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Echols 1

Jay Echols
Dr. Milligan
EDUC 450
16 October 2014
Curriculum Plan
Overview
Algebra I is a class that students take in the eighth grade everyday for a whole year, 36 weeks.
This is class where we start to introduce variables into equations. Linear and exponential
functions are the focus in this class. Students will focus on modeling and solving these equations.
There is also a set of vocabulary that the students will become familiar with during the course.
The standards for Algebra I are sorted in a categorical fashion. There isnt a direction or an order
that you should teach them in, but instead there are listed in groups of similar traits.

Rationale
Algebra I is the foundation on which all other high level mathematics are built upon. Without a
good understanding of the lessons in Algebra I one cannot expect to succeed in upper level math
classes. Algebra I also supports the thinking of and solving for variables that are apparent in
everyday life.

Tweet
Discover how it feels to unlock the mysteries of Algebra and know how to figure out problems in
everyday life. #mathisfun

Overarching Enduring Understandings and Essential Questions
Numbers in real world applications often have units attached to them, and they are
considered quantities that can be solved.
How are solving and proving different?
How are showing and explaining different?
Mathematics can be used in many different ways to solve problems outside of the
mathematics classroom.
How do you make sense of different strategies? How do you determine
their strengths and weaknesses?
Classifying helps us to build networks of mathematical ideas.
Why do we classify numbers, geometric objects and functions?
Precise language helps us express mathematical ideas and receive them.
Why is it important that you use precise language in mathematics?


Echols 2
Table of Contents
Unit # Unit Name Length of Unit Standards
1 Linear and Exponential Expressions 8 days A.SSE.1
2 Relationships in One Variable 8 days A.CED.1
A.CED.4
A.REI.1
A.REI.3
3 Relationships in Two Variables 10 days F.IF.1
F.IF.2
A.CED.2
A.REI.10
A.CED.3
4 Representing Linear Exponential Functions 27 days F.IF.3
F.BF.1
F.LE.1
F.LE.2
F.LE.3
F.IF.4
F.IF.5
F.IF.6
F.IF.7
F.IF.9
F.BF.3
F.LE.5
5 Modeling Data with Linear and Exponential
Functions
18 days S.ID.6
S.ID.7
S.ID.8
S.ID.9
6 Systems of Equations and Inequalities 15 days A.REI.5
A.REI.6
A.REI.11
A.REI.12
7 Graphical Analysis and Modeling of
Quadratic Functions
12 days A.APR.1
F.BD.1
F.IF.7
F.IF.4
F.IF.5
F.BF.3
8 Algebraic Analysis of Quadratic Functions 30 days A.SSE.1
A.SSE.2
A.SSE.3
A.REI.4
F.IF.8
9 Descriptive Statistics 15 days S.ID.1
S.ID.2
S.ID.3
S.ID.5
10 Modeling with Other Functions 15 days F.BF.4
F.IF.7

Echols 3
Unit One: Linear and Exponential Expressions
Brief Description of the Unit
This unit really sets up the stage for the rest of the units for the year. In this unit students
will indentify and interpret parts of an expression and simply expressions using order of
operations through real-world situations. Modeling situations using appropriate
expressions focusing on linear and simple exponential models is another topic that we
will focus on in this unit.

Related Overarching Enduring Understandings and Essential Questions
Numbers in real world applications often have units attached to them, and they are
considered quantities that can be solved.
How are solving and proving different?
How are showing and explaining different?

Unit Enduring
Understandings
Unit Essential Questions Established Goals (Related State
Standards)

Real-world situations
can be expressed
through mathematical
formulas.


How can expressions be used to
model real-world problems?

What units should be used to
model a given problem in order
to achieve the desired level of
accuracy?

Does it matter in what order
properties of exponents are
applied?
A.SSE.A.1 Interpret expressions that
represent a quantity in terms of its
context. (Note: Limit to linear
expressions and to exponential
expressions with integer exponents.)
a. Interpret parts of an expression, such
as terms factors, and coefficients.
b. Interpret complicated expressions by
viewing one or more of their parts as a
single entity.

