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Energy and Head Energy and Head

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Energy is defined as ability to do work. Both energy and work are measured in Newton-meter

(or pounds-foot in English). Kinetic energy and potential energy are the two commonly

recognized forms of energy. In a flowing fluid, potential energy may in turn be subdivided into

energy due to position or elevation above a given datum, and energy due to pressure in the

fluid. Head is the amount of energy per Newton (or per pound) of fluid.

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fluid. Head is the amount of energy per Newton (or per pound) of fluid.

Kinetic Energy and Velocity Head

Kinetic energy is the ability of a mass to do work by virtue of its velocity. The kinetic energy of

a mass M having a velocity v is Mv

2

. Since M = W/g,

Velocity Head of Circular Pipes

The velocity head of circular pipe of diameter D flowing full can be found as follows.

Elevation Energy and Elevation Head

In connection to the action of gravity, elevation energy is manifested in a fluid by virtue of its

position or elevation with respect to a horizontal datum plane.

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Pressure Energy and Pressure Head

A mass of fluid acquires pressure energy when it is in contact with other masses having some

form of energy. Pressure energy therefore is an energy transmitted to the fluid by another

mass that possesses some energy.

Total Energy of Flow

The total energy or head in a fluid is the sum of kinetic and potential energies. Recall that

potential energies are pressure energy and elevation energy.

Total energy = Kinetic energy + Pressure energy + Elevation energy

Total head = Velocity head + Pressure head + Elevation head

In symbol, the total head is

Where:

v = mean velocity of flow (m/sec in SI and ft/sec in English)

p = fluid pressure (N/m

2

or Pa in SI and lb/ft

2

or psf in English)

z = position of fluid above or below the datum plane (m in SI and ft in English)

g = gravitational acceleration (9.81 m/sec

2

in SI and 32.2 ft/sec

2

in English)

= Unit weight of fluid (N/m

3

in SI and lb/ft

3

in English)

Strength of Materials

Surveying

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Daniel Bernoulli

(1700 - 1782)

Power and Efficiency

Power is the rate of doing work per unit of time. For a fluid of unit weight (N/m

3

) flowing at

the rate of Q (m

3

/sec) with a total energy of E (m), the power (Watt) is

Note:

1 horsepower (hp) = 746 Watts

1 horsepower (hp) = 550 ft-lb/sec

1 Watt = 1 N-m/sec = 1 Joule/sec

Bernoulli's Energy Theorem and

Equations

Bernoullis Energy Theorem

Applying the law of conservation of energy to fluids that may be

considered incompressible, Bernoullis theorem may be stated

as follows:

Neglecting head lost, the total amount of energy per unit weight

is constant at any point in the path of flow.

Bernoulli's Energy Equations

Energy Equation Neglecting Head Loss

Without head losses, the total energy at point (1) is equal to the total energy at point (2). No

head lost is an ideal condition leading to theoretical values in the results.

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Equation

Angle between two chords

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Energy Equation Considering Head Loss

The actual values can be found by considering head losses in the computation of flow energy.

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Energy Equation with Pump

In most cases, pump is used to raise water from lower elevation to higher elevation. In a more

technical term, the use of pump is basically to increase the energy of flow. The pump

consumes electrical energy (P

input

) and delivers flow energy (P

output

).

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Energy Equation with Turbine

Turbines extract flow energy and converted it into mechanical energy which in turn converted

into electrical energy.

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Hydraulic and Energy Grade Lines

Hydraulic Grade Line (HGL)

Hydraulic grade line, also called hydraulic gradient and pressure gradient, is the graphical

representation of the potential head (pressure head + elevation head). It is the line to which

liquid rises in successive piezometer tubes. The line is always at a distance (p/ + z) above the

datum plane.

Characteristics of HGL

HGL slopes downward in the direction of flow but it may rise or fall due to change in

pressure.

HGL is parallel to EGL for uniform pipe cross section.

For horizontal pipes with constant cross section, the drop in pressure gradient between

two points is equivalent to the head lost between these points.

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Energy Grade Line (EGL)

Energy grade line is always above the hydraulic grade line by an amount equal to the velocity

head. Thus, the distance of energy gradient above the datum plane is always (v

2

/2g + p/ +

z). Energy grade line therefore is the graphical representation of the total energy of flow.

Characteristics of EGL

EGL slopes downward in the direction of flow and will only rise with the presence of pump.

The vertical drop of EGL between two points is the head lost between those points.

EGL is parallel to HGL for uniform pipe cross section.

EGL is always above the HGL by v

2

/2g.

Neglecting head loss, EGL is horizontal.

Illustration showing the behavior of EGL and HGL

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head efficiency horsepower Watt Bernoullis energy equation neglecting head

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with pump energy equation input power output power Daniel Bernoulli Bernoullis

theorem HGL EGL energy grade line energy gradient hydraulic grade line hydraulic

gradient pressure gradient

Problem 01 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem

Problem 02 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem

Problem 03 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem

Problem 04 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem

Problem 05 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem

Problem 06 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem

Problem 07 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem

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02 Graph of velocity of flow against

length of pipe

up

Problem 01 | Bernoulli's Energy

Theorem

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Problem 08 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem

Problem 09 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem

Problem 10 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem

Problem 11 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem

Problem 12 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem

Problem 13 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem

Problem 14 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem

Problem 15 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem

Problem 16 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem

Problem 17 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem

Problem 18 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem

Problem 19 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem

Problem 20 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem

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Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics

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Relative Equilibrium of Liquids

Fundamentals of Fluid Flow

Discharge | Flow Rate

Energy and Head

Problem 01 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem

Problem 02 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem

Problem 03 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem

Problem 04 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem

Problem 05 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem

Problem 06 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem

Problem 07 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem

Problem 08 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem

Problem 09 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem

Problem 10 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem

Problem 11 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem

Problem 12 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem

Problem 13 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem

Problem 14 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem

Problem 15 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem

Problem 16 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem

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Problem 18 | Bernoulli's Energy Theorem

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