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2003
2007 ()
ISBN: 960-337-050-9
Copyright 2007
, , ( 3 . 2121/1993).

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, ,

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2007

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Page 8

,
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Windows XP (
Windows 2000) Office 2003.
,
.
, (CDROM), Ethernet,
(CRT TFT), USB USB ,

.
,
Windows XP,
.pdf,
.
, Word 2003,
.
(Excel 2003 Access 2003 ),
.
, Microsoft Office Publisher 2003

Internet Explorer.

Linux, -Unix
(opensource).
() Microsoft Office
PowerPoint 2003.

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Page 1

1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

.
.
.

.
1.5 (software).
1.6 .
1.7 .

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1.1 .
, 20
, ,
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.
.
. ,
(Hardware) (Software),
.
1.2 .

, 4000
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-.
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.
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. Pascaline [. 1.2()] Pascal (1645)
Leibniz. John Napier Wilhelm
Schickard.
, 19 , Charles Babbage
[. 1.2()],
(
Charles Babbage
). , ,
. , 1843, Ada

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()

()

. 1.2.
Pascal () Babbage ().

Augusta-Byron Babbage
. Ada
Augusta-Byron
. Charles
Babbage .
,
Hollerith (1887). ,
.
Hollerith (1887)
...
, .
Hollerith .
, ,
... 1939 Atanasoff Berry
Iowa / ABC,
Alan Turing ACE
(Automatic Computer Engine) 25.000
.
1940, , , Mark I. 4, K. Zuse 1945.
ENIAC (. 1.2). ENIAC 1946,
,
. ENIAC
.
"" ,
1946 Burks, Goldstin Neumann.
, Von Neumann
.
, 60,
/ .

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. 1.2.
ENIAC (1946).


: George Boole, Alan Turing, John Von
Neuman. George Boole 1856 ,
. Boole
"", "", "". Alan Turing
, John Von Neuman
,
.
'70 ,
(supercomputers). , 1976
Seymour Cray CRAY-1. '80
(Personal Computers-PC)
(1981). 1984 Apple
-,
. 1989, (CERN),

.
HTTP (1989-1992),

. , 1994
(World Wide Web)
, 50
. ,
,
, .
, (1951-1959)
(vacuum tubes), ,
.

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(1959-1965) (transistor),
, .
(circuit boards), ,
, .
(1965-1971) -
(Integrated Circuits-chips), ,
. (
). , /
- ,
.
(1971-1989) .
Intel 1971.
(Large-scale Integration Very Large Scale Integration)
.
'
. ,
. 1981
(PC, Computer).
(1989 ).

. ,
, , .,
.
(Vacuum tube): , .
(ransistor): .
.
(Printed circuit):
.
(Integrated circuit): , .


: (digital), (analog)
(hybrid).
( 0 1)
. . ,
.
.
.
,
:
1) (Micro Computers) : , -

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[(. 1.2()]. .
(Laptops notebooks) [(. 1.2()] (Palmtops).
2) (Mini Computers): ,
, . .
3) (Main Frames):
. (, , ) .
4) (Super Computers):
. (.. )
, .

()

()

. 1.2.
) ) .

1.3 .
1.3.1 .
,
, . ,
,
. ,

. ,
, .

. , "10" , , , .

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1.3.2 .
,
(. 1.3). , (),
() ,
().

. 1.3.
.

,

, . ,
. , .
,
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, , , , , .
1.3.3 .
,
/ . , ,
.
,
, /, .
, , . , /, . , (.
, , . 334).

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Page 8

,
. , .
Basic (. , ,
. 345), Pascal, Cobol, C++ Java.
Assembly (machine language).
,
(. 1.3).
(compilers interpreters).

. 1.3.
.

1.3.4 .
(.. , , , .). ()
byte. kiloByte
(kB), Megabyte (MB), Gigabyte (GB) ... byte (8)
bit. To bit ,
(BInary digiT),
. bit ,
"0" "1". , bytes, .
.
byte 8 bit.
.
byte,
:
1 = 1024 BYTES = 210 BYTES
1 MB = 1024 B

= 220 BYTES

1 GB = 1024 MB

= 230 BYTES

1 TB = 1024 GB

= 240 BYTES

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, , .
, , ,
, , , .
. , , ,
, . , , , .
, .
, (directories
folders). H
, , .
1.4 .
,
, , -,
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.
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,
, (Hardware) (Software).
, , -
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, ,
.

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1.4.1 .
.
.
,
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10

1.4 (case)
, ,
( ) ( ). (
), .
, ,
, ( ), :
.
.

.

,
.
) ().
:
1) (Central Processing Unit-CPU).
2) (Main Memory - RAM & ROM).
3) (Motherboard).
4) Mo :
(Hard Disk),
(Floppy Disk),
(Magnetic tape)
(Compact Disk) Video (Digital
Video Disc).
5) .

. 1.4.
.

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11

6) (Sound Card).
7) Video (Video Card).
8) O / (odem).
9) K (etwork Adaptor).
10) .
1) .
(Central Processing UnitCPU) (. 1.4). ,
. E , .
: , , ,
(bus).

. 1.4.
.

,
:
)
.
(Complicated Instructions Sets of Commands CISC) , 120-350
. , (8-24) .
) CISC 25% ,
95% , , 100.
(Reduced Instructions Sets
of CommandsRISC). , -

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12

. ,
.
, :
, .
(Arithmetic Logical Unit ALU):
, , ,
, , , ,
.
(Status Register),

. ,

.
(Control Unit CU):
.

. , .
(Program counter).
(registers):

. ,
,

.

(address): .
1.

2) .
CPU , (Main Memory).
1.4. (bytes)
,
. byte: kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte ., . . .

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13

. 1.4.
.

. : (RAM), (ROM),
(Cache Memory). : ,
. , :
(Random Access MemoryRAM):
, .
. - .
,
. RAM
. bit (. 0 1),
,
.
(Read Only MemoryROM): .
(boot) (Basic Input output
systemBIOS). ,
.
M (Cache Memory):
( 1)
( 2). CPU
, .
,
,
.
,
(SRAM). ,
.
H RAM
:
(Static Random Access Memory SRAM): ( cache), , (static)
,
, (DRAM),

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14

. SRAM Read-Only
Memory (ROM), .
(Dynamic Random Access Memory - DRAM):
bit
. , , , '
( ). DRAM
:
FPM DRAM (Fast Page Mode Dynamic Random Access Memory):
DRAM, , bit
bit bit.
EDO RAM (Extended Data-Out Dynamic Random Access Memory): FPM
DRAM,
bit
, 5% FPM DRAM.
SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory): 12%
EDO DRAM.
DDR/DDR2 SDRAM (Double Data Rate Dynamic Random Access Memory):

SDRAM.
VRAM (Video RAM): DRAM,
. ,
( ) SGRAM. VRAM
(access ports),
.
3) .
(motherboard) (. 1.4) ""
. ,
, , ,
, . ,
, CD-ROM, DVD-ROM, ..
,

.
4) .
, , (secondary memory), , . ,
.
.
.
, CDROM DVD.

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15

. 1.4.
.

(hard disc).
O .
, .
(. 1.4) ,
.
.
.
,
,
.

.
(floppy disc drive) .
, -

. 1.4.
.

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16

3 .
.
, ,
, . ,
.
,
.

(3, ) 1,44 b (.
1.4).
5 1/4 8 . ,

.

. 1.4.

3.

(magnetic tape).
,
.
9 , . 8
byte bit 9 . .
(transfer rate) . . ,
.
(CD-ROM) (. 1.4)
Video (DVD-ROM) (.
1.4).
H
laser . ,
. ,
,
. :
CD-ROM. laser ,
.
laser , .

. 1.4.
CD-ROM.

. 1.4.
DVR-ROM.

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17

()

()

. 1.4.
a) CD-R ) CD-RW.

, , 0 1. 650 B
.
CD (CD-R) [(. 1.4()].
.
CD (CD-RW) [(. 1.4()]. 1000 .
(DVD). CD-I (Interactive
CD) . ,
CD-ROM. laser
4,7G
17G. DVD-Video
,
.. DVD-ROM
, DVDRAM DVD-RW CD.
, ,
, DVD CD-ROM (DVD-recorders CDrecorders ), , ,
.
, , :
,
. , -- (drag-and-drop),
, , ,
.

