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Y

30 kN

Stiffness Method (Frame Example)

Analyze the frame shown using Stiffness method.


E is constant for all members.
Section properties:
member

Area

20 kN
2

Moment of
Inertia*
I
3.5I

A
1.5A

1
2

3m

5m

1
1
X

* A=0.04 m2 , I=0.0004/3 m4 A=300I

4m

(I) Member stiffness Matrices in Global coordinates:


(1) Member 1: i-node=1, j-node=2,
c cos x

x j xi
L

00

0,
5

L= 5 m,

s sin x

y j yi
L

50

1
5

EA
12 EI
6 EI
0.2 EA 60 EI , d
0.096 EI , e 2 0.24 EI ,
3
L
L
L
4 EI
2 EI
f
0.8 EI , g
0.4 EI .
L
L

j= 2
1
1

K 11 a c 2 d s 2 0.096 EI ,

K 12 (a d )c s 0,

2
1

i= 1
3

K 13 e s 0.24 EI

K 22 a s d c 60 EI , K 23 e c 0
2

K 33 f 0.8 EI

1 0.096 2 0

0
60

0.24
0
[ K ]1 EI
0
0.096

0
60

0
0.24

30.24
0
0.8
0.24
0
0.4

4 .096
0
0
0.24
.096
0
0.24

50

60
0
0
60
0

0.624
0
0.4

0.24
0

0.8

Coord. #
1
2
3
456
6

(See Stiffness Handout)

(2) Member 2: i-node=2, j-node=3,


c cos x

x j xi
L

40
0.8,
5

L= 5 m,
y j yi

s sin x

85
0.3
5

E (1.5 A)
12 E (3.5 I )
6 E (3.5 I )
0.3EA 90 EI , d
0.336 EI , e
0.84 EI ,
3
L
L
L2
4 E (3.5 I )
2 E (3.5 I )
8
f
2.8EI , g
1.4 EI .
L
L

K 11 a c 2 d s 2 57.7210 EI

K 12 (a d )c s 43.0387
K 13 e s 0.5040 EI

K 22 a s 2 d c 2 32.6150 EI

K 23 e c 0.6720

[ K ] 2 EI

K 33 f 2.8 EI

6
5

j= 3

2
1

i= 2

Coord. #

4
6

57.7210 43.0387 - 0.5040 - 57.721 - 43.0387 - 0.5040


43.0387 32.6150 0.6720 43.0387 - 32.6150 0.6720
- 0.5040 0.6720 2.8000 0.5040 - 0.6720 1.4000

- 57.7210 - 43.0387 0.5040 57.7210 43.0387 0.5040


- 43.0387 - 32.6150 - 0.6720 43.0387 32.6150 - 0.6720

- 0.5040 0.6720 1.4000


0.5040 - 0.6720 2.8000

(II) Structure Stiffness Matrix (Global Stiffness Matrix):


[ K ]99 [ K ]1 [ K ] 2

1
0.096
0
-0.24
-0.096

=EI

0
-0.24

2
0
60
0
0
-60
0

3
-0.24
0
0.8
0.24
0
0.4

4
-0.096
0
0.24
0.096+
57.721
0+
43.0387
0.24+
-0.504
-57.721
-43.0387
-0.504

5
0
-60
0
0+
43.0387
60+
32.615
0+
0.672
-43.0387
-32.615
0.672

6
-0.24
0
0.4
0.24+
-0.504
0+
0.672
0.8+
2.8
0.504
-0.672
1.4

9
1
2
3

-57.721

-43.0387

-0.504

-43.0387

-32.615

0.672

0.504
57.721
43.0387
0.504

-0.672
43.0387
32.615
-0.672

1.4
0.504
-0.672
2.8

4
5
6
7
8
9

4
5
6
7
8
9

or
0
- 0.24 - 0.0960
0.0960
0
60.0
0
0

- 0.240
0
0.8000 0.2400

0
0.2400 57.8170
- 0.096

[ K ] EI
0
- 60.0 0
43.0387

0.24
0
0.4000
0.2640

0
0
0
- 57.7210

0
0
- 43.0387
0
0
0
0
- 0.5040

0
- 0.2400
0
- 60.0
0
0
0
0.4000
0
43.0387 - 0.264
- 57.721
92.6150
0.672
- 43.0387
0.6720
3.600
0.504
- 43.0387 0.504
57.7210
- 32.6150 - 0.672
43.0387
0.6720
1.400
0.5040

