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Indonesia

Indonesia
( i /ndni/
IN-d-NEE-zh
or
/ndonizi/ IN-doh-NEE-zee-),
ocially the
Republic of Indonesia (Indonesian: Republik Indonesia
Indonesian pronunciation: [rpublik ndonesia]), is a
sovereign state in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia
is an archipelago comprising thousands of islands.[9] It
encompasses 33 provinces and 1 Special Administrative
Region (for being governed by a pre-colonial monarchy)
with an estimated population of over 252 million people,
making it the worlds fourth most populous country.
Indonesias republic form of government comprises an
elected legislature and president. The nations capital
city is Jakarta. The country shares land borders with
Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and Malaysia. Other
neighboring countries include Singapore, the Philippines,
Australia, Palau, and the Indian territory of the Andaman
and Nicobar Islands. Indonesia is a founding member of
ASEAN and a member of the G-20 major economies.
The Indonesian economy is the worlds 16th largest by
nominal GDP.

try has abundant natural resources, yet poverty remains


widespread.[10][11]

1 Etymology
Further information: Names of Indonesia
The name Indonesia derives from the Greek words Inds
and nsos, which means island.[12] The name dates to
the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia.[13] In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians and,
his preference, Malayunesians for the inhabitants of
the Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago.[14] In
the same publication, a student of Earls, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian
Archipelago.[15][16] However, Dutch academics writing in
East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia.
Instead, they used the terms Malay Archipelago (Maleische Archipel); the Netherlands East Indies (Nederlandsch
Oost Indi), popularly Indi; the East (de Oost); and Insulinde.[17]

The Indonesian archipelago has been an important trade


region since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and
then later Majapahit traded with China and India. Local
rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural, religious and
political models from the early centuries CE, and Hindu
and Buddhist kingdoms ourished. Indonesian history
has been inuenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. Muslim traders brought the now-dominant
Islam, while European powers brought Christianity and
fought one another to monopolize trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Following
three and a half centuries of Dutch colonialism, Indonesia
secured its independence after World War II. Indonesias
history has since been turbulent, with challenges posed by
natural disasters, mass slaughter, corruption, separatism,
a democratization process, and periods of rapid economic
change.

After 1900, the name Indonesia became more common in


academic circles outside the Netherlands, and Indonesian
nationalist groups adopted it for political expression.[17]
Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularized
the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des
Malayischen Archipels, 18841894. The rst Indonesian
scholar to use the name was Suwardi Suryaningrat (Ki
Hajar Dewantara), when he established a press bureau in
the Netherlands with the name Indonesisch Pers-bureau
in 1913.[13]

2 History

Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic


and linguistic groups. The largest and politically dominant ethnic group are the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, dened by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a majority Muslim population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion
against it. Indonesias national motto, Bhinneka Tunggal Ika (Unity in Diversity literally, many, yet one),
articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Despite its large population and densely populated regions,
Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the
worlds second highest level of biodiversity. The coun-

Main article: History of Indonesia


Fossils and the remains of tools show that the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by Homo erectus, popularly known as extquotedblJava Man extquotedbl, between 1.5 million years ago and as recently as 35,000
years ago.[19][20][21] Homo sapiens reached the region by
around 45,000 years ago.[22] In 2011 evidence was uncovered in neighbouring East Timor showing that 42,000
years ago these early settlers were catching and consuming large numbers of big deep sea sh such as tuna,[23]
and that they had the technology needed to make ocean
1

HISTORY

A Borobudur ship carved on Borobudur, c. 800 CE. Indonesian


outrigger boats may have made trade voyages to the east coast of
Africa as early as the 1st century CE.[18]

crossings to reach Australia and other islands.


Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to South East Asia from Taiwan. They arrived in Indonesia around 2000 BCE, and as
they spread through the archipelago, pushed the indigenous Melanesian peoples to the far eastern regions.[24]
Ideal agricultural conditions, and the mastering of weteld rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE,[25]
allowed villages, towns, and small kingdoms to ourish
by the 1st century CE. Indonesias strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and China, which were established several centuries BCE.[26] Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history.[27][28]

The nutmeg plant is native to Indonesias Banda Islands. Once


one of the worlds most valuable commodities, it drew the rst
European colonial powers to Indonesia.

Although Muslim traders rst traveled through Southeast Asia early in the Islamic era, the earliest evidence
of Islamized populations in Indonesia dates to the 13th
century in northern Sumatra.[33] Other Indonesian areas
gradually adopted Islam, and it was the dominant religion in Java and Sumatra by the end of the 16th century. For the most part, Islam overlaid and mixed with
existing cultural and religious inuences, which shaped
the predominant form of Islam in Indonesia, particularly
in Java.[34] The rst regular contact between Europeans
and the peoples of Indonesia began in 1512, when Por-

render of Japan in August 1945, Sukarno, an inuential nationalist leader, declared independence and was
appointed President.[42][43][44] The Netherlands tried to
reestablish their rule, and the resulting conict ended
in December 1949, when in the face of international
pressure, the Dutch formally recognized Indonesian
independence[43][45] with the exception of the Dutch territory of West New Guinea, which was incorporated into
Indonesia following the 1962 New York Agreement, and
the UN-mandated Act of Free Choice of 1969 [46] which
was questionable and has resulted in a longtime indepen-

tuguese traders, led by Francisco Serro, sought to monopolize the sources of nutmeg, cloves, and cubeb pepper in Maluku.[35] Dutch and British traders followed. In
1602 the Dutch established the Dutch East India ComHinduism and Mahayana Buddhism arrived in Indonesia pany (VOC) and became the dominant European power.
in the 4th and 5th century, as trade with India intensied Following bankruptcy, the VOC was formally dissolved
under the south Indian Pallava dynasty.[29]
in 1800, and the government of the Netherlands estabFrom the 7th century, the powerful Srivijaya naval king- lished the Dutch East Indies as a nationalized colony.[36]
dom ourished as a result of trade and the inuences For most of the colonial period, Dutch control over the
of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with archipelago was tenuous outside of coastal strongholds;
it.[30][31] Between the 8th and 10th centuries, the agri- only in the early 20th century did Dutch domicultural Buddhist Sailendra and Hindu Mataram dynas- nance extend to what was to become Indonesias
ties thrived and declined in inland Java, leaving grand present boundaries.[37] Japanese occupation during the
religious monuments such as Sailendras Borobudur and Second World War ended Dutch rule[38][39] and enMatarams Prambanan. The Hindu Majapahit kingdom couraged the previously suppressed Indonesian indewas founded in eastern Java in the late 13th century, and pendence movement.[40] A later UN report stated that
under Gajah Mada, its inuence stretched over much of four million people died in Indonesia as a result of
Indonesia.[32]
the Japanese occupation.[41] Two days after the sur-

