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Electronics I lab

EE277

Objectives:

1. To learn how to measure the amplifier characteristics.

2. To investigate the common base amplifier.

Equipments Required:

1. 2N222 NPN transistor.

2. Resistors (82k, 11k, 330, 2.2k).

3. Capacitors (22µF) (3-capacitors).

4. DC-voltage source.

5. Potentiometer.

6. Digital multimeter (DMM).

7. Function generator (Oscillator).

8. Oscilloscope.

9. Probs.

10. Coupling wires.

11. Project board.

Theory:

The circuit shown in Figure 6-1 shows a common base amplifier network. - DC-analysis:

Since R 1 //R 2 << βr e then, I

B R
2
∴ V
=
V
=
V
B
Th
CC
R
+ R
1
2
& V
=
V
V
V
=
V
BE
B
E
E
B
V
E
I
=
I
=
V
=
V
C
E
C
CC
R
E
0.026
r
=
e
I
E

- AC-analysis:

0 A

V

BE

I

C

R

C

Figure 6-1

The AC equivalent model for the common base configuration shown in Figure 6-1 is as shown in Figure 6-2.

Page No (6-1) Electronics I lab
EE277
The AC-parameters ( Z , Z
Figure 6-2
, Av , Ai ) can be calculated as follows:
i
o
• To find
Z i make the input voltage open circuit, then i b is zero, so the circuit will be
as in Figure 6-3.
Figure 6-3
So the input resistance (resistance seen at the input terminals) is:
= R
// r
, since
r
<< R
Z
≅ r
Z i
E
e
e
E
i
e
• To find
Z
o (the resistance seen at the output terminals), from Figure 6-3, we see
that:
= r
// R
, since
( r
≅ ∞ ) >> R
, so:
Z
≅ R
.
Z o
c
C
c
C
o
C
• The voltage gain ( Av ):
V
o
Av =
V
i
V
=
I
(
R
// r
)
= 1 + β I
(
)
(
But
R
// r
)
i
e
E
e
b
E
e
And
V
= I
R
=βI R
o
c
C
b
C
β I
R
b
C
Av
=
, but β>>1 and
r
<< R
so:
e
E
(
1 +β
)
I
(
R
// r
)
b
E
e
R
C
Av =
r
e
• The current gain ( Ai ):
I
o
Ai =
I
i
= I =β+ 1 I
(
)
I i
e
b
= I =βI
I o
c
b
β I
b β
∴ Ai =
=
, since β>>1 then:
Ai ≅ 1
Page No (6-2)

( β+ 1)I

b β+

1

Electronics I lab

EE277

How to find the AC-parameters of a common base amplifier practically?

How to find input resistance? We connect a potentiometer between the emitter and the input capacitance (Ci) as shown in Figure 6-4. Figure 6-4 Then we start to change the resistance of the potentiometer box until the emitter voltage (V E ) reduced to half of the first value (when R potentiometer = 0). We should change the resistance from 0 up to the value which obtains the last condition, then; these resistance indicates the input resistance.

How to find the output resistance? We connect the potentiometer box between the output capacitor (Co) and ground as in Figure 6-5. Figure 6-5 The we start to change the potentiometer box resistance from high value down to some value at which the output voltage equal to half of that value before connecting the potentiometer. At this point; the resistance of the potentiometer box is equal to the output resistance.

How to find voltage gain?

Page No (6-3)

Electronics I lab

EE277

We measure the input voltage and the output voltage, then the voltage gain is the ration between the output voltage to the input voltage.

