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Name: Natalie Boyle

Date: 9/16/14

Periodic-als Element Research

Element Selected:
Why did you select this element?
Basic Info:
Element Name: Phosphorus
Element Symbol: P
Atomic Number: 15
Atomic Mass: 30.97376 amu
Element Classification (metal, nonmetal, gas): nonmetal
Period: 3
Group: 5
Density: 1.82 g/cm
3

Atomic Radius: 98 pm
Melting Point: 112 F
Boiling Point: 536 F
Electronegativity: 2.19
Electron Configuration: 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
3

Number of Stable Isotopes (if any): 1
What does the name mean? (usually in Greek): From the Greek words phs (light)
and phoros (bearer)


Source for Basic Info
Title: Chemical Element - Phosphorus
MLA Citation: Bentor, Yinon. Chemical Element.com - Phosphorus. Sep. 16, 2014
<http://www.chemicalelements.com/elements/p.html>.


Element Facts Source 1

Source 1 Title: The Element Phosphorus
MLA Citation: "The Element Phosphorus." It's Elemental. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2014.
<http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele015.html>.

History Facts
1. Phosphorus was first isolated in 1669 by Hennig Brand, a German physician and
alchemist.
2. It took in between 50-60 buckets per experiment in fact, each of which required more
than a fortnight to complete.
3. Phosphorus is now primarily obtained from phosphate rock.
4. The name is derived from the Greek 'phosphoros', meaning bringer of light.
5. Arabian alchemists may have discovered phosphorus in the 12
th
century but credit is
given to Henning Brand.

Uses Facts
1. White phosphorus is poisonous and can spontaneously ignite when it comes in contact
with air. For this reason, white phosphorus must be stored under water and is usually
used to produce phosphorus compounds.
2. Red phosphorus is formed by heating white phosphorus or by exposing white
phosphorus to sunlight. Red phosphorus is not poisonous and is not as dangerous as
white phosphorus. Red phosphorus is used in safety matches, fireworks, smoke bombs
and pesticides.
3. Some phosphorus compounds glow and are used in fluorescent light bulbs and
television sets.
4. Phosphoric acid is used in soft drinks and to create many phosphate compounds, such
as triple superphosphate fertilizer.
5. Trisodium phosphate is used as a cleaning agent and as a water softener and Calcium
phosphate is used to make china and baking powder.

Properties Facts
1. Phosphorus comes in three different colors; red, white, and black.
2. Black phosphorus is the least reactive form of phosphorus and has no significant
commercial uses.
3. Some phosphorus compounds glow in the dark or emit light in response to absorbing
radiation.
4. In the natural world phosphorous is never encountered in its pure form, but only as
phosphates, which consists of a phosphorous atom bonded to four oxygen atoms.



Element Facts Source 2

Source 2 Title: Phosphorus - P
MLA Citation: "Phosphorus - P." Phosphorus (P). N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Sept. 2014.
<http://www.lenntech.com/periodic/elements/p.htm#Properties/>.

History Facts
6. Phosphorus was first made by Henning Brandt at Hamburg in 1669 when he
evaporated urine and heated the residue until it was red hot, whereupon phosphorus
vapour distilled which he collected by condensing it in water.
7. Brandt kept his discovery secret, thinking he had discovered the Philosophers Stone
that could turn base metals into gold.
8. When he ran out of money, he sold phosphorus to Daniel Kraft who exhibited it
around Europe including London
9. One guy, Robert Boyle thought it was fascinating and investigated it systematically.
His assistant set up his own business making and selling phosphorus and became rich.
10. When it was realised that bone was calcium phosphate, and could be used to make
phosphorus, and it became more widely available. Demand from match
manufacturers in the 1800s ensured a ready market.


Uses Facts
6. Concentrated phosphoric acids are used in fertilizers for agriculture and farm
production
7. Phosphates are used for special glasses, sodium lamps, in steel production and in
military applications (incendiary bombs, smoke screenings etc.)
8. It is also used in pesticides, toothpaste, and detergents.
9. Phosphates are important substances in the human body, because they are a part of
DNA materials and they take part in energy distribution. Phosphates can also be found
commonly in plants.
10. Phosphates were also added to a number of foodstuffs, such as cheese, sausages and
hams.

Properties Facts
6. White phosphorous is the one manufactured industrial; it glows in the dark, is
spontaneously flammable when exposed to air and is deadly poison.
7. Red phosphorous can vary in colour from orange to purple, due to slight variations in
its chemical structure.
8. The third form, black phosphorous, is made under high pressure, looks like graphite
and, like graphite, has the ability to conduct electricity.
9. Phosphorous is a multivalent nonmetal of the nitrogen group.
10. It is found in nature in several forms, and is an essential element for the life of
organisms.