3
dence movement.[47]

stability, social unrest, corruption, and terrorism slowed


progress; however, in the last ve years the economy has
performed strongly. Although relations among dierent
religious and ethnic groups are largely harmonious, sectarian discontent and violence have persisted.[63] A political settlement to an armed separatist conict in Aceh was
achieved in 2005.[64]

3 Government and politics


Main articles: Politics of Indonesia and Elections in Indonesia
Indonesia is a republic with a presidential system. As

Sukarno, Indonesias founding President.

Sukarno moved Indonesia from democracy towards authoritarianism, and maintained his power base by balancing the opposing forces of the military and the
Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI).[48] An attempted
coup on 30 September 1965 was countered by the
army, who led a violent anti-communist purge, during which the PKI was blamed for the coup and eectively destroyed.[49][50][51] Around 500,000 people are
estimated to have been killed.[52][53] The head of the
military, General Suharto, outmaneuvered the politically
weakened Sukarno and was formally appointed president
in March 1968. His New Order administration[54] was
supported by the US government,[55][56][57] and encouraged foreign direct investment in Indonesia, which was a
major factor in the subsequent three decades of substantial economic growth. However, the authoritarian New
Order was widely accused of corruption and suppression
of political opposition.[38][58][59]
Indonesia was the country hardest hit by the late 1990s
Asian nancial crisis.[60] This led to popular protest
against the New Order which led to Suhartos resignation
in May 1998.[61] In 1999, East Timor voted to secede
from Indonesia, after a twenty-ve-year military occupation that was marked by international condemnation of
repression of the East Timorese.[62] Since Suhartos resignation, a strengthening of democratic processes has included a regional autonomy program, and the rst direct
presidential election in 2004. Political and economic in-

A session of the Peoples Representative Council in Jakarta

a unitary state, power is concentrated in the central government. Following the resignation of President Suharto
in 1998, Indonesian political and governmental structures have undergone major reforms. Four amendments
to the 1945 Constitution of Indonesia[65] have revamped
the executive, judicial, and legislative branches.[66] The
president of Indonesia is the head of state and head of
government, commander-in-chief of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, and the director of domestic governance, policy-making, and foreign aairs. The president
appoints a council of ministers, who are not required to be
elected members of the legislature. The 2004 presidential
election was the rst in which the people directly elected
the president and vice president.[67] The president may
serve a maximum of two consecutive ve-year terms.[68]
The highest representative body at national level is the
Peoples Consultative Assembly (MPR). Its main functions are supporting and amending the constitution, inaugurating the president, and formalizing broad outlines of state policy. It has the power to impeach
the president.[69] The MPR comprises two houses; the
Peoples Representative Council (DPR), with 560 members, and the Regional Representative Council (DPD),
with 132 members.[70] The DPR passes legislation and
monitors the executive branch; party-aligned members
are elected for ve-year terms by proportional represen-

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

tation.[66] Reforms since 1998 have markedly increased purges early in the Suharto era.[73] Indonesia has been a
the DPRs role in national governance.[71] The DPD is a member of the United Nations since 1950,[76] and was
new chamber for matters of regional management.[72]
a founder of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) and
(OIC, now
Most civil disputes appear before a State Court (Pen- the Organisation of the Islamic Conference
[70]
the
Organisation
of
Islamic
Cooperation).
Indonesia
is
gadilan Negeri); appeals are heard before the High Court
signatory
to
the
ASEAN
Free
Trade
Area
agreement,
the
(Pengadilan Tinggi). The Supreme Court (Mahkamah
Agung) is the countrys highest court, and hears nal Cairns Group, and the WTO, and has historically been a
cessation appeals and conducts case reviews. Other member of OPEC, although it withdrew in 2008 as it was
no longer a net exporter of oil. Indonesia has received hucourts include the Commercial Court, which handles
bankruptcy and insolvency; a State Administrative Court manitarian and development aid since 1966, in particular
from the United States, western Europe, Australia, and
(Pengadilan Tata Negara) to hear administrative law
[70]
cases against the government; a Constitutional Court Japan.
(Mahkamah Konstitusi) to hear disputes concerning legality of law, general elections, dissolution of political
parties, and the scope of authority of state institutions;
and a Religious Court (Pengadilan Agama) to deal with
codied Sharia Law cases.[73]

Foreign relations and military

The Indonesian Government has worked with other countries to apprehend and prosecute perpetrators of major
bombings linked to militant Islamism and Al-Qaeda.[77]
The deadliest bombing killed 202 people (including 164
international tourists) in the Bali resort town of Kuta in
2002.[78] The attacks, and subsequent travel warnings issued by other countries, severely damaged Indonesias
tourism industry and foreign investment prospects.[79]

