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Introduction

India is a very ancient country, the country which has been


known to the world since ages because of this the country has
been known with many names i.e. Bharath, Aryavarta, Jam-
budvipa, Hindustan, Bharathvarsha etc. Many historians be-
lieve that oldest remains have been found of the era more than
55,000 years back! The Vedas (Oldest Indian Scripture) has
been composed during the period of 2000-500 BCE. The Indi-
an subcontinent was many distributed alone the lines of river
Ganges. The northwestern plains were divided into many rul-
ing states called "Mahajanpadas" The was flourished in cul-
ture, are and literature. There were many ancient scriptures
were writen as the country has spread its culture upto the
distance south India. Gupta Empire has been known as the
most important for the growth of classical Sanskrit literature,
Indian Science, Medicine and mathematics. The Indian My-
thology which has now been called as mythology is not actual-
ly a mythology, there is a greater signifcance of historical data
and other evidences based on the ancient scenario of the un-
derstanding of the people, their values, culture, knowledge,
strategic aptitudes and their society as whole.
What is Mythology?
mythology is a large body of traditional narratives related to
Hinduism as contained in Sanskrit literature (such as the epics
like Mahabharata and Ramayana, the Puranas, and the Ve-
das), Ancient Tamil literature (such as the Sangam literature
and Periya Puranam), several other works, most notably the
Bhagavata Purana, claiming the status of a Fifth Veda and
other religious regional literature of South Asia. (Source: Wik-
ipedia) The Indian Mythology is so rich in its culture and
strategy that it has respected around the world for its content.
The Mahabharata is known as world's longest epic. It contains
200,000 verses. The structure of Indian mythology is very sim-
ple and in the form of stories which are interesting and can be
remembered for long. Indian Mythology has the signifcant
value of knowledge of its rich tradition, respect and coherence
among each other.


