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COMPLETE REVISION

April 2008

Process Industry Practices
P&ID
PIP PIC001
Piping and Instrumentation Diagram
Documentation Criteria



PURPOSE AND USE OF PROCESS INDUSTRY PRACTICES

In an effort to minimize the cost of process industry facilities, this Practice has
been prepared from the technical requirements in the existing standards of major
industrial users, contractors, or standards organizations. By harmonizing these technical
requirements into a single set of Practices, administrative, application, and engineering
costs to both the purchaser and the manufacturer should be reduced. While this Practice
is expected to incorporate the majority of requirements of most users, individual
applications may involve requirements that will be appended to and take precedence
over this Practice. Determinations concerning fitness for purpose and particular matters
or application of the Practice to particular project or engineering situations should not
be made solely on information contained in these materials. The use of trade names
from time to time should not be viewed as an expression of preference but rather
recognized as normal usage in the trade. Other brands having the same specifications
are equally correct and may be substituted for those named. All Practices or guidelines
are intended to be consistent with applicable laws and regulations including OSHA
requirements. To the extent these Practices or guidelines should conflict with OSHA or
other applicable laws or regulations, such laws or regulations must be followed.
Consult an appropriate professional before applying or acting on any material
contained in or suggested by the Practice.
This Practice is subject to revision at any time.
Process Industry Practices (PIP), Construction Industry Institute, The
University of Texas at Austin, 3925 West Braker Lane (R4500), Austin,
Texas 78759. PIP member companies and subscribers may copy this Practice
for their internal use. Changes, overlays, addenda, or modifications of any
kind are not permitted within any PIP Practice without the express written
authorization of PIP.
Note: PIP PIC001, Piping and Instrumentation Diagram Documentation Criteria, incorporates
symbols previously published in standards owned and copyrighted by The Instrumentation,
Systems, and Automation Society (ISA). These are printed with agreement from ISA.
PRINTING HISTORY
November 1998 Issued
April 2008 Complete Revision
Not printed with State funds


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COMPLETE REVISION
April 2008

