as far as desired, the bolts will hold the parts
together indefinitely without strain. Bolts should always be drawn
up alternately, a half turn at a time. This procedure holds the
parts of the flask together evenly, and assists the flask-press in
distributing the pressure properly.
Supplementary Assignment: (Information to be obtained by the
learner.)
I.What do we mean by the dry method of packing dental
rubber?
9. Pour hot water over the linen sheet to make it easier to re- 2. What is the wet method of packing?
move the linen. Remove the linen from the packed rubber, 3. Methods of testing.
being careful not to disturb the packed rubber. (Fig. 222.)
4. Application of tinfoil, cellophane or other material over the
(Chloroform or carbona on a piece of cotton may be rubbed cast before final closing of the flask.
over the linen.) 5. Various "steam tables" and method of using them.
10.Notice the glossy spots on the packed rubber which fail to
6. Care in using packing tools.
show the imprint of the weave of the sheet of linen. Add 7. Care in handling heated flasks.
brown rubber over the glossy areas. (Figs. 223 and 224.) 8. Prevention of "bleeding."
I I. Replace the linen sheet and close the flask, replace the flask
in the press or clamp dnd boil again for 6 to 8 minutes. Questions :
12. Tighten the flask-press or clamp and then open it to see if I. W h y should the rubber be warmed before packing?
sufficient rubber has been packed, if not, repeat the testing 2. W h y should the pins be covered with brown rubber?
and adding of rubber. If too much rubber has been packed, 3. What is the composition of dental rubber?
carefully cut away the excess with sharp scissors. Do not 4. W h y is a linen cloth used?
disturb the rubber in the denture area. 5. How can you tell when you have sufficient rubber?
232 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS

6. How can you separate the linen from the rubber after it is
heated?
7. What is the indication that not enough rubber has been used?
8. Why are the edges of plaster removed?
9. When do you use cellophane?
10. Which rubber is stronger, pink or brown?
R E L A T E D I N F O R M A T I O N : UNIT NO. 15
I I. Name two other colors of dental rubber; give their use.
12. H o w may "bleeding" be prevented?
VULCANITE DENTURE PACKING TECHNIC
Job Appraisal :
I. Was the rubber cut according to directions? Caoutchouc: A light yellow, creamy, odorless juice obtained from
2. Was the rubber kept clean? tropical trees (Sephonia elastica) and other plants. I t is imported
3. Was the pink rubber adapted well around the anterior teeth? chiefly from Brazil in the form of dark, tough, fibrous masses, pos-
4. Did the imprint of the linen cloth show all over the packed sessing a high degree of elasticity and many impurities incorporated
rubber? during the solidifying process. Crude rubber is purified by cutting it
5. Was the flask closed as tightly as it was originally, before the into fine shreds, washed, dried and kneaded, then rolled into sheets.
wax was eliminated?
6. Can you pack a full case in 20 minutes (average)? Ingredients of Dental Rubber
REFERENCES:(Books for additional information.) Red rubber: Caoutchouc 48 parts by weight
I. Nichols, I. G.: Prosthetic Dentistry. St. Louis: C. V. Mosby CO., 1931. Sulphur 34 parts by weight
2. Frahm, F. W.: T h e Principles and Technics of Full Denture Construc-
Vermilion 36 parts by weight
tion. Brooklyn: Dental Items of Interest Publishing Co., 1934.
3. Turner, C. R. and Anthony, L. P.: American Textbook of Prosthetic Pink rubber: Caoutchouc 48 parts by weight
Dentistry. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, I 93 2. Sulphur 24 parts by weight .
4. Skinner, E. W.: T h e Science of Dental Materials. Philadelphia: W. B. White oxide of zinc 30 parts by weight
Saunders Co., I 936. Vermilion 10parts by weight
Brown rubber: Caoutchouc 48 parts by weight
Sulphur 24 parts by weight

Proportion of Ingredients in Dental Rubber


I n a I 6-02. mixture:
Dark Elastic-15 oz. of rubber and I oz. of sulphur
Jet Black-I 15oz. of rubber and 4 5 oz. of lamp black
Red--9 oz. of rubber and sulphur and 7 oz. of vermilion
Pink-5 oz. of rubber and sulphur and I I oz. of vermilion

Dental Rubber of Various Colors


Light Red, Dark Red, Maroon, Brown, English Base, Olive Base,
Lower Base, Weighted Brown, Metallic Weighted, Casco Golden,
Tmproved Black, Light Pink, Medium Pink, Granular Gum (Walk-
er's), etc.
233
234 bI.\N IJXI. FOR 1)IINTAI. TJ7CII NICI:\NS
DEN'I'URE BASE MA'VERIALS 23 5

Aged Dental R u b b e r : If dental rubber is kept too long, it be- Tissue Tolerance: T h e low heat capacity and irlsulatirig propert!
conies "aged" and unfit for use. Do not huv more dental rubber at of vulcanite, together with its springiness under pressure, frequently.
orle ti~riethan L J I ~be used i l l unr ~rionth. is the cause of irritated tissues. I t is generally conceded that its tissue
tolerance is quite low. T h e tissue tolerance of the ~ h e n o lformalde
D r y Method of Packing Dental R u b b e r : 'The flask is heated in hyde resins is considered to be the best of all the materials.
an oven at 213' to "8' Fahrenheit. T h e rubber is packed and
tehtcci without boili~lg. L e n g t h of Life: T h e length of life of a denture is dependent upon
many properties, such as strength, stability of form, and texture. Ex-
perience has shown that the length of life of rubber dentures is all
D E N T U R E BASE MATERIALS that can be desired, while as a class, that of all thermo p1;istics is com-
Vulcanite-vulcanized dental rubber.
I.
paratively short, due to change of form, texture, discoloration, or
Metal-gold, platinum, stainless steel, etc.
2.
breakage. T h e length of life of the phenol formaldehj~desas a class
3. Celluloid compounds-not much used. has been little more than that of the thermo-plastics because of the
4. Synthetic resins-(a) thermo-plastic, (b) thermo-curing. short color life and low strength. T h e phenol-formaldehyde resins,
5 . Porcelain bases. however, with their greatly increased color life and strength, have a
life equal to that of rubber. Ilrhile the color at the end of twent)
Celluloid Compounds : These compouncls are not satisfactory be- years would probably not be the same as when it was made, it would
cause of the camphor odor from the camphor used to make the cellu- be a better color than that of a rubber denture at any time.
loid plastic. T h e fluids of the mouth affect the celluloid and the
denture loses its color. Celluloid dentures warp easily because they T a s t e and O d o r : With the exception of those cellulose materials
:II-ethermo-plastic. (They are made plastic or soft by heat.) containing camphor, plastics or resins-if compounded properly-will
have no taste or odor when first inserted in the mouth. I11 time the
Synthetic Resins: T h e synthetic resin compounds may be thermo softer materials, or thermo-plastics, which stain and which have poor
curing (a chemical reaction takes place when heated) or thermo- xdhesion, will, like vulcanite, become foul. .I phenol-formalcichjde
1)lastic (softened by heat and molded to the desired shape which is I-csindenture has absolutely no taste or odor. With phenol-forinalde
supposed to be held on cooling) which do not undergo any chemical hpde resin dentures, since there is no seepage around or between the
I-enction or heating. tccth and denture base, and no appreciable absorption in the resin
Thermo-plastic resins warp easily and are less desirable than itself, there is no possibility of taste or odor from embodied decn) ing
thcrmo-curing resins. organic matter.
Permanency of F o r m : Thermo-curing materials being molded ill Pleasing Color: Vulcanite beilig opaque and lacking e~ltirclyin
the licluid form and then by means of additional heat changed into tl.nnslucency and transparency, all efforts to produce a lifelike color
the solid form, are not subject to warpage, since their natural fortli in it have not proved entirely successful. Since the resins and cellu-
is the form to which they have been moulded, and they will retail) lose compounds are practically transparent in the natural state, it is
this form. possible to produce almost any color desired.
Absence of Absorption: Most plastics exhibit a fairly low ahsc>i-1) Rase Metal D e n t u r e Bases: Stainless steel has the advantages of
I ~ O I I ;tt roo111tcn~l>cratures.Vulcnnite shows pr;~ctic:~ll~ tio w:ttcr al, low cost, light weight and less hulk. Cobalt-chromium alloys can be
sol.l)tiorl for scvcl.al nloliths. 11\r(1ill colnl>in.ltioll with v~~lc:t~iite
or other materials.
LYhilc tlic I-csi~is( ~ ~ h e n o l - f o i - m : ~ 1 ~type) i ~ l i ~ ~:t~-c
c ~:ttt:tck~:cl
c I)y C O I I
cc~~t~.:ttc(l aci(1s :111d: ~ l ~ s o l:~lcof~ol, ~ ~ t c tiicy :trc i l l ~ i o\ir;t), :tlTr~.tc(ll)y
IIIC.Iluicls J>I-L.SL.II~ i l l tlic 111oilth. 'l'lic 1v:ttcl- ;tl)so~-l)tio~i i \ :11)0iit I I X , I .
I (.lit :t11[1 [ h i < is 1 ~ c ~ : 1 c ~ l 1\t\x, li t I ~ i t iS V \ . V I I <I:I!S. Aftr~.tl1:1t t i 1 1 1 t . 1 1 1 ~ .~ v < , i ~ : l i ~
1 , tll~lills, 1,llst:lrlt.
r P?g
2
nbq"'
q4* 2. e
a 2 3
0 - D q
- -. e 7
-.
e 2 gz
X-; 2 6 '
2 (?
N ..
P.
.,N EX. i3.g
as.':
'1 %
S
VULCANIZATION TECHNIC 239
23 tI MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS

Safety Dlsk m.

FIG. m 8 a .
Stud ...-...-.......
FIG. 2 2 8 b
L
"" ,",,>7

FIG. 228a. BLOW-OFFCAPAND PIN (CROSS *


SECTION)
Note: T h e blow-off is opened by unscrewing the cap one or two turns only. T h e
cap and pin are riveted together and the action of unscrewing the cap lifts the pin
from its seat. T h e pin or valve has the customary pointed end with a large flange
on its upper end to bear against the inner surface of the cap. I t is riveted on the
outside, so i t is held securely from movement either way. I n closing it, use no more
force ihan necessary to make it steam-tight. Attention must be paid to this point
to avoid damage. T h e blow-off will become leaky much sooner if opened when
the steam pressure is high, than if used as directed above. T h e vulcanizer should
be allowed to cool slowly for at least 15 minutes. Never relieve the steam pressure
by opening the blow-off.
FIG.228b. IMPROVEDSAFETYVALVE*
Note: Do not tamper with the safety valve. Care should be taken to remove all
deposits and uneven surfaces on the top of the stud before mounting a new disk.
Put the thin safety disk on the stud, the flanged 'poition down-wards; then the
brass washer, broad side down. Screw on the cap only hard enough to prevent
leakage.
Buffalo Dental M f g . Co.

FIG.227. VULCANIZER
COVERSHOWING THERMOMETERAND MANIFOLD
WITH SAFETY VALVE( I ) AND BLOW-OFFVALVE( 2 )

Procedure: (Follow operations in the order presented here.)


CAUTIONS :
a. Make certain that all gas tubing and other co.ranections are
secure between gas jet and time clock.
b. Make sure vuZcanizer pot is clean. L

c. Always pour aboiwt foozlr ounces of warm, clean waLer i n vul-


canizer pot. V~lcanizermust always have water for general-
ing steam. ( T h e vulcanizer pot should h a v ~walor to r/t(, h'olu: T h e Time Regulator has a metallic w i v e which is gas tight whether the
depth o j one inch.) ylta nupply jet be open or closed. T h e time device is operated by the minute arbor
d. Avoid resting flash on boltom of vulcanizer pol. USL*clar~rj) o f tlrc clock. T h e No. I T i m e Regulator is used in connection with the Lewis
Gnu Regulator No. 4 and No. 4A. (Buffalo Dental Mfg. Co.)
ring with clamp flask. U s e empty $a.rk on ho//of~ceoitl~holt
240 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS VULCANIZATION TECHNIC 241

$asks. D o not drop flasks into vulcanized pot. (Place h. Avoid tampering with saf ety-valve cap unless replacement of
gently.) Flasks and clamp nwst not extend ahove th.e top of disk is required. (Fig. 228b.)
the vulcanizer pot. i. Be sure time clock regulator is wound and set before lighting
gar. (Figs. 229a and b.)
j. Mercury in thermometer should be at the bottom when vul-
canizer burner is liglited.

Note: T h e Regulator is capable of being set for temperatures varying from 280" to
320°. TOvulcanize at any of the degrees of temperature marked on the gradu-
ated base, all that is required is to turn the milled hand-plate until the pointer is
over the degree desired. T h i s should be done before lighting the gas under the
vulcanizer. A small screw is inserted in the base, which acts as a stop for the
pointer, and prevents the regulator from being set, either by design or accident,
to maintain a higher temperature than the highest graduation on the base, which
would endanger the safety of the vulcanizer.

k. Be sure to set gas regulator to 320' in Btvfalo Dental Val-


canizer, or accordi~gt o vulcanization directions. (Fig. 230.)
e. Make sure vulcanizer patking and cover are in proper posi.. 1. Make sure gas is properly lighted. Hold lighted taper or
tion over rim ( t o p ) of vulcanizer. (Fig. 226.) match over gas burner before opening gas jet.
f. Make sure cross-bar is in proper position and cross-bar bolt is m. Do not allow flame. to extend beyond the bottom of the vul-
tight when closing vzclcanizer. canizer pot. If too much $ame is turned on, the latent heat
g. Always open steam blow-of valve one or two turns only bc- m.11 sometimes cause the temperature to rise several degrees
fore lighting gas. (Fig. 228a.) .a;fter the regulator has acted, and thzls confuse the operator.
VULCANIZATION TECHNIC 243
242 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS

n. Make certain gas @me is blue and not a yellow carbonizhg


flame.
o. Be sure to close steam blow-of valve so that it is steamtight
after all air has been expelled from the vulcanizer and steam
has begun to escape.
p. After an interval of about one-half hour make sure that ther-
mometer gauge is not above 320"; otherwise turn off gas be-
cause the gas regulator is out of order.
q. Be sure to allow a su@ient interval of time for vulcanization.
I t is better to vulcanize over a longer period of time at a T h e bulb of the thermometer is set in a mercury bath. T h i s is a small cup, form-
ing a part of the vulcanizer cap, to which the thermometer is screwed. l'his cup
lower temperature than otherwise. should contain sufficient mercury to insure its surrounding the bulb of the tube
r. After the time clock has indicated that the vulcafiization proc- when the thermometer case is screwed down properly. T h i s makes a metallic con-
nection between the thermometer bulb and the vulcanizer cap which is absolutely
ess is completed and that the flow of illumimtkg gas to the necessary for the proper indication of heat by the thermometer. Should the mer-
vulcanizer burner has been stopped, be sure to close the gas cury column separate, it can usually be reunited by removing the thermometer
case, holding it perpendicularly and striking the bottom of the case with some
supply jet immediately before proceeding. force upon the palm of the hand. If the vulcanizer is used with the mercury
s. Allow vulcanizer to cool for about 15 minutes, after the gas is separated, it should be remembered that it is the whole column that denotes the
heat, a n d allowance should be made for the broken part, i. e., if there is enough
turned off before opening the steam blow-off valve. ( B e mercury separated to fill the space of ten degrees, the remainder of the column
sure you are opening blow-off valve and not attempting to should rise only to ten degrees less than the temperature desired. T h e thermometer
do:s not give a correct indication of the heat inside of the vulcanizer. It gives only
open safety valve.) the temperature of the vulcanizer top, which may not be the same as that in the flask.
t. Do not keep your head too close to the top of the vulcanizer
when opening blow-off valve, when removing vulcanizer 5 . Set the time clock regulator which shuts off gas at the de-
cover or at any other time.
sired interval. (See directions.) (Fig. 229.)
u. Never loosen cross-bar bolt until all steam has escaped
6. Set the gas regulator which controls the time limit for at-
through the steam blow-of valve. taining the maximum temperature. (See directions.) (Fig.
v. Carefully place vulcanizer cover on a shelf provided for this
purpose wothozlt cliipping or marring the cover, regulator or 230.1
7. Using a taper, light the burner under the vulcanizer pot. Be
thermometer.
sure flame is blue. Turn on only enough gas to cover the
w. Use tongs, wear canvas gloves and exercise care k removing
bottom of the vulcanizer pot. T h e flame should never be
flasks from vulcanizer.
allowed to reach up on the sides of the pot. This rule must
x. Remove water from vulcanizer pot and clean the vulcanizer.
be observed, particularly when natural gas is used.
y. T h e thermometer should be kept clean. (Fig. 231.) 8. Wait until all air is expelled and steam begins to escape, then
I . Pour four ounces of warm water in the vulcanizer pot.
close blow-off valve, using wrench.
(Water should be to a depth of one inch.) 9. Vulcanize at 320° for 1% hours from time blow-off valve is
2. Place the closed flasks in the vulcanizer pot, being careful
closed.
that the flask clamp (ok bolts, if bolt flasks are used) are 10.When time regulator denotes that the supply of gas to the
properly adjusted. vulcanizer burner has been stopped, shut off gas supply at
3. Examine the graphite packing on the bottom of the vulcan- gas jet.
izer cover to see that it is free from dirt and plaster. Adjus~ I I. Allow vulcanizer to cool for 15 minutes, then open blow-off
the vulcanizer cover on the vulcanizer pot. valve, using wrench and turning cap until steam begins to
4. Open the blow-off valve. (See directions.) This vnlvc is escape.
marked "blow-off ." (Fig. 227.)
244 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS
VULCANIZATION TECHNIC 245