Indonesias armed forces (TNI) include the Army (TNI


which includes marines), and Air
Main articles: Foreign relations of Indonesia and AD), Navy (TNIAL,
[80]
Force
(TNIAU).
The
army has about 400,000 activeIndonesian National Armed Forces
duty
personnel.
Defense
spending in the national budIn contrast to Sukarnos anti-imperialistic antipathy to
get was 4% of GDP in 2006, and is controversially supplemented by revenue from military commercial interests and foundations.[81] One of the reforms following the
1998 resignation of Suharto was the removal of formal
TNI representation in parliament; nevertheless, its political inuence remains extensive.[82]
Separatist movements in the provinces of Aceh and Papua
have led to armed conict, and subsequent allegations of
human rights abuses and brutality from all sides.[83][84]
Following a sporadic thirty-year guerrilla war between
the Free Aceh Movement (GAM) and the Indonesian military, a ceasere agreement was reached in 2005.[85] In
Papua, there has been a signicant, albeit imperfect, implementation of regional autonomy laws, and a reported
decline in the levels of violence and human rights abuses,
since the presidency of Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono.[86]

5 Administrative divisions
President of Indonesia Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono with Barack
Obama, the President of United States, in ceremony at the Istana
Merdeka in Jakarta, 9 November 2010. Obama has become
popular in Indonesia due to the years he spent in Jakarta as a
child.[74]

western powers and tensions with Malaysia, Indonesias


foreign relations since the Suharto New Order have
been based on economic and political cooperation with
Western nations.[75] Indonesia maintains close relationships with its neighbors in Asia, and is a founding member of ASEAN and the East Asia Summit.[70] The nation
restored relations with the Peoples Republic of China in
1990 following a freeze in place since anti-communist

Main articles: Provinces of Indonesia and Subdivisions


of Indonesia
Administratively, Indonesia consists of 34 provinces, ve
of which have special status. Each province has its own
legislature and governor. The provinces are subdivided
into regencies (kabupaten) and cities (kota), which are
further subdivided into districts (kecamatan or distrik in
Papua and West Papua), and again into administrative villages (either desa, kelurahan, kampung, nagari in West
Sumatra, or gampong in Aceh). Village is the lowest
level of government administration in Indonesia. Fur-

5
thermore, a village is divided into several community
groups (Rukun-Warga (RW)) which are further divided
into neighbourhood groups (Rukun-Tetangga (RT)). In
Java the desa (village) is divided further into smaller units
called dusun or dukuh (hamlets), these units are the same
as Rukun-Warga. Following the implementation of regional autonomy measures in 2001, the regencies and
cities have become the key administrative units, responsible for providing most government services. The village
administration level is the most inuential on a citizens
daily life and handles matters of a village or neighborhood
through an elected lurah or kepala desa (village chief).
The provinces of Aceh, Jakarta, Yogyakarta, Papua,
and West Papua have greater legislative privileges and a
higher degree of autonomy from the central government
than the other provinces. The Acehnese government, for
example, has the right to create certain elements of an
independent legal system; in 2003, it instituted a form of
Sharia Law (Islamic law).[87] Yogyakarta was granted the
status of Special Region in recognition of its pivotal role
in supporting Indonesian Republicans during the Indonesian Revolution and its willingness to join Indonesia as
a republic.[88] Papua, formerly known as Irian Jaya, was
granted special autonomy status in 2001 and was split into
Papua and West Papua in February 2003.[89][90] Jakarta
is the countrys special capital region.

Aceh
North
Sumatra
West
Sumatra
Riau

Riau
Islands
Bangka
Belitung
Jambi
South
Sumatra
Bengkulu
Lampung
Banten
Jakarta
West
Java
Central
Java
Yogyakarta
East
Java
Bali
West Nusa
Tenggara
East Nusa
Tenggara
West
Kalimantan
Central
Kalimantan
North
Kalimantan
East
Kalimantan
South
Kalimantan
North
Sulawesi
North
Maluku
Central
Sulawesi
Gorontalo
West
Sulawesi
South
Sulawesi
Southeast
Sulawesi
Maluku
West
Papua
Papua
Indonesian provinces and their capitals, listed by region

Indonesian name is in parentheses if dierent from English.


* indicates provinces with Special Status

7 BIOTA AND ENVIRONMENT

Geography

ters due to seismic activity include the 2004 tsunami that


killed an estimated 167,736 in northern Sumatra,[98] and
the Yogyakarta earthquake in 2006. However, volcanic
Main article: Geography of Indonesia
Indonesia lies between latitudes 11S and 6N, and longi- ash is a major contributor to the high agricultural fertility
that has historically sustained the high population densities of Java and Bali.[99]
Lying along the equator, Indonesia has a tropical climate,
with two distinct monsoonal wet and dry seasons. Average annual rainfall in the lowlands varies from 1,780
3,175 millimeters (70.1125.0 inches), and up to 6,100
millimeters (240 inches) in mountainous regions. Mountainous areas particularly in the west coast of Sumatra,
West Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua receive
the highest rainfall. Humidity is generally high, averaging about 80%. Temperatures vary little throughout the
year; the average daily temperature range of Jakarta is
2630 C (7986 F).[100]

Mount Semeru and Mount Bromo in East Java. Indonesias seismic and volcanic activity is among the worlds highest.

7 Biota and environment

Main articles: Fauna of Indonesia, Flora of Indonesia and


tudes 95E and 141E. It consists of 17,508 islands, about
Environment of Indonesia
6,000 of which are inhabited.[91] These are scattered over
Indonesias size, tropical climate, and archipelagic geogboth sides of the equator. The largest are Java, Sumatra,
Borneo (shared with Brunei and Malaysia), New Guinea
(shared with Papua New Guinea), and Sulawesi. Indonesia shares land borders with Malaysia on Borneo, Papua
New Guinea on the island of New Guinea, and East Timor
on the island of Timor. Indonesia shares maritime borders across narrow straits with Singapore, Malaysia, the
Philippines, and Palau to the north, and with Australia
to the south. The capital, Jakarta, is on Java and is
the nations largest city, followed by Surabaya, Bandung,
Medan, and Semarang.[92]
At 1,919,440 square kilometers (741,050 sq mi), Indonesia is the worlds 15th-largest country in terms of land
area and worlds 7th-largest country in terms of combined sea and land area.[93] Its average population density is 134 people per square kilometer (347 per sq mi),
79th in the world,[94] although Java, the worlds most populous island,[95] has a population density of 940 people
per square kilometer (2,435 per sq mi). At 4,884 metres
(16,024 ft), Puncak Jaya in Papua is Indonesias highest
peak, and Lake Toba in Sumatra its largest lake, with
an area of 1,145 square kilometers (442 sq mi). The
countrys largest rivers are in Kalimantan, and include the
Mahakam and Barito; such rivers are communication and
transport links between the islands river settlements.[96]
Indonesias location on the edges of the Pacic, Eurasian,
and Australian tectonic plates makes it the site of numerous volcanoes and frequent earthquakes. Indonesia has
at least 150 active volcanoes,[97] including Krakatoa and
Tambora, both famous for their devastating eruptions in
the 19th century. The eruption of the Toba supervolcano,
approximately 70,000 years ago, was one of the largest
eruptions ever, and a global catastrophe. Recent disas-