.
.
.

5) .

(video adaptor) ()
(. 1.4). ( ) (video RAM).

. 1.4.
.

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18


, . , , .
.
6) (sound card).
(. 1.4)
(),

,

.
,
.
7) K Video (video card).
Video ,
,
video
(. 1.4).

video.

(tuner),


,
.
video
video

studios .

. 1.4.
.

. 1.4.
video.

8) /
(, modem).
modem

.
,

,
,
. 1.4.
(. 1.4).
modem.
modem

. , modem,
.
9) (network adaptor).
,

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19

. 1.4.
.

. 1.4.
.

,
, (. 1.4). ,
,
, (hubs) (switch) ..,
.
10) .

(. 1.4).
, ,

.
,
(Uninterrupted Power Supply - UPS).
) .

. . , :
1) (keyboard).
(. 1.4)
.
, ,
, .

:
.
(a-z, A-Z, -, -),
(0-9)
(..!@ #$%^&*) .
.
,
0-9, . 1.4.
.
.

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20

( , Home, End, Page up, Page Down .).


/ (Enter, Alt, Ctrl, Shift, Esc .).
(F1, F2, . , F12).
,
.
2) (mouse).
(.
1.4).

,
.
LED
. 1.4.
laser .
.
,

.

. ,

.
"" , :
.
"", , .
" ",
(drag and drop), .
, ,
, , ,
,
.
( ) .
(trackball).
, .
.
3) (scanners)
.

(. 1.4),
(bar codes)

(Optical Character Recognition OCR).
, , -

. 1.4.
.

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21

.
.
, . :

.
OCR.
, ,
,
.
.
,
. ,
"" , .
(Optical Mark
Recognition - OMR)
.
(Bar Code Readers),
.
4) (touch screen) (light pen).
.
, .
. .
(. 1.4).
,
. () ,

, .

. 1.4.
.

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22

5) .
, video,
, [.
1.4(), (), ()].
.
(joystick) [. 1.4()]. , . .
, , , .
(Paper Card Readers), (Card
Readers) (Punch Card).

()
()

()
()
. 1.4.
) , ) , ) ) .

) .
.
, : )
. ) . ) .
, , .
1) .
(. 1.4) .
: (CRT),
(LCD) -.
,
.
:
, .

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23

To (pixel),
. , .
,
.

.
,
. 80 z
, . 1.4.
.
TFT-LCD o.
,
kHz.
H (low radiation), ,
,
(.. ).
H
.
,
.
:
: CRT TFT-LCD,

CRT
( 15 21-22 ,
1 ), (dot size)
0,28 mm.
, (refresh rates)
. CRT
, . ,
,
. , video
, . ,
CRT , , , ,
.
(), .
, , ,
. ,
, "",
"" . ,
,
. ,
""
,
.

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24

LCD .
CRT ( 2,5-7,5 cm)
( 4,5 kg). LCD
""
. LCD , (pixel)
,
. ,
.

, .
,
.
,
.
pixel,
. LCD 15 21
, , CRT, ,
. ,
CRT , ,

. TFT-LCD LCD,
Thin-Film Transistor .
, pixel
. ,
. (refreshes)

2) .
O .
: E , , laser (Plotters).
(dot matrix) [. 1.4()] .
, .
3, 4 ,
. . , .
, .
,
.
.
, .
, 9, 18 24 .
(inkject) [. 1.4()].
. , , ,

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25

. , . ,
.
.
laser [. 1.4()]. H . laser (drum) . (toner)
laser. , .

.
.
. laser
, , . (ppm) (dpi). .
(plotters) [. 1.4()].
.
, .
[. 1.4()]. ,
(multifunction printers),
, .
, , , ,
. ,
, , , ,

()

()

()

()

()
. 1.4.
) , ) , ) laser,
) , ) .

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26


, .,

3) .
(. 1.4),
.
, ,
(volume)
(tone) .

. 1.4.
.

4) USB USB .
(Universal Serial Bus - USB),
.
USB "" /
(expansion cards)
(
"" ).
USB ,
( USB),
(drivers) . USB
,
, , , joysticks game pads, , ,
.
USB
USB (USB flash drives).
,
flash ( ROM)
USB ,
(. 1.4).
USB drives

(CD-ROM, DVD. 1.4.
ROM), , ,
USB flash disk.
,
, , ,
2 GB ( , ,
500 GB).
, USB flash drives
, , ,
, MP3 ( )
, , ,
.
, ,
,
.

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27

1.5 (software).

.
.
(software), ,
,
.
(Program), , -

.

:
(System Software)
(Application Software).
.
1.5.1 .
() , :
/
.
,
/
/
,
.
/, . , , :
.
.
.
-.
.
- .
(shell)
. ,
. '
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) .
,

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28

. , . ,
.. MS-DOS time , UNIX ls
....
) .
,
Microsoft Windows,
, . , ' .

. , (.. ) , ( windows). . . ,
.
. , , .
/
.
, . ,
. :
) MS-DOS.
To MS-DOS (. , . 279) 1981
Microsoft (PC), IBM. 1995 .
,
,
IBM PC.
To MS-DOS . , Windows.
) UNIX.
To UNIX (. , . 305) &
Bell 60 , . UNIX
(multiuser), -

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29

. ,
, , , .
, -UNIX LINUX (.
, . 327). ,
(open source). Linus Torvalds
.
) Microsoft Windows.
Windows Microsoft 1985,
1990 , Windows
3.0. Microsoft Windows , . Microsoft Windows
.
, , . .
Microsoft Windows :
, . , (, , .)
(drug and drop).
,
, .
. o Microsoft Windows
(multitasking).
1.5.2 .
, (system
software) (application software).
, , ,
, , , .

, , , ,
, , ,
, , .
, , . () .

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30

, ,
(software houses)
, , , .
, ,
:
) .
(word processing) .
, , , , . , . Microsoft Word (. 1.5) Lotus Word OpenOffice Writer,
(open source) .
) .
(spreadsheets)
, . ( ) , ,
,
. . , , , ,
, .
,
. , .
,
(function) (formulas) ( ) . ,
. , , .
, , , , . .. Excel (. 1.5) Microsoft Lotus 1-2-3 Lotus OpenOffice Calc.
) .
H ,
,
(Data Base Management System). ,
. . , ,

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31

. 1.5.
Microsoft Word.

. 1.5.
Microsoft Excel.

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32

.
-, , :
(data inconsistency),
.
(data redundancy)
(data sharing) .
Microsoft Access (. 1.5), Microsoft SQL Server Oracle
.
) .
, , ., :
, .
, , , .
. .
.
. , , , . ,
. PowerPoint Microsoft (. 1.5) (. , . 371).
) .
( , , .), ,
. , , (project management software). M Microsoft Project.
) .
(browsers)
, , , , .,
.
: Internet Explorer, Outlook Express, Netmeeting, Netscape
Communicator, Opera Mozilla ..
) .
, :
, , ,
, ..
(electronic commerce e-commerce)

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33

. 1.5.
Microsoft Access.

. 1.5.
Microsoft PowerPoint.

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34

,
.
, .
(Electronical Data InterchangeEDI)
.

, .
.
(. 1.5) . (Computer Integrated ManufacturingCIM). , ,
., CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing),
.

. 1.5.
Ariadne SPC.

) .
, ,
, , .

, ..

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35

) .
.
,
.
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.
.

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1.5 .

. 1.5.
Windows, .

) .

, . , , . . , ,
.

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36

SAS SPSS (. 1.5),


. , , , . (Computer Aided DesignCAD)
(, .)
.
.
, CakeWalk, Encore ..

. 1.5.
SPSS.

1.5.3 .
. .
CD-ROM, , ,
.
.
,
, ,
.
(nternet), ,
.
-

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37

.
. , ,
. ,

, , . . ,
.
1.5.4 .
, ,
, , , ..
(versions).
. (.. 2.31).
1.00.
. .
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, , , , ..
1.5.5 .
,
. ,
, .
, . , , , (passwords) ..