12. After all steam has escaped through blow-off valve, unscrew 3. Did you set the gas regulator?
cross-bar nut, using wrench, and remove the cross-bar and vul- 4. Was the safety valve opened to allow the air to escape?
canizer cover. Place vulcanizer cover carefully on shelf. 5. Was water put in the vulcanizer?
(This is better than to disconnect gas tubing when removing 6. Can you name the various parts and give a detailed account
vulcanizer cover.) of the operation of a dental vulcanizer?
13. Using flask tongs, carefully remove flasks from vulcanizer REFERENCES: (Books for Additional Information.)
pot. (Wear canvas gloves.) D o not drop flasks. (Fig. 233.) I. Skinner, E. W.: T h e Science of Dental Materials. Philadelphia: W . B.
14. Allow flasks to cool for 15 minutes, then place in cold water Saundcrs Co., I 936.
until thoroughly chilled. (At least I 5 minutes.) 2 . Buffalo Dental Mfg. Co., Dcntal Vulcanizers: Buffalo, N. Y.
I S . Empty the vulcanizer pot and clean thoroughly. 3. Turner, C. R. and Anthony, I,. P.: American Textbook of Prosthetic
I 6. Lubricate cross-bar bolt threads. Dcntistry. Philadelphia: Lca & Febiger, 1932.
17. Replace vulcanizer parts. 4. Nichols, I. G.: Prosthetic Dentistry. St. Louis: C. V. Mosby Co., 1931.
5 . Frahm, F. W.: T h e Principles and Practice of Full Denture Construc-
Supplementary Assignment : tion. Brooklyn: Dental l t c n ~ sof Intcrcst Publishing Co., 1934.
I. Various types of vulcanizers used.
2 . Methods of using different vulcanizers.
3. Attachments and types of vulcanizers for denture base ma-
terials other than vulcanite.
4. Care of vulcanizers.
5. Advantages and disadvantages of vulcanizing at various tem-
peratures.
Questions :
I. What are the main parts of a vulcanizer and what is the pur-
pose of each?
2 . Describe the blow-off valve and give its use; how may it be
repaired?
3. Describe the safety valve; how is it repaired?
4. H o w do you set the gas regulator?
5. How do you set the time regulator?
6. How is the vulcanizer and its accessories attached; where is
the time clock attached?
7. What precautions should be observed before lighting the gas
burner under the vulcanizer?
8. Give the various temperatures and time intervals used in vul-
canizing.
9. What precautions should be observed before opening the vul-
canizer?
10. What care should the vulcanizer receive?
Job Appraisal :
I. Did you examine the gas connections?
2 . Did you set the time clock regulator?
KE? 2 g - 2u 3 . :
g 0 f? +;i 2 5.5 2
??952-2;-:-
- O O c O " >z ./- ~ ~
*m* d PK,: A ; -
? d o c c'
5
5 . C m pF
O ; :s.5
Bdgz. r. --i 3
C. 6 a 2 3
r n t 4 c, c : C
C: k F 8

g g s 2
F4 2-m $5
rt
** z 5 F
z0- 0
2 -,2af ??
2
" *3
w' h
K < T E - z&:g.
g- .E,;
0 :P
" cXt:
* c $ %
'
i
5- 0 e
- E < C
g g 1-
sS'e* 3 3 ~ 23 '
-: 0 - 0 0 h'f
a q,?
p m g 2 H
o m * m F Z
?cG g Em T
e -
~ C
8 3 5 &. 3. 5. E.
5 0 0
4Y YL z
yesm
- m -.
0 &'cj-??
2 2 5 2-g g 5
G E E - 55 * "
3" P 0 Z Y
z
0" S K E z s0
0 Z, 0
5 z. 0 KZ?
- 5
F
-G g! 2 2
a R =.
T7< -; 3 2
. g, -
13
cr,
0
3 a w 4 fa* P
3 o** 0 0 0

-: pCL; -
g s s g ,
l/i f 5 2
c 3 z
6. 5 q !=g
a-gF y,
"%; 6 2 C f a
'h
-.5 " s

5 ; f O - f
,/ $ n
"0 7K
c .-3Ep:
F3 ".y* f
0 3
T P T - . * rJc
s w ; - * *
-. R 3 2-
" *Z r %V . ' c5 fa"
- " 3 - F O
i g m 3 3
2 5'"
2 3
s c E cr :n s g.-
6 c . g 2-2 2
2 3
- , e n1
V O5 . ? 2 - *3
s 2- . = n K C L
-. 2 . ;6 -. '
- - c , l / i I i
CE 2.; Z P OO
U , "
R

2- 9 + % %5 g
?qc.F&?2
2C

C
" K"n c' &;LT
-- -
5 5
u p d
-
-- g.'e - 3 d m
5 , T K ,
+. n ;
!= 2 "Y R
=
-. ; zac5c
f -.
rn z E a??
lie,
z
C- 8 25
.9 p g
' " c r s ~ . s :g
Ba"' Y
5 2 2 s $ 5 Ip ..
T -
v.%
. & oz >% >ba. . 3 5
y -. N. 0, s
%-- 2 - %
2 4<0
h " 2% 0
-
fi.2; 3 O
2 %
2
xF4y.S. -2
Z^ g Ec:
-
w .3 2 % 6. 7
3
" :? rn
% -.
5
% h v Tr
w
3 ';t-s r
0
2- o-.2. i:
CL , 2.
b 2 R
,-+.
h
. 'IGC

o C ? B
$4
7I:
0
Y h
$ --5 %
;i'a 2
'
I P. s
t< .T
v
.- r, Cr
0 S L -I
2 2L 0
w
$! a
.
3 X
z- 0 <
..-.. 5 E,
rE g
-* . w, 5
2 t i
-.
*
r
E%:_
A
c E $
2 $2
r_
-
< -g c;s
2 .
- =
2-
'I. 9
d
- ,. Y
5 -
r-
-
- 5
MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS
VULCANITE DENTURE CLEANSING TECHNIC 259

FIG. 236. FLASKHASBEEN OPENEDAND DENI-UREHASREMAINED


IN FIG. 239. TINFOIL
METHODO F STRIPPING F R O M VULCANIZEDDENTURE
UPPER PART OF FLASK A-Surface of vulcanized denture. B-Tinfoil being stripped away. C-Extreme
A-Plaster has been cut a w a y a: rear of flask. B-Tissue surface of denture. excess of vulcanite.
C-Rim of denture. Note: T h e extreme excess, if not more than ]A6'' thick, can be cut away with
scissors, provided you do not cut too close to the denture limit.
Note: If cellophane is applied over packed case before closing flask for vulcanizing,
tissue surface of denture will be clean and glossy. T h e rim (periphery) of denture,
denoting denture limits, can be seen plainly in the above. erly applied and the rubber properly packed, it will be found that
there is little trimming to be done. (Fig. 242.)
10. Remove all remaining plaster from the flask. Scrub and dry
the flask and reassemble the parts.
I I. Partial dentures are removed from flasks and cleansed in a
manner similar to full dentures, except that partial dentures
require greater care because they may be more easily broken.
Supplementary Assignment: (Information to be obtained by the
learner.)
I . Methods of removing dentures from flasks.
2. Denture cleansing preparations.
3. Methods of removing tinfoil.
4. Removal of closely adhering tinfoil particles from vulcanite.
FIG. 237 FIG.238 5. Care of flasks.
FIG.237. UPPER DENTUREAFTER REMOVAL F R O M FLASKBEFORE T I N F ~ I I . 6. Methods of avoiding warpage of vulcanite dentures.
Is STRIPPED 7. Methods of avoiding marring denture or breaking teeth while
opening flasks.
Questions :
I . What is the first procedure in opening flasks to remove den-
tures after vulcanization?
MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS
VULCANITE DENTURE CLEANSING TECHNIC %-59

FIG. 236. FLASK


HASBEENOPENED
A N D DENI.URE
HASREMAINED
IN FIG. 239. METHOD
O F STRIPPING
TINFOIL I)ENTUKE
F R O M VULCANIZED
UPPERPARTOF FLASK A-Surface of vulcanized denture. B-Tinfoil being stripped away. C-Extreme
A-Plaster has been cut away at rear of flask. R-Tissue surface of denture. excess of vulcanite.
C-Rim of denture. Note: T h e extreme excess, if not more than 1413' thick, can be cut away with
scissors, provided you do not cut too close to the denture limit.
Note: If cellophane is applied over packed case before closing flask for vulcanizing,
tissue surface of denture will be clean and glossy. T h e rim (periphery) of denture,
denoting denture limits, can be seen plainly in the above. erly applied and the rubber properly packed, it will be found that
there is little trimming to be done. (Fig. 242.)
10.Remove all remaining plaster from the flask. Scrub and dry
the flask and reassemble the parts.
I I . Partial dentures are removed from flasks and cleansed in a
manner similar to full dentures, except that partial dentures
require greater care because they may be more easily broken.
Supplementary Assignment: (Information to be obtained by the
learner.)
I . Methods of removing dentures from flasks.
2. Denture cleansing preparations.
3. Methods of removing tinfoil.
4. Removal of closely adhering tinfoil particles from vulcanite.
FIG. 237 FIG.238 5. Care of flasks.
FIG. 237. UPPERDENTUREAFTER REMOVAL F R O M FLASKBEFORE TINFOII. 6. Methods of avoiding warpage of vulcanite dentures.
Is STRIPPED 7. Methods of avoiding marring denture or breaking teeth while
opening flasks.
Questions :
r. What is the first procedure in opening flasks to remove den-
t,urcs after vulcanization?
260 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS VULCANITE DENTURE CLEANSING TECHNIC 261
7. H o w can you remove tinfoil which adheres closely to the vul.
canite?
8. What method shoulc; be followed in stripping the tinfoil
from the denture?
9. What care should be given the flask after the denture is re-
moved?
Job Appraisal :
I . Is the vulcanite of the denture free of knife marks or other
injuries?
2. Have any of the teeth been fractured?
3. H a s all of the tinfoil been removed?
4. Is the denture clean?
5. H a s the flask been cleansed and reassembled?
6. Can you remove a vulcanized denture from its flask in 10
Note: There is a glossy surface left by the tinfoil on the palate of the upper denture.
minutes?
REFERENCES: (Books for Additional Information.)
I. Skinner, E. W.: T h e Science of Dental Materials. Philadelphia: W. B.
Saunders Co., I 936.
2. T u r n e r , C. R. and Anthony, L. P.: American Textbook of Prosthetic
Dentistry. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1932.
3. Nichols, I. G.: Prosthetic Dentistry. St. Louis: C. V. Mosby Co., I 930.
4. Frahm, F. W.: T h e Principles and Practice of Full Denture Construc-
tion. Brooklyn: Dental I t c n ~ sof Interest Publishing Co., 1934.

DENTURE
FIG.242. APPEARANCEOF CLEANSED IS
AFTER TINFOIL
STRIPPED AWAY
A and A'-vulcanite between the teeth. B - d i v i d i n g line between pink and brow11
or base rubber over heels of denture.
Note: T h e denture has an even glossy surface; little trimming is required aror~ntl
the necks of the teeth. There is a straight line dividing the pink gum rubber fl.0111
the brown rubber over the second molar.

2. W h y should the flask not be hammered to remove thc


denture?
3. What should be done to avoid cutting the denture or break..
ing teeth?
4. H o w is warpage avoided?
5. What procedure should be followed in removing dcnturcs
remaining on the casts?
6. H o w may extreme excess of vulcanite bc removed?
266 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS DENTURE TRIMMING TECHNIC 267

FIG. 244. LOWER PARTLY FIG. 245. UPPERDENTURE


DENTURE BEFORE
TRIMMED TRIMMING PERIPHERY
A-White-colored section indicates excess to be trimmed.
Note: T h e periphery of the denture is plainly visible in the upper and lower
dentures.

A-Dental lathe. B-Abrasive band mounted on lathe chuck (arbor band chuck).
C-Denture. T h e denture is held so that the abrasive wheel does not touch the
carving about the teeth.
N o t e : T h e denture should be held securely but in such a manner as to afford a n
unobstructed view of the part to be trimmed. I t is not necessary to use more than
one method of trimming around the periphery of the denture.

3. Remove all roughness on labial and buccal surfaces of den-


ture by using the tip of the scraper. (Fig. 250.)
4. Festoon vulcanite around teeth by using right and left vul-
canite chisels. Do not cut vulcanite too thin over the teeth.
(Fig. 251.)
5 . Sandpaper denture to a smooth finish only where scrapers are
used. (J?igs. 252 and 253.)
6. Use an abrasive wheel, with a mandrel mounted on a bur
chuck on the lathe, for final trimming around the palatal and
lingual surface of the teeth which should be made to follow
the outline of the teeth.
FIG. 246. METHOD
OF HOLDING
D E W ~ U RWHILE
E USINGHALF-ROUNL)
FILE Supplementary Assignment: (Information to be obtained by the
A-Denture. B-Half-round vulcanite file. C-Bench block. learner.)
Note: T h e denture is held securely in the left hand, with the index finger slipporting I . Mcthods of trimming vulcanitc.
the buccal extension of the denture. File in an outward direction with a slightly 2 . Mcthods of trimming denture bascs other than vulcanite.
sliding stroke. D o not file too close to the denture limit. Leave the rim of thc
denture rounded by scraping gently with a scraper or with fiuc s r ~ ~ i t l l ) ~ ~ l w r .
268 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS DENTURE T R I M M I N G TECHNIC

3. Method of using sandpaper in trimming dentures. Job Appraisal :


4. Methods of carving vulcanite. I. Was the denture properly trimmed at the periphery?
5. Methods 2 . I s the vulcanite smooth and of even thickness over the palate?
- of trimming around tooth embrasures. 3. Were the teeth festooned to show the maximum amount of
Questions : porcelain without weakening them in the vulcanite?
4. Was the carving preserved? Are the pins covered?
I. How do we trim to the denture limits?
5. Can you trim a denture in 30 minutes (average)?
2. What method do we follow in using vulcanite files?
3. How are scrapers used?

A-Dental lathe. B-Abrasive wheel on lingual surface of denture. C-Lower


A-Rat-tail file used with a pushing motion from lingual surface. B-Partial denture. T h e denture should be held securely but in such a manner as to allow a
denture. clear view of the surface to be trimmed.
Note: Never use rat-tail file over tissue surface of denture. Do not file beyol~tl Note: A half-round vulcanite file can also be used for the lingual surface. T h e
denture limit indicated by ridge on g u m tissue surface of denture, that fits betweell half-round side of the file should be used a t the anterior part. All peripheries of
patient's teeth and gum. denture should be rounded to prevent cutting the patient's gums.