Process Industry Practices
P&ID
PIP PIC001
Piping and Instrumentation Diagram
Documentation Criteria
Table of Contents
1. Introduction................................. 2
1.1 Purpose............................................ 2
1.2 Scope............................................... 2
2. References .................................. 2
2.1 Process Industry Practices .............. 2
2.2 Industry Codes and Standards ........ 3
2.3 Government Regulations................. 3
3. Definitions ................................... 3
4. Requirements.............................. 5
4.1 General ............................................ 5
4.2 Format.............................................. 6
4.3 Equipment...................................... 11
4.4 Piping............................................. 17
4.5 Instrumentation and Controls......... 20
Appendixes
Appendix A Tables and Symbols
Appendix B Cover Sheets
Appendix C Example P&IDs
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Piping and Instrumentation Diagram Documentation Criteria April 2008
1. Introduction
1.1 Purpose
This Practice provides requirements for designers preparing Piping and Instrumentation
Diagrams (P&IDs).
1.2 Scope
This Practice describes the requirements for P&ID format and content. The Practice is
independent of time in a facility life cycle and encompasses design, construction,
operations, and maintenance.
This Practice covers the generation of new P&IDs and does not apply to the revision of
existing P&IDs. This Practice also applies to P&IDs provided by packaged equipment
vendors.
This Practice applies to all diagrams that fit the definition of a P&ID in Section 3.
The requirements provided in this Practice can be applied to any CAD system used for
developing the P&IDs and are not vendor, hardware, or software specific.
The requirements provided in this Practice provide a balance between showing all data on
P&IDs and making P&IDs legible and easy to read. While this Practice is expected to
incorporate the majority of requirements of most users, individual applications may
involve requirements that will be appended to and take precedence over this Practice.
Determinations concerning fitness for purpose and particular matters or application of the
Practice to particular project or engineering situations should not be made solely on
information contained in these materials.
The example P&IDs included in the Appendixes of this Practice are not intended to
recommend specific design details or requirements. Example P&IDs are included to
provide an illustration of how the elements of this Practice are combined into a P&ID.
Electronic native files for the text, symbols, and cover sheets are available to PIP
Member Companies for input to members CAD systems. Development of project-
specific cover sheets is recommended using the PIP native files as a starting point.
Additions and/or deletions are allowed to meet requirements. Cover sheet borders and
title blocks can be altered.
2. References
Applicable parts of the following Practices, industry codes and standards, and references shall be
considered an integral part of this Practice. The edition in effect on the date of start of P&ID
development shall be used, except as otherwise noted. Short titles are used herein where
appropriate.
2.1 Process Industry Practices (PIP)
PIP INEG1000 Insulation Design and Type Codes
PIP PCCIP001 Instrument Piping and Tubing Systems Criteria
PIP PCSIP001 Instrument Piping and Tubing Systems Specifications
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PIP PNE00001 Design of ASME B31.3 Metallic Piping Systems
PIP PNSM0001 Piping Line Class Designator System
2.2 Industry Codes and Standards
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
ANSI/FCI 70-2-2003 Control Valve Seat Leakage
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
Section VIII Pressure Vessels
The Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society (ISA)
ISA 5.1 Instrumentation Symbols and Identification
ISA 5.2 Binary Logic Diagrams for Process Operations
ISA 5.3 Graphic Symbols for Distributed Control / Shared Display
Instrumentation, Logic and Computer Systems
ISA 84.01 Application of Safety Instrumented Systems for the Process Industries
Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA)
TEMA Standards
2.3 Government Regulations
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
OSHA 29 CFR 1910.119 Occupational Safety and Health Standards, Process
Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals
3. Definitions
For the purposes of this Practice, the following definitions apply:
accessible: Term applied to a device or function that can be used or seen by an operator for the
purpose of performing control actions (e.g., set point changes, auto-manual transfer, or on/off
actions) (Reference ISA 5.1)
automated valve: Any valve with a locally or remotely controlled actuator. Examples are
throttling control valves and on/off block valves. Actuators are typically air-operated (diaphragm
or piston), electric or hydraulic, some with a spring-return function. Manually-operated valves are
sometimes tagged as automated valves (e.g., if a manual valve is fitted with position switches).
auxiliary P&ID: Used to show details to unclutter other P&IDs (e.g., lube oil system, sample
systems, instrument details)
Basic Process Control System (BPCS): Control equipment and system installed to regulate
normal production functions. It may contain combinations of single-loop pneumatic controllers,
single-loop electronic controllers, Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), and Distributed
Control Systems (DCSs). The BPCS is required to operate the process. Examples of control
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functions included in the BPCS are cascade control, override control, and pump start/stop. Also
known as Basic Regulatory Controls. (See also HLCS and SIS)
bubble: Circular symbol used to denote and identify the purpose of an instrument or function. The
bubble usually contains a tag number. (Synonym for balloon) (Reference ISA 5.1)
design pressure: Pressure used in the design of a vessel component together with the coincident
design metal temperature for determining the minimum permissible thickness or physical
characteristics of the different zones of the vessel. (Reference ASME Boiler Pressure Vessel
Code, Section VIII, Division 1, Appendix 3)
fail closed (FC): Characteristic of an automated valve that causes the valve to close as a result of
specific malfunctions, including loss of signal or motive power. (Reference ISA 5.1)
fail indeterminate (FI): Characteristic of an automated valve that causes the valve to move to an
unknown position as a result of specific malfunctions, including loss of signal or motive power.
Some automated valves will not stay at the last position upon failure and instead move with the
process differential pressure. Additional equipment may be needed to meet the definition of FC,
FO, or FL. (Reference ISA 5.1)
fail locked (FL) last position: Characteristic of an automated valve that causes the valve to remain in
the last (locked) position as a result of specific malfunctions, including loss of signal or motive power.
Automated valves may fail indeterminately without additional equipment. (Reference ISA 5.1)
fail open (FO): Characteristic of an automated valve that causes the valve to open as a result of
specific malfunctions, including loss of signal or motive power. (Reference ISA 5.1)
hand switch (HS): Any operator-manipulated discrete control device, including hardwired panel
switches and software points.
heat exchanger type: Type designation shall be shell and tube, plate and frame, spiral, etc. For
shell and tube exchangers, use the three-letter designation describing stationary head, shell, and
rear end or head, in that order, in accordance with TEMA.
Higher Level Control System (HLCS): Provides sophistication above that of the BPCS. The
HLCS is not necessary to operate the process. HLCS functions are typically based in process
computers or higher level DCS hardware that interacts with the process by manipulating set
points in the BPCS. Examples of control functions in the HLCS are statistical process control and
model predictive control. (See also BPCS and SIS)
interlock: System that, in response to a predetermined condition, initiates a predefined action.
Typically comprised of binary (on/off) signals and logic used for process control, sequencing, or
protective interruption of normal process control functions. Protective interlocks are typically
further defined as being either safety-related or commercial-related (asset or production
protection).
isolation valve: A valve used for isolation of process equipment while performing activities such
as purging, de-pressuring or de-inventorying. This valve is also commonly referred to as the
primary block valve.
line class: Section of the Piping Material Specifications that provides a listing of piping
components for specific design conditions.
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logic solver: Control equipment that performs the logic function. It can be either hardwired (e.g.,
relays) or Programmable Electronic Systems (e.g., DCS-based or PLC-based, including dual-
redundant or triple-redundant microprocessors).
packaged equipment: One or more pieces of equipment furnished by a vendor with supportive
devices and components to perform a specific operation as a unit
Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID): Detailed graphical representation of a process
including the hardware and software (i.e., piping, equipment, and instrumentation) necessary to
design, construct and operate the facility. Common synonyms for P&IDs include Engineering
Flow Diagrams (EFDs), Utility Flow Diagrams (UFDs), and Mechanical Flow Diagrams (MFDs)
Programmable Electronic System (PES): Logic performed by programmable or configurable
devices (Reference ISA 84.01)
root valve: First valve or valves between the process and an auxiliary device (e.g., an instrument)
that contacts the process and is used to isolate the device from the process. This valve is typically
a line class valve used for shut-off and isolation.
Safety Integrity Level (SIL): One of four possible discrete integrity levels (SIL 1, SIL 2, SIL 3,
and SIL 4) of Safety Instrumented Systems. SILs are defined in terms of Probability of Failure on
Demand (PFD). (Reference ISA 84.01)
Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS): Systems composed of sensors, logic solvers, and final control
elements for the purpose of taking the process to a safe state if predetermined conditions are
violated. Other terms commonly used include Emergency Shutdown System (ESD or ESS),
Safety Shutdown System (SSD), and Safety Interlock System (SIS). (Reference ISA S84.01) (See
also BPCS and HLCS)
skirt: Cylindrical supporting structure, welded to the bottom of a vertical vessel and extended to
the base support
tagged: For the purposes of labeling instrumentation and control components, a hardware device
or a software point that is identified with an ISA style tag number
Tight Shut-Off (TSO): Tight Shut-Off is defined in this Practice as ANSI Class V or ANSI Class VI
in accordance with ANSI/FCI 70-2
trim: Item attached to equipment as an integral component, identified as part of the equipment
that is exposed to the process, and having a function local to the equipment being served.
Examples are vent and drain valves, instrument bridles, blind flanges, plugs, or other
miscellaneous items associated with a piece of equipment. Typically, trim is purchased
independently from the equipment.
4. Requirements
4.1 General
4.1.1 Most details available from other types of documentation (e.g., instrument loop
diagrams and vessel data sheets) should not be included on P&IDs.
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4.1.2 This Practice uses the concepts of typical details with implied components where
appropriate to simplify P&IDs. (See the cover sheet in Appendix B for
examples.) Additional examples can be added as required.
4.1.3 While the intent of this Practice is to simplify the P&IDs through the use of
implied components and cover sheets, this may not be compatible with the work
processes or design software used for a project. Therefore, this Practice does not
require the use of implied components. It is the responsibility of the project team
to determine the compatibility of implied components with project needs and work
processes (e.g., safety reviews, material take-off method, integration plan, etc.).
4.2 Format
4.2.1 Layout
Comment: The layout and orientation statements specified herein are
recommended as optimal, and slight deviation, although not
encouraged, may be required due to space constraints.
4.2.1.1 Piping Orientation
1. The top of a horizontal line and the left side of a vertical line shall
be the top of a pipe.
2. The bottom of a horizontal line and the right side of a vertical line
shall be the bottom of a pipe.
3. A note shall be used to clarify the orientation as required.
4.2.1.2 Drawing size shall be 22 inches x 34 inches.
4.2.1.3 Each P&ID shall be laid out to avoid clutter and allow future
modifications. No more than three pieces of major equipment shall be
shown on a P&ID. A set of pumps in the same service shall be one piece
of equipment for the purpose of a P&ID layout in accordance with
Appendix C.
4.2.1.4 Flow Orientation
1. Primary flow shall be shown on each P&ID from left to right.
2. Flow-through equipment shall be shown relative to actual
arrangement (e.g., cooling water supply in bottom of exchanger
tube bundle and cooling water return out top).
4.2.1.5 Primary process lines shall be shown heavier than secondary and utility
lines as described in Section 4.2.3.
4.2.1.6 Connector Symbols
1. Off-page and off-plot connectors for primary, secondary, and
instrumentation lines shall be shown entering the P&ID horizontally
0.25 inch from the left inside borderline and exiting 0.25 inch
horizontally from the right inside borderline in accordance with
Appendix C.
2. Utility connectors can be shown at any convenient location on the
body of the P&ID.
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April 2008 Piping and Instrumentation Diagram Documentation Criteria
4.2.1.7 Utility P&IDs
1. Utility collection/distribution P&IDs shall be laid out relative to
plot plan orientation in accordance with Appendix C.
2. To depict plot plan orientation, utility off-page connectors for a
utility connection/distribution P&ID may be positioned vertically in
accordance with Appendix C.
3. If match lines are required on utility collection/distribution P&IDs,
the lines shall match the connecting drawing match lines in
accordance with Appendix C.
4.2.1.8 Connector Descriptions
1. Service description, connector number, P&ID number, and
origin/destination shall be shown for off-page and off-plot
connectors in accordance with Appendix A-3.
2. Origin/destination shall be shown as an equipment number, line
number, or loop number.
3. Service description for a piping off-page and off-plot connector
shall be shown as name of fluid (e.g., Cracked Gas) or line
description (e.g., Reactor Feed, Tower Overhead).
4. Service description for an instrument off-page and off-plot
connector shall be shown as a line function (e.g., Low Level
Override) or equipment to be controlled (e.g., PV-10014A/B).
5. Text associated with off-page and off-plot connectors on the left
side of the P&ID should be left justified; text associated with off-
page and off-plot connectors on the right side of a P&ID should be
right justified.
4.2.1.9 Equipment arrangement shall be shown relative to its elevation to grade
(e.g., pumps at bottom of P&ID) in accordance with Appendix C.
4.2.1.10 A control valve actuator shall be shown above a horizontal line or left of
a vertical line.
4.2.1.11 If a control valve identification bubble is required, the center point of the
bubble shall be shown 0.5 inch above and 0.5 in away from the actuator
in a horizontal line or 0.5 inch to the left and 0.5 inch away from the
actuator in a vertical line.
4.2.1.12 The center point of an instrument bubble shall be shown 0.5 inch directly
above an in-line instrument in a horizontal line or 0.5 inch directly left of
an in-line instrument in a vertical line. Examples are restriction orifices
and stand-alone thermowells.
4.2.1.13 Pump and compressor driver piping, instrumentation, and auxiliaries can
be shown on a separate, auxiliary P&ID. Primary P&ID and auxiliary
P&ID shall be cross-referenced.
4.2.1.14 Typical details shall be used if clutter can be eliminated without
detracting from clarity. These details shall be shown on the P&ID, on an
auxiliary P&ID, or on a cover sheet.
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4.2.4.2 Equipment Information
1. Equipment numbers shall use a text height of 0.16 inch at a weight
of 0.03 inch.
2. Equipment numbers shall be underlined.
3. Equipment title and data shall use a text height of 0.1 inch at a
weight of 0.02 inch.
4. Equipment text shall be justified at the top and center.
5. Equipment numbers, titles, and data for fixed or static equipment
(i.e., exchangers, vessels, tanks, towers, filters, and material
handling) shall be shown within 2 inches from the top inside
borderline of the P&ID, directly above the equipment, and on the
same horizontal plane as other equipment identification.
6. Equipment numbers, titles, and data for rotating equipment (i.e.,
pumps, blowers, compressors, and agitators) shall be shown within
2 inches from the bottom inside borderline of the P&ID, directly
below the equipment, and on the same horizontal plane as other
equipment identification.
7. Equipment number, title, and data shall be shown once for identical
equipment with the same number, title, and service (e.g.,
P-601A/B).
4.2.4.3 Line Numbers
1. Line numbers shall be shown in accordance with Appendix A-3.
See example shown in Appendix C.
2. Line numbers shall use a text height of 0.1 inch at a weight of
0.02 inch.
3. Line number text shall be placed 0.06 inch from the line and shall
be lined up vertically 0.25 inch from the connector.
4. Line numbers at entering off-page and off-plot connectors shall be
justified at the top and left.
5. Line numbers at exiting off-page and off-plot connectors shall be
justified at the top and right.
6 Line numbering shall be shown with the orientation of the line.
4.2.4.4 Text Arrangement
1. Text shall be shown horizontal if possible.
2. Vertical text shall be placed to the left of supporting graphics if
possible.
3. Vertical text shall be read from bottom to top.
4.2.4.5 Abbreviations shall be in accordance with Appendix A-1.
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4.2.4.6 Control Valve Information
1. Control valve failure action abbreviation shall be shown at
0.06 inch directly below the control valve in horizontal lines and
0.06 inch to the right of the control valve in vertical lines. See
examples shown in Appendix C.
2. If the valve size is not line size or easily inferred from adjoining
pipe, reducers, or equipment, control valve size shall be shown
between the actuator and valve body symbol. If necessary, control
valve size can be repositioned so as not to be obscured by other
items shown on actuator (i.e., position switches, handwheels, etc.).
See examples shown in Appendix C.
3. Control valve seat leakage criteria (i.e., tight shut-off [TSO]) shall
be shown between the actuator and valve body symbol. If
necessary, control valve leakage criteria can be repositioned so as
not to be obscured by other items shown on the actuator (i.e.,
position switches, handwheels, etc.). See examples shown in
Appendix C.
4.2.4.7 For PSVs, PSEs, and pressure control valves (PCVs), the device size and
set pressure shall be shown close to the identification bubble. See
examples shown in Appendix C.
4.3 Equipment
4.3.1 General
4.3.1.1 Equipment Symbols
1. Equipment symbols shall be shown in accordance with
Appendix A-2.
2. Equipment shall be shown with simple outline representation.
3. Discretion shall be exercised for equipment symbols to not
dominate the drawing, but the symbols shall be drawn large enough
for clear understanding.
4. Equipment shall not be drawn to scale.
5. Equipment shall be shown relative to associated equipment both in
size and general orientation.
4.3.1.2 Nozzles
1. Nozzles, including spares, shall be shown on equipment as single lines.
2. Manways shall be shown as double lines.
3. Process and utility nozzles may be labeled.
4. Nozzle sizes shall be shown, unless the size is implied by piping
connections.
4.3.1.3 Equipment not specifically identified in this Practice shall be shown with
an equipment symbol that is a reasonable representation of the equipment
as it will exist in the field.
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4.3.1.4 Equipment shall be identified by a classification letter and sequence
number. Classifications used in this Practice are shown in Section 4.3.12.
Comment: The classifications shown in Section 4.3.12 are used on
the example P&IDs contained in Appendix C for
illustrative purposes only. The classifications are only
one example of classifications allowed by this Practice.
4.3.1.5 Equipment Item Number and Title/Service shall be shown as a
minimum. Section 4.3.13 provides a complete list of equipment data for
all equipment addressed in this Practice. For equipment not covered in
this Practice, equipment data shall be shown as necessary.
4.3.1.6 Internals for equipment shall be shown as dashed lines as described in
Section 4.2.2.2. Details of internals that have no significant bearing on
the piping design and layout or equipment operation shall be omitted.
4.3.1.7 Equipment elevations shall not be shown unless the elevations are
necessary to specify process requirements for associated equipment
location or orientation relative to one another.
4.3.1.8 Associated trim (e.g., vent and drain valves, instrument bridles) for
equipment shall be shown.
4.3.1.9 Auxiliary system requirements for individual pieces of equipment (e.g.,
lube oil systems, seal flush systems, turbine gland leak-off piping,
sample systems) shall be shown on auxiliary P&IDs.
4.3.1.10 J acketing and tracing requirements for equipment shall be shown.
4.3.1.11 The type of insulation (e.g., personnel protection, heat conservation) for
equipment shall be shown as part of the equipment data. Insulation
thickness shall be shown where applicable.
4.3.2 Agitators
4.3.2.1 The term agitator shall apply to mechanical mixers and aerators.
4.3.2.2 Agitators shall be shown in accordance with Appendix A-2.
4.3.3 Blowers
4.3.3.1 Blower symbols shall be shown as centrifugal or positive displacement
as required.
4.3.3.2 Blowers shall be shown in accordance with Appendix A-2.
4.3.4 Compressors
4.3.4.1 The compressor symbol shall be shown for each stage of multistage
compressors.
4.3.4.2 Multistaged compressors can be shown on multiple P&IDs.
4.3.4.3 Compressors shall be shown in accordance with Appendix A-2.
4.3.5 Drivers
4.3.5.1 Drivers shall be shown with the driven equipment and shall use the
symbols for motors, diesel engines, and turbines.
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Table 1: Equipment Classifications
CLASS SUBJECT DESCRIPTION
A Mixing Equipment Agitators, Aerators, Mechanical Mixers
B Blowers Centrifugal Blowers, Positive Displacement
Blowers, Fans
C Compressors Centrifugal, Reciprocating, Screw, Vacuum
D Mechanical Drivers Electric and Pneumatic Motors, Diesel Engines,
Steam and Gas Turbines
E Heat Exchangers Unfired Heat Exchangers, Condensers,
Coolers, Reboilers, Vaporizers and Heating
Coils, Double Pipe, Spiral, Plate & Frame, Air
Coolers
F Furnaces Fired Heaters, Furnaces, Boilers, Kilns
P Pumps Horizontal and Vertical Centrifugal, Positive
Displacement, Vertical Canned, Screw, Gear,
Sump
R Reactors
T Towers / Columns
TK Tanks API atmospheric and low pressure
U Miscellaneous
Equipment
Filters, Bins, Silos
V Vessels Separators, Driers, Accumulators, Drums