The critically endangered Sumatran Orangutan, a great ape


endemic to Indonesia.

raphy, support the worlds second highest level of biodiversity (after Brazil),[101] and its ora and fauna is a mixture of Asian and Australasian species.[102] The islands of
the Sunda Shelf (Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Bali) were
once linked to the Asian mainland, and have a wealth of
Asian fauna. Large species such as the tiger, rhinoceros,
orangutan, elephant, and leopard, were once abundant as
far east as Bali, but numbers and distribution have dwindled drastically. Forests cover approximately 60% of the
country.[103] In Sumatra and Kalimantan, these are predominantly of Asian species. However, the forests of the

7
smaller, and more densely populated Java, have largely ecosystems and cause social conicts.[114]
been removed for human habitation and agriculture. Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara, and Maluku having been long
separated from the continental landmasseshave devel- 8 Economy
oped their own unique ora and fauna.[104] Papua was part
of the Australian landmass, and is home to a unique fauna
and ora closely related to that of Australia, including Main article: Economy of Indonesia
Indonesia has a mixed economy in which both the priover 600 bird species.[105]
Indonesia is second only to Australia in terms of total endemic species, with 36% of its 1,531 species of bird and
39% of its 515 species of mammal being endemic.[106]
Indonesias 80,000 kilometers (50,000 miles) of coastline are surrounded by tropical seas that contribute to
the countrys high level of biodiversity. Indonesia has a
range of sea and coastal ecosystems, including beaches,
sand dunes, estuaries, mangroves, coral reefs, sea grass
beds, coastal mudats, tidal ats, algal beds, and small
island ecosystems.[12] Indonesia is one of Coral Triangle countries with the worlds greatest diversity of coral
reef sh with more than 1,650 species in eastern Indonesia only.[107] The British naturalist, Alfred Wallace,
described a dividing line between the distribution of
Indonesias Asian and Australasian species.[108] Known
as the Wallace Line, it runs roughly north-south along
the edge of the Sunda Shelf, between Kalimantan and
Sulawesi, and along the deep Lombok Strait, between
Lombok and Bali. West of the line the ora and fauna
are more Asian; moving east from Lombok, they are
increasingly Australian. In his 1869 book, The Malay
Archipelago, Wallace described numerous species unique
to the area.[109] The region of islands between his line and
New Guinea is now termed Wallacea.[108]
Indonesias high population and rapid industrialization
present serious environmental issues, which are often
given a lower priority due to high poverty levels and weak,
under-resourced governance.[110] Issues include largescale deforestation (much of it illegal) and related wildres causing heavy smog over parts of western Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore; over-exploitation of marine
resources; and environmental problems associated with
rapid urbanization and economic development, including air pollution, trac congestion, garbage management,
and reliable water and waste water services.[110] Deforestation and the destruction of peatlands make Indonesia
the worlds third largest emitter of greenhouse gases.[111]
Habitat destruction threatens the survival of indigenous
and endemic species, including 140 species of mammals
identied by the World Conservation Union (IUCN) as
threatened, and 15 identied as critically endangered, including Bali Starling,[112] Sumatran Orangutan,[113] and
Javan Rhinoceros.[112] Much of Indonesias deforestation
is caused by forest clearing for the palm oil Industry,
which has cleared 18 million hectares of forest for palm
oil expansion. Palm oil expansion requires land reallocation as well as changes to the local and natural ecosystems. Palm oil expansion can generate wealth for local
communities, if done right. If done wrong, it can degrade

Using water bualo to plough rice elds in Java. Agriculture had


been the countrys largest employer for centuries.

vate sector and government play signicant roles.[115]


The country is the largest economy in Southeast Asia
and a member of the G-20 major economies.[116] Indonesias estimated gross domestic product (nominal), as
of 2012 was US$928.274 billion with estimated nominal per capita GDP was US$3,797, and per capita GDP
PPP was US$4,943 (international dollars).[117] The gross
domestic product (GDP) is about $1 trillion[4] and the
debt ratio to the GDP is 26%.[118] According to World
Bank aliated report based on 2011 data, the Indonesian
economy was the worlds 10th largest by nominal GDP
(PPP based), with the country contributing 2.3 percent
of global economic output.[119][120] The industry sector
is the economys largest and accounts for 46.4% of GDP
(2012), this is followed by services (38.6%) and agriculture (14.4%). However, since 2012, the service sector
has employed more people than other sectors, accounting for 48.9% of the total labor force, this has been followed by agriculture (38.6%) and industry (22.2%).[121]
Agriculture, however, had been the countrys largest employer for centuries.[122][123]
According to World Trade Organization data, Indonesia was the 27th biggest exporting country in the
world in 2010, moving up three places from a year
before.[124] Indonesias main export markets (2009) are
Japan (17.28%), Singapore (11.29%), the United States
(10.81%), and China (7.62%). The major suppliers
of imports to Indonesia are Singapore (24.96%), China
(12.52%), and Japan (8.92%). In 2005, Indonesia ran a
trade surplus with export revenues of US$83.64 billion
and import expenditure of US$62.02 billion. The country has extensive natural resources, including crude oil,
natural gas, tin, copper, and gold. Indonesias major imports include machinery and equipment, chemicals, fu-