Echols 4
Unit Two: Relationships in One Variable
Brief Description of the Unit
Continuing from unit one, students will study the connections between quantities in real-
world problems and learn how to write and solve one-variable equations and inequalities.
Highlighting constructing arguments to rationalize their solutions. Students will apply the
mathematical reasoning behind solving one-variable equations in order to rearrange
formulas in order to highlight variables or quantities of interest.

Related Overarching Enduring Understandings and Essential Questions
Numbers in real world applications often have units attached to them, and they are
considered quantities that can be solved.
How are solving and proving different?
How are showing and explaining different?
Mathematics can be used in many different ways to solve problems outside of the
mathematics classroom.
How do you make sense of different strategies? How do you determine their
strengths and weaknesses?
Precise language helps us express mathematical ideas and receive them.
Why is it important that you use precise language in mathematics?

Unit Enduring
Understandings
Unit Essential Questions Established Goals (Related State
Standards)

One-variable equations
and inequalities are solved
using mathematical
processes.
Can the structure of a linear
equation or inequality be used to
devise a plan for solving the
equation and inequalities?

How can mathematical properties
be correctly applied when solving
one-variable equations and
inequalities?
A.CED.A.1 Create equations and inequalities
in one variable and use them to solve
problems.

A.REI.A.1 Explain each step in solving a
linear equation as following from the equity
of numbers asserted at the previous step,
starting from the assumption that the original
equation has a solution.
Mathematical properties
and solutions can be
described using
mathematical language.
Can a solution or solution set and
the method by which the solution
was obtained be justified using the
language of mathematics?

How can mathematical properties
be correctly applied in order to
solve literal equations and
formulas for a given variable?
A.REI.B.3. Solve linear equations and
inequalities in one variable, including
equations with coefficients represented by
letters.

A.REI.A.4 Rearrange linear formulas to
highlight a quality of interest, using the same
reasoning as in solving equations

Echols 5
Unit Three: Relationships in Two Variables
Brief Description of the Unit
With the knowledge the students acquired in unit two with one variable, students will add
in a second variable into the equation. Students will assess a function for a given input
within the domain of the function. When given a real-world application, context will be
used to understand the meaning of a statement. Students will learn to distinguish between
equations and inequalities, particularly, when pertaining to real-life scenarios and be able
to explain why they chosen the method the use.
Related Overarching Enduring Understandings and Essential Questions
Precise language helps us express mathematical ideas and receive them.
Why is it important that you use precise language in mathematics?
Classifying helps us to build networks of mathematical ideas.
Why do we classify numbers, geometric objects and functions?
Unit Enduring Understandings Unit Essential Questions Established Goals (Related State
Standards)

Relationships can be illustrated
through linear functions.
How can a linear function
be created to represent the
relationship between two
given quantities?

For what situations is
function notation useful?
F.IF.A.1 Understanding that a function from
one set (called the domain) to another set
(called the range) assigns to each element of
the domain exactly one element of the range.
If f is a function and x is an element of its
domain, then f(x) denotes the output of f
corresponding to the input x. The graph of f
is the graph of the equation y=f(x).

F.IF.A.2 Use function notation, evaluate
functions for inputs in their domains, and
interpret statements that use function
notation in terms of a context.
Functions can be represented in
different ways to fit their
situations.
What units, scales, and
labels must be applied to
precisely symbolize a linear
function in the framework
of a problem?

What are the advantages of
representing the
relationship between
quantities symbolically,
numerically, and/or
graphically?
A.CED.A.2. Create linear equations to
represent relationships between quantities;
graph equations on coordinate axes with
labels and scales.

A.REI.10 understand that the graph of an
equation in two variables is the set of all its
solutions plotted in the coordinate plane,
often forming a curve (which could be a
line).

A.CED.A.3 Represent constraints by linear
equations or inequalities, and by systems of
linear equations and/or inequalities, and
interpret solutions as viable or non-viable
options in a modelling context.
Echols 6
Unit Four: Representing Linear and Exponential Functions
Brief Description of the Unit
The focus starting in this unit and for the next couple of units will be on the comparison
of arithmetic and geometric sequences. Students will write equations to represent real-
world problems. They will use this idea to write linear and exponential functions from
tables, graphs, and other methods choosing which method is best.