4.3.13 Equipment Data
The following equipment information shall be shown on the P&ID in relation to
the appropriate equipment symbol and in accordance with Section 4.2.4.2:
4.3.13.1 Agitators, Mixers
Equipment/Item Number
Title/Service
Power Requirements
Materials of Construction
4.3.13.2 Blowers
Equipment/Item Number
Title/Service
Capacity (Flow and D/P)
Power Requirements
Materials of Construction
4.3.13.3 Compressors
Equipment/Item Number
Title/Service
Capacity (Flow and D/P)
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4.5 Instrumentation and Controls
4.5.1 Symbols
4.5.1.1 Instrument and control symbols shall be shown in accordance with
Appendix A-4. (Reference ISA-5.1 for additional details)
4.5.1.2 The conventions established by ISA-5.1 shall be followed for tagging and
numbering of instrument and control devices. (Reference Appendix A-4)
Comment: The tagging and numbering scheme described in the
following example is used on the example P&IDs
contained in the Appendixes for illustrative purposes
only. This example tagging and numbering scheme is
only one example of tagging and numbering schemes
described in this Practice. The tagging structure is shown
in the following example:
01 FC 100 01
01 Plant Number (shall not appear on P&IDs or in a bubble)
FC Function Identifier (e.g., Flow Controller)
100 Equipment (or P&ID) Number (optional)
01 Loop Sequence Number.
Breaks in the instrument bubble may be used to accommodate
longer tag numbers.
4.5.1.3 All measurement types shall be identified by an ISA symbol.
4.5.1.4 If necessary, a descriptive text label may be added (e.g., analysis
components like CO, H
2
, CH
4,
or unique flow measurement devices like
Mass).
4.5.1.5 Interlock symbols shall be depicted as follows:
a. For discrete, hardware-based interlocks, the conventional diamond
symbol shall be used in accordance with ISA-5.1 and ISA-5.2.
b. For PLC-based interlocks, the diamond-in-a-box symbol shall be
used in accordance with ISA-5.1 and ISA-5.2.
c. For DCS-based interlocks, the DCS symbol (bubble-in-a-box) shall
be used.
d. For PLCs integral to the DCS, the PLC symbol (diamond-in-a-box)
shall be used.
Comment: Reference Appendix A-4 and Section 4.5.6 for
additional information.
4.5.1.6 Directional arrows on instrumentation signal lines shall be used only if
the function is not obvious (e.g., cascades, selectors, interlocks).
4.5.1.7 Instrument function symbols, shown in Appendix A-4, shall be used to
clarify the function of certain tagged instrument bubbles. The symbol
shall be placed outside the bubble at the upper right.
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April 2008 Piping and Instrumentation Diagram Documentation Criteria
3. The symbols shown in Appendix A-4 shall be used for pressure and
temperature regulators.
4.5.3.2 Automated Valves
1. Automated valve fail actions shall be shown with text (FC/FO/FL/FI)
in accordance with ISA-5.1. (Reference Section 4.2.4.6)
Comment: Using stem arrows as outlined in ISA-5.1 is not
recommended.
2. For multi-port automated valves, FL and FI shall be used where
appropriate.
Comment: FO and FC shall not be used; instead, arrows shall be
used to show fail position flow paths. Note that multiple
arrows may be required.
3. Valves with different fail actions for loss of signal and for loss of
motive power require an explanatory note.
4. Valve body sizes shall be shown for all automated valves if not line
sized or otherwise implied. (Reference Section 4.2.4.6)
5. Automated valve specifications or commodity codes shall not be
shown.
6. For automated valves, tight shut-off requirements shall be identified
by using the abbreviation TSO. (Reference Section 4.2.4.6)
Comment: TSO defines the seat shut-off requirements for a new
valve. Testing requirements, if any, are defined in other
unit operation documents.
4.5.3.3 Identifying Tags
1. Valve identifying tags with bubbles shall not be shown if the
associated loop tag is readily apparent.
2. An identifying tag with a bubble shall be shown for split range valves,
self-contained regulators, or valves located on a separate P&ID from
its controller. (Reference Section 4.2.1.6)
4.5.3.4 The ranges (e.g., 0-50%, 50-100%) shall be shown for split range control
valves.
Comment: The preferred labeling is controller percentage output
because it applies to both pneumatic and electronic
systems.
4.5.3.5 Valve positioners shall not be shown unless necessary to clarify loop
operation (e.g., if used with trip solenoids or pneumatic trip relays).
Comment: If shown, valve positioners are normally included with
the automated valve symbol and are not tagged.
Process Industry Practices Page 25 of 31
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Piping and Instrumentation Diagram Documentation Criteria April 2008
4.5.6 Interlocks and Alarms
4.5.6.1 Interlocks shall be shown only symbolically on the P&ID.
4.5.6.2 The functional definition shall be shown on auxiliary documents (e.g.,
binary logic diagrams, descriptive narratives, truth tables).
Comment: Interlocks can be designed for a variety of functions,
from simple process sequences to complex safety
shutdown systems. A variety of hardware can be used
for implementation (e.g., DCS, PLC, relays, redundant,
fault-tolerant Safety Interlock Systems).
Alarms can be similarly designed in a variety of ways.
Alarms come from hardware, over serial links, from
DCS software and can be shown on a variety of facility
documents, including P&IDs, alarm summaries, logic
and loop diagrams, and operating procedures.
Because of this variety, along with individual owner
interpretations of the requirements of OSHA 1910.119
and ISA -84.01, many documentation aspects of
interlock and alarm system design should be defined by
the owner.
4.5.6.3 Logic functions or interlocks shall be shown with the proper symbols in
accordance with Section 4.5.1.
4.5.6.4 Binary logic gates, input/output tables, or descriptive narratives shall not
be shown.
4.5.6.5 All logic function and interlock symbols shall contain an identification
that provides reference to a unique logic diagram, narrative, truth table,
or program. The reference shall be located within the interior of the
symbol. The format of the reference shall be determined by the owner.
Descriptive text or a note reference can be placed outside the symbol.
4.5.6.6 If Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) are distinguished from other
interlock systems, the preferred method shall be to add an S prefix to
the unique interlock identification.
4.5.6.7 Each interlock shall be uniquely labeled, using a serial (not parallel)
tagging scheme. The S prefix shall not be used to distinguish a unique
interlock label.
Comment: A valid tagging scheme shall be I-100, I-101, SI-200,
SI-201. The scheme I-100, SI-100 should not be used.
4.5.6.8 The type of logic solver hardware or level of redundancy shall not be
shown except through the normal use of ISA symbols and the input and
output signals described in Section 4.5.1 and the Appendixes.
4.5.6.9 Classifications or Safety Integrity Levels (SIL) shall not be shown for
interlocks.
4.5.6.10 All operator-initiated interlock trip and reset hand switches shall be
shown.
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4.5.6.11 If used, all bypass hand switches for SIS interlocks shall be shown,
including all individual initiator and system bypass switches.
Comment: Unnecessary clutter can be avoided by use of a table or
reference note if large numbers of bypasses are
necessary.
4.5.6.12 All hardwired alarms shall be shown.
4.5.6.13 All alarms that require engineering or other review and approval based
on safety or operability shall be shown.
4.5.6.14 Hardware-based diagnostic alarms shall be shown.
4.5.6.15 Software-based diagnostic alarms shall be shown only if safety or
operationally related (e.g., defined in safety reviews).
Comment: Measurement out-of-range alarms are an example of
software diagnostic alarms not generally shown.
4.5.6.16 Required alarms shall be shown with tag and level (e.g., PAH), but alarm
trip points or settings shall not be shown.
4.5.6.17 For alarms based on analog measurements, the functional tag (e.g., PI)
shall be shown inside the bubble and the alarm levels shall be shown
outside the bubble.
4.5.6.18 High alarms (e.g., H, HH) shall be placed at the upper right outside the
bubble, and low alarms (e.g., L, LL) shall be placed at the lower right
outside the bubble.
Comment: The alarm modifier (A) should not be shown.
4.5.6.19 For discrete alarm points (on/off signals), the complete functional tag
and alarm level (e.g., PAH) shall be shown inside the bubble.
4.5.6.20 Standard ISA-5.1 abbreviations shall be used for both trip and alarm
functions (e.g., LSHH and LAHH).
4.5.7 DCS Points
4.5.7.1 A DCS point shall be shown if operations manipulates the process with it
or receives information from it, or if the point is essential to
understanding the functional operation of the process controls.
Comment: It is not necessary for every point configured in a DCS
to be shown. It is not necessary for implied functions
(e.g., I for indicate, R for recorder) to be included in
every DCS point tag.
It is not the intent of this section to define which DCS
points to show for every supplier of a DCS or each type
of system that can communicate with a DCS via a
software link (e.g., analyzer data highways, anti-surge
control systems, vibration monitoring systems, Safety
Instrumented Systems, PLCs, tank gauging systems).
Process Industry Practices Page 29 of 31
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Piping and Instrumentation Diagram Documentation Criteria April 2008
Appendixes Summary
The Appendixes of this Practice contain tables of commonly used symbols, abbreviations and other
identifiers; typical details; and example P&IDs.
Appendix A contains symbols and text grouped by function. The symbols and text are shown the
same size as would be utilized for a standard, full-size (22 inches x 34 inches) P&ID.
Appendix B contains the same data as Appendix A, organized into cover sheets. Cover sheets are also
commonly referred to as lead sheets or legend sheets.
Appendix C contains example P&IDs that illustrate the text and utilize the symbols and legends on
the cover sheets.
Comment: The cover sheets and P&IDs are drawn as standard, full-size (22 inches x 34 inches)
P&IDs, but reduced to standard 8-1/2 inch x 11-inch pages for electronic distribution
purposes. It is recommended that the cover sheets and P&IDs be printed on 11-inch x
17-inch pages.