9 DEMOGRAPHICS

els, and foodstus. And the countrys major export com- a persistent problem. Transparency International, for
modities include oil and gas, electrical appliances, ply- example, has since ranked Indonesia below 100 in its
wood, rubber, and textiles.[91]
Corruption Perceptions Index.[133][134] Since 2007, however, with the improvement in banking sector and domestic consumption, national economic growth has accelerated to over 6% annually[135][136][137] and this helped
the country weather the 20082009 global recession.[138]
The Indonesian economy performed strongly during the
Global Financial Crisis and in 2012 its GDP grew by over
6%.[139] The country regained its investment grade rating
in late 2011 after losing it in the 1997.[140] However, as
of 2012, an estimated 11.7% of the population lived below the poverty line and the ocial open unemployment
rate was 6.1%.[91]
Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia and the countrys largest commercial center.

The tourism sector contributes to around US$9 billion of 9 Demographics


foreign exchange in 2012, and ranked as the 4th largest
among goods and services export sectors.[125] Singapore, Main articles: Demographics of Indonesia and List of enMalaysia, Australia, China and Japan are the top ve dangered languages in Indonesia
source of visitors to Indonesia.
According to the 2010 national census, the population
In the 1960s the economy deteriorated drastically as a
result of political instability, a young and inexperienced
government, and economic nationalism, which resulted
in severe poverty and hunger. By the time of Sukarnos
downfall in the mid-1960s, the economy was in chaos
with 1,000% annual ination, shrinking export revenues,
crumbling infrastructure, factories operating at minimal
capacity, and negligible investment. Following President
Sukarnos downfall in the mid-1960s, the New Order administration brought a degree of discipline to economic
policy that quickly brought ination down, stabilized the
currency, rescheduled foreign debt, and attracted foreign
aid and investment. (See Berkeley Maa). Indonesia was
until recently Southeast Asias only member of OPEC,
and the 1970s oil price raises provided an export revenue windfall that contributed to sustained high economic
growth rates, averaging over 7% from 1968 to 1981.[126]
Following further reforms in the late 1980s,[127] foreign
investment owed into Indonesia, particularly into the
rapidly developing export-oriented manufacturing sector,
and from 1989 to 1997, the Indonesian economy grew by
an average of over 7%.[128][129]

Balinese children. There are around 300 distinct native ethnicities in Indonesia.

of Indonesia is 237.6 million,[141] with high population growth at 1.9%.[142] 58% of the population lives in
Java,[141] the worlds most populous island.[95] In 1961
the rst post-colonial census gave a total population of
[143]
Population is expected to grow to around
Indonesia was the country hardest hit by the Asian nan- 97 million.
269
million
by
2020
and 321 million by 2050.[144]
cial crisis of 199798. During the crisis there were sudden and large capital outows leading the rupiah to go There are around 300 distinct native ethnic groups
into free fall. Against the US dollar the rupiah dropped in Indonesia, and 742 dierent languages and difrom about Rp 2,600 in late 1997 to a low point of alects.[145][146] Most Indonesians are descended from
around Rp 17,000 some months later and the economy Austronesian-speaking peoples whose languages can be
shrank by a remarkable 13.7%. These developments traced to Proto-Austronesian (PAn), which possibly
led to widespread economic distress across the econ- originated in Taiwan. Another major grouping are
omy and contributed to the political crisis of 1998 which Melanesians, who inhabit eastern Indonesia.[92][147][148]
saw Suharto resign as president.[130] The rupiah later sta- The largest ethnic group is the Javanese, who comprise
bilised in the Rp. 8,000 range[131] and economic growth 42% of the population, and are politically and culturreturned to 4% per year by 2000.[132] However, the cur- ally dominant.[149] The Sundanese, ethnic Malays, and
rency still uctuates, dropping below Rp 11,000 per dol- Madurese are the largest non-Javanese groups.[150] A
lar in September 2013. In addition, corruption has been sense of Indonesian nationhood exists alongside strong

9
regional identities.[151] Society is largely harmonious, although social, religious and ethnic tensions have triggered horrendous violence.[152][153][154] Chinese Indonesians are an inuential ethnic minority comprising 34%
of the population.[155] Much of the countrys privately
owned commerce and wealth is Chinese-Indonesiancontrolled.[156][157] Chinese businesses in Indonesia are
part of the larger bamboo network, a network of overseas
Chinese businesses operating in the markets of Southeast
Asia that share common family and cultural ties.[158] This
has contributed to considerable resentment, and even
anti-Chinese violence.[159][160][161]

The Istiqlal Mosque in Central Jakarta. Indonesia is the worlds


most populous Muslim-majority nation.

The ocial national language is Indonesian, a form of


Malay. It is based on the prestige dialect of Malay,
that of the Johor-Riau Sultanate, which for centuries had
been the lingua franca of the archipelago, standards of
which are the ocial languages in Singapore, Malaysia
and Brunei. Indonesian is universally taught in schools,
consequently it is spoken by nearly every Indonesian. It
is the language of business, politics, national media, education, and academia. It was promoted by Indonesian nationalists in the 1920s, and declared the ocial language
under the name Bahasa Indonesia on the proclamation of
independence in 1945. Most Indonesians speak at least
one of the several hundred local languages and dialects,
often as their rst language. Of these, Javanese is the
most widely spoken as the language of the largest ethnic
group.[91] On the other hand, Papua has over 270 indigenous Papuan and Austronesian languages,[162] in a region
of about 2.7 million people.