Introduction of the roots Strategic Manage-
ment in Mythology
In order to understand the strategic management from the
context of Mythology, we must have to understand it frst
from the present context. In the present context it has been
defned as the formulation and implementation of the major
goals and initiatives taken by a company's top management on
behalf of owners, based on consideration of resources and an
assessment of the internal and external environments
-Strategic decisions are taken only after analyzing the environ-
ment and the target vision in mind.
Certain questions must be formulated before building the
strategy with environmental scanning
-What is the target which one must have to achieve?
What are the core values ?
Who are the stakeholders?
What would be the efect of the strategy as a whole?
What is the geographic scope?
What are the skills and the resources needed?
What diferentiates one from its competitors ?
What are the important risks & opportunities available?
How can more values be generated ?
Implementation of the strategy
The implementation of the strategy is the second most im-
portant thing which one has to do in order to comply with the
policies wherein one must have to understand the scenario
and the conditions which can be represented with the goal
formulation and the standard consideration of the view points
of the resource. The implementation of the strategy also in-
volves the leadership arrangements, communications, monitor-
ing mechanism, tracking progress.
Types of strategies
Strategies can be the plan ' intended set of goals'
Strategy as a patern of past behavior, planned or intended
Strategy as a position means to take a stand in which can re
flect the positive value and the strategies build on that plat-
form
Strategic Management Lessons from Indian Mythology
By: Ashutosh Srivastava PGDM EX-050
positive value and the strategies build on that platform
Strategy as a perspective which could give the way of the mind-
set or positioning among its stake holders.
We are going to see how all these types of strategies have been
derived from the scriptures which are mentioned as Indian My-
thology and how the strategies and planning are still inline with
the present scenario.
Strategic management lessons from
Mahabharata
Mahabharata is the longest epic with a major focus on the strat-
egy of war. The epic war was between two clans Pandavas and
Kauravas.
Mahabharata also contains the verses of the secret text called
Bhagvad-Geeta. This text has stressed upon the need of work
rather righteous work. The Bhagwad-Geeta contains the su-
preme message of management, which are above all the man-
agement lessons...it says worship your work and imbibe always
in work, even gods cannot live without work. Work should
always be done after comparing with diferent sources, whether
one is doing the work is right from all the sides, what would be
repercussions of that work and how can be the body, mind and
soul can be benefted with the kind of work one does.
The war which Pandavas won was not only because they have
right strategies but they have right managers who could execute
them righteously. The right strategy can turn one's weakness
into one's strength. Pandavas were weaker in the army but they
had right and faithful allies, they have shared their responsibili-
ties, the teamwork of Pandavas was perfect in the war. They
have fought as a team and did not leave any of their friends
alone to fght in the war. They respect their soldiers and their
team interest lies above their individual interests.
Core Values of Pandavas :
Ethics defnes as the core principles which defne as the moral
principles that governs or influence the person's behavior. The
ethics are the benchmarks of human behavior, the conduct of
human behavior is influenced by the emotions of life thus the
action of life. The coordination of action and emotions gener-
ates ethics. The core value of Pandavas were based upon
'Dharma' which is again reinstated upon the truth. The truth is
the most important value system which Pandavas have followed
all through their life. The strategy which laid upon the value
system which is called truth has been the most important in
their winning strategy. The value system which is based upon
the truth and the Dharma is the rightouness and the system of
right approach. This has also given the strength and the motiva-
tion to the whole army. This has also laid the foundation which
has been signifcantly described as the writer of Mahabharata
the society gave much respect on the truth and the Dharma.
Which has also been right approach which has been acceptable
by the society. This core value has been the most important
which had played an important role in their winning.
The Stakeholders
The stakeholders were the people of India who wanted the win
of right or the truth over the wrong or the unjust. The stake
holders were the people of the India who have been asking for
the systems wherein the life of the people has been under that
situation which has been referred in the ancient India as the
solution of their problem. The people did not like Kauravas and
their reigns. They desperately wanted Pandavas to take over.
Pandavas were more famous and they were known to follow the
path of the truth which was acceptable to all because that was
the Dharma or (the way of life) of the people.
The resources available to Pandavas
The Pandavas has very small army as compared to Kauravas.
Kauravas have 11 Aukshouhini sena which equals 21,870 chari-
ots, 21870 elephants,65610 horses, 109,350 foot soilders,
(1:1:3:5). With key human resources of greatest men of that era
viz. Bheeshma, Duryodhana, Kripachaya, Dronacharya,
Aswathama etc. Pandavas sena was of 7 Akshouhini which had
less number of chariots, elephants, horses and humans but they
have the best of the Archers: Arjuna, the mighty Bhima, Ab-
himanyu, the follower of Dharma as Yudhithira and the great-
est managers of all Krishna. Krishna is also known as someone
who is the master of all 64 types of arts and who knows how to
win wars. This was the great of asset which one side could get.
Preparation : As a strategy
The Pandavas have devoted considerable time in preparation for
the war. It was hinted by Krishna that once the exile of the
Pandavas will be over there will be a big war with Kauravas, the
war will be remembered all through the ages. Pandavas have
developed various personal and group skills about the war from
various sources. Arjun went to Indra's adobe and lived in a hard
penance to get the various weapons from Indra. He had also
learnt various arts of wars and other arts of dance and singing
which had helped him to live in disguise during the exile peri-
od. Bheema had learned the art of war from his brother Hanu-
man who was also known as the god of power and strength.
Yudhishthira was known as a highly learned man and someone
who take decision based upon truth and righteousness. This
had immensely enhanced the powers of Pandavas because when
power meets with wisdom it can create wonders. Pandavas have
also acquired new allies and new kingdoms and territories
which are going to help them during the war this has been the
best strategy for them as thus has been very handy during the
war time, As it is known as the army arches in the stomach
hence they must have to cater the resources for their armies and
they must have to get the as during the war time.
Leadership in Pandavas
Pandavas was highly available with the leadership. The leader-
ship available with Pandavas was of very reputed and with full
of knowledge and wisdom. The power with Pandavas was their
leadership skills. They have the innate skills of motivating and
lifting others. This has been very crucial to their win. Their
skills were in organizing, clarifying their problems and support-
ing and listening criticism. Their delegating skills have also
helped them to delegating right task to right people. Planning
seting and organizing their objectives. They have always fore
runner in taking initiatives and response to change situation.
Their energy ambition and motivation skills have really helped
them in deciding the skills for the strategy building and goal
seting.
Team spirit
The Team spirit binds the team to atain a target or goal. In
Mahabharata the team spirit was highly associated with Panda-
vas. They have a common objective to win for the truth or
Dharma. The whole Pandavas have high respect for Yudhithira
and Krishna. Most of them were part of the decision making
process. Pandavas take decision with the help of whole mem-
bers and their decision was unanimous whereas the decisions
taken by Kauravas was not unanimous and it was based upon
the decision of Duryodhna, Duryodhana had the personal mo-
tives with the war but the other members of his did not have
the same motive. Though they were very mighty but they have
wowed that they would not killed the pandavas. Bhishma- Took
wow that he wont kill any Pandava brothers but will kill thou-
sand soldiers every day. Karna had promised that he wont kill
any of Pandavas except Arjun. Dronacharya said that he is in-
terested in capturing Pandavas rather than killing them. Panda-
vas have the common motive to win the war as well as they
have their individual motives as well. The individual motive of
Bheema was to kill Duryodhana and Dushanshana, Arjun
wowed to kill Karna, Jaydrath,