.
( software ),
"" ( ).

( ) ,
.
(virus),
. ,

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38

, , ,
,
. :
e-mail,
( .exe, .bat, .tiff .).
,
.
, (
) .
, ( ),
.
,
- (antivirus programs).
:
(. ).
.
("") ,
, online .
antivirus, ,
., : ,
' , ""
, , , "",
.
, " "
(Trojan horses) (worms).
, , ""
, () .
worms , , ,
, ""
Internet.
H , , : ,
(firewall), ,
.
Norton Personal Firewall, McAfee Personal Firewall Sygate
Personal Firewall, ,
.
, antivirus
, trojan horses worms,

. antivirus Norton Antivirus,
McAfee Antivirus NOD32 Antivirus.
1.5.6 Hackers crackers.
hacker cracker
. hacker
( /),
, ,

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39

, ,
.

hacker (
) . ,
,
, , hacker,
. hackers
, ,
.
, crackers (criminal hackers) hackers
,
, ,
, (
" ").
1.6 .
: .
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

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.
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;
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40

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Word
Windows XP
Excel


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2
Windows XP

2.1 .
2.2 Windows XP.
2.3 Windows XP.
2.4 Windows XP.
2.5 Windows XP.
2.6 Windows
XP.
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Windows XP.
2.8 .
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42

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Windows XP :
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.
.
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:
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43

. 2.2.
Windows .

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44

. 2.2.
.

, Alt-Ctrl-Delete.
Windows (Task Manager) (. 2.2),
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. 2.2.
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46

. 2.2.
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Internet Explorer. Internet Explorer. M (


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47

. , , "ARJ.EXE",
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48

. ( ) Windows XP, .
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(command line) Windows
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dir

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49

. 2.2.
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(drives) Windows XP
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( GB) (msec).
,
"" . C:, D: ...
) CD-Rom Drive.
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, . , ,
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50

. 2.2.
.

) .
(shortcuts) Windows XP
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51

. 2.2.
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52

(Screen saver) .
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53

, , .
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(settings) /
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54

2.3 Windows XP.


.
Windows XP
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55

), ,
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Windows XP.
:
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1: (Start) .
2: (Programs), .
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56

3:
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57

, .
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58

(Tile Horizontally) (Tile


Vertically) Windows XP , ,
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windows).
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59

. 2.4.
2: .

3: .
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(Start) (Help and Support). (Help and Support Center).
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60

. 2.5.
Windows .

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(. 2.5).
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61

. 2.5.
Windows .

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Windows .

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62

2.6 O Windows XP.


, ,
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Windows .

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63

(Thumbnails): ,
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64


. '
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65

. 2.6.
.

. ' ,
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, / , / .

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66

:
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67

) .
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68

. 2.6.
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"virus") (All or part


of the file name).
3: .
4: (Search).

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2.7 - Windows XP.


Windows XP (-)
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(Accessories). ,
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69

. 2.7.
Windows .

(Standard)], [
(Scientific)].
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: 7 * 6 +3 :
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Windows XP.

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70

, , , , Microsoft Word. MS Word Wordpad.


2.7.3 .
(. 2.7) (Accessories) .
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71

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72

. 2.7.
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73

1: .
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74

1) (Speed).
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(cursor blink rate)
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Language Options) (. 2.7).
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(Numbers), (Currency), (Time) (Date)

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75

. 2.7.
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. (Customize)
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76

(drivers). Windows XP, ,


, , , (, , tape
streamer .), , , video,
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V. Bush
1945. T. Nelson
1965.
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77

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78

. 2.8.
Encarta Encyclopedia .

portable document format (pdf),


Adobe Systems 1993,
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( .pdf)
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79

.
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bits .
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RGB
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(1) RGB .

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80

, .
2.8.1.
2.8.1

Bitmap

bmp

GIF

gif

TIFF

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GIF, JPEG PNG


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Apple Macintosh, itmap Microsoft Windows XP,
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81


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82

, , .
Video for Windows ( avi) Apple QuickTime ( mov).
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83

' DVD-ROM CD-ROM.


, 4,7 Gbytes.
, 17 Gbytes. ,
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(Intel Pentium II 350 MHz ), , .
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85

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86

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3
Word 2003

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89

. 3.2.
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216

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, .. Internet Explorer Netscape Navigator Safari


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218

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220

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221

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224

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227

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25/9/2008

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, . , CON.EXE
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C:\>CON.EXE < CON.IN.
,
(), . DIR ,
DIR.LIS:
C:\>DIR A: > DIR.LIS.
,
DIR.LIS, :
C:\>DIR B: >> DIR.LIS
,
. , SORT NAME.IN
NAME.SRT:
C:\>SORT < NAME.IN > NAME.SRT
,
. - ,
. (pipe) , . , . , DIR SORT FIND SORT, (subdirectories):
C\:>DIR | SORT | FIND <DIR

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284
. ,
. MS-DOS , . FIND.EXE, MORE.COM, SORT.EXE.
.3.2 (Config.sys Autoexec.bat).
Config.sys ,
, MS-DOS. ,
. T Config.sys , MSDOS. Config.sys,
MS-DOS. Config.sys :
BREAK
MS-DOS (control break), MS-DOS .

BREAK=ON BREAK=OFF
Break Config.sys, OFF.
BUFFERS
(buffers), MS-DOS
.

BUFFERS=XX
1 99.
Config.sys, 2.

COUNTRY
.

COUNTRY=XXX
, . Config.sys, 001.

DEVICE
, (driver) , .
, , MS-DOS .

DEVICE = [d:]<PathName>[]
Pathame .

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285

FILES
, .

FILES=XXX
8 255. Config.sys,
8. MS-DOS Config.sys,
Autoexec.bat , .
(batch files)
autoexec.bat , .
A.4 MS-DOS.
.
, , :
MS-DOS (FORMAT).
(DISKCOPY).
' (COPY).
(RENAME).
(DEL).
(TYPE).
MS-DOS: (internal commands) (external commands).
.
, (COMMAND.COM).
( Dir) . ,
: COMMAND.COM.
DOS : Dir, Cls, Copy, Date, Del, Dir, Echo, Mkdir, Path,
Prompt, Ren, Rmdir, Time, Type, Ver. ,
. ,
, .
,

. : Attrib, Backup, Chkdsk, Comp, Diskcomp, Diskcopy, Find, Format, Label, Link, More, Print, Rendir,
Recover, Restore, Sort, Sys, Tree.
MS-DOS.
ASSIGN

:
, .
,
, .
PATH (. ).
Assign MS-DOS , .
: Assign [d1] [d2]
d1 , .
d2 , .
,
.

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286

:
Assign b c
b c. , , b, .
:
Assign a=c b=c
C, ,

. , C.
:
Assign
. , :\
, :\ , C:\ C .
:
S-DOS assign subst.
.
ATTRIB

:
Attrib
.
. , MS-DOS . , -.

: Attrib [+r] [-r] [d:]<PathName>


+r
-r
d:
PathName

, .
, .
, .

, .

:
Attrib +r b:\test\file.in
file.in, test
B. To (read only).
:
Attrib file.exe
file.exe, .
:
Attrib -r a:\files\*.*
" "
a:, files.
:
Attrib -r c:\user\fun\*.* /s
" "
C, user, fun,
fun.

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287
BACKUP

:
Backup , .
:

Backup <d:>[PathName] <d:> [/s] [/m] [/a] [/d:mm-dd-yy] [/t:hh:mm] [/l:d

d:

d C, d
.
PathName .
, Backup .
/s
.
/m
,
Backup.
/a
, .
/d:mm-dd-yy , .
/t:hh:mm
/d, , , .
/l:FileName FileName , Backup.log, .
:
Backup c:\test a: /s
test, , .
:
Backup
Restore. Backup, Restore.
Backup MS-DOS
. ,
Restore, Backup.
CHDIR

:
, CD. Chdir
, . ,
, .
: CD [d:]<PathName>
d:

(.. c: , d: , a: .).
PathName .
CD [d:]
.
CD [d:]\
, .
CD [d:].. ( ).