0
0
0
0
0
0
- 43.0387 - 0.504
- 32.6150 0.672
- 0.6720 1.400
43.0387 0.504
32.6150 - 0.672
- 0.6720 2.8000

(III) Force Vector {F}


{F}91 ={F0}-{FE}
where
{F0} = vector of nodal forces ,
and
{FE} = vector of equivalent end forces (fixed end forces and moments due to span loadings.)
For our problem;
{F0}={F1, F2, ,F9}T = {Fx1, Fy1, Mz1, 20, 0 , 0, Fx3, Fy3, Mz3}T
Fixed End Moments and Forces:
Span 2 is loaded with concentrated load acting at its middle. The fixed end forces in member lcs are
calculated as shown below:

fe 2

f x1
f
y1
M
1
f x2
f y2

M 2

9
12

15

9
12

15

fe4 =9 kN

fe6 =-15 kN.m


(in member local coordinate s )

24 kN

30 kN
18 kN

fe5 =12 kN
fe3 =15 kN.m
fe1 =9 kN

fe2 =12 kN
Member 2

Fixed End Forces In global coordinates:

Coord. #

FE 2

T 2

fe 2

0 .8
0 .6

0
0

0 .6

0 .8
0
0
0
0

0
1
0
0
0

0
0
0 .8
0 .6
0

0
0
0 .6
0 .8
0

0
0
0

0
0

1

12

15

9

12

15

0
15
15

0
15

15

5
6
7
8
9

The Global load vector becomes:


F1
F
2

Fx1
F
y1







F9

M1

20


0
0

Fx 3
Fy 3
M 3

0 Fx1
0 Fy1
0 M1


20
0

15 15
15 15

0 Fx 3

15 Fy 3 15
15 M 3 15

Unkown forces and


moents (Reactions)

1

2

The global disp. vector

0
0

x2

y2

0
0

Unkown d.o.f.

The global stiffness equation: [K]{}={F}


1

0.0960
0

- 0.240

- 0.24

- 0.0960

60.0

- 60.0

0.8000

0.2400

- 0.2400
0
0.4000

0
0.2400 57.8170
43.0387 - 0.264
- 57.721
- 0.096
EI 0
- 60.0 0
43.0387
92.6150
0.672
- 43.0387

0
0.4000 - 0.2640
0.6720
3.600
0.504
- 0.24
0
0
0
- 57.7210 - 43.0387 0.504
57.7210

0
0
- 43.0387 - 32.6150 - 0.672
43.0387
0
0
0
0
- 0.5040
0.6720
1.400
0.5040

- 43.0387
- 32.6150
- 0.6720
43.0387
32.6150
- 0.6720

Fx11
F y21

M1

0
0
0

- 0.504 x 2
20

0.672 y 2 15

6
15
1.400 2

7
0.504 0
Fx 3

- 0.672 0
F

15
y
3

M 3 15
2.8000 0

(Eq. I)
Solution of Stiffness Equations
After applying the boundary conditions, the stiffness matrix equation in free coordinates is

57.817 43.0387 0.2640


EI
92.615
0.672

3.60

x2
20

y 2 15

15
2

which have the solution


x2
0.6517
1

y2
0.4355
EI

2
4.0376
Support Reactions are found by back substituting in equation in (Eq. I) above:

Fx1
0.9065
F
26.13
y1

M 1
1.459

F
x
3

20.91
Fy 3
3.87

21.27
M 3
Local effect (end shear forces and Moments in each member) can be obtained by substituting the
displacement results in the member stiffness equations.
Typical Computer Output:
NODAL DISPLACEMENTS
node
x-disp.
y-disp.
1
000
000
2
6.517e-001 -4.355e-001
3
000
000
SUPPORT REACTIONS
supp.
x-reac
1
9.065e-001
3 -2.091e+001
MEMBER
MEM.
1
2

y-reac
2.613e+001
3.870e+000

FORCES:
END SHEAR FORCES
I-NODE
J-NODE
-9.065e-001 9.065e-001
8.360e+000 1.564e+001

z-rotation
000
-4.038e+000
000
z-reac
-1.459e+000
-2.127e+001
END MOMENTS
I-NODE
J-NODE
-1.459e+000 -3.074e+000
3.074e+000 -2.127e+001

END AXIAL FORCES


I-NODE
J-NODE
2.613e+001 -2.613e+001
3.240e+001 -1.440e+001