REFERENCES:
(Books for Additional Information.)
4. How should the chisels be used around the teeth?
I. T u r n e r , C. R. a n d Anthony, L. P.: American T e x t b o o k of Prosthetic
5. H o w are partial dentures trimmed around the remaining nat- Dentistry. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger Co., 1932.
ural tooth outlines? 2. NicIiols, 1. G.: Prosthetic Dentistry. St. Louis: C. V. Mosby Co., 1930.
6. How may the gum rubber be carved? 3 . I:r:th~n, 1:. W.: T h c Principles and Practice of Full D e n t u r c Construc-
7. Why is proper trimming important? tion. Ilrooklyn: 1)cntal Jtcms o l Intcrest Publishing Co., I 934.
270 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS DENTURE TRIMMING T E C H N I C 271

N o t e : T h e vulcanite is smooth and the carved elevations over the teeth have not
been trimmed away. T h e festoons are almost at right angles to the long axes of
the teeth and the vulcanite over the teeth is not too thin nor cut out too deeply
between the teeth. T h e original gloss left bv the tinfoil can be seen around the
carving over the teeth.
A-Scraper directed away from teeth to prevent breaking them.
Note: W h e n tinfoil is used over a properly waxed denture there is little need for
scraping. Only rough spots should be scraped away. T h e teeth on the denture
should not be allowed to press against the bench-block, to prevent breaking or
loosening them.