Related Overarching Enduring Understandings and Essential Questions
Mathematics can be used in many different ways to solve problems outside of the
mathematics classroom.
How do you make sense of different strategies? How do you determine their
strengths and weaknesses?
Classifying helps us to build networks of mathematical ideas.
Why do we classify numbers, geometric objects and functions?
Unit Enduring
Understandings
Unit Essential Questions Established Goals (Related State
Standards)

Patterns are not
coincidences and can be
thought of as sequences.
How can the given explicit or
recursive formula be used to find
the value of a specific value?
F.IF.A.3 Recognize that sequences are
functions, sometimes defined recursively,
whose domain is a subset of the integers.


Real-world relationships
can be either arithmetic or
geometric.
How can you justify whether a
relationship is arithmetic or
geometric?

How do arithmetic and geometric
formulas differ?
F.BF.A.1 Write a function that describes a
relationship between two quantities.
a. Determine an explicit expression, a
recursive process, or steps for calculation
from a context.

Both linear and
exponential models can
solve problems, but each
has its own purpose.
In what situations are linear
functions practical to use? In what
situations are exponential
functions practical to use?

What is the best way to create a
sequence?

How do you determine what
values are needed for the sequence
or formula?
F.LE.A.1 Distinguish between situations that
can be modelled with linear functions and
with exponential functions.
a. Prove that linear functions grow by equal
differences over equal intervals; and that
exponential functions grow by equal factors
over equal intervals.
b. Recognize situations in which one
quantity change at a constant rate per unit
interval relative to another.
c. Recognize situations in which a quantity
grows or decays by a constant percent rate
per unit interval relative to another.

F.LE.A.2 Construct linear and exponential
functions, including arithmetic and geometric
sequences, given a graph, a description of a
relationship, or two input-output pairs
(include reading these from a table).

Echols 7
F.LE.A.3 Observe using graphs and tables
that a quantity increasing exponentially
eventually exceeds a quantity increasingly
linearly.

Formulas can be expressed
in different ways and can
show different qualities
about the relationship.
What do the features of the graph
reveal about the problems
situation?

How can analyzing a graph help
you determine the best course of
action in solving the problem at
hand?

How do qualities of a graph affect
the symbolic and numeric
representations of the problem?
F.IF.B.4 For a function that models a
relationship between two quantities, interpret
key features of graphs and tables in terms of
the quantities, and sketch graphs showing
key features given a verbal description of the
relationship.

F.IF.B.5 Relate the domain of a function to
its graph and, where applicable, to the
quantitative relationship it describes.

F.IF.B.6 Calculate and interpret the average
rate of change of a function (presented
symbolically or as a table) over a specified
interval. Estimate the rate of change from a
graph.

Linear and exponential
functions can be analyzed
using different methods.
How are curves made?

What are the things that make up a
curve?

How do you decided what is the
best way to depict a relationship?
F.IF.C.7 Graph functions expressed
symbolically and show key features of the
graph, by hand in simple cases and using
technology for more complicated cases.
a. Graph linear and exponential functions and
show intercepts, maxima, and minima.
e. Graph exponential functions, showing
intercepts and end behavior.

F.IF.C.9 Compare properties of two
functions each represented in a different way
(algebraically, graphically, numerically in
tables, or by verbal descriptions).

Functions can be
transformations of another
base function.
What is the effect of adding or
subtracting a constant to a
function?

What is the effect of multiplying a
function by a scalar?
F.BF.B.3 Identify the effect of the graph of
replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, k f(x), f(kx), and
f(x + k) for specific values of k (both
positive and negative); find the values of k
given the graphs. Experiment with cases that
illustrate an explanation of the effects on the
graph using technology.

F.LE.B.5 Interpret the parameters in a linear
or exponential function in terms of a context.