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Appendix A Tables and Symbols

A-1 Format Tables and Symbols
1. Abbreviations
2. Miscellaneous Symbols
A-2 Equipment Tables and Symbols
1. Pumps
2. Compressors and Blowers
3. Drivers and Agitator/Mixer
4. TEMA Type Exchangers
5. Miscellaneous Exchangers
6. Storage Tanks
7. Storage Tanks
8. Storage Sphere and Furnace
9. Miscellaneous Vessel Details
10. J acketed Pressure Vessels
A-3 Piping Tables and Symbols
1. Line Data Identification
2. Line Service Codes
3. Piping Line Symbols
4. Valve Symbols
5. Piping Specialty Items
6. Piping Fittings
7. Connectors and Tie-In Symbol
8. Drain Connectors
9. Notes
A-4 Instruments & Controls Tables and Symbols
1. Instrument Identification Letters
2. General Instrument Symbols
3. Instrument Function Symbols
4. Instrument Line Symbols
5. Primary Element Symbols (Flow)
6. Control Valve Actuator Symbols
7. Self-Actuated Devices
8. Miscellaneous Instrument Symbols
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April 2008 Piping and Instrumentation Diagram Documentation Criteria
Appendix B Cover Sheets

B-1: Symbols and Nomenclature Typical Piping
B-2: Symbols and Nomenclature Typical Instrumentation
B-3: Symbols and Nomenclature Typical Equipment
B-4: Typical Details with Implied Components

Note: The example cover sheets in this Appendix are not all-inclusive of the potential uses of implied
components. The implied component examples shown do not cover all actual occurrences or
design possibilities for instrument assemblies, such as the level bridles shown. The user must
ensure that the cover sheets capture their piping/instrument requirements for their use of
implied components. There are many more systems that may require a cover sheet explanation
to show the implied components pump seals, sampling systems, analyzer systems for
example, as well as other types of level systems than those shown here.
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April 2008 Piping and Instrumentation Diagram Documentation Criteria
Appendix C Example P&IDs
C-1: Example P&ID 1
C-2: Example P&ID 2
C-3: Example Utility P&ID