FIG. 2 5 I . METHOD TEETH


OF FESTOONING

A-Denture. B-Chisel in palm grip. Notice the thumb is used as a fulcrum to


control the force exerted on the chisel.
FIG. 253. TRIMMED READYF O R I'OLISHING
DENTURES
N o t e : Do not cut too deeply into the interproximate spaces of the teeth. Removc
the excess volcanite around the necks of the teeth so that :I smooth even few too^^ I-Lingual view of lower denture. 2-Lahial view of lower denture (the labial
is seen while the tooth is exposed ;IS much ns possible. 1)o not rrlnove thc vulc:~nitr uum is usually shorter than shown here). 3-Palatal view of upper denture. 4-
heyond the "coll:~r" of the teeth. T h i s \roultl I(loscn th(: cc-ct11. Ilsc 111tr r i ~ h t:I II(I Labial view of upper denture.
~nrai:ll : I I I ~ (1ist:ll ~ I : I I I ~ S 011 ill(: f c s t o o ~o~f (:i1(.11100111.
left chisels for ;~ltcl.l~;lte Note: ~ 1 ; cvl~lcn~litc
is smooth. All scratches have been eliminated. T h e r e is little
work required i n polishing thesc tlent~~rcs.
2- " 4
o
"
:
", L= f r"J* ; 0-
k
- 2-g = >
5 &- 5.v
n ~ m O
3 $Is- Z&Wc.
2 - 0
-
6 g-?
2 crc
g
- cg .;
~~~~~.A. -. .3-;'
rfi
3 -v.T F g . -
r " E +u;
cLQa7 -
s- 5c -: Cg i, -+, +3
? ;; 6.- . "
E " G
-6 2 - 2
-A , .
$ c
-.,1 ,vv.. "3-
r&w c 5.-e
.
li g.'pg
,.' -1
=: -
ti 2 i2
f i " P X 2
P-6-
a Q - _ c
1d.S f %,%
C. - . -
"1 2; 2,5
c
5 5 5.5
k

-E Y r E- 3
CLS *
'
I .
.-. ,Y 3
D
5,
DENTURE POLISHING TECHNIC.
276 M A N U A L FOR D E N T A L TECHNICIANS
277
vations over the teeth. Regirl applying the pumice at the
q. Mfear a muslin face n?ask when polishing.
second molar on one side and continue polishing and apply-
r. Avoid bringing denture in contact with the rotatifig chuck. ing pumice until the vulcanite over the second molar on the
I . Mount the two-row brush wheel on the cone or spindle chuck
opposite side is reached.
of the lathe, apply pumice of a creamy consistency, mixed 3. Mount the linen (6-inch) wheel on the cone or spindle chuck
with water or liquid soap and water, at the tooth embrasures and apply the creamy mixed pumice to the periphery of the
of the denture and a r o u ~ ~the
d carved elevations, over the
denture. Bring the periphery of the denture against the linen
teeth on the buccal and labial surfaces. Holding the denture
wheel in a manner already described in steps I and 2 of the
"Procedure." (Fig. 257.)

FIG..2 5 6 . METHODOF USINGTWO-ROWBRUSH WHEELWHEN POLISI<INC;


AROUND TOOTH
EMBRASURES ON BUCCAL AND LABIAL
AND CARVING SURFACICS
Note: Pumice is applied to the denture. T h e denture is held firmly and rocked in n Note: Pumice is always applied to the denture. Wheels are always mounted so
semi-circular manner to prevent making deep grooves between the teeth. Rernovr that they rotate in the same direction to prevent the wheel from pulling the denture
the denture from the brush wheel a t short intervals to apply fresh pumice and to out of the hands of the technician. Avoid holding the denture in one position;
prevent overheating the denture. Avoid holding the carved surfaces at rigllt always rock it from side to side or in a semi-circular motion. Dentures should not
angles to the brush wheel so that the carving will not he polished away. be held too long against the polishing wheel, to prevent overheating the vulcanite.

firmly with both hands, but in a manner that enables you to 4. Apply the creamy mixed pumice on the palatal surface of
see the denture in actual contact with the wheel, press the upper dentures or lingual surface of lower dentures and con-
denture gently against the lower front quarter of the wheel tinue to remove all scratches, using the linen wheel (6-inch)
and with a rocking or rotating motion continue to remove all and felt wheel.
scratches, always keeping the surface wet with punlice and 5. Mount the large felt cone on the cone or spindle chuck of
adding pumice as needed. (Fig. 2 5 6 . ) the lathe. Apply pumice to the denture and continue to re-
2. T o pi-event the obliteration of the carving, hold the dc~iturr move scratches on the palate and around the buccal and labial
so that the whecl is never at right angles to thc c11.vcd clc
DENTURE POLISHING TECHNIC
27 t? MANUAL F O R DENTAL TECHNICIANS 279

surfaces, which were not removed by the two-row brush cone or spindle chuck of the lathe and polish all surfaces of
wheel or the linen wheel. Change from large to small felt the denture. (Fig. 260.)
cones as needed. (Fig. 258.) 1 1 . Wash the denture thoroughly with soap and water. Use a

6. Wash the denture with soap, brush and cold water, using a dabbing motion.
dabbing motion. I 2 . Oxide of tin powder on a soft flannel wheel may now be used
for final polishing.
13. Again wash the denture thoroughly.
14. Place t.he denture in a glass dish containing alcohol and ex-
pose to sunlight for about one hour, to solarize the pink

FIG. 258. METHODOF USINGFELT CONEON PALATE


Note: If the denture is held in one position it may be warped or a hole may be
polished through the denture. Always agitate the denture when polishing. Use
plenty of pumice mixed to a creamy consistency.

7. Mount the cotton wheel on the cone chuck of the lathe. Ap-
ply Tripoli to the wheel. Buff the denture in a manner de-
scribed for the use of pumice.
8. Mount small felt cones on the cone or spindle chuck, apply FIG. 259. METHODO F USINGFELT WHEELFOR ROUNDING
THE PERIPHERY
Tripoli to the felt cone and continue to buff the denture until
Note: The rim or periphery of the denture should be rounded to prevent sharp edges
all scratches have been eliminated and all surfaces have been which are likely to cut the tissues in the patient's mouth.
buffed. T o avoid making the denture too thin or puncturing
the vulcanite of the palate always rock the denture but do not rubber and bring out its luster. (Figs. 261, 262, 263, and
press too hard against the wheel. (Fig. 259.) 264.)
9. Wash the denture thoroughly with soap, water and brush, 15; Dry the denture and coat the tissue surface with mineral oil.
using a dabbing motion. Supplementary Assignment: (Information to be obtained by the
10.Coat the denture with vaseline and dip or dust it with fine
learner.)
chalk, or the denture may be covered with chalk and water of I. Various fine abrasives used in polishing.
a creamy consistency. Mount the soft flannel wheel on thc
280 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS DENTURE POLISHING TECHNIC 28 I

Note: T h e dentures have a high polish. T h e natural tooth margins are sharply
defined. All scratches have been eliminated.

Note: If rouge is used it should be applied sparingly to a chamois wheel. Keep


the rouge away from the teeth as much as possible. Tepid water and soap with a
small soft denture brush should be used to brush the rouge and other polishing
agents off the denture.

Note: Denture base9 are ol1c11 uuctl I)y tllc tlcnli%~:Is illdivitlu~~li ~ ~ ~ p r c o n iIrr~y*
on
for tnking irnpreeuiol~afor tlcnturcn. 'rllc nl~nve1)11ncnwrrc ~,ncl(ccl wit11 brown n~rtl
light pink dr11t111r~~l>l)rrn.
282 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS

2. Various wheels used in polishing.


3. Use of rouge in polishing; removal of rouge from teeth.
4. Various types of polishing machines.
5. Speeds of electric lathe used in polishing.
6. Polishing agents for dentures other than vulcanite.
RELXTEI) INFORMATION: U N I T NO. 19
Questions :
I . H o w should the denture be held during polishing? DENTURE POLISHING TECHNIC
2. H o w should wheels be mounted?
3. What is the purpose of the pumice? Solarize P i n k Dental Rubbers: T o develop the full tone in pink
4. What does the Tripoli do to the vulcanite denture? (gum) dental rubbers, after they have been vulcanized and polished,
5. What purpose does the chalk serve? expose the denture to sunlight for thirty minutes to one hour. I n
6. H o w are the labial and buccal surfaces of the denture pol- the absence of sunlight a powerful artificial light may be used.
ished?
Pumice: A material of volcanic origin, used as an abrasive as well
7. H o w do we polish the palate?
;IS a polishing agent.
8. Give the use of four different wheels in polishing.
9. W h y is the denture washed when changing from fine abra Tripoli: A mild abrasive and polishing medium found in the form
sives to buffing agents? of porous rocks, first found in northern Africa.
10. What is the purpose of solarization? Chalk: Calcium carbonate or precipitated chalk used as a polishing
I I. H o w do we know when the denture is properly polished? agent.
12. What purpose does polishing of vulcanite dentures serve?
T i n Oxide: A white powder used as a polishing agent.
Job Appraisal :
I. Were all scratches removed?
2. Were all trimming tool marks removed? OPERATION AND CARE O F A SUCTION POLISHING
3. Is the carving intact? Are the pins on the anterior teeth MACHINE
covered by the vulcanite?
A. Operation :
4. Does the denture have a high polish?
I. Before starting the polishing machine, prepare all polishing
5. Have all polishing agents been thoroughly washed away fr(1111
tools and materials such as pumice, whiting, brushes, Tripoli,
the denture surface?
rouge, etc.
6. Can you polish a denture in 20 minutes (average) ?
2. Mount the wheel that you are going to use on the spindle
REFERENCES:
(Books for Additional Information.) tip, while the electric current of the machine is off.
I. Turner, C. R. and Anthony, 1,. P.: American 'I'c~thook of P ~ o ~( 1 , ~ l i ~ 3. Warn others working on the machine with you to keep their
Dentistry. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger Co., 1932. hands off spindle tips before you start machine.
2. Nichols, I. G.: Prosthetic Dentistry. St. Louis: C. V. hloshy Co., I j o
4. Push lever to "on" as marked on the lever box.
3. Frahm, F. W.: T h e Principles and Practicc of Full 1)cntnrc Con\tt ( 1 ,
tion. Brooklyn: Dental Items of Interest I'ublishing Co., I c ) ~1.
5. Turn on dust-pan light.
4. Skinner, E. W.: T h e Science of Dental Matcrinls. I'l~il,~~lc
Ip1ii.1~Lt'. 1; 6. Before stopping the machine to adjust a new wheel, warn
Saunders Co., I 936. others using the polishing machine to stop work and to keep
their hands off the spindle tips.
7. Alw:l!,s stop the motor on the polishing machine before re-
I I , :1<li11stiti,~
I I I ~ \ ~ ~ 01. ~ I I V L V l)olishirig wliccls.
'8;
284 M A N U A L ]'OK DI.N'I':II. 'I'ECIiNICIANS

B. Care of Machine :
I. Always keep the machine clean.
2. Daily, remove lint from steel wool filter.
3. Every other day during the summer and every week during
the winter fill the water pan so that, at all times, it contains
1% to I inches of water. U N I T NO. 20
4. Once each week lubricate the motor that operates the spindle
heads, pour oil in oil cups on the right and left sides of the DENTURE REPAIR TECHNIC
motor shaft.
5. Once each month, lubricate the spindle bearings and remove Rubber uscd for p.lcking d e n t ~ u closes its elasticity ~ f t e rit undergoes
the spindle head covers. Pour machine oil over felt around vulcanization. Dentures are occ'~sionally accidentally broken. Sometilnes a
denture is fractured bccnuse of uneven stress of the teeth of the opposing
the spindle bearings.
jaw. I n this unit we shall discnss the repair of vulcanite dentures and the
6. Once a year pack grease in the three transmission bearings
replacement of old, worn vulcanite denturcs by new vulcanite bases without
on the pulley shaft. changing the fit of the denture or the relationship of the artificial teeth
to the denture base.

Project or Jobs: ( T o be performed by the learner.)


a. Repairing simple fractures.
b. Repairing fractures irtvolving teeth artd clasps.
c. Replacement of new palate.
d. Replacenzent of buccal and labial ( g u m ) vulcanite.
e. Replacr7nent of entire vulcanite denture bast,.
Project or Jobs: ( T o be performed by the learner.)
JOB NO. 77: Repair simple fractures of one full upper and one
full lower denture.
J O B NO. 78: Repair fractures involving loose teeth of one full
upper and one full lower denture.
J O B No. 79: Repair a partial denture with loose clasp.
J O B No. 80: Replace palatal vulcanite of one full upper
denture.
J O B NO. 81: Replace buccal arid labial vulcanite of one full
lower denture.
J O B No. 82: Replace the entire vulcailite denture bases of two
full upper dentures.
N w r ~ :(Read the entire Upbit carefully before beginning work.
Co~isultthc glossal-!, for definitions of new words.)
jol) Application: Vulcnriite is l>~-e;~kable hut call bc repaired by
: ~ , l t l i n ,FI-csh
~ clcnt:~l ~-ul>berslid I-cvulca~lizing. T h e revulcanized
, l c . ~ ~ t ; I~ IlI I , I I ~ I - is thcri trimmed 2nd polished. Although the repaired
, new L ' u I c ~ I ~ ~ :ip~>cars
I ~ ( . I I I \isI I: -I~~. : S~~ I~~ V I~ CIC ' : L I > I Cthc ~c lighter t h x r l
."5
286 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS DENTURE REPAIR TECHNIC 287
the original vulcanite of the denture which becomes darker. Den h. Only the waxed surfaces s h o d d be expo~edin investing the
tures may be repaired several times as occasion demands. However, dmtzcre to be repaired in fEasKs.
it is better to replace all of the old vulcanite if extensive or repeated i. Handle the denture carefully while trimming and polishing.
repairs become necessary. j. Be careful to keep the artificial teeth in the exact positions
Vocational Information: The parts of the broken denture are as- hdicated by the index ( a plaster wall used to peserve the
sembled into their original relationship, a matrix (cast) is made
under the denture and the edges of the parts are prepared for re-
ceiving additional vulcanite. The denture may then be "cold packed"
or "wet packed" and revulcanized. Special rubbers or the regular
dental rubbers may be used for repairing vulcanite dentures.
Tools and Equipment: Plaster bowl, plaster spatula, plaster knife,
glass slab, wire nails, articulator, flask, wax, spatula, penknife, vul-
canizer and attachments, all trimming and polishing tools.
NOTE: (Tools and equipment used in waxing, flasking, boiling
out wax, packing, cleansing, trimming and polishing are used in
denture repairing.)
Materials: Sticky wax, petrolatum jelly, basewax, plaster, water,
dental rubber, sandpaper, pumice, chalk.
NOTE: (Materials used in waxing, flasking, boiling out wax,
packing, cleansing, trimming and polishing are used in denture A-Loose tooth. B and C-Broken parts A and B-Parts of upper denture.
of lower denture.
repairing.)
Procedure: (Follow operations in the order presented here.)
CAUTIONS:
a. T h e fracture-edges must be accurately approximated to pre-
vent distortion oj the denture.
b. Avoid applying sticky wax on the tissue surface of t h e den-
ture.
c. Be sure to lubricate the tissue surface of the denture before
pouring the stone or plaster cast.
d. A strip of vulcanite of about g" must be filed or ground
away between the fracture-edges after making the matrix ( a
stone or plaster cast or foundation on which the fractured
denture is repaired and revulcanized).
e. All of the polish should be removed from the denture for a
distance of g" beyond the edges to be repaired.
f. Dove-tails should be between %" and g" i n size and no/
over g" apart. A-Clasp in place after the vulcanite
has been ground out to receive the clasp
A-Dovetails. B-Loose tooth in posi-
tion. C-Vulcanite thinned and honey-
g. W h e r e dovetails are not used, the vulcani~eskould he rlS extension. B-Plaster matrix. combed with a bur.
duced to of its original thicknrs.~N / /hr e/l.ec.s l o hn join/,,/, Note' Either dovetailing or the thinning and roughening method may be used. T h e
n ~ tken
d m7h.chened wit11a h f ~ r . cast poured to hold the denture is known as the "matrix."
288 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS DENTURE REPAIR TECHNIC 289

relationship of the teeth to the denture base) when replacing


vzllcanite dentare bases.
k. I n remakes, avoid changing the original relationship of the
teeth to the denture base (keep the articzllator set-screw
seczlrely locked).
1. Cover the teeth v i t h a layer of basewax before passing the
dentzlre through the flame to soften the vulcanite so that the
teeth can be removed without fracturing.
NOTE: (Observe all cautions indicated for waxing, flasking,