Echols 8
Unit Five: Modeling Data with Linear and Exponential Functions
Brief Description of the Unit
So far in the course we have been working with relationships that are directly and
continuously correlated, but now we are moving on to curves that dont fit that mold.
Students will construct a scatterplot given two sets of quantitative data. They will
illustrate the properties of scatterplots and decide if a linear or exponential model would
be the best choice. When using a linear model, students will understand the slope and y-
intercept of the equation by making predictions using the models they have already
learned. Students will recognize the difference between correlation, or association, and
causation. They will use these approximation techniques in later units.
Related Overarching Enduring Understandings and Essential Questions
Numbers in real world applications often have units attached to them, and they are
considered quantities that can be solved.
How are solving and proving different?
Mathematics can be used in many different ways to solve problems outside of the
mathematics classroom.
How do you make sense of different strategies? How do you determine their
strengths and weaknesses?
Unit Enduring
Understandings
Unit Essential Questions Established Goals (Related State
Standards)

Graphs that dont fit what
is already known can be
made sensible through
using what is already
known.
How can we model two-variable
data and use models to make
predictions?

When are linear and/or exponential
models appropriate for two-
variable data?
S.ID.B.6 Represent data on two quantitative
variables on a scatter plot, and describe how
the variables are related.
a. Fit a function to the data; use functions
fitted to data to solve problems in the context
of the data. Use given functions or choose a
function suggested by the context.
Emphasize linear and exponential models.
b. Informally assess the fit of a linear
function by plotting and analyzing residuals.
c. Fit a linear function for a scatter plot that
suggests a linear association.

Approximation is a
valuable tool in
mathematics.
How can the correlation
coefficient be used to justify the
strength of a linear model?

What is the difference between
correlation and causation? How
can you tell the difference?

S.ID.C.7 Interpret the slope (rate of change)
and the intercept (constant term) of a linear
model in the context of the data.

S.ID.C.8 Compute (using technology) and
interpret the correlation coefficient of a
linear fit.

S.ID.C.9 Distinguish between correlation
and causation.

Echols 9
Unit Six: Systems of Equations and Inequalities
Brief Description of the Unit
Using the knowledge acquired about curves in the first three units, students will
acknowledge that the solution, or point of intersection, will be similar. Students will add
on to what they learned about graphing linear equations in order to graph a system of
equations. They will use approximation to find points of intersection. Along with
graphing, students will solve two-variable systems algebraically using the substitution
and elimination methods. Students will understand that no matter what method you use
the same answer will be produced.

Related Overarching Enduring Understandings and Essential Questions
Numbers in real world applications often have units attached to them, and they are
considered quantities that can be solved.
Mathematics can be used in many different ways to solve problems outside of the
mathematics classroom.
How do you make sense of different strategies? How do you determine their
strengths and weaknesses?
Classifying helps us to build networks of mathematical ideas.
Why do we classify numbers, geometric objects and functions?
Unit Enduring
Understandings
Unit Essential Questions Established Goals (Related State
Standards)

Solutions to systems of
linear equations can be
represented in different
ways.
What types of real-world
problems would be solved using
systems of equations?

What does a solution to a
system of linear equations
mean?

How do you represent the
solution of a system of
equations algebraically and
graphically?
A.REI.C.5 Prove that, given a system of
equations in two variables, replacing one
equation by the sum of that equation and
a multiple of the other produces a system
with the same solutions.

A.REI.C.6 Solve systems of linear
equations exactly and approximately
(e.g., with graphs), focusing on pairs of
linear equations in two variables.
Systems of linear
equations dont always
have a solution and can
have more than one
solution.
Why does changing the
equations in a system by a
multiple not change the
solution?

What does it mean for a line not
to have any solutions?

In what real-world situations
A.REI.D.11 Explain why the x-
coordinates of the points where the
graphs of the equations y = f(x) and y =
g(x) intersect are the solutions of the
equation f(x) = g(x); find the solutions
approximately, e.g., using technology to
graph the functions, make tables of
values, or find successive
Echols 10
would there be no solution? approximations. Include cases where f(x)
and/or g(x)are linear and exponential
functions.

A.REI.D.12 Graph the solutions to a
linear inequality in two variables as a
half-plane (excluding the boundary in the
case of strict inequality), and graph the
solution set to a system of linear
inequalities in two variables as the
intersection of the corresponding half-
planes.