Note: The examples shown on the sample P&IDs in this Appendix are not all-inclusive of the
potential uses of implied components. The user must ensure that the cover sheets capture their
piping/instrument requirements for their use of implied components. There are many more
systems that may require a cover sheet explanation to show the implied components pump
seals, sampling systems, analyzer systems for example, as well as other types of level systems
than those shown here.
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BASKET STRAINER
FLAME ARRESTOR
ANGLE VALVE
ANGLE BALL VALVE
ANGLE CHOKE VALVE
ANGLE CONTROL VALVE
THREE WAY VALVE
THREE WAY CONTROL VALVE
CONTINUOUS DRAIN
VANES CONTROL VALVE
HAND OPER. VANES VALVE
EXPANSION JOINT
SILENCER
OPEN DECK DRAIN
SAMPLE POINT
DIAPHRAGM SEAL
REMOTE TERMINAL UNIT
RUPTURE DISC
SCRAPPER TEE/SPHERE REE
SPECIALITY ITEM
FLEXIBLE HOSE
SS
PROCESS/UTILITY LINE
ELECTRICAL LINE
INSTRUMENT GAS/
ELECTRICAL TRACED LINE
CAPILLARY LINE
VENDOR LIMIT LINE
CENTER LINE
HYDRAULIC LINE
FUTURE
SS TUBING (PROCESS)
SCOPE OF WORK/LINE RATING
CHANGE (WITH PIPING SPEC.
M
B
S
M
JOHANNUS MINORE HOC FAECIT
JOHANNUS MINORE HOC FAECIT
S
RTU
NC
LC/LO
LO/LC
I
PSV
101
203
24
INLET SIZE, INCHES
ORIFICE CODE LETTER
OUTLET SIZE, INCHES
INSTR.
PIPING
1/2"
INSTR.
PIPING
PI PI
PI
11.1
(TYPICAL FOR PI,PT,PIC,PSH,PSL,PSHL)
TAKE OFF CONNECTIONS- PIPING : 3/4", VESSELS : 1.5" FLANGED
ALL DIAPHRAGM SEAL TYPE INSTR. TO HAVE 1.5" FLANGED TAPPING.
3/4"
*
PI PI
LO 3/4"
1
/
2
"
3
/
4
"
3
/
4
" 1
/
2
"
3/4"
PI PI
INSTR. PIPING
PDI PDI
1/2"
1/2"
I
N
S
T
R
.
P
I
P
I
N
G
MANIFOLD(PER SPECS.)
(TYPICAL FOR PDI,PDT,PDSH,PDSL,PDSHL)
TAKE OF CONNECTION-PIPING : 3/4", VESSELS : 1.5" FLANGED
11.2
11.3
LINES IDENTIFICATION
LINES
PIPING SYMBOLS NOTES:- GENERAL
CENTRAL CONTROL PANEL
1-1/2"
LO
A
RAIN CAP
SHUT DOWN
NORMALY LOCK OPEN INTERCHANGABLE TO LC
NORMALY LOCK CLOSE INTERCHANGABLE TO LO
ESD/FSD VALVES
NORMALY CLOSED
NORMALLY OPEN NO
ST
BURIED
STEAM TRAP
UNION
INSULATION JOINT
ADAPTER (TUBING PIPE)
FLOW ELEMENT ORIFICE/
TURBINE METER
POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT METER
ROTAMETER
SONIC METER
ELECTRIC MOTOR
PILOT TUBE
VENTURI METER
DRAIN PLUGGED
DRAIN FLANGED
STRAIGHTENING VANE (FLANGED)
ANALYSER
FILTER
CAP (THREADED)
BLIND FLANGE
CAP (WELDED)
HOSE CONNECTION
OFF/ON SKID OR SHOP FABRICATED
T-TYPE STRAINER
Y-TYPE STRAINER
FUSIBLE PLUG
1
/
2
"
L L L L
1. HIGH POINT VENT AND LOW POINT DRAIN NOT SHOWN ON P&ID SHALL BE SHOWN ON PIPING
ISOMETRIC / GENERAL ARRANGEMENT DRAWINGS .
2. ALL SAFETY VALVES DISCHARGE & EQUIPMENT DEPRESSURIZING LINES SHALL BE FREE DRAINING
TO VENT HEADER AND HAVE NO POCKETS UPTO AND INCLUDING HEADERS.
3. ALL ISOLATION VALVES IN TAPPINGS OF INSTRUMENTS (SUCH AS PRESSURE, LEVEL AND FLOW
SWITCHES) CAUSING SHUTDOWN SHALL BE LOCKED OPEN.
4. LINE NUMBERS SHALL BE INDICATED AS PER LINE LEGEND.
11. INSTRUMENT ISOLATION VALVES SHALL BE AS PER DETAILS GIVEN BELOW. ALL VALVES SHALL
BE AS PER APPROPRIATE PIPING/INST. SPECS. DIAPHRAGM SEAL ALSO AS PER SPECS. ALL TAKE
OFF CONNECTIONS SHALL BE SW (SOCKET WELD) UNLESS OTHERWISE SPEIFIED.
o o o
X X X
GATE VALVE
GLOBE VALVE
CHECK VALVE
BUTTERFLY VALVE
PLUG VALVE
BALL VALVE
NEEDLE VALVE
SPRING LOADED VALVE
DIAPHRAGM VALVE
CONTROL VALVE
CONTROL VALVE WITH HAND WHEEL
SELF ACTUATED PCV (DOWN STREAM)
SELF ACTUATED PCV (UP STREAM)
HAND OPERATED VALVE
PISTON OPERATED VALVE
MOTOR OPERATED VALVE
SHUT DOWN VALVE
BALL CONTROL VALVE
BUTTERFLY CONTROL VALVE
PILOT VALVE (XPV)
SLOPE(DOWN WARD)
HAMMER BLIND
SPECTACLE BLIND
FLANGE
REDUCER/EXPANDER
LOCALLY MOUNTED
LOCAL PURGED
PANEL MOUNTED /
LOCAL,PANEL MOUNTED
BACK PANEL MOUNTED
BACK LOCAL PANEL
COMPUTER FUNCTION
COMPUTER LOCAL PANEL
DCS/DIDC
FUNCTION BLOCK
INTERLOCK
RUNNING LIGHT,LOCAL
RUNNING LIGHT,PANEL
RUNNING LIGHT,LOCAL PANEL
SOLENOID VALVE(2 WAY)
SOLENOID VALVE(3 WAY)
POSITIVE CHOKE
ADJUSTABLE CHOKE
CONTROL VALVE W/POSITIONER
FOUR WAY VALVE
QUICK EXHAUST VALVE
DESIGNATION)
PNEUMATIC LINE
N2 NITROGRN CATRIDGE
I SENIOR ORIFICE
RESTRICTION ORIFICE
TEMPORARY STRAINER TS
(WITH LIQUID SEAL)
SET PR, KG/CM2G
6. DRAINS OF LEVEL INSTRUMENTS (NON-SOUR SERVICES) SHALL BE PIPED TO NEAREST DECK
DRAIN FUNNEL WITH 1/2" TUBE PIPE.
5. ALL INSTRUMENTS SHALL BE PROVIDED WITH ISOLATION VALVES FOR MAINTENANCE PURPOSE.
PUMPS IN SOUR SERVICE SHALL BE PIPED TO CLOSED DRAIN HEADER RESPECTIVELY.
BE PIPED WITH VALVE TO NEAREST DECK DRAIN FUNNEL. CASING DRAINS AND VENT FOR
7. FOR PUMPS HANDLING SWEET LIQUID, CASING VENTS, DRAINS AND BASE PLATE DRAINS SHALL
DISSIMILAR MATERIALS.
8. PROTECTION AGAINST GALVANIC CORROSION TO BE PROVIDED WHEREVER REQUIRED BETWEEN
9. ALL VENT GAS PIPING SHALL BE FREE DRAINING WITH NO POCKETS.
THE PIPE. WELL FLUID SAMPLES SHALL BE TAKEN FROM VERTICAL PORTION OF THE PIPE. ALL GAS
10. ALL LIQUID SAMPLE POINTS EXCEPT FOR WELL FLUID SAMPLES SHALL BE TAKEN FROM CENTER OF
SAMPLES SHALL BE TAKEN FROM TOP OF THE PIPE.
SP
IT SHOULD BE ENSURED THAT THESE VALVES SHALL BE EASILY ACCESSIBLE.
1/2"
INSTR.
VORTEX FLOW METER
7 6 5 4 3 2
A
B
C
D
E
F
NOTES
FLOW SHEET & INSTRUMENT LEGEND
PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&ID)
DRAWING NO.-
0
REV.
ISSUE
ISSUED FOR BID
OIL AND NATURAL GAS CORPORATION LTD.
OFFSHORE DESIGN SECTION, E & C DIVISION
MR, MUMBAI
28.02.06
DATE
0
NO. APPR. BY CHD
RVG SG
DEVELOPMENT OF C-SERIES STRUCTURE
7045-OD-1002
b r i g h t e r
t o m o r r o w
m a k i n g
Process Diagrams
OBJECTIVES
After studying this chapter, the student will be able to:
Review process diagram symbols.
Describe the use of process diagrams and the information they contain.
Draw a process ow diagram.
Draw a process and instrument drawing.
Describe the various process equipment relationships.
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Key Terms
Electrical drawingssymbols and diagrams that depict an electrical process.
Elevation drawingsa graphical representation that shows the location of process equipment in
relation to existing structures and ground level.
Equipment location drawingsshow the exact oor plan for location of equipment in relation to
the plans physical boundaries.
Flow diagrama simplied sketch that uses symbols to identify instruments and vessels and to
describe the primary ow path through a unit.
Foundation drawingsconcrete, wire mesh, and steel specications that identify width, depth,
and thickness of footings, support beams, and foundation.
Legendsa document used to dene symbols, abbreviations, prexes, and specialized equipment.
Process and instrument drawing (P&ID)a complex diagram that uses process symbols to
describe a process unit; also called piping and instrumentation drawing.
Chapter 12 Process Diagrams
252
Types of Process Diagrams
Process diagrams can be broken down into two major categories: process
ow diagrams (PFDs) and process and instrument drawings (P&IDs),
sometimes called piping and instrumentation drawings. A ow diagram is a
simple illustration that uses process symbols to describe the primary ow
path through a unit. A process ow diagram provides a quick snapshot of
the operating unit. Flow diagrams include all primary equipment and ows.
A technician can use this document to trace the primary ow of chemicals
through the unit. Secondary or minor ows are not included. Complex con-
trol loops and instrumentation are not included. The ow diagram is used
for visitor information and new employee training.
A process and instrument drawing is more complex. The P&ID includes a
graphic representation of the equipment, piping, and instrumentation. Mod-
ern process control can be clearly inserted into the drawing to provide a
process technician with a complete picture of electronic and instrument
systems. Process operators can look at their process and see how the en-
gineering department has automated the unit. Pressure, temperature, ow,
and level control loops are all included on the unit P&ID.
Basic Instrument Symbols
Process technicians use P&IDs to identify all of the equipment, instru-
ments, and piping found in their units. New technicians use these drawings
30678_12_ch12_p251-270.qxd 06/09/2006 11:14 Page 252
Basic Instrument Symbols
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Globe
Valve
Gate
Valve
Reboiler
Three-Way
Valve
Check Valve
Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger
Bleeder
Valves
Pneumatic
Operated
Centrifugal
Pumps
Rotary
Compressor
Manual
Operated
Valve
Gauge
Vacuum
Pump
Reciprocating
Compressor
Turbine
Orifice
Pneumatic
Operated
Butterfly Valve
Compressor &
Silencers
Single Pass
Heat Exchanger
U-Tube
Heat Exchanger
Safety
PSV
Butterfly
Ball
Solenoid
Valve
CLOSED
S
VALVES
PUMPS & TURBINE COMPRESSORS
HEAT EXCHANGERS
Bin
Tank
Tower
Drum or Condenser
Mixer
Mixing Reactor
Minor Process
Pneumatic
Hydraulic
Capillary Tubing
Electromagnetic Signal
Electric
X X X X X
X
L L L
VESSELS
Furnace
Liquid Ring
Compressor
Hairpin Exchanger
Condenser Heater
Centrifugal
Compressor
Tower
with Packing
Centrifugal Compressor
(Turbine Driven)
T
Gear Pump
Vertical
Screw Pump
Rotameter
Four-Way
Needle
Angle
LINE SYMBOLS
Major Process
Future Equipment
Plug
Diaphragm
M
H
Hydraulic Back
Pressure
Regulator
Back
Pressure
Regulator
Motor
Relief
PRV
Induced-Draft Cooling Tower
Forced-Draft Cooling Tower
Flow Indicator
Flow Transmitter
Flow Recorder
Pressure Indicator
Pressure Transmitter
Pressure Recording
Controller
FI
FT
FR
PI
PT
PRC
Temp Indicator
Temp Transmitter
Temp Recorder
Level Indicator
Level Transmitter
Level Controller
TI
TT
TR
LI
LT
LC
Figure 12.1a Process and Instrument Symbols
30678_12_ch12_p251-270.qxd 06/09/2006 11:14 Page 253
during their initial training period. Knowing and recognizing these symbols
is important for a new technician. The chemical processing industry has as-
signed a symbol for each type of valve, pump, compressor, steam turbine,
heat exchanger, cooling tower, basic instrumentation, reactor, distillation
column, furnace, and boiler (Figure 12.1). There are symbols to represent
major and minor process lines and pneumatic, hydraulic, or electric lines,
and there is a wide variety of electrical symbols.
Flow Diagrams
New technicians are required to study a simple ow diagram of their as-
signed operating system. Process ow diagrams typically include the major
equipment and piping path the process takes through the unit. As operators
learn more about symbols and diagrams, they graduate to the much more
complex P&IDs.
Chapter 12 Process Diagrams
254
MASTER