boiling out wax, packing, cleansing, trimming, and polishing.)
I. Simple denture repair:
I. Approximate fractured edges and seal the broken parts with
sticky wax and wire splints, laid at right angles over the line
of fracture. (Figs. 265 and 266.)
2. Lubricate tissue surface with petrolatum.
3. Apply a basewax or carding wax strip around the periphery A-Matrix (cast). B-Assembled bro- A-Wax rim around broken denture.
of the denture as in boxing impressions. ken denture showing wire reenforcement. M i r e reenforcement.
4. Mix plaster and pour a matrix (cast) of the denture as in Note: T h e wax rim reenforces the denture so that the parts are not disturbed when
pouring impressions. (Figs. 267 and 268.) the matrix is poured. T h e wax rim helps to obtain a more evenly rounded matrix.
5. When the plaster of the matrix has set, remove and cleanse
the fractured denture parts.
6. Using vulcanite burs, separating discs and abrasive files and
wheels, as found necessary, dovetail and remove polish for
a distance of S'' parallel with the fracture-edges. (Figs.
269, 270 and 271.)
7. Replace fractured parts on the cast, fill in missing parts of
vulcanite with basewax, waxing somewhat thicker than thc
original vulcanite denture itself.
8. Trim the plaster matrix (cast) and invest in flask, covering
all surfaces except waxed areas. (Fig. 272.)
9. Proceed with flasking, packing, vulcanizing, finishing and
polishing as described in the respective units. (Fig. 273.)
11. Denture repair involving loosened teeth:
A. When the same artificial tooth can be replaced.
NOTE: Where the denture base indicates the exact position of
the loose tooth, cut a dovetail in the lingual or palatal surface of thc
vulcanite adjacent to the tooth, replace the tooth in its original posi A-Prepared edges of fracture, honeycombed with bur. B-Trough on matrix
around denture after removing the wax rim placed around the denture before the
tion, wax it securely with sticky wax and proceed as in simple repairs. matrix was poured.
B. Where the loose tooth is broken and a new tooth is to bc N o t e : Dental rubber may be heated on the packing table and worked into the space
used but the denture base at the site of the tooth is intact. to be repaired by using a clean hot spatula.
\
DENTURE REPAIR TECHNIC 291
290 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS
NOTE: T h e dentist supplies the technician with a wax "bite"
indicating the relationship of the teeth of the opposing jaw, and a
new artificial tooth, or the make, shade and mould number of the
tooth to be used.
I. Proceed as in simple repairs until the matrix is poured.
2. Mount the wax "bite" on the denture, fitting the teeth of the
denture into their tooth depressions on the "bite" as indicated,
and seal the wax "bite" securely to the teeth of the denture.
(Fig. 274.)

Note: T h e denture is covered with plaster excepting over the area to be packet1
with dental rubber.

A-Denture. B-Teeth on denture. &Bite mounted over denture and matrix.

Note: The plaster mix for pouring the "bite" should be looser than for other pur-
poses. B e sure plastei fills the tooth depressions before building up the plaster
on the "bite."

3. Fill with plaster the tooth depressions left in the "bite" by


FIG. 273. REPAIRED
UPPERDENTURE the teeth of the opposing jaw.
4. Mount the matrix with the denture and poured "bite" on an
Note: T h e lines of division between the old and new vulcanite can be seen on
the palate. articulator.
5. Remove the "bite" from the denture and the poured "coun-
ter" or cast of the opposing. teeth. (Fig. 275.)
6. ,Place the new tooth in position as indicated by the bite and
292
MANUAL -FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS DENTURE REPAIR T E C H N I C 293

I. Lubricate the tissue surface of the denture and impression or


apply separating media to the impression part (if the im-
pression part consists of plaster.)
2. Apply a wax rim around the periphery of the denture and
impression.
3. Pour the matrix (cast).
4. Apply the wax "bite" to the denture and wax it securely.
(Fig. 274.)
5. Pour the "bite."
6. Mount the matrix with the denture and "bite" on an ar-
ticulator.
7. Remove the "bite" and add teeth as in adding new teeth to
broken denture and proceed as in simple repairs. (Fig. 275.)
111. Repair of partial denture with loose clasp.
NOTE: (The dentist takes an impression of the clasped tooth
with the clasp and denture in position.)
I. Pour the impression and denture as directed for adding teeth
to a partial denture.
2. Cut out the vulcanite of the denture base around the exten-
sion (tail-piece) of the clasp.
3. Proceed with waxing,' flasking, packing, etc., as in simple
repairs.
Note: T h e bite has been removed. T h e denture, the matrix and the counter of tllc IV. Replace entire vulcanite on palate of a n upper denture.
opposing teeth are shown mounted on an articulator. (Fig. 276.)
I. Assemble the broken denture parts and pour a matrix as in
the arrangement of the adjacent teeth of the denture to 1)c. simple repairs.
repaired. 2. Using separating disks on a mandrel mounted on the bur
NOTE: [It is often necessary to grind the incisal or cervical edgcs chuck of the lathe, cut away the entire palatal vulcanite flush
of the new tooth to be added, in order to fit it into position. l'hc with the palatal (lingual) surfaces of the teeth. (Fig. 276.)
gum rubber at the neck (the collar) of the tooth should not I)c 3. Using round burs, roughen the vulcanite under the teeth by
ground away. T h e denture, especially when an anterior tooth i s honeycombing it with the bur.
being replaced, will look better if the original gum rubber is prc 4. Wax the denture and proceed as in simple repairs.
served.] V. Replace entire buccal and labial (gum) vulcanite of a n
7. After the tooth or teeth are arranged in proper position, ~ M - I I upper o r lower denture.
ceed as in simple repairs. I . Assemble the broken denture parts and pour a matrix as in
C. Where additional teeth are to be added to partial denturc.~. simple repairs.
NOTE: (The dentist takes an impression and wax "bitc" 01' 2. Using an abrasive wheel reduce the gum vulcanite to about
the part where new teeth are to be added and supplics thc tc.c,l~ one-half of its original thickness.
nician with the teeth or specifies the make, shade, and moult1 ( 1 1 3.. Using a vulcanite bur, honeycomb the remaining gum rubber
the teeth to be used.) with the bur to roughen it. (Fig. 277.)
294 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS DENTURE REPAIR TECHNIC
I
295 1
4. Carefully cut away the gum rubber around the necks of the ing the plaster of the index about j/4" away from the indsal
teeth. and occlusal surfaces of the teeth. (Figs. 280 and 28 I .)
5. Wax the buccal and labial surfaces. 4. Cut a dent on the index opposite each of the cuspid teeth of
6. Flask the denture by filling the lower part of the flask with the denture, to weaken the plaster, and remove the index
plaster of a fairly stiff mix and set the denture with the teeth from the denture and cast.
down, while on the matrix, into the newly mixed plaster, 5. Remove the denture from the cast and remove the teeth
from the denture by first covering the teeth with a layer
of melted basewax and passing the denture quickly several
times through the flame of the Bunsen burner to soften the
vulcanite.
6. Arrange the teeth in position as indicated on the plaster
index and secure them with sticky wax.

FIG. 276. METHODO F REPAIRING


FIG. 2 7 7 . METHODO F PREPARING
UPPER DENTUREFOR NEWPALATE RUBBER OF LABIALSURFACEOF
DENTUREFOR APPLICATION OF NEW
RUBBER
A-The vulcanite under the teeth has A-Plaster matrix. B-Gum rubber
been honeycombed with a vulcanite bur. thinned out and honeycombed for new
T h e pins on the anterior teeth have been rubber. C-Wax applied to desired
exposed. thickness.
Note: Plastic rubber or heated dental rubber may be applied directly without waxing.

being careful to have the teeth at least g''from the bottom


of the flask. (Fig. 278.)
7. Smooth the plaster around the teeth and over the cast at the
rear of the denture, making sure that all of the waxed part A-Plaster matrix. T h e denture is flasked with teeth toward the base of the flask.
B-Wax to be boiled out after the upper part of the flask is poured.
has been exposed. Lubricate the plaster.
8. Pour the upper part of the flask and continue as in simple 7. Construct a baseplate over the cast (the matrix) and arrange
repairs. (Fig. 279.)
the index containing the teeth around the matrix with the
VI. Replace the entire vulcanite denture base. baseplate.
NOTE:(Proceed as in simple repairs until the matrix is poured.) 8. Flow basewax into the separations between the teeth and the
A. When the matrix is not to be mounted on an articulator. baseplate. (Fig. 284.)
I. Make a groove on each and in front of the matrix at right 9. Remove the sticky wax holding the teeth to the index and
angles to the base of the matrix and the denture. remove the index.
2 . Lubricate the teeth and the buccal and labial surfaces of thc 10. Finish the waxing where necessary without disturbing the
denture and matrix. position of the teeth.
3. Build a plaster index around the denture and matrix, extend- I I.. Proceed as in flasking a newly waxed trial denture.
296 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS
DENTURE REPAIR TECHNIC 297

NOTE: (Basewax may have to be used instead of the baseplate


to avoid disarranging the teeth in the index.)
B. Where an articulator is to be used:
I. Proceed as in simple repairs until the matrix is poured, then
lubricate the teeth on the denture.
2. Deposit a stiff plaster mix on a glass slab and press the teeth
of the denture on the matrix into the plaster mix which now
, becomes the tooth index.

FIG. 279. FLASKOPENED OUT


FOR BOILING

I-Counter. 2-Denture flasked in lower part of flask.

A-Lateral part of index. B-Anterior part of index. C-The matrix, showing


the trough left by the wax rim. D-The denture base to be replaced. E--Part of
index, showing method of extending above the occlusal surfaces of the teeth.
Note: T h e trough on the matrix around the denture made by the wax rim and a
vertical cut on the matrix help to replace the index in the same position. T h e index
is higher than and extends over the incisal edges of the teeth.

3. Trim the tooth index and mount the denture on the matrix
and the tooth index on an articulator, securing the set-screw
A-Reenforcements on fractured denture. B-Index. C-Matrix. to hold the relationship of the index to the matrix when the
denture is removed. (Fig. 282.)
Note: T h e matrix and denture should be lubricated in order to make the separ:~ti~)~l
of the index from the matrix and denture easier. T h e plaster wall around I I I ~ . 4. Cover the teeth of the denture with a layer of basewax, pass
denture and matrix is known as the "index." through the Bunsen flame until the vulcanite is soft, remove
the teeth from the denture, arrange on the tooth index and
.fasten them with sticky wax. (Fig. 283.)
29 8 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS DENTURE REPAIR TECHNIC 299

5. Make a baseplate or basewax denture base over the cast.


6. Adapt a wax roll over the denture base and wax the teeth
to it securely. (Fig. 285.)
7. Remove the sticky wax holding the teeth to the index and
complete the waxing. (Fig. 286.)
8. Proceed with flasking, boiling out wax, packing, etc., as with
wax trial dentures, until completion.
Supplementary Assignment: (Information to be obtained by the
learner.)
I. Various methods followed in repairing dentures.
2. Various methods of adding new or additional teeth.
3. "Jumping the bite."

X-Tooth depressions on index. FIG. 283. TEETH


ARRANGED
IN THE INDEX

Note: T h e index poured for teeth and the denture on the matrix are articulatetl. A-Matrix. B-Teeth. &Index.
All of the denture base is to be replaced without disturbing the relationship of tllc Note: T h e matrix of the original denture is now ready to receive a denture base.
teeth to the cast. T h e set-screw of the articulator must be properly adjusted. T h e teeth are then waxed to the denture base and separated from the index.

4. "Rebasing."
5. Different rubber preparations for cold packing.
6. Various methods of flasking.
7. Methods of removing teeth from vulcanite dentures.
8. Methods of grinding teeth.
9. Method of reenforcing assembled parts.
300 MANUAL FOR DENTAL TECHNICIANS DENTURE R E P A I R T E C H N I C 30'
Questions :
I. Why must the broken parts of the denture be accurately
assembled?
2 . Why should the assembled parts be reenforced?
3. Why are the teeth secured to the index?
4. Why is it necessary to secure the set-screw firmly when an
articulator is used?
5. What are the advantages and disadvantages of cold packing?
6. What precautions should be taken in removing teeth from
dentures?
7. How should the teeth be secured to the denture base in
"jumping the bite."
8. What is the purpose of dovetailing?
9. Why should the polish be removed from the denture near
the edges to be repaired?.
10.What is the purpose of roughing the vulcanite with burs?
11. What methods other than dovetailing may be employed to
WAXEDI N INDEX FIG.285. DENTURE
FIG.284. DENTURE WAXEDIN INDEX
WITHOUT ARTICULATOR WITH ARTICULATOR secure old vulcanite to new rubber?
12. What effect does revulcanization have on vulcanite dentures?
A-Index. B-Waxed denture. C- A-Matrix. B-Basewax with teeth
Matrix. waxed to base. C-Index. D-Teeth Job Appraisal :
held in index with aid of sticky wax
but not yet joined to base. I. Were the parts accurately assembled?
Note: When the case is articulated be sure the set-screw is tight. T h e teeth shoultl 2. Were dovetails and grooves cut according to the directions?
be arranged in their proper positions in the index before waxing them to the w a x 3. Were the teeth accurately replaced in the index?
denture base.
4. Were the teeth removed from the denture without breaking >
.

them?
5. Was the denture properly vulcanized, trimmed and polished?
REFERENCES: (Book for Additional Information.)
C. R. and Anthony, L. P.: American Textbook of Prosthetic
I. T u r n e r ,
Dentistry. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger Co., I 932.
2. Nichols, 1. G.: Prosthetic Dentistry. St.. Louis: C. V. Mosby Co., I 930.
3. Frahm, F. W.: T h e Principles and Practice of Full Denture Construc-
tion. Brooklyn: Dental Items of Interest Publishing Co., 1934.
4. Skinner, E. W.: T h e Science of Dental Materials. Philadelphia: W . B.
Saunders Co., I 936.

Note: The denture is an exact duplicnte of the origillnl as f a r :IS IIN. ti1 :111tl 1111.
relationship of the teeth to thc matrix are concc.~.~~c.tl.
KEI,ATEI> I N I ~ O K M A T I O N : U N I T NO. 20

D E N T U R E REPAIR TECHNIC

Plastic rubber: Compounds of plastic rubber are sometimes used


in repairing vulcanite dentures. T h e plastic rubber is used instead
of wax. After flasking the cast: is placed in the vulcanizer without
the necessity of boiling out or packing.
Removal of teeth from vulcanite denture: Place the denture
into a tin box containing sand. Heat the box until the sand is red
hot. Allow the sand to cool, remove the denture and the teeth will
be found loose and easy to remove.
Properties of repaired vulcanite: T h e repaired denture is not
strong as it was originally. Revulcanization causes a slight shrinkagr
of the vulcanite.
Dry-Packing: Instead of waxing the part to be repaired, dental
rubber may be heated on the packing table and inserted with a hot
wax spatula into the part to be repaired. Care should be taker!
to pack the rubber tightly. T h e spatula must be kept absolutely c l e a ~ ~
to prevent foreign particles from becoming incorporated with thy
rubber.

1 r I n. .a . u r. n . .
ux.
3 0 ~ APPENDIX I1 APPENDIX I1 n07

( C ) Related Information
(a) Vocalional Informalion (b). Subblementar~
-- Assiannrenls
ANALYSIS O F U N I T NO. I: WAX TECHNIC I. Origin and development of plaster for dental
use
2 . Physical and chemical properties of plaster
( A ) Processes and Jobs 4. Modified plasters 3 . Con~positionof various plaster eompounds
5 . Method of storing plaster 4. Duties of plaster technician