Echols 11
Unit Seven: Graphical Analysis and Modeling of Quadratic Functions
Brief Description of the Unit
Students will focus on building quadratic functions from what they already know of
linear and exponential functions. Connections between quadratic actions in the real world
and the properties of quadratic functions will start to be made. Students will be able to
recognize linear, exponential and quadratic functions given verbal, numeric, and/or
graphical representations.

Related Overarching Enduring Understandings and Essential Questions
Classifying helps us to build networks of mathematical ideas.
Why do we classify numbers, geometric objects and functions?
Precise language helps us express mathematical ideas and receive them.
Why is it important that you use precise language in mathematics?
Unit Enduring
Understandings
Unit Essential Questions Established Goals (Related State
Standards)

Equations can be
manipulated causing
changes algebraically
and graphically.


When linear and quadratic
expressions are added,
subtracted, or multiplied, what
is the resulting function?
A.APR.A.1 Understand that polynomials
form a system analogous to the integers,
namely, they are closed under the
operations of addition, subtraction, and
multiplication; add, subtract, and
multiply polynomials.
Real-world patterns can
be represented in a
number of ways.
How are the numeric patterns
and graphical representations of
linear, exponential and
quadratic functions different?
F.BF.A.1 Write a quadratic function that
describes a relationship between two
quantities.
a. Determine an explicit expression, a
recursive process, or steps for calculation
from a context.
b. Combine standard function types using
arithmetic operations.
Properties of a problem
can be revealed by
looking at the graph.
What do the key features of the
graph of a quadratic function
reveal about the problem?

How do parameters affect the
symbolic, numeric and
graphical representations of a
quadratic function?

What is the best way to decide
the domain of a graph?
F.IF.C.7 Graph functions expressed
symbolically and show key features of
the graph, by hand in simple cases and
using technology for more complicated
cases.
a. Graph linear and quadratic functions
and show intercepts, maxima, and
minima.

F.IF.B.4 For a quadratic function that
models a relationship between two
Echols 12
quantities, interpret key features of
graphs and tables in terms of the
quantities, and sketch graphs showing
key features given a verbal description of
the relationship. Key features include:
intercepts, intervals where the function is
increasing, decreasing, positive, or
negative, relative maximums and
minimums, symmetries, and end
behavior.

F.IF.B.5 Relate the domain of a function
to its graph and, where applicable, to the
quantitative relationships it describes.
Changes made on a
formula affect the
graphical representation
of that formula.
How do changes in the
symbolic representation of a
quadratic function affect the
graphical representation?
F.BF.B.3 Identify the effect on the graph
of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, k f(x), f(ox),
and f(x + k) for specific values of k (both
positive and negative); find the value of k
given the graphs. Experiment with cases
and illustrate an explanation of the
effects on the graph using technology.

Echols 13
Unit Eight: Algebraic Analysis of Quadratic Functions
Brief Description of the Unit
Students will dissect the parts of quadratic expressions: terms, coefficients, and factors.
This will lead to the exploration of the different forms of quadratic expressions might
uncover about a real-world problem. When the students understand the different forms
that expressions can take and what those forms make known, they will be able to re-write
these expressions through factoring, and completing the square. Students will be able to
look at a problem and best decide which method for solving the quadratic is best for the
given problem.

Related Overarching Enduring Understandings and Essential Questions
Mathematics can be used in many different ways to solve problems outside of the
mathematics classroom.
How do you make sense of different strategies? How do you determine their
strengths and weaknesses?

Unit Enduring
Understandings
Unit Essential Questions Established Goals (Related State
Standards)

Expression can be look
different but mean the
same thing and show
information.
What are the parts of the
expression and what
information do they reveal
about the problem?

What do different forms of an
expression reveal about the
graph of a quadratic function?
A.SSE.A.1 Interpret quadratic
expressions that represent a quantity in
terms of its context.
a. Interpret parts of an expression, such
as terms, factors, and coefficients.
b. Interpret complicated expressions by
viewing one or more of their parts as a
single entity.