Flow Indicator
Flow Transmitter
Flow Recorder
Pressure Indicator
Pressure Transmitter
FI
FT
FR
PI
PT
Temp Indicator
Temp Transmitter
Temp Recorder
Level Indicator
Level Transmitter
Level Controller
TI
TT
TR
LI
LT
LC
F I C
55
Variable Being
Measured
Remote Location
(board mounted) Control Loop
Instrument
Remote Location
(behind control panel)
Field Mounted
LR
Level Recorder
TC Temp Controller
PR
Pressure Recorder
Pressure Controller
PC
65
55
55 65
65 55
Flow Controller FC
PIC
PRC
LA
105
40
25
I
P
Transducer
Pressure Indicating
Controller
Pressure Recording
Controller
Level Alarm
FE
Flow Element
TE
Temperature Element
LG Level Gauge
AT Analyzer Transmitter
What It Does
Figure 12.1b Process and Instrument Symbols (continued)
30678_12_ch12_p251-270.qxd 06/09/2006 11:14 Page 254
Some symbols are common among plants; others differ from plant to plant.
Some standardization of process symbols and diagrams is taking place.
The symbols used in this chapter reect a wide variety of petrochemical
and renery operations.
Figure 12.2 is a PFD that shows the basic relationships and ow paths
found in a process unit. It is easier to understand a simple ow diagram if it
is broken down into sections: feed, preheating, the process, and the nal
products. This simple left-to-right approach allows a technician to identify
where the process starts and where it will eventually end. The feed section
includes the feed tanks, mixers, piping, and valves. In the second step, the
process ow is gradually heated for processing. This section includes heat
exchangers and furnaces. In the third section, the process is included. Typ-
ical examples found in the process section could include distillation
columns or reactors. The process area is a complex collection of equipment
that works together to produce products that will be sent to the nal section.
Flow Diagrams
255
MASTER

Furnace
Feed Tank
Bottoms Tank
Boiler
Cooling Tower
Reactors
Product
Tank
2
Product
Tank
1
Vacuum Pump
Column
Drum
Figure 12.2 Process Flow Diagram (PFD)
30678_12_ch12_p251-270.qxd 06/09/2006 11:14 Page 255
Process and Instrument Drawings
A P&ID is a complex representation of the various units found in a plant
(Figure 12.3). It is used by people in a variety of crafts. The primary users
of the document after plant startup are process technicians and instrument
and electrical, mechanical, safety, and engineering personnel.
In order to read a P&ID, the technician needs an understanding of the
equipment, instrumentation, and technology. The next step in using a P&ID
is to memorize your plants process symbol list. This information can be
found on the process legend. Process and instrument drawings have a va-
riety of elements, including ow diagrams, equipment locations, elevation
plans, electrical layouts, loop diagrams, title blocks and legends, and foun-
dation drawings. The entire P&ID provides a three-dimensional look at the
various operating units in a plant.
Process Legend
The process legend (Figure 12.4) provides the information needed to inter-
pret and read the P&ID. Process legends are found at the front of the P&ID.
The legend includes information about piping, instrument and equipment
Chapter 12 Process Diagrams
256
MASTER

F-105
Tk-10
Tk-16
B-105
CT-105
Rx-105
C-105
FCV
I/P
TT TC
I/P
PT
PC
PCV
I/P
LT
LC
I/P
I/P LT LC
TE TT TC I/P
P-10
P-11
Rx-106
P-12
V-1
D-105
Tk-12
Tk-14
P-13
P-14
V-2 V-3
V-4
V-5
V-6
EX-105
V-7
P-15
FT
FC
Figure 12.3 Process and Instrument Diagram (P&ID)
30678_12_ch12_p251-270.qxd 06/09/2006 11:14 Page 256
Process and Instrument Drawings
257
MASTER

Globe
Valve
Gate
Valve
Three-Way
Valve
Bleeder
Valves
Manual
Operated
Valve
Gauge
Orifice
SAFETY (Gases)
Ball
Solenoid Valve
CLOSED
S
Rotameter
Four-Way
Angle
Plug
Diaphragm
Butterfly
Check
Valve
Relief
Valve
Pneumatic
Pneumatic
Pinch Valve
Stop Check
Knife Valve
INDUCED DRAFT
Crossflow
NATURAL DRAFT
Counterflow
FURNACE
BOILER
Vacuum
Pump
Centrifugal
Drum
Gear
Pump Positive
Displacement
Dome Roof
Tank
Sphere
Rotary Screw
Compressor
Progressive Cavity
Screw Pump
Reciprocating
Pump
Sump Pump
Horizontal
Vertical
Internal Floating
Roof Tank
Cone Roof
Tank
Plate and Frame
Heat Exchanger
Air Cooled Exchanger
(Louvers Optional)
Double-Pipe
Heat Exchanger
C
C
Spiral Heat
Exchanger
Condenser
Heater
Single
Pass
Chimney
Two Pass
Draw Off
Generic
Tray
Demister
Spray
Nozzle
Packed
Section
Manway
Vortex
Breaker
VALVE SYMBOLS
EQUIPMENT SYMBOLS
Minor Process
Pneumatic
Hydraulic
Capillary Tubing
Electromagnetic, Sonic
Optical, Nuclear
X X X X
L L L
Major Process
Future Equipment
Connecting Line
Non-Connecting Line
Non-Connecting Line
Jacketed or Double Containment
Mechanical Link
Software or Data Link