tian, 1.7% Hindu, and 0.9% Buddhist or other. Most


Indonesian Hindus are Balinese,[168] and most Buddhists
in modern-day Indonesia are ethnic Chinese.[169] Though
now minority religions, Hinduism and Buddhism remain
dening inuences in Indonesian culture. Islam was rst
adopted by Indonesians in northern Sumatra in the 13th
century, through the inuence of traders, and became
the countrys dominant religion by the 16th century.[170]
Roman Catholicism was brought to Indonesia by early
Portuguese colonialists and missionaries,[171][172] and the
Protestant denominations are largely a result of Dutch
Calvinist and Lutheran missionary eorts during the
countrys colonial period.[173][174][175] A large proportion
of Indonesianssuch as the Javanese abangan, Balinese
Hindus, and Dayak Christianspractice a less orthodox,
syncretic form of their religion, which draws on local customs and beliefs.[176]
Education in Indonesia is compulsory for twelve
years.[177][178] Parents can choose between state-run, non
sectarian public schools supervised by the Department
of National Education (Depdiknas) or private or semiprivate religious (usually Islamic) schools supervised and
nanced by the Department of Religious Aairs.[179]
The enrolment rate is 94% for primary education (2011),
75% for secondary education, and 27% for tertiary
education. The literacy rate is 93% (2011).[180]

10 Culture
Main article: Culture of Indonesia
Indonesia has about 300 ethnic groups, each with cultural

Wayang Kulit (shadow puppet) in Wayang Purwa type, depicting


ve Pandava, from left to right: Bhima, Arjuna, Yudhishtira,
Nakula, and Sahadeva, Indonesia Museum, Jakarta.

identities developed over centuries, and inuenced by Indian, Arabic, Chinese, and European sources. Traditional Javanese and Balinese dances, for example, contain
aspects of Hindu culture and mythology, as do wayang
kulit (shadow puppet) performances. Textiles such as
batik, ikat, ulos and songket are created across Indonesia
in styles that vary by region. The most dominant inuences on Indonesian architecture have traditionally been
Indian; however, Chinese, Arab, and European architectural inuences have been signicant.

While religious freedom is stipulated in the Indonesian


constitution,[163] the government ocially recognizes
only six religions: Islam, Protestantism, Roman Catholicism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism.[164] Indonesia is the worlds most populous Muslim-majority nation, at 87.2% in 2010, with the majority being Sunni
(99%).[165][166] On 21 May 2011 the Indonesian SunniShia Council (MUHSIN) was established. The council
aims to hold gatherings, dialogues and social activities.
It was an answer to violence committed in the name of Sports in Indonesia are generally male-orientated
religion.[167] Seven percent of the population was Chris- and spectator sports are often associated with illegal

10
gambling.[181] The most popular sports are badminton
and football. Indonesian players have won the Thomas
Cup (the world team championship of mens badminton)
thirteen of the twenty-six times that it has been held
since 1949, as well as numerous Olympic medals since
the sport gained full Olympic status in 1992. Its women
have won the Uber Cup, the female equivalent of the
Thomas Cup, twice, in 1994 and 1996. Liga Indonesia
is the countrys premier football club league. Traditional
sports include sepak takraw, and bull racing in Madura.
In areas with a history of tribal warfare, mock ghting
contests are held, such as caci in Flores and pasola in
Sumba. Pencak Silat is an Indonesian martial art.

12 NOTES
now-defunct Ministry of Information monitored and controlled domestic media, and restricted foreign media.[190]
The TV market includes ten national commercial networks, and provincial networks that compete with public
TVRI. Private radio stations carry their own news bulletins and foreign broadcasters supply programs. At a reported 25 million users in 2008,[191] Internet usage was
estimated at 12.5% in September 2009.[192] More than
30 million cell phones are sold in Indonesia each year,
and 27% of them are local brands.[193]

11 See also
List of Indonesia-related topics
Outline of Indonesia
Transport in Indonesia
Tourism in Indonesia
List of tallest buildings in Indonesia

Indonesia Wikipedia book

A selection of Indonesian food, including ikan bakar (roasted


sh), ayam goreng (fried chicken), nasi timbel (rice wrapped in
banana leaf), sambal, fried tempeh and tofu, and sayur asem.

Indonesian cuisine varies by region and is based


on Chinese, European, Middle Eastern, and Indian
precedents.[182] Rice is the main staple food and is served
with side dishes of meat and vegetables. Spices (notably chili), coconut milk, sh and chicken are fundamental ingredients.[183] Indonesian traditional music includes gamelan and keroncong. The Indonesian lm industrys popularity peaked in the 1980s and dominated
cinemas in Indonesia,[184] although it declined signicantly in the early 1990s.[185] Between 2000 and 2005,
the number of Indonesian lms released each year has
steadily increased.[184]

12 Notes
[1] Indonesia (Country Studies ed.).
Congress.

US Library of

[2] Vickers, p. 117


[3] Population. www.bi.go.id (in Indonesian). Bank Indonesia. 30 June 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
[4] Indonesia. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 27
October 2013.
[5] Gross domestic product 2013. World Bank. Retrieved
2 July 2014.
[6] GDP per capita, PPP (current international $) extquotedbl. World Bank. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
[7] Gini Index. World Bank. Retrieved 2 March 2011.

The oldest evidence of writing in Indonesia is a series of Sanskrit inscriptions dated to the 5th century. [8] Human Development Reports 2014. United Nations.
Important gures in modern Indonesian literature inRetrieved 25 July 2014.
clude: Dutch author Multatuli, who criticized treatment
of the Indonesians under Dutch colonial rule; Sumatrans [9] The Naming Procedures of Indonesias Islands, Tenth
United Nations Conference on the Standardization of GeMuhammad Yamin and Hamka, who were inuential preographical Names, New York, 31 July 9 August 2012,
[186]
independence nationalist writers and politicians;
and
United Nations Economic and Social Council
proletarian writer Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Indonesias
most famous novelist.[187][188] Many of Indonesias peo- [10] Poverty in Indonesia: Always with them. The
Economist. 14 September 2006. Retrieved 26 December
ples have strongly rooted oral traditions, which help to
2006.; correction.
dene and preserve their cultural identities.[189]
Media freedom in Indonesia increased considerably af- [11] Guerin, G (23 May 2006). Don't count on a Suharto acter the end of President Suhartos rule, during which the
counting. Asia Times Online (Hong Kong).