This line is from Virat Parva of Mahabharat which says that
Pandavas have the common motive and they have unanimously
done it.

The Vision and mission
The vision and mission plays an important role in the goal
seting and the delivering the required. The vision of Pandavas
was defned as they have to win the war. They did not have the
greed of the state or the resource. People understood that Pan-
davas are fghting the war of their status and their dignity. They
have amalgamated their dignity with the dignity of the people
hence they have got the support of the masses which is the rea-
son that the soldiers of Pandaves were highly motivated and
they were fghting their own war. The Kauravas have the per-
sonal motives and lack of vision. The personal motives have not
been able to percolated among their soldiers. The vision of
Duryodhana was very limited and he was greedy, his greed can
be seen from this shloka.

-



In this shloka Duryodhan says he wont give any villages or any
wealth to Pandavas and let it be decided by the war.
The Ramayana and its strategic management
lessons
Ramayana foremost presses upon the values and value system.
The value system what a company must have to lay grounds for
strategies. The frm strategies which are based upon the unique
value system must be integrated upon the system and functions
of an organization.
Taking people together
Ram exists for Ayodhya; Ayodhya does not exist for Ram. And
so when Ram is asked to choose between Ayodhya and Sita,
Ram chooses Ajodhya not Sita. But it is quite the opposite for
Ravan. Lanka exists for him, and he refuses to part with Sita
even when Lanka is burned and its residents killed. Ram respect
people whether he is is big or small. His respect for people can
be seen that he had formed an army with the help of monkeys
and apes. He had also motivated Ahilya and Sabari who were
the women from secluded and downtrodden. Ram had motivat-
ed them and let them realized their values to succeed in their
life and to achieve their destination in life. Ram's ideology of
righteousness and abiding with the people has helped him to
achieve his target.
Utilizing the resource and managing
Ram was the right kind of manager who has utilized the re-
sources with optimum possible way. Ram has shown his mana-
gerial skills during war with Ravana. The most important was
building of the bridge over the sea on the way to Lanka. Every
body was thinking their own way how to cross the sea but Ram
took 3 days in meditated and then suggested that they can go
with the creating a bridge over the sea. All have abided by the
same and he had been supported by two of his army men Nal-
Nila who were very talented in making bridge. The bridge has
been ready within few days. Ram and his brother Lakshman
have also trained the tribals who were referred as apemen in
Ramayana the epic.
Conclusion from the epics
There are many aspects of Ramayana and Mahabharata which
can be considered in a few points which can be easily related to
the strategic management.
Formulation of strategic vision and mission with amal-
gamation of the value system.
Organization and conduction of an event
Select a long term and short term strategies and annual
plan in relation to your target.
Evaluation of the success stories with the budgeted plans
and nature of its relation to the project or immediate
strategy.
Never underestimate your enemies and always try to
subdue them before even striking.
The Indian Epics are great and they have huge potentials to
change the human race and they are still continuing since ages.