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288

:
:
Root

Test

Programs

Data1

Data2

Programs, B, :
CD b:\programs
, MS-DOS
Programs ' . Programs
, Data1, programs. :
CD b:data1
, Data1
. , :
CD \
CHKDSK

:
M Chkdsk MS-DOS
.
. , . , .
: Chkdsk [d:][PathName] [/f] [/v]
d:
PathName
/f

/v

.
. , .
MS-DOS .
: ,
.
.

:
Chkdsk c: /v /f
T MS-DOS . ,
( /f). Chkdsk, MS-DOS
( /v) , .

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289

:
chkdsk a: > testresults
DOS testresults. DOS , DOS .
/f,
.
CLS

:
.
: Cls
COMP

:
Comp , . COPY, .
: Comp [d:]<PathName> [d:]<PathName>
d:
, .
PathName .
d:
, .
PathName .
.
, .
:
Comp c:\cluster b:\ cluster
cluster ,
cluster .
:
Comp c:\ cluster * b:\ cluster?
C, cluster (.. clustering.exe, clusterbook.xcl, clusterpaper.doc) ,
cluster.
:
Comp c:\test a:\test /n
comp , /n. test C,
test A, .
COPY

:
H Copy
, (
) ( ).

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290

: Copy [d:][PathName]<> [d:][PathName]<> [/v]


d:
PathName

d:
PathName

/v

.
.
.
.
.
.
, . Copy , .
* ? .
, .
:
CON .
PRN LPT1 .
AUX COM1 Interface.
NUL "" .
:
Copy a:\test.in c:\programs
test.in programs
.
:
Copy c:\programs\test.in PRN
test.in .
DATE

:
Date , (. ).
.
: DATE [mm-dd-yyyy]
:
mm
(01 12).
dd
(01 31).
yyyy (1980 2099).
:
date 10-08-05
8
2005.
:
date 10-09-04
9
2004.
DEL

:
Del .

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291

: Del [d:]<PathName>
d:
PathName

.
, \\\_.

* ?.
:
Del a:\programs\test.in
test.in programs.
:
Del a:\programs\*.*
programs,
. ,
programs.
:
Del c:\files\file*.*
files C
file (.. fileing.exe, filemanager.com, filewindow.tes).
:
Del c:\files\fil??.doc
files C
5 fil (.. files.doc, filin.xcl, filer.txt).
DIR

:
Dir , .
: Dir [d:][PathName] [/p] [/w]
d:
PathName
/p
/w

.
.
: Press any key to continue.
o
( 5 ).

:
Dir
(, , , /) .
:
Dir b:\programs\*.exe
.exe
programs.
:
Dir c:\programs\*.bat /p
.bat
programs C. , ,
.
:
Dir /s /w /o /p
, , .
, .

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292
DISKCOMP

:
Diskcomp . diskcopy .
.
: DISKCOMP [d:] [d:]
d:
d:

.
.

:
A:\> Diskcomp a: b:
B.
:
A:\> Diskcomp
.
DISKCOPY

:
Diskcopy . , Diskcopy .
: Diskcopy [d:] [d:]
d:
d:

.
.
, Diskcopy [ (default drive)].

:
A:\>Diskcopy a: b:
, .
:
A:\>Diskcopy
DOS ,
.
ERASE

:
Erase . Del.

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293

: Erase [d:]<PathName>
d:
.
PathName , \\\_.
* ?.
:
Erase a:\programs\test.in
test.in, programs.
:
Erase a:\programs\*.*
programs,
.
, programs.
:
Erase a:\programs\*.bat
, programs
.exe, .
FIND

:
Find
.
: Find [/v] [/c] [/n] <""> [d:]<PathName]
d:
PathName
/v
/c
/n

.
.
.

.
, .

:
Find /n /c "John" test.in
test.in, "John".
:
Dir | Find "26-11-91"
, 26-11-91. Find .
:
Find "correct result" results.doc
results.doc
correct result.
:
Find ""known places"" geography.xcl
geography.xcl "known places" ( ).

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294
FORMAT

:
H Format ,
() . .
, .
: Format <d:> [/v] [/s]
d:
/v
/s

.
Format .
, Format
IO.SYS, MSDOS.SYS, COMMAND.COM.

:
A:\>Format b: /s /v
Format .
( /s)
( /).
:
Format a: /q /u
( /q), ( /u).
:
Format a: /v:label
,
label.
:
Format a: /f:360 /s
360 ' .
LABEL

:
Label .
.
Dir.
: Label [d:]<Name>
d:
.
Name ( 11 ).

:
:\>Label b:Name
Name.
:
C:\>Label PriDisk
H C PriDisk.

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295
MKDIR

:
MkDir .
.
MD. (\) (backslash).
: Mkdir [d:]<PathName>
d:
Pathname

A,B C .
.
(PathName) ,
(\). .

:
C:\>Md c:\programs
programs
.
:
Md data1
data1 .
:
C:\>mkdir dir012
dir012 C.
MORE

:
More , . , . , , --More-- .
: More
:
Type test.in | More
test.in .
test.in ,
More MS-DOS.
Enter.
:
Dir DOS |More
DOS. , MORE . Enter.
:
more < resutls.txt
results.txt. , DOS
Enter .

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296
PATH

:
Path MS-DOS , .
: Path [d:][PathName];[d:][PathName]; ...
d:
Pathame
;

.
.
.

:
Path c:\dos;a:\programs
MS-DOS
. DOS Programs. , . (Bad Command or File Name).
:
Path A:\;B:\
.
:
Path, MS-DOS
Path. , , No
Path. , Path: .
PRINT

:
Print , . , .
: Print [d:]<PathName> [/p] [/t] [/c]
d:
PathName
/p
/t
/c

.
.
() .
.
, .

:
Print c:\programs\readme.txt
readme.txt .
test.txt, :
Print a:\test.txt /c

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297

:
Print a:\*.txt
B .txt. :
:
Print test.txt /c results.txt /p
test.txt
results.txt.
PROMPT

:
Prompt MS-DOS, (>).
, , .

: Prompt [ ]
,
($).
t
o .
d
.
p
.
v
MS-DOS .
q
='.
n
.
g
>'.
l
<'.
_
Carriage Return.
s
.
e
ANSI (ESC).
:
Prompt $l$p$g
Prompt :
, <A:\>
:
Prompt Time Is: $t$_date is: $d
prompt . .
RENAME (REN)

:
Rename
. .
Rename Ren.

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298

: Ren [<d:>]<PathName> <File_Name>


d:
PathName
File_Name

.
.
.
* ?

:
Ren b:\test.in test.dat
test.in B
test.dat.
:
Ren *.doc *.txt
DOS doc txt.
:
Ren c:\files\*.xcl *.trt
files C
xcl trt.
:
Ren a:\results\test.txt border.txt
test.txt results border.txt.
:
Ren a:\results\test.txt rerun.xcl
test.txt results rerun.xcl.
:
.
.
RESTORE

:
Restore ,
Backup.
: Restore <d:> <d:>[PathName] [/s] [/b:mm-dd-yy] [/a:mm-dd-yy] [/e:hh:mm:ss]
[/l:hh:mm:ss] [/m] [/n]
d:
d:
PathName
/s
/b:mm-dd-yy
/a:mm-dd-yy
/e:hh:mm:ss
/l:hh:mm:ss
/m
/n

.
Restore.

Retore.
.
,
.
,
.
,
.
,
.
,
Backup.
,
.

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299

:
Restore a: c:\files\test.imp
C
test.imp
:
Restore a: c:\results\files\*.*
, ,
files results C, .
:
Restore a: c:\programs /s
A programs, ( /s).
RMDIR

:
Rmdir RD
.
: Rd [d:]<PathName>
d:
.
PathName .

:
:
Root

Test

Programs

Data1

Data2

Test
Data2. :
Del a:\Programs\Data2\*.*
Data2.
Rd a:\Programs\Data2
Data2.
:
1) ,
. .
, .
2) . , Data1 , ( CD) Programs.

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300
SORT

:
Sort '
.
: Sort [d:]<PathName> [/r] [/+<n>]
d:
PathName
/r

.
.
.

/+<n>

- . , 1.