(a)
. . Process or Princiblc ( b ) Project or Jobs &. Care ofplaster tools and equipment
No. I. Dental waxine: No. I:
a. Handling and-cutting basewax a. Construct a sealed wax box 4 5 x 4 5 I I I ~ L I .
b. Melting and sealing basewax b. Construct a wax art-base form t o g i v r ~ t
c. Manipulation of carding wax dimensions ,lNALYSIS O F U N I T NO. 3: I'KEPARATION O F P I A S T E R 1MPRI':SSIONS
d. Use of wax spatula
e. Use of Bunsen burner F O R CrlSTS--1
(.4) Processes and Jobs
( B ) Laboratory Instruclion (a) Process or Principle (b) Projecl or Jobs
(0) Tools. Equipmen1 and So. 3. Assembling impressions: No. 3 . Assemble four sets of full (edentulous)
Malerials (b) Operations a. Application of sticky wax upper and lower impressions in trays
(6) Laboratory Pracliceh b. Handling broken parts of plasterimpres- No. 4. Assemble four sets of full (edent~llons)
I . Laboratory hench I. Using mm. ruler I. Cutting waxes slnns upper and lower impressions without using
2 . Bunsen hurner with gas 2. Handling andcuttingwax z . Heating and using u., c. Arranging broken parts in dental im- trays
tu1,~ng 3. Using wax spatula spatula ~ ~ r e s s i otrays
n No. 5. Assemble six partial (partially edentu-
3 . Wax spatula 4. Melting and sealing base- 3 . Polishina basewax (1. Assembling impressions without using lous) impressions in trays
4. hllllimeter ruler wax 4. Sealing 6asewax trays KO. 6. Assemble six partial (partly cdentulo~is)
5. Penknife s. Handlinrr. cuttinp and seal- in~pressionswithout using trays
0. Pink basewax
7. Carding wax
- -
inn cardrne wax -
8. Absorbent cotton
( R ) Laboratory Instruction
( C ) Related Information (a) Tools, Eguipmenl
and Materials (b) Operalions (c) Laboralory Praclices
(a) Vocalionol Informalion (b) Subblenrenlarr
.. -
- Assianmenl~ I. Camel's hair brush I. Arrangipg broken parts of I. Using sticky wax
I. Kinds of waxes and uses I . Ingredients of wares
2. Wax spatula impressions 2. Opening packages contain-
2 . Types of wax spatulas 2. Degrees of heat attained by Bur~st:rtl , i ~ t 1
3. Bunsen burner 2. Brushing of debris from ing plaater impressions
3 . Types of Bunsen burners flame
4.t
4. Paper towel parts 3. Arranging parts in relative
j . Analysis of Bunsen burncr flamc
5. Tweezers 3. Use of tweezers for hand- positions
6. Sticky wax ling plaster parts 4. Handling parts of plaster
4. Physical changcs in heating and chilii~ir:n .C
7. Basewax 4. Arranging plaster parts of impressions
s. Gauaes (thicknesses) of different w : i h s 8. Upper a n d lower full and impressions in trays 5. Cleansing of dental impres-
usesof each partial impressions 5. Fitting parts of plaster im- sion trays
pressions
6. Application of sticky wax
7. Fitting of parts without
trays
ANALYSIS O F U N I T NO. 2: PI,ASrl'EK TECHNIC 8. Reenforcing with sticky
wax
( A ) Processes and Jobs
(a) Process or Prindfile (b) Projccl or Jobs ( C ) Related Information
Nu. 2. Plaster work: No. 2. Construct upper and lower a r t - i , : ~< .-.
, I
a. Handling, mixing, shaping and trinlming
mixed plaster
be used as wax trays (a)
. . Vocalional Informalion (b)
. . Subblemenlarv
.- - Assiannrenls
-
b. Use of plaster spatula, knife. bowl and r. Different types of impressions Various imnrcssion materials
saw 2. Types of sticky wax used Care of deGtal impressions
c. Use of sandpaper. chan~oiscloth anrl 3. Types of dental impression trays Ingredients of sticky wax
chalk in polishing plaster 4. Use pf reenforcements in assembling im. Precautions in assembling
presslons What to do when parts are missing
5. Types of tweezers used for holding plaster
parts
( B ) I , ( ~ b o r ~ ~ / 1o ~i,\trii(./~oi~
ry
(a) l'ools, Equipmen1 onrl
Malerials ( b ) Upcrol~otr\ (<) I . n / , o r t ~ / o ~1y' ) ,jC I , , , ANAT;YSIS O F U N I T NO. 3 : P R E P A R A T I O N O F DENTAIL
I . I'laster saw I . M < ~ ~ > i p ~ ~ l~: I~;tL i tS~LgV : I I . 1'I:~strrwo! k
2. Glass slab 2. Usir~gpIa\tcr <,t,tt~~l.s 2 . Mixi111: l~l,~:,lc~~ IMPRESSIONS-I1
3 . Plaster spatu1:i ,I. U S ~ I I~V ~ l :\:cw ~ ~ ~ l ~ ~ r .$. l ' < n ~ r i~~> >l .~~ :~ , l t ~ ~
4. Plaster knife 4. US~IIS! r)l:<\~<,r kt111~ 4. ' r r i l > l ~ t l i l t > I: I ~ , I V . I < . I ( A ) Processes and Jobs
5. Plaster bowl 5. 'l'rirni!~\tii:1,1.#..lt,r 5 . I ' ( ~ I . , / I 1I ~~1 .I~ )~ :. I r - I
0 . Chamois clotlj 0. S:tnd[~:t(~c MII,: I>I., . I * ! (11) Process or Principle (b) Projecl or Jobs
7. Mi~rkingrwnril 7. l',nli\l~if~j* 1t1.t .f<.r
.I Il*,\incdental impressions No. 7. Boxing of assembled impressions
8. Mens~lrirlcct11, n l l ~ , , ~, ~I I , ~i I I I, C > ~,, I. , , I I ~ a. Clsc of c : ~ r < i i n ~ , w a x No. 8. Application of shellac and Sand:~mct o
9. Dcnt.iI j > l ; v , t < , ~ h. I'<.<:/IIIIC:o I I,r,xlng ~l~lprcssions boxed irnprcssio~~s
to. W:1t rr
1 1 . S : L ~ ~ I N~w~ , . ,(I L,tr(sl
I ~I ~ ~ ~
, A l ~ l , l t < : ~ t iofo ~ stlell?~
~ and Sillrdi~rac
1 a. 'r,,I,
v:iro~isll;other sepnrntlng rrle11i:l
,2Nr\T,YSIS 017 ITWIT NO. 4 : I.)ICNT;\ I, CAST TECFINIC- I I
I .I 1 ~ i ~ i .Iul1.5
/'r(ur.~.~<..\ i l
I . L\',,\ S\I:LIIII:I 111gO.rsc~~v;i\ 13osilig imprcssinr~s
A . I ~ I I I I S ~ II JI ~ I ~ I II C
I .
2
('1111
C u t t ~ n gy:~r<1111g
\\:t\
I.
2. Applic;ltiol~ of *el,;iratt181: .
i c 0 I ' r , ~ ( t, or l'?!??,ipl, (111 l ' ~ o j r , l or J o b )
. ' I 1 I j. Scaling basr.n.:~h 1nc6i:~ Nc,. 0. S e l ~ d ~ . i ~ riists
t i ~ ~ l~: ~ C ~ iI lI l I, l ~ ~ . ( \ ~ . i c ~ ~ - . 1.3. S c ~ ~ ~ l a t c fsets
o ~ (i er i ~ ~ h(1111
t ) ~jljl)cra i ~ i l
4. I ' c ~ l k r ~ ~ l r 4. Sealing c;trrli~tgiv:~x 11. Sc.par:iti!,p plastcr casts Inwer plaster casts
5. R:~scw;~s 5. Using n:tx s1~;ttul;i b. S e y a r a t i n ~:irtifvial strlllt caath r I . Scparatr l'mr sets (right) 11111~ l p p c r;ind
6. C:~rdirlg wirx 0 . Using shel1;ic (i.Separatinr full Iedrt!tulc!~rs)c:lsth It,wer ;trtificial s t o ~ i ecasts
7 . Sticky rvax 7 . Using S:t,ndnrac \wrnisIi d . S ~ p n r n t i n gg:rrtinl (parti:illv edrnti:lous) 15. Separate six partial plaster casts
8 . Shellac 8. Applic:tt~nn of seoarating rosts 1 0 . Scparatc sis partial artificial stiinc casts
g . Sandi~rnc media
ro. V1,rlatur~ilalcnll<~l

(C) R r l u l r d Znfornztltiu~
(ti) Tr~olr,Equipt,ienl linil
Jl~iirri~ri (b) Oorralions (c) Luhorulory Pracli<rs
, ,
Precautions in boxing I. 1'l;lstcl- knilc I. Kcinoval of poured imprrs- I. Removal of boxir~a mn-
I. 1j;triaus lnnterinls nsed for boxing irnprcs- I.
L. Pcnklrifc sioli.; from t r a y s terial
s~ons 2 . hfethorls I I boxing ~
3 . Alrvh,,l 2. Rcmuval of boxiiig ma- 2 . Scparation of partial casts
2 . Various s e p a r a t i n ~mcdi'i j. l n g r c d i r ~ i t scr1 scparatinz media
4. .2bsc>rl!rnt c o t t r , ~ ~ terial from pourcd casts 3 . Cleansing c:tsts
.A.Various methods nf applying sep;\rating 4. Prcc:tutions ill using separating media 3 . Separation of plastcr iln- j. Separating imprrssirr~ls
~ncdia prcssinn from casts
j. Care of hrushes
4. Removal ijf pl:+ster iinpl-es-
5. Care of separating n ~ e d l n sinn from t ~ e t hof partial
0 . Why irnprcssior~snre boxrd casts
j. Using knife blade i n scp:t-
rating
6 . Cleansing casts

(C) Z2elated Znforwrc~tion


;\N.\I.YSIS 01" ITNIT NO. 4: I)EP\;T['XT, (:.\ST TECHYIC- I
(a) IToculion(~l
Inj(~rmalion (b) Supplemenlury Arsig?rtirr?r/*
r . Scparatiuz casts front v : r r i o ~ ~ isn ~ p r r s s i r , ~ i I.
.
,
1001s used in s r p a r a t i n g
jil) Processes and J o h s matrrials 2. Care ni casts pourrd i n v a r i n ~ i sc r , m y t ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ r i s
2 . Sep:ir:iting elastic uiiiterinls 3 . P r e c a u t i i ~ n sin scgar;iting casts f r l ~ r nrlilstiv
.
((1). Pro(rss or Princbple (b) Project or Jobs j. Separating soluble p1;ispr a n d other compounds
Xr, . <F - -P n u r > n..a dentn! casts No. 9. Pour in plaster four sets 01 full I , I I I ,I , 4. Separating "Dcntocoll
a n d lou.cr impressions
~~

( 1 . P c , u r i n ~plaster casts
b. Pouring artificial stone casts Kc,. lo. Pour in artificial storle four sets <rr I ' I '
c. Usc of mcchurtcal viijrator upper a n d lowcr iml~resslcrns
rl. Recl~forrlngt c ~ t t hin pi+rti:rl casts K o . I I . Pour ir~,plaster six p;lrtial i ~ ~ ~ l ! r r s s i t
S o . 1 2 . Ptwr 111 artificial stonr S I X 1 1 . 1 1 , AN.\LYSIS OF UNIT S O . 4: l)ENTA\T, C.\ST TECHNIC-TIT
inlprrssious
(A) P r o t e s ~ e su n d J o h s
(b) Projecl or Jobs
S o . 1 7 . Trim full upper a n d Iowrr plaster < rrsts
18. T r i m full ~ ~ p p rand
r lo\vrr arti1ici:rl
(u) Tools, fiqrtipmeni nnd stone casts
Jfalerzals (b) Opt:rolio?zz ( ( 1 Laburulr~ry/'roc 1 1 , < 1 0 . Trin, partial plastcr c:lsts
I . ['<,urir~gplaster < , , t , - l > 20. Trim pnrti:il artiiirial stinlc r a < t s
I . Plaster bowl I. M i x ~ l i gplaster
2 . Plastcr s l ~ a t u l n 2. hfixing artilirinl stunt. 2. Pouring :irt~li(.i:~I. . I , * I
j. Glass slab j. Pouring plastcr ~ r n ~ ~ r e s s i r ~ ~ i sr;rsts
4. Mechanic:il vibrator 4. Pouring artifici:il stone 1121- .r. Vil,r:~tingc:lst:- (R) L a b o r u l o r y 1~1.slricc-lio11
5. Llcntal l a t h e press~ons 4. I < e c n l u r c i ~ ~
[)!.ISIC.I
g I I :
6. P l a s t r r of Paris 5. Using vibrator ;. Sctrini: ~ , ~ I ~ I R . <c I . , . I . (ir) Tool*, I<gvipmrnl nnri
7 . Water 6. S c o r ~ n gcasts tIo/erii113 ( O ) Operation.? (c) Laboralury Prriciirt:b
8. Artilicial stonc 7. Using wire lor rerni~:rcil~i: I . Plaster kniic I. Marking casts I . Marking casts
9. Iron ~i-ircip:lpcr clip) t c r t h in partial in?l~r~,seir)ns .,. 1<11Icr 2. Sawing plastcr 2. l'rimn~ingplastrr c.;rsts
.i. l',,~~cil j. S a y i n g stonc 3 . Trimming stolie casts
1. lll;~slcrs:t\\, :ln<I 111:1<1? 4. L s ~ n zrasp 4. Sandpapering c : i s ~ s
,5. l<:,s]>t,lr 5. Using sandpnpcr
(C) R e l a l e t l Zi?f,~rnrr~lzr~ii 1,. s : , , l ~ l , > : , l ~ < ~ l r

(a) Vocational Injornralion ,111 \r,ppl,,,,,,,,i~,tr~1 , \ , I : ? r!,, ,,,I (C) R e l a t e d Znfornznlion


r . Kinds ot plzister a n d purposes of each : I I I K I C V I H,115 , , I , C I I I 5.I8~
1 ,, I , , ~ > c
2. K ~ n d sol vltjrators a n d purgiises of cncli 2. (l,crc. "1 1 1 1 1 1,1.1.\11,>11.. (/I) Supplemenlary Assignrne?zls
3 . Method of reenr,,rcing tccth I r l li.rrtial c;isls ,{ \It I I I ~ c I \, , I , , ~ , , I I I > : , ,1 1 8 1 , r t ,.I,,!#
I . Various methods of making art-bases
L. Kinds uf 11ent:ii artifici:ll ,torre \ , ~ I ~ I I ~ \~ ~, . , $ I I ,L;,,
2 . Opc,ration 01 patentt,d t r i r r ~ t ~ t i ~ 111:tr11i11rs
rg
.i. Mctl~orlsr ~ ~i , i ~ l i s I ~ i:~rt-l>:8h~s ~~c:
.I. L',.,, <,I ,<l-l-l8,,s,.I , , r t r l v r -
,:>. \l<.II\ll<li ,!I 1 1 1 1 , 1 1 / < ~ I I I I ) , L.I\II
APPENDIX I1 311
31° APPENDIX 11

I\NALYSIS O F U N I T NO. 5: P R E P A R A T I O N O F D E N T U R E BEARlNC; ANALYSIS O F U N I T NO. 6 : T R I A L D E N T U R E BASE TECHNIC--I


AREAS-I
( A ) Processes and Jobs
(-4) Processes and Jobs
(a) Process or Principle (b) Project or Jobs
(a) Process or Principle (b) Projecl or Jobs No. l o . Construction of baseplates on casts No. 26. Construct baseplates with lapped
N o . 8. Outlining denture bearing and rclicf No. 21. Locate landrnarks and outline dcntul-n a. Construction of baseplates with lapped margins on four sets of edentulous stone
areas on casts arcas on eight sets (sixteen) ol c d ~ n t t ~ margins casts
o. Location of anatomic landmarks lous casts b. Construction of baseplates with No. 27. Construct baseplates with trimmed
b . Outlining edentulous and partial dcnturc Xo. 22. Locate landmarks and outline denture, trimmed margins margins of six partial stone casts
bcaring areas areas on twelve partial casts

( B ) Laboratory Instruction
( B ) Laboralory Instructio~r
(a) Tools. Malerials and
(a) TOOLS,Equipment u nd
Muleriuls (b) operation^ (6) Laboralory PrncLicr\
- -
Eouibmenl (b). Oberalions
. . . Laboratory Praclices
(c)
I. Bunsen burner I. Softenina b a s e ~ l a t ein Bun- I. Makinefull trial b a s e ~ l a t e s
I . Marking pencil I . Outlining dentures I. Denture dcsigning i. Plate-shears sen flamz * I. ~ a k i G - p a r t i a ltri$ base-
2. Llrawing paper 2 . Outlining landmarks 2. Outlining relief areas 3. Wax spatula 2. Cutting haseplate plates
3 . Sixtpen edentulous casts 3 . Outlining hard areas 4. Penknife 3. Adapting baseplate 3. Preparation of trial hase-
4. Twclve partial casts 4. Outlining suit areas s. Rat-tail vulcanite file 4. Applying reenforcing wire plate for denture bases
5. Outlining alveolo-buccal 6. Half-round vulcanite file 5. Filing baseplate other t h a n vulcanite
fold 7. Baseplate material 6. Softening baseplate
8. Boiling water 7. Repairing baseplate
9. Cold water 8. Using rat-tail file
( C ) Related I~~j'ormation 10. Absorbent cotton 9. Using half-round file
I I . Paper clip wire
(a) Vocalional 1 njormulion (b) S~rpplemenlaryAssignmenls I z. Sandpaper
I . Various methods of denture dcsignixlg I . Openings in boncs nf palate covercd by < I < , #
13. Plaster howl
2. Horseshoe" dentures turcs
3. Metal a n d vulcanite combinations z. Openings in honcs of mandible (lower j:lv I ( C ) Related Information
4. Partial denture designing covered by denturcs
A . Muscular a t t a c h m ~ n t sin upper jaw rt!:llL,! (a) Vocational Infurmulion (b) - Assimnment5
. . Subblemenlarv
.. ..
t o dentures I . Various con~puunds used for trial denture I. Composition of baseplate
4. hluscular a t t a c h ~ n c n t sin lower jaw rcl:clr I bases 2. Tuols used for trimming trial haseplatcs
t o dentures z. Methods of adapting trial base materials 3. Different methods of adapting and indica-
3. Methods of reenforcing trial bases tions for variations

AN,2T,E7SIS O F U N I T NO. 5: PREPllRATION O F D E N T U R E BEARING


AREAS-I1 ANA1,YSIS O F U N L T NO. 6 : TIZIAI, D E N T U R E HASI': 7'1SCRNIC-11
( A ) Processes a72d Jobs ( A ) Processes and Jobs
(a) Process or Princrple (b) Project or Jobs (a) Process or Principle (6) lJrojecl or Jobs
No. 9. Application of relief metal a n d tinfoil Xo. 23. Apply relicfs on eight sets of cdcntr1111 Nu. I I. Construction of wax trial denture lnscs No. 28. Construct wax bases for four sets oi
to-casts casts. (8 casts.) a . Construction of full a n d partial wax edentulous tinfoiled plaster casts
a. Application of reliefs on edentulous casts S o . 24. Apply tinfoil on four scts or e c i e l l t ~,lI trial bases No. 29. Construct wax bases for six trnfoiled
b. Application of tir~foilon partial casts a n d plaster casts. ( 4 casts.) b. Application of strengtheners t o wax partial plaster casts
full casts Ko. 2 5 . Apply tinfoil on six partial pl;iti,r < . , , . I trial bases

( B ) Laboralory I n s t r z ~ ~ t i o ? ~ ( B ) Laboratory Instruction


(a) 1'uoIs. Eguipment and (a) Tools. Maleriuls and
Maleriuls (b). Ofieralions
-
Equipmenl (b) Operalions (c) Laboralory Practzces
I. Tinfoil i.001 and .ooz I. Cutting relief metal I. Bunsen burner I. Softening basewax I. Making wax bases
2. Cutting ti~riui! z. Wax spatula z. Cutting basewax a. Reenforcing wax hases
2. Britltania metal (22 gauge) 3. Applying reliei metal 3. Shears 3. Adapting basewax (copper)
3 . Absorbent cotton 4. Applying tinfoil 4. Orangewood stick 4. Making copper recnforcc- 3. Polishing basewax
4. Shurt straight pins 5 . Using cement 5. Basewax ments 4. Reenforcing basewax
5. Scissors 6 . Using pins 0. Wire (zo gaugej 5. Adapting wire strengthen- (wire)
6 . Orangewood stick 7. Copper platc (2R or 30 ers
7. Two-row brush whecl gauge) 6. Polishing basewax
8. Bernard pliers

( C ) Rel(~te(1I ? L J ' O ~ ~ I I I I ~ L O I L ( C ) Related Inj'orn~nlion


(a) Vocalional Injorn. aiion ( b ) S u / ~ P I ~ : n r c , t l ~ r. I r y\~r,:rr,,~,.ni (a) Vocalional Informoliun (b) Supplemenlory As5ignrnenl~
I. G a u g ~ sof relief mctals I. l)<.,;,rril,ti<,~~ ( 8 1 I I > C J \ V I IS I I , A ,:.tw~,,
I,~ 1. IJiflcrc~ltwaxes used I. Ingredients of basen-ax
2. Gauges uf tinfoil .!. ' 1 ' 1 ~ 1 > 1 ~ .llii,.ll 1 1 1 :1,1,11,111/:l l l i l I . 2. Mc?Iiods of adapting wax z. Gauges of copper for recnlurcing
3. Methuds of applying rcllcis . j . ' 1 , 1 1 1 I 1 > 1 1 :,cI:lllIlll/: i. V;~rlcr,~srnethods of reenforcing wax 11:ises 3 . Materials uscd for polisl~ingwax
4. Mcthods of i ~ l ~ l ~ l yl ii l~~l gf ~ i l .I. hi<:tl~uds of adapting copper reenIorcemerrt 4. Gaages of wax
