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Chemical Reactions

and
Enzymes
Chemical Reactions
A process that changes one set of
chemicals into another set of chemicals
Your Turn!
Determine the difference between
reactants and products
Reactants Product
Chemical Reactions
REACTANTS
The elements or compounds that enter into a
chemical reaction
PRODUCTS
The elements or compounds produced by a
chemical reaction
ALWAYS involve the breaking of bonds in
reactants and the formation of new bonds
in products
Chemical Reactions:
CO
2
+ H
2
0 H
2
CO
3
H
2
CO
3
CO
2
+ H
2
O
Reactant(s) Product(s)
Energy in Reactions
In order to stay alive, organisms need to
carry out reactions that require energy.

Energy in Reactions

Activation Energy
The energy that is needed to get a reaction
started
Determines whether the overall chemical
reaction releases energy or absorbs energy
Your Turn!
Looking at the graph, explain what an
enzyme does to activation energy
Enzyme Reactions
Enzymes lower the activation energy!
What is a catalyst?
Catalysts are substances that speed up
the rate of a chemical reaction.

Catalysts lower a reactions activation
energy.
What is an enzyme?
proteins that act as biological catalysts.
allow essential chemical reactions that are
otherwise too slow to occur
very specific, generally catalyzing only one
chemical reaction

How do enzyme reactions work?
Enzymes provide a site where reactants
can be brought together to react.
Enzyme reactions depend on a physical
AND chemical fit between the enzyme
molecule and its substrate(s).
Whats a substrate???
A substrate is the reactant(s).
Your Turn!
Explain why enzyme reactions are often
referred to as lock and key models
An Enzyme-Substrate Reaction is
like a
Lock-and-Key Model
Substrate
ENZYME
Enzymes in Action
Substrate(s)
Enzyme
Active Site = the site on
the enzyme where
the substrate binds with the
enzyme
Enzyme-Substrate
Complex = when the
enzyme and substrate(s) are
bonded together for the
reaction to occur
The bonds in the
substrate are
weakened and
converted into
Product(s)
Enzyme
1.
2.
3.
Enzymes in Action
At the end of the reaction, the products are
released and the enzyme is free to start
the process again.
The enzyme is not changed in the
reaction.
What can denature an enzyme?
Define the term denature.
Denature means to change the shape of the
enzyme so that the reaction cannot occur.

What can cause an enzyme to denature?
High Temperature
pH
the addition of an alcohol
Your Turn!
Explain what effect temperature and pH
have on enzymes