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OBJECTIVES
WestudentstakingAdditionalMathematicsarerequiredtocarryoutaprojectworkwhile
weareinForm5.ThisyeartheCurriculumDevelopmentDivision,MinistryofEducationhas
preparedfourtasksforus.WearetochooseandcompleteonlyONEtaskbasedonourareaof
interest. This project can be done in groups or individually, and I gladly choose to do this
individually. Upon completion of the Additional Mathematics Project Work, we are to gain
valuableexperiencesandableto:
I. Toapplyandadaptavarietyofproblem-solvingstrategiestosolveproblems.
II. Toimprovethinkingskills.
III. Topromoteeffectivemathematicalcommunication.
IV. Todevelopmathematicalknowledgethroughproblemsolvinginawaythatincreases
studentinterestandconfident.
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V. Tousethe languageofmathematicstoexpress mathematical ideasprecisely.
VI. Toprovidelearningenvironmentthatstimulatesandenhanceeffectivelearning.
VII. Todeveloppositiveattitudetowardsmathematics.
Weareexpectedtosubmittheprojectworkwithinthreeweeksfromthefirstdaythetask
isbeingadministeredtous.Failuretosubmitthewrittenreportwillresultinusnotreceiving
certificate.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Firstofall,Iwouldliketosaythankyoutomyfriends,teachersandparentsforgiving
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metheirfullsupportinmakingthisprojectsuccessful.
Notforgottentomyfamilyforprovidingeverything,suchasmoney,tobuyanythingthat
are related to this project work and their advise, which is the most needed for this project.
Internet, books, computers and all that act as my source to complete this project.They also
supportedmeandencouragedmetocompletethistasksothatIwillnotprocrastinateduring
doingthisprojectwork.
Next, I would like to thank my teacher, Puan Sapura for guiding me and my friends
throughoutthisproject.Wehadsomedifficultiesindoingthistask,butshetaughtuspatiently
andgavemeguidancethroughoutthejourneyuntilweknewwhattodo.Shetriedherbestto
helpusuntilweunderstandwhatwesupposedtodowiththeprojectwork.
Besides that, my friends who were doing the same project as mine and shared our
ideas.They were helpful that when we combined and discussed together, but however, this
taskwasdoneindividually.
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Lastbutnotleast,anypartywhichinvolvedeitherdirectlyorindirectincompletingthis
projectwork.Thankyoueveryone.

INTRODUCTION
THEHISTORYOFBRICKPAVING
There are reports of brick pavements having been used for at least 5000 years. The
earliestevidenceofsuchpavementscomesfromMesopotamia.Here,becauseoflackoflocal
stone,pavementsweresurfacedwithbricks.
IntheUSA,asinEurope,theselectionofbrickthicknesswaslargelyempirical.Inthe
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IntheUSA,asinEurope,theselectionofbrickthicknesswaslargelyempirical.Inthe
American mid-west experience showed that brick thicknesses as little as 60 mm could
successfully withstand motor vehicles. To verify this, accelerated trafficking tests were
initiated in 1926 by the Bureau of Public Roads. Here the objective was toe examine the
feasibility of using brick thicknesses of 75 mm or less. These tests appear to be the first
test-track evaluations of a segmental pavement and, indeed, must represent one of the first
evaluationsofanypavementmadeusingscientificmethods.
Asinthecaseofstonesetts,bricksweregenerallyinstalledonasandbedplacedeither
directlyonthesubgradeoronabrokenstonebase.Thejointswerefilledwithsandor,more
commonly, with a bituminous material applied hot. As an alternative to this, trials using
premoulded expansion strips to seal the joints were made in the USA but do not appear to
havebeensuccessful.
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The principal problem associated with brick pavements was their propensity to surface
damage.Thiswasmanifestascrackingandcobblingpavers.Inanattempttostrengthenbrick
pavementsexperimentswereconductedinHollandandAmericawherebybothtransverseand
longitudinalsteelreinforcementwaslaidinjointswhichwerethenmortared.Testsconducted
in Illinois in the 1930s showed such pavements could carry heavy traffic with little or no
maintenance. A more conventional approach was developed in Hungary. Here very
high-qualitypavingbricksweremadefromclaywithahighlimecontentwhichwasmolded
insteelformsunderhighpressureandfiredathightemperatures.Thisprocessyieldedbricks
with strengths similar to basalt setts and enabled pavement lives of about 30 years under
traffictobeachieved.However,ingeneral,brickpavementsnormallyhadaneffectivelifeof
lessthan20years.
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