:
Sort < test.in > test.srt
test.in
test.srt.
:
Dir | Sort
, , .
:
Sort /r < results.txt
results.txt .
:
Find "result" tests.txt | sort
DOS test.txt result.
SYS

:
Sys
. IO.SYS
MSDOS.SYS. Dir.
: Sys <d:>
d:

:
Sys a:
.
TIME

:
Time , .
.

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301

: Time [hh:mm:ss]
:

hh: (01 23)


mm: (01 59)
ss:
(01 59)

:
Time 12:45
12.45.
:
Time 1:50p
1.50 .. ( 13.50).
TREE

:
Tree , .
: Tree [d:] [/f]
d:
/f

.

bytes,
. , (
).

:
Tree a: /f

, .
:
Tree \
H .
:
Tree a:\ /f \ more
, , .
:
Tree a:\ /f > prn

.
TYPE

:
Type .
ASCII.

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302

: Type [d:]<PathName>
d:
PathName

.
.

:
Type a:\autoexec.bat
autoexec.bat,
A. <Ctrl>
<PrintScreen> .
, <Ctrl><PrintScreen> .
:
Type autoexec.bat | more
, ,
autoexec.bat.
:
Type test.txt
test.txt
.
:
(),
.
VER

:
Ver
MS-DOS .
: Ver
: MS-DOS Vesrion 6.22.
VERIFY

:
Verify MS- DOS , .
.
: Verify ON Verify OFF Verify
/v copy. MS-DOS . OFF , .
Verify, MS-DOS on
off.

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303
VOL

:
Vol ( )
Label.
: Vol

:
Vol :
A.
:
Vol C:
C.
WHERE

:
Where
.
: Where <FileName> <FileName> ...
. , .

:
Where test
test
.
XCOPY

:
Xcopy
.
:
d1:
PathName
d2:
/d:dd-mm-yy
/e

Xcopy [d1:]<PathName> [d2:]<PathName> [/d:dd-mm-yy] [/e] [/p] [/s] [/v]


[/w]
.
.
.
.
. /s.

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304

/p
/s
/v
/w

.
( ).
,
.
, , .

:
Xcopy C:\programs\*.* A:\test\ /s
, \programs C, test .
:
Xcopy C:/test/*.com A:/programs
test C .com test .
:
Xcopy A: B: /s /e

.

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UNIX

.1 .
.2
UNIX.
.3 .
.4 UNIX.
.5 Linux

Windows.

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306
.1 .
(resource management) , (process
management) (housekeeping functions).
, , ,
(editors). (shell) (interface) UNIX (Custom made working environment).
.1.1 UNIX.
1965: ell Labs General Electrics MIT
, MULTICS. MULTICS :
(multiuser).
(file system).
1969: To MULTICS General Electrics .
Bell Labs .
1969: Ken Thompson PDP-9 MULTICS.
UNIX.
1970: O D. Ritche C.
. Ken Thompson D. Ritchie UNIX C. UNIX .
1973: version 5 UNIX.
1975: version 6 UNIX, .
1979: version 7 UNIX.
1981: Bell Labs UNIX SYSTEM III.
1983: SYSTEM V. 100.000 UNIX
.
1991: , , Linus Torvalds
UNIX. LINUX .
LINUX , -Window.
,
Microsoft. LINUX 2.000.000 .
.2 UNIX.
UNIX :
1) ( ) ( C)
.
2) , .
3) -/- (multiuser/multitasking).
4) UNIX UNIX .
5) .
.2.1 UNIX.
/, (Kernel). ,
(RAM) -/- ,
(processes),
(hardware).

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307
, "". ,
system calls :
1) (file system).
2) .
3) (memory management).
4) (scheduler).
.2.2 .
) .
,
(ordinary regular file) . "" ,
(processes),
. "" , .
UNIX .
"" , :
1) (user mode).
2) (kernel mode).
3) , "" .
4) "". nput/utput .
) To .
To (file system) .
, .
UNIX file system :
.
.
.
(devices) .
UNIX :
1) , , .
2) (special files),
(peripheral devices).
3) (directories), , .
To ,
"root" " / ". .1
UNIX.
.
(" "- login) UNIX
, Home-Directory.
(current working directory). K UNIX file System (pathname).

.
:
1) (full absolute ) .. /usr/lib/cs.font.
2) (relative) .. file1.
(full pathnames absolute pathnames)
/ '.

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308

bin

etc

usr

User1

lib

dev

tmp

User2

. .1.
UNIX.
) .
(directories) UNIX :
1) 14 .
2) / '.
3) . john
Jhn, JOHN.
4) . :
? @ # ^ & * ( ) ` | [ ] \ ; ' " < >.
- + . , .
.3 .
.3.1 UNIX.
UNIX , , .
prompt "login:" .
<login-name>, ,
prompt "login:" (password) prompt "password:" UNIX,
/etc/passwd, ,
. /etc/passwd .
prompt shell ($) "" .
.3.2 .
(shell) , .
(interactive).
prompt $ ( ) # ( ) .
"command line". 80 , , <enter> \ '(back slash).
, ,
(compiler). "shell script".
.
(shell versions):
1) Bourne shell, .

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309
2) C shell, Berkeley (University of California)
Berkeley Software of California.
;
prompt, Bourne shell "$" C
shell "%".
.3.3 .
(administrator superuser supervisor) , .
,
(group).
.3.4 UNIX.
,
UNIX :
1) X-Window.
2) Open Look.
) X-Window.
To -Window MIT, Project Athena
MIT, IBM Digital.
. ,
, .
To -Window , - (client-server)(1) . (workstation) , . ,
. , . X-Protocol, .
X-Window ,
UNIX.
) Open Look.
1988 AT & T UNIX System V
Release 4.0. Open Look X-Window .
.4 UNIX.
UNIX MS-DOS (--).
at - .

(1) ,
( "") .

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310

$ at < >
<>
<CTRL-D>
$

:
- l .
- r <-> .
:

at 02
sort -t: +0 -2 file1.dat
<CTRL-D>

537373200.a
:
$ at -r 537271322.a
.
:
$ at 23 < file55
557272352.a
23 file55.
banner - .

( ).
:

$ banner <...>

banner unix the first

batch - batch.

batch,
, .

$ batch
<>
<CTRL-D>

cal - .

$ cal [<>] [<>]

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311

:
$
cal
.
:
$
cal 09 1961
1961.
:
$
cal 2003
2003.
cancel - .

cancel , . request-id ,
. request-id lp(r), lpstat.

$ cancel <request-id>.

:
$ lp file55
request id is dumb_1-107
$ cancel dumb_1-107
cat - E .

cat
" ", . cat
.

:
$ cat <->.
:
<CTRL-S> .
<CTRL-Q> .

$ cat file55

file55 .
:
$ cat file66 > /dev/tty03
file66 tty03.
:
$ cat file10 file20 > file30
.
:
$ cat < file44 > file55
file44 file55.
:
$ cat file33 >> file55
file33 file55.

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312
cd - directories.

(working directory) directory .


:

$ cd <-directory>

:
$ cd
<home-directory>.
:
<root-directory>.

$ cd /

:
$ cd /user/john
/user/pavlos.
M cd /user/john /user/john.
:

$ cd programs

cd programs programs, (subdirectory)


/user /john.
.
"." working directory ".." .
pwd (full pathname)
.
chgrp - group.

A . (wner) (administrator)
.

$ chgrp <--group> <- directory>

:
$ chgrp kate /usr/kate/file.dat
file.dat kate. file.dat
.
chmod - .

.
:
$ chmod {u,o,g,a} {+,-} {r,w,x} <- directory>
:
u (user), others, g
group, a (all). (others) ,
(group) .
M + - . r read (), w write (), x execute ().

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313

:
$ chmod a+x file2
file2 ' .
:
$ chmod o-w file3
file3
(thers).
:
$ chmod ug+x file55
x file 55.
:
, . , r, w, x, , . :
r
.
w .
x
, .
, (compilation)
(script),
(shell).

chown - .

A . (owner) (administrator) .

$ chown <--> <- directory>

chown

sys /usr/john/file55

sys file55.
cp - .

cp ' .

$ cp <(/path/)- > <(/path/)- >.