5 . I ' u l c ~ ~ t c relicfs
d .,. Mc,tliods of adapting strengthening wire
0. "Suclivns" O. I':ltc~lted wax melting apparatus
APPENDIX I1 ,; 1 .\

.\.U.\I,YSLS O F U N I T N O . 7 : L3l'rE I'L,\TE TECHKIC ( C j Relufrd It~for~ri~~tiori


(('1 1 ' 0 ~ ~ ~ 1 i i o11zfort1!~11;0?1
nul ( h ) S~tPp/e,?rrnlurg. l r i i ~ , ~ n , r n / ~
1. I yi,cs ,,f articulators used I. Kelatiilfi partizil c a s t s
( ( I ) Process ur Principle ( b ) Projec! or Jobs . .\drantages 01 various a r t i c ~ ~ l a t u r s 2. Methods of adjusting articulators
\,1. rl. Construction of wax biteplates Nil .lo. (',instruct ivax lliteplates o n t w o s c k . i ('uard:; nfr;tinst d i s t i ~ r h i n g bitcl~latc rc.l:l- j. Alethorls of protecting articolator sct-screw
a . Biteplates f o r e d e ~ i t u l o u scasts uf e d e n t u l ~ casts
~ ~ ~ swith bascplnte bast,, tinnship f r c ~ ~accidental
n ope~ling
6. Biteplates f ~ , partial
r casts Nu. 31. Construct mucleling cumpound bit,u-
c. Construction of modeling cc.~npc,tlr~d plates o n two sets of e d e n t u l o ~ i sca.1..
biteplates with bascplate 11;iscs
S o . jz. Construct \\.axbiteplate,~o n four scth , ,' l\NALYSIS OF U N l T NO. 8. tlRTIC'UL,\TING TECHNIC-11
edentulous casts wit11 basc~\-:rx base,
KO. 3 3 . Construct six partial biteplates on I,:<\c
plate bases (A) P ~ o c e s s e so t ~ dJobs
KO. 34. Construct six partial l ~ i t e y l a t e s i t , , .
bases ( u ) PIOCF\Sor Pt iizciple ( b ) Projecl or Jobs
Xi,. 14. hluuntillg c:~sts o n adjustable articu- KO. 3 8 . M o u n t edentulous, related casts o n
Iators Gysi or Han;iu articulator
(H) Laboratory Instructio~l u . F a c e bow transference
6. Mounting e d r n t , ~ I < ~c al s~tss
(81) 7'1~ol.s.~ 1 u l c r i ~ 1~z 7l ds
EquiPmenl ( 6 ) OPeralions ( c ) I.aburalory 1'1acliria
\V:bx s p a t u l a I. Construction of wax roll I. Construction oI base (R) Lnborolnry I~lstr~iction
I'<,nknifc 2. Sealing wax roll t o base- wax biteplates
'l'crnplate (flat o r c u r v e d ) plate z. Construction of nlurlr,': Tool?, dfaleri<llcunrl
(a)
1l1111scnburner 3. Use of glass slab c o m p o u n d biteplates L:qllipmrni ( b ) Operulions jc) Laborulory Praclices
(:i:~ss s l a b 4. Use of t e m p l a t e 3. Using t e m p l a t e , L>ysi o r H a n a u ;xrtic~slntors I. Sctting articulntor in ccn- I . Fncc bow transfrr
I<ttlc~ 5. Shaping biteplates 4. Polishing w a x biteplatc:. .I. I'laster bowl t r i c occlusion 2. h l o m ~ t i l i gon :irlnptable ar-
I'~;II<:I~ 6. Marking lower c a s t s 5. Using biteplate formcr .i. I'lzister s p a t ~ ~ l . + 2. A d j i ~ s t i n gface bow ticul;itc~r
Il.chcwax 7. Construction of modeling I. 1'l;ister k ~ ~ i f e .3. Mountirig ilgper cast 3 . Ailjustir~gcolrdylc yatlls
Mrjdcling c o m p o u n d c o m p o u n d roll j . P a c e bow 4. h l o u n t i n g lu\\er cast 4 . A d j ~ ~ s t i nir~cis:~l
g ~~ii,l:~nr.r.
!\l,s<trbcnt c o t t o n 8. Sealing modeling c o m g o u n d r > . l'lastcr 5. Adjusting condyle ~ l n t h s
;\lc.nllol t o baseplate ;. XVntcf 1 ~ . A d j ~ ~ s t ~i I~I C~I g
S : ~~~ ~ ~ r i ~ l e ~ ~ i i i
9. Shaping modcling coni- $. \ ' a s r l ~ n ? 7. A d j r ~ s t i n ginrisal tnlilr
pound biteplnte

(C) Related I1zfori7zatio11


( u ) K o ~ ~ ~ l i o nI naf lo r m r ~ l i o n (bj S~rpplernenlory.Issignmrnls
((L) V ~ ~ c ~ ~ L i o1izfort~z~1lio11
tzol
I. Types ilt a<ljustablc nl-tiri~l:+tt,rs I. Xlethorls uf nsirrfi adjust:rl~le i i r t i ~ ~ ~ I : i t r > r s
I \' I I I O I I S tli,~tcrialsuqed f o r biteplates 1.Advantages a n d disadvantages of \ I L. 'Types i ~ ff:~ce,bows z. ~ I e t h i ~ r ili fs u s i l ~face
~ t,otvr;
\/,~l.ir)lls tVT,CS I J ~temylatcs materials r Cilndyle r e a r l ~ ~ ~ j i s 3 . Yletlro~lsc l i tralisic,rru~ji con(1ylc rr.:irlil'gs
I \ ' . I ~ ~ ~> I #I UI ~II S
I ~ ) I \of
~ S making bitcplates 3.Ingredients of m a t e r ~ a l s
3 Advantages a n d disadvantaces u i 11,
templates
.\UI\I,YSIS OF U N I T NO. 9: hIORPHOLOG1' OF .\lITI1"ICIA\I. TI3ETTT
ANALYSTS O F {'NIT NO. 8: ARTICULATING TECHNIC--I (11j Proce, yes n n l l Job.\
( A ) l'rncesses and Jobs ( a ) Process or 1'r:nczPle ( b ) I'rojecl or J o h ~
1 5 . hlurpl~ulogyol artifici:~l tcetli
1,). So. Arrange teeth
(11) l'rocess or Principlr ( h l. Proiecl
- or Jobs d. Nonienclature No. Label parts of tceth
r.,.1.5. I \ l < ~ ~ ~ [~~ t1i ns oxtn ~plairl line a n d m n v - So. 35. h l o u n t three s r t s of casts 011 ~l':,ir, h. T o p u g r s p h y i i (1 Recognition of i~ldividual
:!I,Ic iir111arliculdtors artic~llators r . Identificntion
,I. h l o ~ ~ n t ci dn c~r ~ t ~ i l o uc:isls
s A , , . .iG. M o u n t f o n t s t t s of ~ ~ 1 on
s t I!!,,~ . I
1,. h l o l ~ ~ > ~t ~ i ~: i lr t~i ic:zsts
tl .irm articul:rtr~rs
SCI.. j 7 . M o u n t six r~;irtials o n n ~ o v ; ~ l , l, ~ (B) I,aborcl/ory I n s / r z r c l i o r ~
( u ) Tools, M1zlerirzls lind
IiquiPrnenl [ b ) Operalions ( c ) Laboralory l'raclice~
I. l'f~~ic,il I. Arrnnxing teeth I. Nomenclature of t c r t b
2 . L1a1>cr z . Drawing of teeth 2 . Sequence of teeth
,r. S1.t of artifici;+l teeth 3 . Labcliny p a r t s of t e e t h 3. Rccognitiun I J ~tcctlr
I . ( ' : ~ r ~ l i z\V;IK
~g 4. Recogniring i n d i r i d i ~ a l
teeth

(Cj Related Information


((11 V ~ C U ~ I OInfor?nnIiun
ILU~ ( b ) SuPPlemenL,rry A s s t g n t t ~ e n h
8 ' I ' V ~ N \ ,,I :~rtificixlteetli I. C o n ~ p o s i t i o nof artificial tretlr
I\l,~mlillc*l tertll 2. Colors of t e e t h
, I t ~ 8,l ~ <I : I I~.L<.II,&:s
I, .i.Staining t c c t h
1 1 I I I , I I,c ( . I I I . I . 'l'llror~rs ~ ~ n i l c r l \ ~ , , I, I:I O I I ~ I I C I I ~ > o * t c r l o l
, I I I ~ ~ ~ : ~ ~ I I . 1.1,
~ ~i hIj ,~: , ~ ~ ~ : I I I I c t~~~~t11
8 I .,,r,, ,C.Ctl.,ll~. q . ~ ; r ; t ~ , l i ~,irttIi<
~ ~ : i . ~ lI , . ~ I ! I
f O?"

SS5I
m m - 0
R e - +
ggeg
., 2 aao a
V) n -Y,
-
2 $:; -~
-
-- u .r. := k 0 ^ C ? '-
- ++,..,a ..,
g ;-. 2 W
2 s &. 0i
__ -- 7
2c: _ : C
3 2 ;* Crl
d

5;- 5 . :
C
-- . 2 %
;: S"
cz
H
z
c.:.+4. 4
<% C $2
" ,
s.r:
-? Z 3
5i0
? I
m
-. n- 2 %
X $ %
2 8
zz
'9
2& 3
'"
P??
-+G 3
3
s-2. F m
2.2
Z
X F : 0. z
- 1 5
--
%
: g
;": PE
*
E -q Z
0
:a2
g"J e
* z
0 0
"7
(13) L a b o r u t o r y I n s t r ? ~ c r i o i i
l < r ) Tools, l<yuip~,re,ild11d
Jd~llerials ( h ) Operalio~rs ( c ) Luboralory Prrri1i~r.s
1. V u l ~ . a n i t es h e a r s I. Cuttin%rubber I. Packing vulcanite
. . . 2. P a c k i n g tools r. Packing rubber 2 . test in^ vulcanite cases
I . Suit brushwheel I. C u t t i ~ ~
tinfuii
g I. I'ij~lil~g cases .r. Tile s l a b 3. T e s t i n g p a c k e d c;ises 3 Using flask presses
. Scissnrs 2. Applying tinfoil 2. 'rir~f<,iI 111!rnisl1i11~ 4. Packing table J. Using l i n e n s h e e t J. Cutting dental rubber
,i. Orangewood stick 3. Burnishing tinfoil j. F e ~ t u u n i n gtinfoil 5. Flask w r e ~ l r h 5. Using cellophane
. I . 'l'infoil S o . bn or 40 a. Use of orance\r.,,r,d stick fllr q . P u u r i n ~c u u n t e r s i l l 11.1~1. b. P1:lstcr knifc h. C l o s i n ~flasks
i :211sorhent r o t t o i l i. Idinen c l v t l ~( H r ~ ; l a n dcuv- 7. Using flask presses
1,. 1)1ic0 glue e r i n g r u l ~ l ~ schr e e t ) 8. Using flask c l a m ~ ~ s
S. F l a s k press or clarnp
I). F l a s k l ~ o l t sa n d n u t s
( C ) Relrrt(vf I ~ z f o r n z u l i o ~ r lo. Dental rubher
r I. Cc!lophane
( a ) T'oco1,onol fnJar,,rulion ( b j Slrpplcnienrury Assip~l11it.111.~ (C) Kelulrd Infornzatioi~
i . \ ' . ~ r ~ u ug sa u g r s
of tinfoil I. 'l'infoil s u b s t i t u t e s
hl,,thods i l i a p p l y i n g fvil r . Uses o i d i f f c r r n t tinfili! g a u g c s (11) I ~ O C ~ I / ~ O NInformulioti
~LI (b) S l r p p l e ~ ~ l e n l n r.4i~ignme,zls
y
: I'ittcnted tini,iilers j. Fc~ilin):tor d e n t u r e s othpr t h a n vulc;initi 1. M e t h o d s of cuttin:: d c l ~ t a ruhlier
l I. C ~ ~ r n p o s i t i oof n dental r ~ r b h c r
1 . I1;ltented rugaes 4. L i q ~ ~ scparatlrig
id mcdia :. h i e t h o d s vf packing dci1t:il r1111ber 2 . Properties of d e n t a l r u b h e r
.i. Various flask presscs j. Origin of d e n t a l r u h h e r
4 . V:irii~us lacking t a b l c s J. Composition of o t h e r d e n t u r e hascs
,, ,,Various
,?. .... d e n t u r e hases 5 . Special rnLber uscd i n d c n t a l w o r k
E S L ~ I J gate$"
C advant;iges a n d disad, all- h . Soft vulcanized rtrL1bt.r
t aces 7 . h l a t e r i a l s u s e d for l i n i n c r a s t s
.\h.\T,YSIS OE' UNIT NO. 14: \V.\X EI,IMIN.2TLC)N TECHSIC J " E s c a p c tr-ougl!"

.\SALYSlS OF U K I T NO. 16: TTUl~CANIZXTIONTECHNIC


Z'ro~elis or I ' r i ~ ~ c i p l e
(li) t h ) f'rojecl or .lobs
S , I .2 0 . 1Eliniinatiun i ~ ft r i a l d e n t u r e l ~ a s e S o . 5 ' ~ . Eli,rlin:rte wax frrim 1111ppra1111 i i , \ r , t (11 j P r o c e s s e s ulrd Jobs
n. W a s a n d I ~ a s e p l a t eeliniinatiun d r n t u r r L~nscsw i t h o u t t e e t h
b. Opening of flasks S o . 60. Eliniinatc w a r frorrl f o u r sets o i I . : ' (ulf'ruces.i or I'rirzciplc,: ( b ) Project or .lobs
c. P r e p a r i n g flask f u r gncki~,:: r l r r ~ t a l dentures \,I. 2 2 . V ~ ~ I t ~ : ~ ~ ide11t11res
izing S o . 65. Vulcanize d e n t u r e h a s r s r r i t h o ~ ~Lcct!~
t
rubber Sn. ( 1 1 . I%!iminatcwax froin siu p a r t i a l 11c111rir 1 o . Using vu!c;i!~izer Xo. 60. Vulcanize f o u r s c t s of full d c ~ i t u r c s
b. S a f e t y i~istruoticins Xo. 0;. Vulcanize six p a r t i a l d c n t u r e s
r . C a r e of rulr:tnizcr
(R) T,nborc~toryI i i . x / r r ~ r t i o ~ ~
(B) Lclborutory Iizstrzictiot~
i o ) T o o l s , J l a l r r i i ~ l sond
I,!) y'OO/.\,.\f<l/~ri11/~ und Equipmenl ( b ) Operolions ( c ) Trlrrie I'ru</ices
I<qrripmcnl (b) O p e r , ~ / i o n . ~ fcj Lobor,~l,~r?I'r,,< t i , f, I . 1-~~lcanizer I . Att;icliing a n d s r t t i n g tinlc- I. Operatiori of v u l r a u i z e ~
I . I:.#\ s11,ve I . H r a t i n g flasks I . Boiling o u t casts L. 1 ' 1 i l r a n i ~ r rt o n g s cluck 2. A t t a c h i n g vulc. nc~essol.ies
.. 'l'w,t I:trge iron p o t s L . Opening flasks 2 . Opening flasks J. l'imt~-clock 1. S c t t i n g g a s regulator 3. C a r e of vulcanizer
:. l::t<lIt~ .i. l i e m o v i n ~wax .i.E l i i r ~ ~ n a t i nmelt<
g ( I \ $ t L. .t. Thernirj~nctcr 3 O p e r a t ~ nblow-vff
~ valrt. 4. A d j u s t ~ n c n t of v u l c a ~ ~ i z c ~ .
1. ( oll:t~~cll,r 4 . K e r n o v i ~ ~baseplatc
fi 4 . C l c a n s i n ~d e n t u r c . , I c . t j. (;as regulator 4. C l o s i ~ i gv u l c i i n ~ z e r accessories
\. 1'I:~stcr k ~ ~ i f c j . E l i m i n a t i n ~,\-ax
: rennr;illt> 0. Vulcanizer p;lnkin): irin!: .j. L i g h t i n g vulc. b u r n e r
0. I'11<,r.: i t ~ v c c z c r s ) 6. R e l ~ l a c i nlousc
~ teeth 7. Manifold w i t h blou,-<>ff 6. C a r e of thrrn2nmcter
; ( ':L \ \ v:rs loves 7. Clcnnsing d r n t u r e s p a r e ;ind s a f e t y valves 7. Opening vulcallizcr
X \V:ll<,r 8. \l'rcnches 8. C a r c of vulcanizer
<I. Vulc. p o t lifting h a n d l e
lo. Water
( C ) Kelnlril Ii7fornzi1fio~i
(C) Krlnlecl I n f o r r i ~ a f i o i z
(,I) l ~ o ( o l 1 ~ 1 1I ~ ~ 1J 1o r ~ n u ~ i o n i b j .Suppirr?~t~t,/ur? .L.\.sitr~tt!r~~~/.~ ( u ) T'occltioniii 1 n/orn!uliun ( b ) S,upple~ncnlary .-lssijin?~~enls
I \',IN iLo:. H I , , I l,,,<lso f 11<~;1tinj2 fl:isks I . W<,t ~11rthoc1 of n ; > x ~ ~ I i ~ , , i ~ ~ ; a t i c a ! ~ r . l'y13.i~of r u l e a n i z c r s I. Vulcanizing processes
: \ , l v . ~ ~ i l . i r ~ v \ \.:iria~~sl e n g t h s of tilnc i l l 3 . 1)ry n ~ c t t i <t )~ i' ~
I \I: , x c l ~ > n i ~ ~ : t t i c t ~ > 2 . 131cxctricvulcanizer o p r r a t i o u 2 . Vulcanizing I~henol-form;ilr3rhy~le resills
I ~ ~ ~ i ,b I~ I! 3. A v s I I : I : 3 ' 1 , .
i. I'ressure g a u g e s 3 . T r m p c m t u r e a n d s t e a n i press~ll-e ril:lti',lr-
I h1c.I l ~ o r l s, > I ~ , v c \ > : ~ r ricntrlr?
i,~g sllncc. g;rtcs 1. \':~ri<lu\r n r t h o d s of \ . , ~ l c a n i z i ~ , ~ sI7i11s
1 " I , : , , c . , I I , ~ . j:;~lcs'. 4. ( I l 8 c ~ ~ iI\,,!
~ l tk,: \ t i 1 1 1 t ~ ~ ~ <!l),I,srI ><I I c , t . 1 i.I3lo~-m,tTvalve r-cp.iirs

.I\ \I,PSIS OF KNIT 90. 1 7 : \7LrL('A\NlTE T)ENTUKE CI,I.:L\NSIIUG


TECHNIC

l ' r , , r c , \ \ ur l'ri,~c.iple I b ) J'rt~je~lor .lob$


\ ( , . , i .I < ( 1111>~:11 1,i \ i ~ l c . i ~ ~ I~~ Ci I~I IeI ~
I I lI - r; r t l l l l X,.). 118. O ~ C I flasks
I a11d c l c i ~ n s rt.40 d c i ~ ~ t l i r e
APPENDIX I1
APPENDIX I1 3I 9
( B ) Laboratory Instruction ( B ) Laboratory Instruction
(a) Tods. Materials and (a) Tools. Materials and
Equipment (b) Ogerations (c) Laboratory Practices Equipmenl (b) Operations (c) Laboratory Practices
I. Plaster knife I. Dental lathe I. Mounting wheels
2. Hand brush 1.Applying pumice on den-
2. Mounting chucks on lathe tures
3. Soap 3. Using umice
A. Water 4. Using Fripoli 2. Applying Tripoli
flasks 3. Removal of rough trimming
5. Using chalk marks
4. Removal of tinfoil 6. Pollshlng denture
5. Care of flask 7. Glass tray 4. Solarizing rubber
7. Holding denture during
8. Pumice (xxx) polishing
9. 'Ifipoli 8. Cleansing polished den-
(C) Related Information 10. Chalk tures
1 I. Oxide of tin
(a) Vocational Information (b) Supplemenfary Assignments 12. Water
I. Properties of vulcanite
13. A I C O ~ O I
I. Methods of opening flasks 14. Soap
2. Methods of removing dentures from flasks 2. 'Optimum vulcanization IS. Denture brush
3. Methods of cleansing dentures 3. Comparison of vulcanite and other denture 16. Mineral oil
4. Methods of removing tinfoil base materials
5. Methods of removing from flasks dentures 4. Compounds for cleansing dentures (C) Related Information
of materials other than vulcanite
(a) Vocalional Information . . Su*plementary
(bl - Assignments
I . Types of polishing machines 1. Composjtjon of different poliHhing media
2. Types of polish~ngwheels 2. Com~qsltlonof pumice
ANALYSIS OF UNIT NO. 18: DENTURE TRIMMING TECHNIC 3. Types of polishing materials 3. Ingred~entsof Tripoli
4. Methods of polishing 4. Action.of chalk
( A ) Processes and Jobs 5. Ingfedlents of pther polishing materials
6. Action of solarlzat~onon vulcanite
(a) Process or Principle (b) Prqecl or Jobs
No. 24. Trimmine vulcanite dentures Job. No. 71. Trim 2 vulcanite denture bases
a. Establishing denture limits ob. No. 72. Trim 8 full vulcanite dentures
b. Use of various trimming tools ob. No. 73. Trim 6 vulcanite partial dentures ANALYSIS OF UNIT NO. DENTURE REPAIR TECHN'IC
20:

( A ) Processes and Jobs


( B ) Laboratory Instruction (a) Process or Principle (b) Prq.ed or Jobs
(a) Tools. Equipment and No. 26. Repairing vulcanite dentures No. 77. Repair of simple fracture
Materials (b) Operations (c) Laboratory PracliCes a. Simple repairs 78. Tooth repair
I. Use of files I . Filing dentures b. Repairs involving teeth and clasps 79. Clasp repair
z. Lathe 2. Use of sandpaper wheels z. Scraping dentures c. Replacement of new palate 80. Rebase palate
3. Dustpan for lathe 3. Use of scrapers 3. Festooning teeth
4. Sandpapering dentures
d.
e.
Replacement of gum rubber
Replacement of entire denture base
--. R
81. -
- -e-h- --
a s r "gum" rubber
82. Replace a denture base
4. Rat-tail file 4. Use of chisels
s. Half-round file 5. Use of sandpaper 5 . Finishing dentures
6. Abrasive bands 6. Mounting chucks
7. Sandpaper wheels 7. Use of burs (B) Laboratory Instruction
8. Lathe chuck
9. Bur chuck (a) Tools. Equipment and
10. Mandrels Materials (b)
. . Operalions
- (c) Laboratory Practices
I I. Vulcanite burs I. Plaster bowl I. Assembling broken den- I. Assembling repairs
rz. Vulcanite chisels 2. Plaster knife ture 2. Pouring matrix
13. Vulcanite scrapers 3. Plaster spatula 2. Pouring matrix
14. Burlew abras~vewheels 3. Articulatinn dentures
4. Plaster 3 . Gnndigg broken denture 4. Dovetailing
15. Sandpaper 5 . Water 4. Flasking repalrs 5. Flasking repairs
6. Bunsen burner 5. Packing repairs 6. Packing plastic rubber
7. Wax spatula 6. Trtmm~ngrepairs 7. Removing teeth from den-
(C) Related Information 8. Base wax 7. Polishing repairs tures
0. Stickv wax 8. Pouring index
(b) SupPlemenlary Assignments 16. Artic;lat& 8. Clasp repairs
(a) Vocational Informalion 9. Removlng teeth from den- 9. Duplicating dentures
I. Shrcypening of cutting tools I I. Dental rubber ture
I. Various methods of trimming dentures 12. Vulcanizer 10. Waxing teeth t o denture
2. Various abrasive wheels 2. Vanous methods of trimming denture pc- 13. Pumice 11. Cold packing