Electric
Flow Indicator
Flow Transmitter
Flow Recorder
Pressure Indicator
Pressure Transmitter
FI
FT
FR
PI
PT
Temp. Indicator
Temp. Transmitter
Temp. Recorder
Level Indicator
Level Transmitter
Level Controller
TI
TT
TR
LI
LT
LC
LR
Level Recorder
TC Temp. Controller
PR
Pressure Recorder
Pressure Controller
PC
65
55
55 65
65 55
Flow Controller FC
PIC
PRC
LA
105
40
25
I
P
Transducer
Pressure Indicating
Controller
Pressure Recording
Controller
Level Alarm
FE Flow Element
TE Temperature Element
LG Level Gauge
AT Analyzer Transmitter
APPROVED
GENERAL LEGEND
DRAWING NUMBER
REVISION 1
P
C
E
DATE
10-6-99
PAGE 1 OF 30
OO6543
DISTILLATION UNIT
LINE SYMBOLS EQUIPMENT CONT.
INSTRUMENT SYMBOLS
PREFIXES ABBREVIATIONS
CW- cooling water
MU- makeup
FW- feed water
SE- sewer
RX- reactor
UT- utilities
CA- chemical addition
IA- instrument air
D- drum
C- column
CT- cooling tower
TK-tank
F- furnace
EX- exchanger
P- pump
V- valve
Figure 12.4 Process Legend
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symbols, abbreviations, unit name, drawing number, revision number,
approvals, and company prexes. Because symbol and diagram standard-
ization is not complete, many companies use their own symbols in unit
drawings. Unique and unusual equipment will also require a modied sym-
bols le.
Foundation Drawing
The construction crew pouring the footers, beams, and foundation uses
foundation drawings (Figure 12.5). Concrete and steel specications are
designed to support equipment, integrate underground piping, and provide
support for exterior and interior walls. Process technicians do not typically
use foundation drawings, but these drawings are useful when questions
arise about piping that disappears under the ground and when new equip-
ment is being added.
Elevation Drawing
Elevation drawings (Figure 12.6) show the location of process equipment
in relation to existing structures and ground level. In a multistory structure,
the elevation drawing provides the technician with information about
Chapter 12 Process Diagrams
258
MASTER

N
W E
S
64' 0"
28' 0"
28' 0"
6' 0"
8' 0"
10' 0"
6-8-10 Method
2' x 64' x 18"
Load-Bearing
Beam
18"
4"
12"
Estimating Materials: cu. yds. =
width x length x thickness
27
Remesh
Remesh
Over Plastic
Remesh
Rebar in
All Beams
32' 0"
90
Figure 12.5 Foundation
30678_12_ch12_p251-270.qxd 06/09/2006 11:14 Page 258
equipment location. This information is important for making rounds, check-
ing equipment, developing checklists, catching samples, and performing
startups and shutdowns.
Electrical Drawing
Electrical drawings (Figure 12.7) include symbols and diagrams that de-
pict an electrical system. Electrical drawings show unit electricians where
power transmission lines run and places where power is stepped down or
up for operational purposes.
A process technician typically traces power to the unit from a motor control
center (MCC). The primary components of an electrical system are the
MCC, motors, transformers, breakers, fuses, switchgears, starters, and
switches. Specic safety rules are attached to the operation of electrical
systems. The primary safety system is the isolation of hazardous energy
lock-out, tag-out. Process technicians are required to have training in this
area. Figure 12.7 shows the basic symbols and ow path associated with
an electrical drawing. Electrical lines are typically run in cable trays to
switches, motors, ammeters, substations, and control rooms.
A transformer is a device used by industry to convert high voltage to low
voltage. The electric department always handles problems with transform-
ers. Electric breakers are designed to interrupt current ow if design condi-
tions are exceeded. Breakers are not switches and should not be turned on
Process and Instrument Drawings
259
MASTER

EL 16' 0"
EL28' 0"
EL-40' 0"
TK-105
RX-105
TK-200
TK-300
RX-106
RX-300 C-300
D-56
Figure 12.6
Elevation Drawing
30678_12_ch12_p251-270.qxd 06/09/2006 11:14 Page 259
Chapter 12 Process Diagrams
260
MASTER

V Voltmeter: measures voltage


V
s
Voltmeter Switch
27
Power Transformer: reduces high voltage
Potential Transforming Symbol
Under Voltage Relay
M Motor MCC Motor Control Center
Switch
Fuse
Circuit Breaker: a protective device
that interrupts current flow through an
electric circuit
A
A
s
50
51
Ammeter: measures electric current Ammeter switch
Transformer Overcurrent Relay
(Instantaneous)
Transformer Overcurrent Relay
(Time delay)
Motor Circuit Contacts
Current Transformer: reduces high voltage to instrumentation.
BOILER
Steam
Turbine
Generator
69,000 Volts
69 KV
13,200 V
13, 800 V
2,300 V
13.2 KV
13.8 KV
2.3 KV
On
Off
Motor
2.3 KV or
480 Volts
51
MAIN
TRANSFORMER
A
s
A
27
V
V
s
MCC #1
480V BUS MAIN POWER DISTRIBUTION
ELECTRIC POWER PLANT
M M
Motor
Starter
Motor
Starter
Figure 12.7 Electrical Drawing
30678_12_ch12_p251-270.qxd 06/09/2006 11:14 Page 260
or off. If a tripping problem occurs, the technician should call for an electri-
cian. Fuses are devices designed to protect equipment from excess cur-
rent. A thin strip of metal will melt if design specications are exceeded.
During operational rounds, technicians check the ammeters inside the
MCC for current flow to their electrical systems. Voltmeters, electrical
devices used to monitor voltage in an electrical system, are also checked
during routine rounds.
Equipment Location Drawing
Equipment location drawings (plot plans) show the exact location of
equipment in relation to the plants physical boundaries (Figure 12.8). One
of the most difcult concepts to explain to a new process technician is the
scope and size of modern chemical processing. Most chemical plants and
reneries closely resemble small cities; they have well-dened blocks and
areas connected by a highway of piping and equipment. Equipment loca-
tion drawings provide information about the neighborhood.
Loop Diagrams
A loop diagram traces all instrument connections between the eld instru-
ment and the control room panel. This includes instrument air lines, wiring
connections at field junction boxes, and control room panels and front
connections.
Electrical One-Line Diagrams
Like the piping in process systems, the wiring in a unit follows a path. Electri-
cal diagrams show a ow path for distributing power throughout the unit and
Process and Instrument Drawings
261
MASTER

TK-100
P-100
P-200
P-300
P-400
D-200
P-500A
EX-200
EX-202
TK-1 TK-2
TK-3 TK-4
P-201
20' 0"
1
0
'

0
"
2
0
'

0
"
18' 0" 8' 0"
2
0
'

0
"
8
'

0
"
6
'

0
"
18' 0"
8' 0"
16' 0"
20' 0"
C-200
TK-200
TK-400
TK-300
Figure 12.8
Equipment Location
30678_12_ch12_p251-270.qxd 06/09/2006 11:14 Page 261
to all electrical equipment. These diagrams show the different voltage levels
in the unit, electrical equipment such as transformers, circuit breakers, fuses,
and motors and horsepower required. It also includes start/stop switches,
emergency circuits, and motor control centers. Process technicians can use
these diagrams to trace a system from the power source to the load.
Review of Basic and Specialized Symbols
Piping and Valves
Each plant will have a standardized le for their piping symbols. Process
technicians should carefully review the piping symbols for major and minor
flows; electric, pneumatic, capillary, and hydraulic elements; and future
equipment (Figure 12.9). The major ow path through a unit illustrates the
Chapter 12 Process Diagrams
262
MASTER

Y-type Strainer
Duplex Strainer
Basket Strainer
D Detonation Arrestor
F
Flame Arrestor
T Steam Trap
S In-Line Silencer
DS
Desuperheater
Ejector / Eductor
Exhaust Head
S Vent Silencer
RS
Removable Spool
Flexible Hose
Expansion Joint
XXX Breather
Vent Cover
In-Line Mixer
Diverter Valve
Rotary Valve
Pulsation Dampener
Flange
Minor Process
Pneumatic
Hydraulic
Capillary Tubing
Electromagnetic, Sonic
Optical, Nuclear
X X X X
L L L
Major Process
Future Equipment
Connecting Line
Non-Connecting Line
Non-Connecting Line
Jacketed or Double Containment
Mechanical Link Software or Data Link