:
$ cp oldfile newfile
oldfile newfile .
:
$ cp /usr/john/f1 /usr/love/f2
f1 /usr/john f2 /usr/love.
:
$ cp /user/john/file1
file1 .
"x" /user/john "w"
.

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314
date - .
:

$ date

:
$
date
Tue Dec 6 15:15 1997
: mm = ,
dd = , hh = , mm = , yy = .
:
#
date 1019143003
exit < CTRL-D> .

exit <CTRL-D>, UNIX.

$ exit

file - T .

.
:
:
/bin:
/lib:
/lost+found:
/tmp:
/unix:
/usr:
$

$ file <->.
$ file /*
directory.
directory.
directory.
directory.
iAPX 386 executable not scripped.
directory.

find - .


. .
: $ find <-directory> < > <>.
.
"n" . . n. +n n. -n n.
-name
<->.
-attime n ( n ).

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315

-mtime n
-type x
-newer

( n ).
( x).
<-> (
<->).

:
-print
.
-exec \;
, .
{ } .
-ok \;
-exec, .
:

$ find / -print

.
:
$ find / -name <->

-print

.
, find <directory> -name <-> -print.
:
$
find /usr -name file55 -print
$
find / -name "*.c" -print
$
find . -name file22 -print
grep - (strings).

grep ,
(strings) .
(* ?).
:

$ grep [] <> <>.

:
- n .
- c .
:

grep john file1 file2 file3

file1:.............john....................
file2:.......john..........................
file3:...john..............................
file1 string "john" file1, file2
file3.
:
$
grep reverse *.c
"reverse" .c .
:
$
grep Kate /usr/apo1/*
Kate /usr/apo1.

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316

:
$
grep New York' file55
A "New York" file55.
:
$
grep '*' file66
H grep * file66 , file66 "*".
id - .

<user-id> ( ), '
<login-name>, <group-id>
.
:

id

id
uid=118(user15) gid=1(other)

kill - .

kill .
kill .
:
$ kill [] <->
:
-9 (kill -9 pid) .
ln - .

<--> <-->, "" . LINKS


.
cp ln .
$ ln file1 file2
$ cp file1 file3
ln cp :
cp

file1

file2
ln

file3

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317

file2 file1 ln,


file3 cp. , .

$ ln <--> <-->.

$ l /usr/john/data file1

login - .

login . <-> <login-name>


UIX
. /etc/passwd.

: login: <login-name>
:
login: user15
password: john ( )
$
:
login: root
password: super ( )
#
lp(r) - spooler.

, :
1) (special file) :
$ cat /etc/profile > /dev/lp1
(special file) (/dev/lp1) .
2) spooler UNIX:
$ lp /etc/profile
lp(r) (line printer).
request-id .
.. request-id is dumb_1-80 dumb_1 .
:

$ lp [] <->
$ lpr [] <->

:
- d E (default) , ,
.. $ lp -ddumb_3 file1.
- n .
- t .

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318

:
$ lp *.c
.c default .
:
$ lp -n3 file4
, file4.
:
$ lp -n7 -ddumb_3 -t "This is a title" /etc/profile
/etc/profile
dumb_3 "This is a title".
:
$ lp file1 file2
file1, file2 default .
.
:
$ cat file1 file2 |lp
T file1, file2 .
:
lp lpsched (
lp scheduler) spooler.
O lpsched lp,
,
.
lpsched lp
.
:
# /usr/lib/lpsched
:
# /usr/lib/lpshut
lpstat - .

lpstat
.
:
$ lpstat [].
:
- d .
- r lpsched.
Ls - .
.
.
:
$ ls [] < directory>
:
-l
, , (links), , ,
bytes, o .

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319

-C
-R
-c
-d

.
.
.
.

$ ls -l /usr

$ ls -l f[1-9]*

:
:

$ ls /usr/john

1) $ ls -l john :
-rwxr-xr-x
1
apo1
(links)

group1

258
bytes

Oct 22 18:42

john

:
(regular file)

(directory)

b
E block-type(1)
E character-type(2)

c
9 (user), (group)
(others) ( 3 ) : (r), -- (w), (x) (-).
, "rwx" "-"
directories "d".
2) (metacharacters wildcards).
1. *
.
.. $ ls r*
ras
rln
$
2. ?
A .
.. $ ls ??
rc
ba
cc
$
mail - / .

mail . mail <login-name> <login-name>. :

(1) Block type : (special file).

(disk drive).

(2) Character type : .

( ).

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320

"." <ENTER> <CTRL-D> ( )

<CTRL-C> ( ).
, ( login) , , UNIX "you have mail".
:

$ mail <login-name>
..
<CTRL-D> . <NTER>

$ mail

.
:
$

mail costa
<>
<CTRL-D>
<> costa.
:
$
mail john costa < file55.
john costa file55.
.
:
$
mail
> From costa Fri Aug 27 15:51:19 1991
To : john
Hello John
? < >
+ <ENTER>
.
s <->

<-> .
d
.
dn1-dn2
n1 n2.
m <login-name>

.
q CTRL-D
mail.
help
' mail.
man - manual.
:

$ man <->

:
$ man ls
ls.
mesg - A .

write .

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321

-y -n

mesg [ -y ,-n ]

:
$
mesg -n
.
:
mesg -y
E .
mkdir - (directory).

.
:

$ mkdir <->

$ mkdir cobol

cobol < >.


more - .

.
:
$ more <->
:
spacebar
-.
ENTER
-.
-q
.
mv - / .

. .
:

$ mv <-1> <-2>
$ mv </pathname/- > </pathname>

:
$ mv file1 file2
file1 file2.
:
$ mv /usr/apo1/file11 /usr/apo1/dir1
file11 directory /usr/apo1 directory /usr/apo1/dir1.
passwd - .

passwd <password>. To
(old password) (new password)
(re-type new password).

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Page 322

$ passwd

322

:
$ passwd
Changing Password for user15
Old password: ..............
New password: .............. ( password)
Re-type new password: .............. ( password)
ps- (process status).

ps
. :
S (Status) :
S = (Sleeping).
R = (Running).
Z = (Kill) (Zombie).
T = (Terminated).
UID
: .
PID
: .
PPID
: (parent process id).
ADDR
: RAM ( RAM,
).
STIME
: .
NICE
: .
SZ
: .
TTY
: .
TIME
: .
CMD
: .
:
$ ps []
:
ps .
-e .
-a,-l, -f .
pwd - (print working directory).

pwd " " (full pathname) (working directory).


:

$ pwd

rm - .

rm .

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323

:
$ rm [] <->
:
-i .
-r .
:
$ rm file22
file22 working-directory.
:
$ rm -i *
.
:
$ rm -r john
directory john directory, .
rmdir - .

rmdir .
.
:

$ rmdir <-directory>

:
directory /usr/john/data.
(To directory subdirectories).
$ cd /usr/john/data
$ rm *
$ cd ..
$ rmdir data
:

$ rmdir /user/john/data

data .
sort - .

sort .
:

$ sort [] <->.

:
-tc
+n.m
-n.m
-d
-n
-r

"c".
"n" , "m" . "+n" "+n.0".
"n" . "-n" "-n.m".
.
.
.

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324

:
$ sort -t: +4 file1
":" . (4)
, file1.
:
$ sort -t: +4 -6 file2
file2 5 6. ":".
:
$ sort -t: +0 -1 +5 file3
(" +0 -1 ")
(" +5 ") . ":".
spell - .

( ).
:

$ spell <->

$ spell file1

stty - .

stty .

:
$ stty <>
:
.
.
:
$
stty
.
:
$
stty 1200
1200 Baud.
:
$
stty -echo
).
su- .

$ su

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325

:
$ su
password:superuser ( )
#
tput - .

tput .
:
:
clear
el
ed
blink
bold
rev

$ tput <>
- K .
- .
- .
- .
- .
- (reverse video).

tput clear

tty - .

tty .
:

$ tty

:
$ tty
/dev/tty15
.
wall - .

wall
.
:

wall
<>
<CTRL-D>

:
#
wall < file55
file55 .
:
#
banner welcome to unix > file55
#
wall file55
wc - K , .

wc , .