11

[12] Tomascik, T; Mah, JA, Nontji, A, Moosa, MK (1996).


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[24] Taylor, pp. 57

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[26] Taylor, pp. 1518

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[29] Guide to the Temples of Java (Indonesia) by Approach


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15

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(2.91), Hindu 4012116 (1.69), Buddhist 1703254 (0.72),
Kaken Team & Center for Southeast Asian Studies Bugis
Khong Hu Chu 117091 (0.05), Other 299617 (0.13), Not
Sailors PDF (124 KB)
Stated 139582 (0.06), Not Asked 757118 (0.32), Total
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16

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[180] Data on Indonesia. World Bank. Retrieved 22 May


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[181] Witton, Patrick (2003). Indonesia. Melbourne: Lonely
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Vickers, Adrian (2005). A History of Modern Indonesia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-52154262-6.

[182] Witton, Patrick (2002). World Food: Indonesia. Melbourne: Lonely Planet. ISBN 1-74059-009-0.

14 External links

[183] Compared to the infused avors of Vietnamese and Thai


food, avors in Indonesia are kept relatively separate, simple and substantial. Brissendon, Rosemary (2003). South
East Asian Food. Melbourne: Hardie Grant Books. ISBN
1-74066-013-7.

Government

[184] Kristianto, JB (2 July 2005). Sepuluh Tahun Terakhir


Perlman Indonesia (in Indonesian). Kompas. Archived
from the original on 13 January 2008. Retrieved 2 August
2010.
[185] (Indonesian) Kondisi Perlman di Indonesia (The State
of The Film Industry in Indonesia) extquotedbl. Panton.
Archived from the original on 21 December 1999. Retrieved 2 August 2010.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Government of Indonesia
Minister of The State Secretary (Indonesian)
Statistics Center
Chief of State and Cabinet Members
General information
Indonesia entry at The World Factbook

[186] Taylor, pp. 299301

Indonesia from UCB Libraries GovPubs

[187] Vickers, pp. 37

Indonesia at DMOZ

[188] Friend, pp. 74, 180

Indonesia prole from the BBC News

[189] Czermak, Karen; Philippe DeLanghe; Wei Weng.


Preserving Intangible Cultural Heritage in Indonesia
(PDF). SIL International. Retrieved 4 July 2007.

Indonesia at Encyclopdia Britannica

[190] Shannon L., Smith; Lloyd Grayson J. (2001). Indonesia


Today: Challenges of History. Melbourne, Australia: Singapore : Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 07425-1761-6.

Ocial Site of Indonesian Tourism

[191] Internet World Stats. Asia Internet Usage, Population


Statistics and Information. Miniwatts Marketing Group.
2006. Retrieved 13 August 2007.
[192] Asia Internet Usage Stats and Population Statistics. Internetworldstats.com. Retrieved 10 April 2011.
[193] Phoning from home. Globeasia.com. 30 August 2010.
Retrieved 10 April 2011.

13

References

Friend, T. (2003). Indonesian Destinies. Harvard


University Press. ISBN 0-674-01137-6.
Ricklefs, M. C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia since c.1300, Second Edition. MacMillan.
ISBN 0-333-57689-6.
Schwarz, A. (1994). A Nation in Waiting: Indonesia
in the 1990s. Westview Press. ISBN 1-86373-6352.
Taylor, Jean Gelman (2003). Indonesia: Peoples
and Histories. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10518-5.