Experimental Procedure:

We connected the circuit shown in Figure 6-6. Figure 6-6 We measured the resistance and found that:

 Measured value Labeled value R 1 82 kΩ 82.15 kΩ R 2 11 kΩ 11.175 kΩ R C 330 Ω 328.9 Ω R E 2.2 kΩ 2.207 kΩ

We measured the dc-voltages and currents and found that:

 Parameter Measured value V CE 13.61 V V E 1.21 V I E = V R E E 0.55 mA

Compared with the theatrical values:

 V R 2 V 11.175 × 10 3 Th = R 1 + R 2 CC = ( 82.15 × 10 3 ) + ( 11.175 × 10 3 ) V B V E − V BE = = 1.8 1.1 − 0.7 = 1.1V = 0.5mA R E = V C − 2.207 V E = 10 × V CC 3 − I C R C − V E = 15 − ( 0.5 × 10 − 3

=

=

=

V

B

V

E

I

E

V CE

( 15 )

)( 328.9

×

0.026 0.026

 r e 52 Ω = I = E 0.5 × 10 − 3 =

The voltage gain:

= 1.8V

10

3

)

1.1

=

13.73V

We measured the input voltage (V i = 100 mV) and output voltage (V o = 600 mV), so the voltage gain Av is:

Av =

V

o

600mV

=

= 6

V i 100mV

Page No (6-4)

Electronics I lab

EE277

Compared with theoretical voltage gain:

The input resistance:

R

328.9

We connected the potentiometer as shown in Figure 6-7. Figure 6-7 Then we varied the potentiometer resistance starting from zero up to 100where the

and the source

emitter voltage became half of its initial value, but:

resistance is 50, so the input resistance of the amplifier is:

100Ω = Z

i

+ R

S

Z i

= 100 R

S

= 100 50 Z

i

= 50

Compared with:

Z i

r

e

= 52

The output resistance:

We connected the circuit shown in Figure 6-8. Figure 6-8 The we started to decrease the potentiometer resistance from high initial value to less values, until we read 334, which indicates the output resistance, compared with theoretical value: Z = R = 328.9.

o

C

Page No (6-5)

Av =

C

=

= 6.325

r

e

52 Electronics I lab
EE277
In general; the ac parameters were as follows:
Parameter
Measured value
Theoretical value
% error
Av
6
6.325
5.14
%
Z
50 Ω
52 Ω
4 %
i
Z
334 Ω
328.9 Ω
1.55
%
o
• Then we connected a 10-kΩ load as in Figure 6-9.
Figure 6-9
And measure the AC-parameters, So:
Theoretical values:
=
r
=
52
Z i
e
= R
// R
=
( 330 ) //( 10k )
=
319
Z o
C
L
// R
R C
r
e
Measured values:
Z i 49
=
Z
=
311
o
Av
=
3
• Then we exchanged the 10-kΩ load by 100Ω and measure the AC-parameters, so;
:Theoretical values:
= =
r
52
Z i
e
= =
R
// R
( 330 ) //( 100 )
=
76 ,7
Z o
C
L
R
// R
r
e
:Measured values:
Av
= 0.8
• To find the maximum input voltage that can produce an undistorted output we started to
increase the input voltage and note the output. Some distortion appeared when the input
voltage became larger than 140 mV pp.
• At this input voltage the output has maximum swing equals to 380 mV pp.
Page No (6-6)

Av =

L

= 6.14

Av =

C

L

= 1.47

Z

i

= 53

Z

o

= 81

Electronics I lab

EE277

Conclusions:

1. The common base amplifier is used to increase the output voltage within some range, and then any higher input value will cause a distortion in the output signal.

2. To get high voltage gain, we need to decrease the load resistance, but we can use a trans- former to get high voltage gain when high load is connected.

3. The gain decreases as the load resistance increases.

4. There is no relation between the input resistance and the connected load resistance.

5. The output resistance will decreases as the load resistance decreases.

6. In this amplifier, the input resistance is high and output resistance is low, which make little uses of this amplifier.

There are some errors which affect on the readings in this experiment. These errors related to:

1. Thermal effect on the transistors and the resistors.

2. Personal errors.

3. The internal capacitance in the transistors.

4. Errors in the used devices.

5. The resolution in the measurement devices.

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