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326

:
$ wc [] <->
:
- l .
- w v .
- c .
:
$
wc -cl file1
file1.
:
$
wc -w test.tst
test.tst.
who - .

, <loginname>, (tty20),
.
:

$ who

who
user1
user2

tty02
tty10

Dec 10 11:30
Dec 10 11:45

$
:
$ who am i
.
:
user15
tty28
Oct 20 08:53a
write - .
:

$ write <login-name>

$ write john
.......... <ENTER>
...........<ENTER>
<CTRL-D>
,
john <ENTER>.
( , ).
, <CTRL-D>.
prompt john
<EOT> (End of Transmission).
:
, mesg -n. ,
.

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327
.5 Linux
Windows.
Linux , ( - web servers), , ,
,
, , ,
, , ,
.
Linux , Unix (
), , , Linux
, ,
.
, -,
Linux, ,
.
Linux Window System, , ,
free86 . ,
(Desktop Environments)
. KDE
GNOME.

Linux ( Suse Linux GNOME)
Windows, .
5.1 (
Windows) Linux. , ,
/.

. 5.1.
(Desktop) GNOME.

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328
(. 5.2), ,
Windows, , Windows
Linux, .
5.3 Linux,
, .

. 5.2.
.

. 5.3.
.

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329
Linux , Windows (.
5.4). , , ,
,
, .
Yast ( Suse) ,
Windows (. 5.5). -

. 5.4.
Linux.

. 5.5.
Yast Control Center.

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330

, (updates)
Suse Linux .
Yast
(administrator).
Linux, (.
5.6).
DOS, , ( ' ),
UNIX , .

. 5.6.
.
, Microsoft Office,
, (source
code), , ,
/ . OpenOffice
, Microsoft Windows, Linux, Sun Solaris, Apple MacOSX, FreeBSD, SGI Irix ..
, :
(OpenOffice Writer) (. 5.7).
(OpenOffice Calc) (. 5.8).
(OpenOffice Impress) (. 5.9).

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331

. 5.7.
.

. 5.8.
Linux.

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Page 332

332

. 5.9.
Linux.
Windows
, Microsoft Office.
( ),
"" Openffice
, .

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Page 333

.1.1 .
.1.2 .
.1.3 .
.1.4 .
.1.5 .
.2.1 .
.2.2 .
.2.3 .
.3.1 DOS Windows.
.3.2
Visual Basic.
.3.3
Visual Basic.
.3.4 .

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Page 334



.1.1 .
,
/. / . ,

.
, , , , .
, BASIC, PASCAL, C .
, Quick Basic (
4.5), Visual Basic (VB) ( 6.0).
Quick Basic ,
,
. Visual
Basic, ( DOS) ,
Windows.
.1.2 .
.
. , .
, . :
: ) ,
.
.
:
) , 1) .
.
2) .
) ,
3) .
.
) , .
: .
) ,
.
:
) , 1) 2 .
.
2) .
3) .
, 4) .
,
5) . .
. , 6) .
-
7) .
/ 8) .
.

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335

(coding) (implementation) , (programming). ,
.
:
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
/ .
, .
.
.1.3 .
:
.
( ).
.
.
.
( ).
) .
. ,
. , , . ,
. ,
.
, , , ( ),
.
) .
.
,
. , , , ,
.
:
1) , : , ( , , , .), , ,
.
2) . :

Parart.-C.qxd

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Page 336

336
, ( ).
, , .
, .
().
) .
, , ,
.
(programmer) /
.
,
.
, , () ,
(source)
(. . 1.3).
, , (compiler) - (interpreter),
.
) .
,

. .1.3.
Pascal.

Parart.-C.qxd

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Page 337

337
. , , . :
.
.
.
1) .
(. .1.3),
.
.
,
(source) .

. .1.3.
( Visual Basic).

2) .

(. .1.3).
.

.

. .1.3.
( Visual Basic).

3) .

.
. . ,
.
,
, .

Parart.-C.qxd

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338
,
, ,
. , .
, , , . . ,
, . , .
, ,
. :
.
.
.
, , ,
.
.
,
. , , , .

. , ,
, . , , .
) .
.
, , , , , ,
.
(documentation) .
, (help).
. , , , CD-ROMs, (sites), on line .

.
, .
, , , ,
.
) .

. (). (installation) ,
. , , ,
. :
1) /.

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339
2) / .
3) .
4) (/, ..).
5) (..
, , .)
6) (manuals) .
7) (licenses to use), .
8) .
) .
, .
, . (..
, , , ).
:
, .
.
.
/
/.
.
.
, . -, , . , ,
. , :
(technical support) .
.
.
.
(. /, /).
.
, .
.
,
.
.
, , (new versions).
.

. , , ,
.
.1.4 .
. . ( ).
) .
.

Parart.-C.qxd

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340
, . .
.1.4
.

Read ()


.
Write ()

.
Put ()
.
Add, Mul

(, )
.
If ( )
Then ( -A) ,
Else ( B) .
For Vr1=Vr3 to Vr4 Step Vr2
( { Command 1, ., }
Vr3, Vr4,Vr2).
Start, End (, )

.
Goto ( )

.

) .


.
.
:

.
.

o.
.

.
, .

k.o.e.s

k, o, e s.
/ .

Parart.-C.qxd

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341
:
:
n

J=

(log10 (3.2i) + tgi 2 + e i )

:
() () 10%
10.000 20% :

i =1

J =1

E>10000

i =1,2,...,n

=*0,2

J=Jx (log(3.2i)=tgi2=e)

=*0,1
1

.1.5 .
, , . , .. , , .,
, ,
. Basic, Pascal, Fortran, C Java.
. ,
, ( ).
) .
:
1) Basic.
Basic "Beginner's All
purpose Symbolic Instruction Code", " ".
,
. . 1960
Dartmouth College . Basic Ansi Basic, Quick Basic ,
Windows, Visual Basic.

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342
2) Pascal.
1970 . N. Wirth , Algol . Blaise Pascal.
. Pascal .
Pascal Minimal Pascal, Ansi Pascal, Standard Pascal Visual , Delphi.
3) Fortran.
Fortran "Formula
Translation". ,
. 1950
...
. Fortran Fortran 77, Ansi Fortran
77 Fortran 99.
4) C/C++.
1965
Cambridge, Bell. . " ", ,
" ". C C, Ansi C C++
C. C UNIX Microsoft Windows. C
, .
5) HTML (HyperText Markup Language).
.
/sites Internet. (hypertext),
, .
6) Java.
1980 Sun Microsystems. Java .
C++, .
) .
:
1) Assembly.
Assembly ( ), .
2) .
- , . ,
.
0 1,
.
Ada, APL, LISP, Modula-2, Prolog,
Smalltalk ..

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343
,
, ,
.
, (translators).
, (compilers) (interpreters).
.
.1.5.1 .
, ,
.
:
) /.
Basic, Pascal, Fortran, C () . / . , ,
.
) //.
,
. , , , . (functions), (subroutines), (subprograms), (procedures)
. , ,
. , ,
(module). .
, , E.
Dijkstra 60. 70.
, ,
, ,
, : ,
, .
1) .
(sequence) , , .
2) .
,
.
3) .
.
, .
,
. :

.

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344
.
) .
,
, .
, . , .

, ( modules), (object). (member functions)
,
.
:
(encapsulation)
(objects).
.
(inheritance).
() , .
(polymorphism) , "" .
, / " ", .

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Page 345


QUICK BASIC
.2.1 .
Microsoft Quick Basic (. .2.1).
Microsoft Quick Basic , Microsoft Visual Basic, .
.
.2.1.1 .
, , .
, ,
0 9 .

Quick Basic
(A-Z, a-z),
0-9 !
#$%^&*()-+=\/.,'":<>?

. .2.1.
Microsoft Quick Basic.

