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Energy is defined as ability to do work. Both energy and work are measured in Newton-meter
(or pounds-foot in English). Kinetic energy and potential energy are the two commonly
recognized forms of energy. In a flowing fluid, potential energy may in turn be subdivided into
energy due to position or elevation above a given datum, and energy due to pressure in the
fluid. Head is the amount of energy per Newton (or per pound) of fluid.

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fluid. Head is the amount of energy per Newton (or per pound) of fluid.

Kinetic Energy and Velocity Head
Kinetic energy is the ability of a mass to do work by virtue of its velocity. The kinetic energy of
a mass M having a velocity v is Mv
2
. Since M = W/g,

Velocity Head of Circular Pipes
The velocity head of circular pipe of diameter D flowing full can be found as follows.

Elevation Energy and Elevation Head
In connection to the action of gravity, elevation energy is manifested in a fluid by virtue of its
position or elevation with respect to a horizontal datum plane.

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Pressure Energy and Pressure Head
A mass of fluid acquires pressure energy when it is in contact with other masses having some
form of energy. Pressure energy therefore is an energy transmitted to the fluid by another
mass that possesses some energy.

Total Energy of Flow
The total energy or head in a fluid is the sum of kinetic and potential energies. Recall that
potential energies are pressure energy and elevation energy.
Total energy = Kinetic energy + Pressure energy + Elevation energy
Total head = Velocity head + Pressure head + Elevation head

In symbol, the total head is
Where:
v = mean velocity of flow (m/sec in SI and ft/sec in English)
p = fluid pressure (N/m
2
or Pa in SI and lb/ft
2
or psf in English)
z = position of fluid above or below the datum plane (m in SI and ft in English)
g = gravitational acceleration (9.81 m/sec
2
in SI and 32.2 ft/sec
2
in English)
= Unit weight of fluid (N/m
3
in SI and lb/ft
3
in English)

Strength of Materials
Surveying
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Daniel Bernoulli
(1700 - 1782)
Power and Efficiency
Power is the rate of doing work per unit of time. For a fluid of unit weight (N/m
3
) flowing at
the rate of Q (m
3
/sec) with a total energy of E (m), the power (Watt) is
Note:
1 horsepower (hp) = 746 Watts
1 horsepower (hp) = 550 ft-lb/sec
1 Watt = 1 N-m/sec = 1 Joule/sec

Bernoulli's Energy Theorem and
Equations
Bernoullis Energy Theorem
Applying the law of conservation of energy to fluids that may be
considered incompressible, Bernoullis theorem may be stated
as follows:
Neglecting head lost, the total amount of energy per unit weight
is constant at any point in the path of flow.

Bernoulli's Energy Equations
Energy Equation Neglecting Head Loss
Without head losses, the total energy at point (1) is equal to the total energy at point (2). No
head lost is an ideal condition leading to theoretical values in the results.

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Energy Equation Considering Head Loss
The actual values can be found by considering head losses in the computation of flow energy.

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Energy Equation with Pump
In most cases, pump is used to raise water from lower elevation to higher elevation. In a more
technical term, the use of pump is basically to increase the energy of flow. The pump
consumes electrical energy (P
input
) and delivers flow energy (P
output
).

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Energy Equation with Turbine
Turbines extract flow energy and converted it into mechanical energy which in turn converted
into electrical energy.

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Hydraulic and Energy Grade Lines
Hydraulic Grade Line (HGL)
Hydraulic grade line, also called hydraulic gradient and pressure gradient, is the graphical
representation of the potential head (pressure head + elevation head). It is the line to which
liquid rises in successive piezometer tubes. The line is always at a distance (p/ + z) above the
datum plane.

Characteristics of HGL
HGL slopes downward in the direction of flow but it may rise or fall due to change in
pressure.
HGL is parallel to EGL for uniform pipe cross section.
For horizontal pipes with constant cross section, the drop in pressure gradient between
two points is equivalent to the head lost between these points.
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Energy Grade Line (EGL)
Energy grade line is always above the hydraulic grade line by an amount equal to the velocity
head. Thus, the distance of energy gradient above the datum plane is always (v
2
/2g + p/ +
z). Energy grade line therefore is the graphical representation of the total energy of flow.

Characteristics of EGL
EGL slopes downward in the direction of flow and will only rise with the presence of pump.
The vertical drop of EGL between two points is the head lost between those points.
EGL is parallel to HGL for uniform pipe cross section.
EGL is always above the HGL by v
2
/2g.
Neglecting head loss, EGL is horizontal.

Illustration showing the behavior of EGL and HGL

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head efficiency horsepower Watt Bernoullis energy equation neglecting head
loss considering head loss theoretical value ideal value actual value flow with turbine flow
with pump energy equation input power output power Daniel Bernoulli Bernoullis
theorem HGL EGL energy grade line energy gradient hydraulic grade line hydraulic
gradient pressure gradient

Problem 01 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
Problem 02 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
Problem 03 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
Problem 04 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
Problem 05 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
Problem 06 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
Problem 07 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
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02 Graph of velocity of flow against
length of pipe
up
Problem 01 | Bernoulli's Energy
Theorem
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Problem 08 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
Problem 09 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
Problem 10 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
Problem 11 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
Problem 12 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
Problem 13 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
Problem 14 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
Problem 15 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
Problem 16 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
Problem 17 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
Problem 18 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
Problem 19 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
Problem 20 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
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Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics
Principles of Hydrostatic Pressures
Hydrostatic Pressure on Surfaces
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Fundamentals of Fluid Flow
Discharge | Flow Rate
Energy and Head
Problem 01 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
Problem 02 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
Problem 03 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
Problem 04 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
Problem 05 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
Problem 06 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
Problem 07 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
Problem 08 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
Problem 09 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
Problem 10 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
Problem 11 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
Problem 12 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
Problem 13 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
Problem 14 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
Problem 15 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
Problem 16 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
Problem 17 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
Problem 18 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
Problem 19 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
Problem 20 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem
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