3. Advantages of vulcanlte files riphery
4. A d v a n t a ~ c sof sandpaper 3. Methods of using combined trimming and 14. Felt cones 12. Clasp repairtng
pol~shlngwheels IS. Polishina wheels
5. Determining denture I l m ~ t s 16. Glass slab
4. Operation of various chucks 17. Penkn~fe
18. Scrapers
19. Petrolatum
20. Chalk
ANALYSIS OF UNIT NO. 19: DENTURE POLISHING TECHNIC zr. Flask

( A ) Processes and Jobs ( C ) Related Information


(a) vocational Information (bl SubDlemcnfary Assignments
(b) Project or Jobs
No. 25.
(a) Process or Principle
Polishing vulcanite,dentures No. 74. Polish two vulcanite denture bi~scs
I. Repair of denture bases other than vulcanite
2. Methods of flasking
I. indi din te;ih
2. Klnds of rubber used for repairs
a. Operation of pollsh~ngapparatus No. 7 5 Polish ejght fu!l dentures 3. Methods of packlng 3. Rebasing
b. Use of polishjng materials No. 76. Polish SIX p a r t ~ a ldentures 4. Methods of removing teeth from dentures 4. Methods of adding clas s
c. Use of polish~ngtools 5. Methods of adding t e e 8
APPENDIX I11

GLOSSARY

A ALVEOLAR TISSUE (tish'oo). The


structure (gum) covering the ridge
ABRASIVE (ab-ra'siv). Substance con- formerly mntaining the of the
taining sharp particles, used to render teeth.
a surface smooth, an abradant such as ALVEOLO-BUCCAL FOLD. T h e fold
emery, carborundum, etc. formed between the alveolar ridge
.4BUTMENT (a-but'ment). A tooth and the cheek, covered by gum tissue.
used as a support or anchorage for AMALGAM (am-al'-gam). A plastic
a bridge or other prosthetic appliance, metallic dental material may contain
a solid support. silver, zinc, tin, in addition to mer-
.kCCELERATOR (ak-sel'e-ra-tor). T h a t
which hastens action ; as the use ANATOMIC (an-at-om'-ik). Pertain-
of sodium chloride (table salt) in the ing to anatomy, the science of struc-
setting of plaster. ture of organisms.
ADAPTABLE (a-dapt'a-bl) , or AD- ANATOMIC LANDMARKS. Marks
JUSTABLE (ad-just'a-bl). Artic- serving as guides, as in denture con-
ulator that permits adjustment of ex- struction, when located on the gums
tension arms to which casts are at- or palate.
tached to simulate movements of the ANATOMICAL ARTICULATOR (ar-
mandible. tik'-u-la-tor.) See adaptable or adjust-
ADHESIVE (ad-he'siv). Sticky, such able articulator.
as wax used to unite parts. ANATOMY (an-at'-o-me) . T h e sci-
AGAR-AGAR (agl-ar-ag'-ar). A gelat- ence of the structure of organisms,
inous substance made from seaweeds. their parts and relations one to an-
.4LPHA GYPSUM (al'pha gyp'sum) . other.
Nonporous crystals of plaster of Paris ANTERIOR (an-te'-re-or). Situated in
used in quick setting stones for dental front. A term commonly used to de-
casts, etc. note the incisor and cuspid teeth.
ALUM (a1'-urn). Combination of sul- ANTERO-POSTERIOR (an-te'-ro pos-
fate of aluminum, manganese, chrom- te'-re-or). In a direction from the
ium and other non-alkaline metals front to the rear.
with sulfate of potassium, sodium and ANTIMONY. A silver-white, hard,
other alkalinc metals. An accelerator crystalline, metallic element used in
of plaster of Paris. chemistry, medicine, and in the arts.
4LUMINUM (a-lo'-min-um). A sil- APPROXIMATE SPACES (ap-prok'-
ver-white, light, non-tarnishing metal sim-ate). Spaces (the gum) between
of brilliant luster. two adjacent teeth.
ALVEOLAR RIDGES (al-ve'-o-lar) . ARRANGING ARTIFICIAL T E E T H .
T h e raised rounded arches surround- T h e setting of artificial teeth on the
ing the palate and on the lower jaw, denture base over the alveolar ridge.
covered with gum tissue and formerly ART-BASE FORM. A form following
contained the roots of the natural the outline of a n artistically con-
teeth. structed base of a dental cast.
321

I
GLOSSARY GLOSSARY
323
A R T CLAY. A n earthy substance used BASEPLATES W I T H T R I M M E D BOILING O U T WAX. Boiling out the
for modeling purposes. MARGINS. T h e margins a t the trial denture base before packing per-
ARTICULATOR (ar-tik'-u-la-tor) . A limits of the denture bearing area are
cut or filed away.
manent denture base material.
BOXING. Arranging a retaining wall
CALCIUM SULPHATE (kal'-se-um
su1'-flt). (See Plaster of Paris.)
mechanism for holding in correct an-
atomical relationship the casts of the BASEWAX. A wax used for baseplates around a dental impression. CaSO,, gypsum.
uDper and lower jaws when arrang- or temporary bases for dentures. BOXING IMPRESSIONS. Arranging CALIPER (kal'-ip-er). A pair of com-
iAg artificial teeth: BEESWAX (bez'waks). W a x secreted a retaining box or wall around the passes with curved legs used to meas-
ARTICULATOR EXTENSION ARMS.
T h e Darts to which the casts are at-
by bees when constructing the honey-
comb. *. outside of dental impressions to hold
the cast material in position until it
ure the thickness, diameter, or bore
of a solid object o r tube.
tached when mounted on the articula- BENCH-BLOCK. A wood o r rubber sets o r hardens. CANINE (ka-nin). T h e third tooth
tor. extension on the work-bench used for BRASS. A n alloy of copper and zinc, from the median line of the dental
ARTICULATOR SET-SCREW. T h e supporting the hands o r the dental having varying proportions, but con- arch; the cuspid. There are four ca-
screw which holds the extension arms cast while working. taining usually 6 ~ 7 5 % of copper. nines in the human or artificial denti-
of the articulator apart a t any de- BERNARD PLIERS. A pincher type BRIDGE (brij). I n dentistry, a fixed tion.
sired distance. instrument used for holding and cut- or removable prosthetic appliance CAOUTCHOUC (koo'-chook). The
ARTIFICIAL STONE. Plastic stone- ting metals. made of metal or porcelain which re- whitish exudate (elastic) obtained
like material used in making dental BEVEL (bed-el). T h e slope of a sur- places lost teeth. from several tropical trees of South
casts. face from the horizontal or vertical; BRIDGEWORK (brij'wurk). I n den- America and Africa.
ARTIFIClAL T E E T H (ar-te-fish'al). an angle less than a right angle which tistry, an appliance supplying artificial CARBON TETRACHLORIDE (car-
Teeth made of porcelain in form, color leads to the cutting edge of tools. teeth attached o r supported by natural bona). A cleaning fluid.
and texture to imitate the natural or- BICUSPID ( b i - k ~ s ' - ~ i d ) .A tooth hav- teeth. T h e construction of dental CARBORUNDUM (kar-bo-runJ-dum).
gans; contain silica, feldspar and ing two cusps. There are eight in bridges. An abrasive; a synthetic carbide of
quartz. the human or artificial set. They are BRITANNIA METAL. A n alloy con- silicon.
ARTISANS. Skilled hand workers. placed two on each side of a set of taining tin, 82%; antimony, 12%; CARDING WAX. A black wax used
ASSEMBLING IMPRESSIONS. Fitting teeth between the cuspid and first zinc, 2.5%; copper, 2%; bismuth, for boxing impressions and for dis-
together broken parts of plaster im- molar. They are designated as the 1.5%. playing artificial teeth.
~ressions. first, second, right, left, upper or BROWN-SHARPE G A U G E (gige). A CARIES (ka'-reEz). Decay of teeth;
A ~ I A L(aksJ-e-al). Pertaining to the lower. gauge plate or measure used to deter- cavities are formed by the gradual de-
axis; the long or vertical dimension of B I T E (bit). T h e forcible closure of mine the thickness of wire o r metal struction of enamel and dentin.
a tooth. the lower against the upper teeth. A plate. CARMICHAEL (kar'-mi-kl). A type
wax impression of the relationship of BUCCAL (buk'-al). Pertaining to the of partial cast gold cap o r crown con-
teeth when in occlusion or contact. cheek; the surface toward or facing sisting of a hood covering the pre-
BITEMARKS. T h e impressions left by the cheek. pared lingual, proximal and occlusal
the teeth in wax or oiher mzterial. B UCCO-LABIAL. Pertaining to the sides of the natural tooth. Named
BALANCED ARTICULATION (bal'-
anst ar-tik-u-la'-shun). T h e placing BITEPLATES (bit'-plites) . Rims C O ~ I - cheek and l i ~ s . . . J. P. Carmichael, an American
after
dentist.
structed over the alveolar ridges o f BUFFING A ~ E N T . A material used
of porcelain teeth on a denture base CARVING KNIVES. Instruments used
in a manner to render the denture dental casts, used by the dentist to for buffing or fine polishing; to ob-
obtain the relationship of one jaw to for modelling, sculpturing, carving or
stable or stationary when used in eat- tain a luster o r gloss. trimming.
ing or speaking. the other; used by the technician a s BUNSEN BURNER (bun*-sen). A gas
an aid in arranging teeth. CASTING (kas'-ting). T h e process by
BASE O F CAST (kast). T h e part be-
yond that formed by the impression BLEEDING (bleed'-ing) . Loss of
blood. I n artificial dentures, whc.11
burner generating a high degree of
heat, due to complete oxidation of gas
which a molten substance notably
metal, is poured into a mold.
taken from the gums and palate. and air, admitted through an opening
the brown or base rubber show^ CASTING MACHINE (kas'-ting ma-
BASE. OF DENTURE (den'-chur). T h e in the metal burner, before ignition.
portion of an artificial denture which through the pink or gum rubber after sheen). A n instrument used for cast-
vulcanization. BUR. A small rotary excavating in- ing (see casting).
covers the roof of the mouth or ridge
of the mandible to which artificial BLOW-OFF VALVE (valv) . Tl~c strument of steel for cutting tooth
structure, metal, cement, etc., operated
CASTING MAN. A dental laboratory
teeth are attached. valve on the vulcanizer cover used 10 technician who specialized in making
in the dental engine or lathe.
.
BASEPLATE (bad-plat) A temporary allow a i r to escape before closing t l ~ r
vulcanizer and to eliminate the Yt(.illll BURNISHING. Polishing by friction.
cast dentures.
CAST P L A S T E R Plaster of Paris used
form of wax or compound to repre- Burnishing tinfoil in order to adapt
sent the plate or base of a denture. in the vulcanizer pot after the vtrl for pouring impressions to construct
canization process is completed. it to cast or trial denture before dental casts or counters.
BASEPLATES W I T H LAPPED MAR- flasking. CELLOPHANE (sel'o-fin). A white
GINS. Temporary denture forms BLOWTORCH. A blowpipe: 1\11 i r l
strument by which compressed nir i n B U T T E D T E E T H . Teeth supported transparent cellulose product used in
with the margins turned over on the
blown through the flame, used for IIIR or set directly against the alveolar sheets for wrapping and other pur-
baseplate around the limits of the
denture bearing area. ing o r soldering. process, a denture without labial gum. poses.
GLOI
324 GLOSSARY

CELLULOSE (se1'-u-10s). A carbohy- and molars extending to the condyles CROSS-BAR BOLT. T h e bolt used to DENTAL LABORATORY (lab'-or-a-
drate, chief constituent of vegetable of the lower jaw. stabilize the bar which fits across the tor-e). A workship o r place where
membranes, cotton fiber and chemical COMPENSATING PLANE. A curved cover of the vulcanizer. inlays, crowns, plates, bridges and
filter paper. plane which bisects the crests of the CROSS-BAR NUT. T h e nut which other artificial dental appliances are
CEMENTUM (se-ment'um). T h e bony upper and lower alveolar ridges. tightens the cross-bar bolt of the vul- made.
layer which covers the roots of the COMPOUND (kom'-pound). A mix- canizer. DENTAL MECHANICS (me-kan*-iks) .
teeth. ture composed of two or more in- CROWN (krown). T h a t part of a T h e art which deals with the construc-
CENTRIC OCCLUSION (sen'-trik ok- gredients. Dental compounds or * 1
tooth which is covered with enamel
and normally projects beyond the gum
tion of dental prosthetic appliances.
DENTAL PLATE. A denture; an ar-
loof-zjon). T h e relation of the in- modelling compound, an impression
clined planes of the teeth when the
jaws are closed and a t rest.
material containing chalk, stearin,
gum and coloring material. ~ line. T h e part of an artificial tooth
that projects from the denture base.
tificial or prosthetic appliance to pro-
vide artificial teeth when the natural
CERAMICS (se-ram1-iks) . Porcelain; CONDYLE (kon'-dil) . A rounded CRUCIBLE (kroo'si-bl) . A melting- teeth are lost.
the art of making porcelain substitutes eminence or protuberance a t the ar- pot for metals. DENTAL RUBBER. A combination of
for the replacement of teeth and parts ticular extremity of a bone. T h e CRUDE RUBBER. Unrefined rubber rubber, sulphur and coloring matter.
of teeth. rounded end of the mandible which as shipped after the rubber sap is co- DENTAL TECHNICIAN. A skilled
CERVICAL (ser'vik-al). Pertaining to articulates with the skull. agulated by boiling. artisan of dental prosthetic appliances.
the neck or constricted part of an or- CONDYLE BARS. T h e extensions on CRUSHING STRENGTH. T h e ability DENTIN (denf-tgn). T h e osseous tis-
gan, as of a tooth. the Snow face-bow which fit on .the of a substance to withstand a load or sue forming the body of a tooth, un-
.
CHALK (chawk) Calcium carbonate; condyle tips of adaptable articulators. pressure before being crushed.
C R Y S T A L L I Z A T I O N (kris'tal-iz-
derlying the cementum and the enamel.
D E N T I S T (den1-tist). One who prac-
a white insoluble earth; used as a CONDYLE PATHS. T h e path fol-
polishing agent. lowed by the mandibular condyle dur- ashun'). Forming crystals or a crystal- tices dentistry. A doctor of dental
CHISEL (chiz'-el). A n instrument used ing opening and closing of the mandi- line structure. surgery: a D.D.S. or D.M.D.
in dentistry for cutting, shaping and ble. I n an adaptable articulator slots CURVE O F SPEE. An imaginary curve .
DENTOCOLL (den-to-col) A colloidal
trimming. are provided to establish the condyle passing through the condyles and the impression material used in dentistry.
CHUCK. (See Lathe Chuck.) paths. cusps of the teeth ending at the in- DENTURE BEARING AREA. T h.-. e
CITRIC ACID (sitt-rik). A sour tast- CONDYLE READINGS. Notations in- cisal edges of the lower central area which is covered by an artificial
ing substance derived from citrus dicating the degrees of condylar in- incisors. denture or plate.
fruits. clination in opening and closing thc CUSP (kusp). A pointed or rounded DENTURE FLASK. A box-like metal
CLASP (klasp). A partial band or lower jaw. elevation on or near the masticating frame, usually consists of a base, a
loop of spring metal, of alloyed gold CONE CHUCK. (See Chuck.) A coni- surface of a tooth which is designed counter and a cover, used for invest-
or steel, fitted to grasp the sides of a cal shaped chuck. to occlude in the sulcus of the an- ing or holding dentures during vul-
tooth. tagonizing tooth of the opposite den- canizing process.
CONTOURING (kon'-toor-ing). Thc
CLASPED T O O T H . A tooth on which tal arch. DENTURE LIMITS. T h e boundary
restoration of lost form.
a clasp is fitted. (See Clasp.) beyond which the artificial denture is
CONTOURING PLIERS. Pliers hav- not extended.
COBALT-CHROMIUM ALLOYS (ko'- ing specially formed beaks for bendi~lg DENTURE SPACE. T h e space left
balt kr6'mi-um). Stainless (silvery)
metal used for denture bases.
and shaping mire and sheet metal.
CONVECTION. Transmission of he:~t
.
DABBING (dab'-bing) Striking gently, after the trial denture base has been
pecking. eliminated before the permanent den-
COLD PACKING. Inserting a plastic in liquids o r gases by heated particles DAVIES PROCESS D E N T U R E
mixture of dental rubber to repair ture base material, such as vulcanite,
below rising and cold particles abovc BASES. A moldable metal base is is inserted.
dentures.
COLLAR O F T O O T H . T h e porcelain
descending and in turn becomi~lc used. T h e denture is tinfoiled, DENTURE (den'chur) . T h e entire
heated. flasked, packed with dentaI rubber and set of teeth, whether adult or decid-
extension a t the gum line or cervix CORUNDUM. An abrasive; a hn~cl vulcanized a t a lower temperature
of an artificial tooth. uous. A name applied to a dental
crystalline aluminum oxide. (288" F.) for five hours. artificial appliance which rests on a
COLLODION (ko-lo'-di-un) . A prepa-
ration of soluble gun-cotton with
COUNTER. T h e opposite of an i n - DECIDUOUS T E E T H (de-sidf-u-us) . base and can be removed from the
pression; the dental