Electric
Figure 12.9
Piping Symbols
30678_12_ch12_p251-270.qxd 06/09/2006 11:14 Page 262
critical areas a new technician should concentrate on. A variety of other
symbols are included on the piping. These include valves (Figure 12.10),
strainers, lters, anges, spool pieces, insulation, piping size, pressure rat-
ing, material codes, and steam traps.
Pumps and Tanks
Pumps and tanks come in a variety of designs and shapes. Common pump
and tank symbols are shown on Figure 12.11.
Compressors, Steam Turbines, and Motors
Because compressors and pumps share a common set of operating prin-
ciples and are classied as dynamic or positive displacement, the sym-
bols for compressors may closely resemble those for pumps (compare
Review of Basic and Specialized Symbols
263
MASTER

Globe
Valve
Gate
Valve
Three-Way
Valve
Bleeder
Valves
Pneumatic
Operated
Manual
Operated
Valve
Gauge
Orifice
SAFETY (Gases)
Butterfly
Ball
Solenoid Valve
CLOSED
S
Rotameter
Four-Way
Needle
Angle
Plug
Diaphragm
Butterfly Butterfly
Check
Valve
Check
Valve
Relief
Valve
M
Pneumatic Motor Hydraulic
M H
M H
M
Ball
H M
Pneumatic
Motor Hydraulic
Motor
Motor or
Hydraulic
Pneumatic
Motor
M
GATE VALVES
GLOBE VALVES
BALL VALVES
BUTTERFLY VALVES
DIAPHRAGM VALVES CHECK VALVES
PLUG VALVES
Motor or
Hydraulic
Motor or
Hydraulic
Plug
Pinch Valve
Stop Check
Knife Valve
RELIEF (Liquids)
Figure 12.10
Valves
30678_12_ch12_p251-270.qxd 06/09/2006 11:14 Page 263
Figures 12.11 and 12.12). In most cases, the compressor symbol is slightly
larger than the pump symbol.
In the multistage, centrifugal compressors, the narrowing of the symbol from
left to right denotes compression of the gas before it is released. This is in
sharp contrast to the steam turbine symbol, which illustrates the opposite ef-
fect as the steam expands while passing over the rotor. Modern P&IDs show
the motor symbol connected to the driven equipment. This equipment may
be a pump, compressor, mixer, or generator. Figure 12.12 illustrates the
standardized symbols for compressors, steam turbines, and motors.
Heat Exchangers and Cooling Towers
Heat exchangers and cooling towers are two types of industrial equipment
that share a unique relationship. A heat exchanger is a device used to
Chapter 12 Process Diagrams
264
MASTER

Vacuum Pump
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
Bin Tank
Drum
Gear
Pump
Vertical
Screw Pump
POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
Positive Displacement
Dome Roof
Tank
Open Top
Tank
Tank
Sphere Onion Tank
STORAGE SYMBOLS
Progressive Cavity
Positive
Displacement
Screw Pump
Vertical Can
Pump
Reciprocating Pump
Sump Pump
Horizontal
Vertical
Vertical
Internal Floating
Roof Tank
Cone Roof
Tank
Double Wall
Tank
External Floating
Roof
Figure 12.11 Pumps and Tanks
30678_12_ch12_p251-270.qxd 06/09/2006 11:14 Page 264
transfer heat energy between two process ows. The cooling tower per-
forms a similar function, but cooling towers and heat exchangers use dif-
ferent scientic principles to operate. Heat exchangers transfer heat energy
through conductive and convective heat transfer, whereas cooling towers
transfer heat energy to the outside air through the principle of evaporation.
Figures 12.13 and 12.14 illustrate the standard symbols used for heat
exchangers and cooling towers.
The symbol for a heat exchanger clearly illustrates the flows through
the device. It is important for a process technician to be able to recog-
nize the shell inlet and outlet and the tube inlet and outlet ow paths. A
heat exchanger with an arrow drawn through the body illustrates
whether the tubeside flow is being used to heat or cool the shellside
uid. The downward direction indicates heating; the upward direction il-
lustrates cooling.
Review of Basic and Specialized Symbols
265
MASTER

Figure 12.12 Compressors, Steam Turbines, and Motors


STEAM TURBINE
Doubleflow Turbine
Rotary
Compressor
Reciprocating
Compressor
Rotory
Compressor
& Silencers
CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS
Centrifugal
Compressor
Centrifugal Compressor
(Turbine Driven)
PD COMPRESSORS
Rotary Screw
Compressor
Positive
Displacement
Blower
Liquid Ring
Vacuum
Centrifugal
Blower
Centrifugal
Compressor
Reciprocating Compressor
Motor
MOTORS
Turbine Driver
Diesel Motor
Agitator or Mixer
Axial Compressor
T
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Chapter 12 Process Diagrams
266
MASTER

Plate and Frame


Heat Exchanger
Air Cooled Exchanger
(Louvers Optional)
Double-Pipe
Heat Exchanger
C
C
Spiral Heat Exchanger
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
Single Pass
Heat Exchanger
U-Tube
Heat Exchanger
Hairpin Exchanger
Condenser Heater
Reboiler
Figure 12.13
Heat Exchangers
INDUCED DRAFT
Crossflow
FORCED DRAFT
Counterflow
HYPERBOLIC
Chimney Tower
NATURAL DRAFT
Counterflow
Figure 12.14
Cooling Towers
30678_12_ch12_p251-270.qxd 06/09/2006 11:14 Page 266
The symbol for a cooling tower is designed to resemble the actual device
in the process unit. Cooled product ows out of the bottom of the tower and
to the processing units. Hot water returns to a point located above the ll.
The symbol will not show all of the various components of the cooling tower
system, but it will provide a technician with a good foundation in cooling
tower operation and enough information to clearly see the process.
Furnaces and Boilers
The standard symbols file for furnaces and boilers is shown in Fig-
ure 12.15. If a proprietary process includes several types of equipment not
typically found on a standard symbol le, the designer will draw the device
as it visually appears in the unit.
Distillation Columns
Distillation columns come in two basic designs, plate and packed (Fig-
ure 12.16). Flow arrangements vary from process to process. The sym-
bols allow the technician to identify primary and secondary flow paths.
Distillation is a process designed to separate the various components in
a mixture by their boiling points. (See Chapter 15.) A distillation column is
the central component of a much larger system. This system typically in-
cludes all of the equipment symbols found in this chapter. Plate distillation
columns include sieve trays, valve trays, and bubble-cap trays. Packed
columns are filled with packing material, rings, saddles, sulzer, and
rosette.
Reactors
Reactors (Figure 12.17) are stationary vessels and can be classied as
batch, semibatch, or continuous. A reactor is designed to allow chemi-
cals to mix together under specic conditions to make chemical bonds,
break chemical bonds, or make and break chemical bonds to form new
products.
Review of Basic and Specialized Symbols
267
MASTER

Furnace Boiler
Figure 12.15
Furnace and Boiler
30678_12_ch12_p251-270.qxd 06/09/2006 11:14 Page 267
Sources of Information
for Process Technicians
Information used by process technicians comes from a variety of sources.
Some of these sources are:
Operating training manuals
Process descriptions
Process control manuals
Equipment summaries
Safety, health, and environment regulations
Operating procedures
Startup and shutdown procedures
Chapter 12 Process Diagrams
268
MASTER

PLATE TOWER
Bubble-cap, Sieve, Valve
PACKED TOWER
Saddle, Ring, Sulzer, Rosette
Single Pass
Chimney
Two Pass
Draw Off
Generic Tray
Demister
Spray Nozzle
Packed Section
Manway
Vortex Breaker
Figure 12.16
Distillation Symbols
30678_12_ch12_p251-270.qxd 06/09/2006 11:14 Page 268
Emergency procedures
Process diagrams
Technical data books
Detailed equipment vendor information
Summary
Process flow diagrams (PFDs) and process and instrument drawings
(P&IDs) are used to outline or explain the complex ows, equipment, in-
strumentation, electronics, elevations, and foundations that exist in a
process unit. A PFD is a simple ow diagram that describes the primary
ow path through a unit. A P&ID is a complex representation of the various
units found in a plant. Standardized symbols and diagrams have been
developed for most pieces of industrial equipment, process flows, and
instrumentation.
Summary
269
MASTER

Hydrocracking Hydrodesulfurization Reformer


Fluid Catalytic
Cracking
Fluid Coking Tubular
Reactor
Fluidized
Reactor
Mixing Reactor Alkylation
Figure 12.17
Reactor Symbols
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Chapter 12 Process Diagrams
270
MASTER

Review Questions
1. Describe a process ow diagram and a process and instrument drawing.
2. Draw the symbols for a gate, globe, and automatic valve.
3. Draw the symbols for a centrifugal pump and positive displacement pump.
4. Draw the symbols for a blower and a reciprocating compressor.
5. Draw the symbols for a steam turbine and centrifugal compressor.
6. Draw the symbols for a heat exchanger and a cooling tower.
7. Draw the symbols for a packed distillation column and plate distillation column.
8. Draw the symbols for a furnace and a boiler.
9. Draw a simple process ow diagram using the symbols from questions 28.
10. What information is obtained from a loop diagram?
11. What information is available on electrical one-line diagrams?
12. What information is contained on a plot plan drawing?
30678_12_ch12_p251-270.qxd 06/09/2006 11:14 Page 270
FWO