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Introduction to Chemistry

Flash cards
You will create flash cards for the first
20 elements and their symbols to
study from, you will need to show
them to me on Friday (9/26)
Next Tuesday (9/30) you will have a
quiz on the first 20 elements and their
symbols.
Whats the matter?
The atom is what makes up all matter.
All atoms in an element are the same
atom
All atoms in hydrogen are all hydrogen
atoms.
Components of an atom
Nucleus-
Protons-
Neutrons-
Electrons

Components of an Atom
Nucleus- Positively charged center of
the atom
Protons-
Neutrons-
Electrons-

Components of an Atom
Nucleus-Positively charged center of
the atom
Protons-particles that are located in
the nucleus that have an electrical
charge of 1+
Neutrons
Electrons-

Components of an atom
Nucleus-Positively charged center of
the atom
Protons-particles that are located in
the nucleus that have an electrical
charge of 1+
Neutrons- particles that are located in
the nucleus and have no electrical
charge
Electrons-

Components of an Atom
Nucleus-Positively charged center of the
atom
Protons-particles that are located in the
nucleus that have an electrical charge of
1+
Neutrons- particles that are located in the
nucleus and have no electrical charge
Electrons located outside of the
nucleus in the electron cloud, have a
charge of 1-
Electrons


Positive, Neutral & Negative
Protons are Positive (+) and in the nucleus
Neutrons are neutral (no change) and in the
nucleus
Electrons are negative (-) and found in the
electron cloud
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pV8
22HfqT44
The changing model of the
atom
Going Old School (400 B.C)
The first model of an atom:
Greek philosopher Democritus
Proposed that elements consist of tiny
uncuttable particles that cannot be
divided.
Called these particles atomos
Atomos means uncuttable.


Thomson model 1904
Atoms contain small, negatively
charged particles.
These electrons are evenly
embedded a positively charged
sphere.
Chocolate chips in a ball of cookie
dough

Rutherford model 1911
Proposed that all of the mass of an
atom, and all of its positive charges
are concentrated in a central atomic
nucleus surrounded by electrons.
Bohr Model 1913
Thought that electrons travel in fixed
orbits around the atoms nucleus.
His student concluded that the
nucleus contains positive protons and
neutral neutrons.
The electron cloud model
The current model
An electron cloud is the area around
the nucleus of an atom where its
electrons are found.
Electrons are so small and move so
fast that it is impossible to describe
the exact location

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lP5
7gEWcisY&feature=related
How heavy?
Protons and neutrons have the
same mass.
1.6726 x 10
-24
grams
Electrons are even smaller.
9.1093 x 10
-28

Mass of an Atom
The atomic mass of an atom is the sum of
the number of protons and neutrons in the
nucleus of an atom.
Almost all of the mass of an atomis in
the nucleus
Formulas:
Number of neutrons + number of protons
= mass number
How do I find the number of protons and
neutrons?

Proper units
Because grams is too large of a unit, lets
use another unit.
AMU- atomic mass unit.
The mass of a proton or a neutron is = 1
amu.
Defined as 1/12
th
of a carbon atom
6 protons and 6 neutrons = 12.

What am I?
The number of protons an element
has depends on which element it is.
The number of protons = that atomic
number.
No two elements have the same
amount of protons
The mass number
The mass number of an atom is the
sum of the protons and neutrons in
the atom.
Isotopes
Isotopes are atoms of the same element
that have different number of neutrons.
Remember, all atoms of an element have
the same number of protons.
Isotope names
Element name the mass number of the
isotope
Carbon-14
Boron-11
Uranium-228
Isotope
To determine number of neutrons in
an isotope use the formula we already
discussed.
You may find that elements may have
a range of number of neutrons.
Remember that you are only changing
the number of neutrons
Think of it this way
An Isotope is still the same element
and therefore the same number of
protons and electrons.
It is just a little bit heavier or lighter.
If we are changing the mass but not
the protonswhat is the only thing
that can change?
Isotopes
The Average atomic mass of an
element is the weighted-average of all
of the Isotopes.
For example:
4 out of 5 atoms of boron are boron-11
and 1 out of 5 is boron-10.
4/5(11 amu) + 1/5 (10 amu) = 10.8 amu

Weighted masses
The weighted average atomic mass
This number (the mass number found
on the periodic table of elements)
takes into consideration the mass
number of all isotopes of a particular
element.