Wikimedia Atlas of Indonesia

Key Development Forecasts for Indonesia from


International Futures

17

15
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Denniehotel, Noozgroop, Download, Proxima Centauri, Lebanese heart, Passport90, Honoured Indonesian, EvanC0912, CarsracBot, Penpen29, PranksterTurtle, Glane23, Colbs333, Chzz, Paris 16, Debresser, Roux, AnnaFrance, GCaisle, LinkFA-Bot, 5 albert square, Aktsu,
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Putz removal, II MusLiM HyBRiD II, Villy, RudyReis, CinchBug, KamikazeBot, Thegg88, Reindra, Fernandosmission, IW.HG, South
Bay, Bangmahmud, Eric-Wester, 112311A, Backslash Forwardslash, Steven0269, AnomieBOT, Ichwan Palongengi, 1exec1, YeshuaDavid,
IfTrueElseFalse, Jim1138, Piano non troppo, Ipatrol, AdjustShift, LlywelynII, Kingpin13, Yachtsman1, Ulric1313, RandomAct, DariaNoelle, Erickester, Materialscientist, Aesop han, J1 Formidable, Citation bot, E2eamon, Dewan357, Frankenpuppy, ArthurBot, MauritsBot,
Xqbot, Neurocod, Timir2, Night w, Addihockey10, Drilnoth, Calvin Ho Jiang Lim, Zachary115, Luy sogeking, Astroalfa, GenQuest, Sunnah and Hadith, XZeroBot, Grim23, Chris Wilde, Anna Frodesiak, Rueyfgugd, BritishWatcher, Sinandoh, Hhx, Bcs bcs bcs, Chilionyang,
Omnipaedista, Frankie0607, Shirik, Papercutbiology, Earlypsychosis, RibotBOT, SassoBot, Themigthytraveller, Dre.comandante, Mathonius, CHJL, Doulos Christos, GhalyBot, MerlLinkBot, Wdenhelm, Chongkian, Wishnu, WebCiteBOT, Suriyanarayana, SchnitzelMannGreek, Erik9, Us441, Dougofborg, Gazloveswalton, Ryansirron1, Benny White, Mustafa97, Shuy, Csa.certied, FrescoBot, Karindraty,
Tangent747, Paine Ellsworth, Tobby72, AlexanderKaras, Thayts, DinajGao, Cpretzelh, Mistakender, Chokokokoa, Addicted04, Alxeedo,
Bryan7171, Bambuway, Bald Pig, Jamesooders, Edward Wilson Mother, Citation bot 1, Danceboy221, Guybrush1979, Intelligentsium,
Pinethicket, Elockid, Hariboneagle927, HRoestBot, Shihan123, Abductive, PrincessofLlyr, 10metreh, Fenikssyach, King Zebu, RedBot,
Nicksss93, Bluesatellite, Dandonikos, Adam yucker, Fixer88, T-1000i, Pete Maverick, Menahem.zen, Sakiella, Candraunpak, Y4n, RuleOfThe9th, Reconsider the static, Elekhh, FoxBot, TobeBot, Dragonitedude09, Joshganny, Jonathan.terbang, MikeAllen, Masonkingcobra, Lotje, Basyirun, Nickyus, Warongsaguer, RoadTrain, Vrenator, Jennny Thai, Victor Pogadaev, Vancouver Outlaw, 7107delicious,
Anakhs2, Chriscarol, Underlying lk, Suusion of Yellow, IRISZOOM, Polariseke, Tbhotch, Reach Out to the Truth, Tihear123, Reisha55,
Derild4921, Minimac, Ilham Jenor, Theoretical Pluralist, Anakhs3, Zakwannur, Stj6, RjwilmsiBot, Chipmunkdavis, Basyriun, Alph Bot,
Yourmumismydad, Andychen86, Rollacoasta of Love, KaptainIgloo, WildBot, Rosa lilian, Mom smells55, Mikael07, Wrenelhai, CalicoCatLover, Wikithroll, DASHBot, Medimidi, EmausBot, RikiRokhman, WikitanvirBot, Sheikhqadr77, Fannypac1, Immunize, Gfoley4, Crimeson666, Look2See1, Wicaksonobenny, Katherine, Rail88, Moon.feed, Racerx11, Blizzardstep0, GoingBatty, Western Pines,
Mesgul82, RenamedUser01302013, Bradls001, Bull Market, Harry5770, DiiCinta, Hgk,p, Michaeltobbylee, P. S. F. Freitas, Kil174,
Ratuzam, Jerworlds, Bonnie Parker, Hereforhomework, Kkm010, ZroBot, John Cline, Profdodo256, Shinjaz, Inderanta Depari, Luth94,
Nhanan, Inhakito, Stellakatherine, Jereyjahja, PunkyMcPunkersen, Jiopoop, Andy13212, Fgjp, Hansen12345, Thefellowship3, AvicAWB, PT.KERETA API (PERSERO), Diananovita, H3llBot, Myrie96, Gniniv, Vian kadal, Tarmizi Bustamam, Tmelwani, RaptureBot, Thine Antique Pen, Jsayre64, Jay-Sebastos, Kill me when i die, Brandmeister, L Kensington, Quantumor, Alfayomega, Alan Ainun,
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365 , Graft-

15.2

Images

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buster2010, Zakkits, Adjiebrotot, Pluma, North Atlanticist Usonian, Secret of success, Mightymights, Sutan alief, Mahali syarifuddin,
Tholme, Yofan Pratama P, Calabe1992, Zhoutong, Lowercase sigmabot, BG19bot, Bmusician, Flix11, NatalieF25, HIDECCHI001, AvocatoBot, Philpm930, Crussd2, HistoryLV, Red Rover112, Dalsoore, Beijingdemocracy, Pizzadude9753, Charlessbarkeley, Lolopisot,
Cadiomals, Dimas Wibisono, Afrogindahood, Merla89, Areth Hatta, Bslato1, Marywashington, Sherri J1990, Tommyboy1123, Snow
Blizzard, Mateom28, V838 Monocerotis, Slushy9, Rowanm, Dennis.gibrail08, RidwanFadilArif, Jtm1234, Glacialfox, TBrandley, Pejuang44, Moab1111111111, Freddie0110, Mynameisagnes, Aisteco, Erika.lepage 1992, Wer900, Kano903, Linuxboy1234, Dirtyblackratpoo, Justbrowsing1, Shredder2012, FKFKFKFK, Jllg1996, Ranking Update, Agent 78787, BattyBot, Rwenonah, Ling.Nut3, Guylikepie,
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Yogwi21, Baskoro Aji, Nichollas Harrison, CorinneSD, Spanish Philippines, MondoKelbi, Handrata Roy Josia, Mattmegavoice, Faizan,
CsDix, Redd Foxx 1991, Howicus, Wanishahrukh, The Anonybot, Rajputbhatti, Hssaha, Raamaturott, EvergreenFir, Krasnokrai, Aryo gitoyo, Indra Tauk C, Angsanley, Ihjdekeijzer, Kevy123, Ugog Nizdast, Jedidiahmarada, Andimuhammadrifki, Ginsuloft, Monica Natasha,
Ptone56, Yakupe, KCE remember that, Olykngwzere, Terryiscool, Sania Willy, Articial123, UnbreakableMass, Bryanr31, Demanzonderjas, Blondeguynative, Jimmy875, Gujar8, Estonian1, Thomas Ivan, Pablo iscobar, Chipperdude15, Jaihost, ThecentreCZ, Bungutebungute,
Ken Cot En, Haxred, Gkjgks, Deven1210, Ora7, Monkbot, Heroes10, Hjalnobel, Septate, Mridzario, Monopoly31121993, Theleqionpk,
Cyntiamaspian, Tommy1933 and Anonymous: 2144

15.2

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File:Asia_(orthographic_projection).svg Source:
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projection%29.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0 Contributors: Map by Ssolbergj
Aquarius.geomar.de
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File:Indonesia_(orthographic_projection).svg
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TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

File:Obama_and_Susilo_Bambang_Yudhoyono_in_arrival_ceremony_cropped.jpg
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wikipedia/commons/2/25/Obama_and_Susilo_Bambang_Yudhoyono_in_arrival_ceremony_cropped.jpg License:
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DC
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File:Ubud-Kids.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/45/Ubud-Kids.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Originally from en.wikipedia; description page is/was here. Original artist: Original uploader was Merbabu at en.wikipedia
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