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346
.2.1.2 .
,
:
"" "" (alphanumeric and numeric).
SSS66OOP
"" , BSF5S
, .
CCS
"" .
:
(integer), (long),
(single) 34
(double).
21321

2.3435454
, . . , . .
: ) , ) , ) , ) .
, .
) (integer) Quick Basic, ,
, .
BASIC [-32768,32767].
. Basic, Quick Basic Visual Basic, . ,
bytes (8bits/byte), .

bytes

-32768..32767

long

-2148483648..2147483647

byte

0..255

integer

: (+), (-),
(*), - (div), (mod).
) (real) ,
.
,
( ).
Basic , . 10-38 10+38 6 20 , Basic . . , Basic. Basic . ,
bytes .

Real
Double

bytes

-2,9 x 10-39..1.7 x 1038

-5.0 x 10-324..1.7 x 10308

, -

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347
, .
: (+), (-), (*), - (div),
(mod).
,
.
) (boolean) : (true) (false).
.
.
, , ,
, (true false).
.
) (char) .
.
(string) .
, , .
.2.1.3 .
, ,
. . , , .
, .
/ Quick Basic :
Dim Name as String
Dim Steps as Integer
Dim Iterations as Long
Dim Coeff as Single
Dim Result as Double
Dim Mat(2,2) as Double
Const PI=3.14159
Dim Cat(2,10) as String

String Name.
Integer Steps.
Long Iterations.
Single Coeff.
Double Result.
Double Mat.
Pi.
String Cat.

.2.1.4 .
, . .
, . .
.2.1.5 .
11. ,
.
,
.
.

.
, .

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348

(1 10 )
10 .

10

3
10

. ,
.
. .
(ordinal type). , , , . ( ).
. ,
, .
, .
.2.1.6 .
, .
Quick Basic :
Type New TypeVar
Dim lngIteration
as Long
Dim dblResult
as Double
Dim strCode
as String
End Type
.2.1.7 .
) .
/ (.. +, -, *, /, ^).
: Quick Basic:
x a x a.
x+a, x-a a x.
x*a, x/a , . a x.
x\a, x Mod a , x\a.
) .
/ (.. =, >, <, >=, <= ).
: Quick Basic:
a=b a,b.
a>b a b.
a<b a b.
a>=b a b.
a<=b a b.
a<>b a b.

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349
) .
/ (.. AND, OR, XOR, NOT).
: Quick Basic:
NOT: .
AND: .
OR:
.
XOR: . .
EQV: .
IMP:
.
) .

/.
.2.1.8 .
,

. , .
.2.1.9 .
, , ,
, .
.2.1.10 .
, .
.2.1.11 .
, , .
.2.1.12 /.
. ( )
.
,
.
.2.1.13 / .
, ,
,
.
. ,


Quick Basic:
Abs(y)

Atn(x)

Exp(y)

Cos(x)

Log(y)

Sin(x)

Sgn(y)

Tan(x)

Sqr(y)

Rnd()


Quick Basic:
Cdbl(x)
Cint(x)
Fix(x)

Csng(x)
Clng(x)
Int(x)

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350
, ,
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351

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352

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355

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VISUAL BASIC
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357

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359

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361

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362

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363
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364

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365

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1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
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1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.3.4
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.5 (software) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
1.5.1 To . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
1.5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
1.5.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
1.5.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
1.5.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
1.5.6 Hackers crackers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
1.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
1.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

WINDOWS XP
2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
2.2 Windows XP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
2.2.1 Windows XP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
2.2.2 Windows XP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
2.2.3 Windows XP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
2.2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
2.2.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
2.2.6 Windows XP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
2.2.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
2.3 Windows XP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
2.4 Windows XP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
2.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
2.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
2.4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
2.4.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
2.4.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
2.4.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
2.4.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

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2.5

2.6

2.7

2.8

2.9
2.10

2.4.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
2.4.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
2.4.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
2.4.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
2.4.12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Windows XP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
2.5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
2.5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
2.5.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Windows XP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
2.6.1 Windows XP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
2.6.2 X Windows XP:
(, , , , ,
) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
2.6.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
- Windows XP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
2.7.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
2.7.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
2.7.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
2.7.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
2.8.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
2.8.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
2.8.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
2.8.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

WORD 2003

3.1 E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
3.2 Word 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
3.2.1 Word 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
3.2.2 Word 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
3.2.3 Word 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
3.2.4 Word 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
3.2.5 Word 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
3.3 Word 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
3.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
3.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
3.3.3 (,
, ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
3.3.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
3.3.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
3.3.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
3.3.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
3.4 Word 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
3.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
3.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

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3.4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
3.4.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
3.4.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
3.4.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
3.4.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
3.4.8 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
3.4.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
3.4.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
3.5 A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
3.6 A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

EXCEL 2003
4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
4.2 Excel 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
4.2.1 xcel 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
4.2.2 xcel 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
4.2.3 E xcel 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
4.2.4 H xcel 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
4.2.5 M Excel 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
4.2.6 Excel 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
4.3 K Excel 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
4.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
4.3.2 . . . . . . . . 135
4.3.3 / (, ,
) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
4.3.4 // . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
4.3.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
4.4 X xcel 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
4.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
4.4.2 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
4.4.3 / , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
4.4.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
4.5 E xcel 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
4.5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
4.5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
4.5.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
4.6 M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
4.6.1 / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
4.6.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
4.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
4.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154

ACCESS 2003
5.1 E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
5.2 ccess 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
5.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
5.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158

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5.3

5.4

5.5
5.6

5.2.3 ccess 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159


5.2.4 E ccess 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
5.2.5 H o ccess 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
ccess 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
5.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
5.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
5.3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
5.3.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
X ccess 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
5.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
5.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
5.4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
5.4.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
5.4.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
5.4.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
5.4.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195

6.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
6.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
6.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
6.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
6.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
6.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
6.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
6.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
6.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
6.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
6.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
6.4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
6.5 To . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
6.5.1 . . . . . . . . . 215
6.5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
6.5.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
6.5.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
6.6 Microsoft Internet Explorer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
6.6.1 icrosoft Internet Explorer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
6.6.2 icrosoft Internet Explorer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
6.6.3 A Web Internet Explorer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
6.6.4 B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
6.7 To utlook Express . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
6.7.1 utlook Express . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
6.7.2 H o utlook Express . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
6.7.3 B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
6.7.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
6.7.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

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6.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
6.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226


7.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
7.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
7.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
7.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
7.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
7.2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
7.3 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
7.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
7.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
7.3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
7.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
7.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
7.4.2 ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
7.4.3
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
7.4.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
7.4.5 . . . . . . . . . . 240
7.4.6 . . . . . . . . . . 241
7.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
7.5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
7.5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
7.6 () . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
7.6.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
7.6.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
7.7 . , ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
7.7.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
7.7.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
7.7.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
7.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249


8.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
8.2 LORAN-C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
8.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
8.3.1 NAVSAR/TRANZIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
8.3.2 NAVSTAR/GPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
8.3.3 (Satellite Based
Augmentation Systems SBAS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
8.3.4 EUROFIXDGPS ON LORAN-C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
8.4 -RPA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
8.5 E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
8.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264

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8.6.1 E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
8.6.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
8.6.3 (Electronic Navigational ChartENC) . . . . 267
8.6.4 CDIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
8.6.5 O CDIS . . . . . . . 273
8.6.6 CDIS (SENC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
8.6.7 (ECS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
8.6.8 C (RCDS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
8.6.9 RCDS ECDIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
8.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
8.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278

MSDOS
.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
.2 MS-DOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
.2.1 MS-DOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
.2.3 MS-DOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
.3 B MS-DOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
.3.2 (Config.sys Autoexec.bat) . . . . . . . . . . . 284
.4 MS-DOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
B
U
.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
.1.1 UNIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
.2 UNIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
.2.1 UNIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
.3.1 UNIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
.3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
.3.4 UNIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
.4 U . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
.5 Linux
Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327




.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334

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.1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
.1.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
.1.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
.1.5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343

QUICK BASIC
.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
.2.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
.2.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
.2.1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
.2.1.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
.2.1.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
.2.1.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
.2.1.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
.2.1.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
.2.1.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
.2.1.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
.2.1.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
.2.1.12 / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
.2.1.13 / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
.2.1.14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355

VISUAL BASIC
.3.1
.3.2
.3.3
.3.4

DOS Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356


Visual Basic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
Visual Basic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369

POWERPOINT 2003

.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
.2 PowerPoint 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383


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