A.SSE.A.2 Use the structure of an
expression to identify ways to rewrite it.
Expressions can be re-
written to highlight
different pieces of
information.
Can the methods of completing
the square or factoring be used
to gain more information about
the problem or the graph of the
function?

How can an expression be
rewritten to reveal the necessary
information?
A.SSE.B.3 Choose and produce an
equivalent form of an expression to
reveal and explain properties of the
quantity represented by the expression.
a. Factor a quadratic expression to reveal
the zeros of the function it defines.
b. Complete the square in a quadratic
expression to reveal the maximum or
minimum value of the function it defines.

A.REI.B.4 Solve quadratic equations in
one variable.
Echols 14
a. Use the method of completing the
square to transform any quadratic
equation in x into an equation of the form
(x p)2 = q that has the same solutions.
Derive the quadratic formula from this
form.
b. Solve quadratic equations by
inspection (e.g., for x2 = 49), taking
square roots, completing the square, the
quadratic formula and factoring, as
appropriate to the initial form of the
equation. Recognize when the quadratic
formula gives complex solutions and
write them as a+/-bi for real numbers a
and b.

Different methods can
be used to solve for
quadratic functions.
What method is most efficient
for solving a quadratic equation
given in specific forms?
F.IF.C.8 Write a function defined by an
expression in different but equivalent
forms to reveal and explain different
properties of the function.
a. Use the process of factoring and
completing the square in a quadratic
function to show zeroes, extreme values,
and symmetry of the graph, and interpret
these in terms of a context.


Echols 15
Unit Nine: Descriptive Statistics
Brief Description of the Unit
Students will select and construct data representations for a given set of data. These data
representations will include bar graphs, histograms, box-and-whisker plots, stem and leaf
plots, as well as frequency tables. Students will learn and use vocabulary such as mean,
median, range, lower and upper quartile, interquartile range and standard deviation to
help solve statistical problems.

Related Overarching Enduring Understandings and Essential Questions
Classifying helps us to build networks of mathematical ideas.
Why do we classify numbers, geometric objects and functions?
Precise language helps us express mathematical ideas and receive them.
Why is it important that you use precise language in mathematics?
Unit Enduring
Understandings
Unit Essential Questions Established Goals (Related State
Standards)

Statistical analysis
shows much information
about a set of data.
How can data be
misrepresented?

How can we use summary
statistics and data
representations to describe a
distribution or support or refute
a claim?

How can we use summary
statistics and data
representations to describe a
distribution or support or refute
a claim?
S.ID.A.1 Represent data with plots on the
real number line (dot plots, histograms,
and box plots).

S.ID.A.2 Use statistics appropriate to the
shape of the data distribution to compare
center (median, mean) and spread
(interquartile range, standard deviation)
of two or more different sets.

S.ID.A.3 Interpret differences in shape,
center, and spread in the context of the
data sets, accounting for possible effects
of extreme data points (outliers).

S.ID.B.5 Summarize categorical data for
two categories in two-way frequency
tables. Interpret relative frequencies in
the context of the data (including joint,
marginal, and conditional relative
frequencies). Recognize possible
associations and trends in the data.

Echols 16
Unit Ten: Modeling with Other Functions
Brief Description of the Unit
Students will go into the graphical representations of other models, including square root,
cube root, and piecewise-defined functions. Students will graph these functions by hand
in simple cases and also with the help of technology. In all cases, however, students will
identify key features of the different graphs. Students should identify parent functions
and describe or sketch the effects of simple transformations on those parent functions.

Related Overarching Enduring Understandings and Essential Questions
Numbers in real world applications often have units attached to them, and they are
considered quantities that can be solved.
How are showing and explaining different?

Unit Enduring
Understandings
Unit Essential Questions Established Goals (Related State
Standards)

Quadratic functions are
just one type of a large
group of functions, but
all are related and have
similar features.
What situations might call for
models other than linear,
exponential or quadratic?

How can the key features of a
model be used to sketch a
graph?

F.IF.C.7 Graph functions expressed
symbolically and show key features of
the graph, by hand in simple cases and
using technology for more complicated
cases.
b. Graph square root, cube root, and
piecewise-defined functions, including
step functions and absolute value
functions.